A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Presence of blood in the urine.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.
Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.
A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.
A drug that has been used in various urinary syndromes and as an antispasmodic. Its therapeutic usefulness and its mechanism of action are not clear. It may have local anesthetic activity and direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle as well as some activity as a muscarinic antagonist.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Dioxolanes are specific chemical compounds characterized by a saturated six-membered ring containing two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms, often formed through the reaction between aldehydes or ketones and diols, and significant in pharmaceutical synthesis and organic chemistry.
A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Butylamines are a class of organic compounds where a butyl group is attached to an amine functional group, with the general structure (C4H9)NHR or (C4H9)NR'R", commonly used as stimulants, entactogens, and psychedelics.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde (C3H4O), highly reactive, toxic and naturally occurring compound that can be found in certain foods, tobacco smoke and is produced as a result of environmental pollution or industrial processes.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases. (1/3541)

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

Evidence for beta3-adrenoceptor subtypes in relaxation of the human urinary bladder detrusor: analysis by molecular biological and pharmacological methods. (2/3541)

The purpose of the present study was to confirm the presence of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the relaxation of human urinary bladder detrusor tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR); direct sequencing of the PCR product, in situ hybridization; and isometric contraction. Using reverse transcription-PCR, the mRNAs of three receptor subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) were expressed in the human urinary bladder detrusor tissue. Direct sequencing of the PCR product of the above beta3-adrenoceptor revealed no mutation in the amplified regions. In situ hybridization with digoxygenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe revealed the presence of the mRNA of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder. The relaxant effects of isoproterenol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist); ZD7114, BRL37344, and CGP12177A (putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonists); and SR59230A (a putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist) were tested using an isometric contraction technique. Isoproterenol in either the presence or absence of both atenolol (a beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) and butoxamine (a beta2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) revealed a relaxant effect on the carbachol-induced contraction of the human urinary bladder detrusor. Both BRL37344 and CGP12177A also revealed relaxant effects on the human urinary bladder detrusor, but ZD7114 did not elicit any relaxation. These results suggest that beta3-adrenoceptor may have some role in urine storage in the human urinary bladder.  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (3/3541)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

M2 receptors in genito-urinary smooth muscle pathology. (4/3541)

In vitro bladder contractions in response to cumulative carbachol doses were measured in the presence of selective muscarinic antagonists from rats which had their major pelvic ganglion bilaterally removed (denervation, DEN) or from rats in which the spinal cord was injured (SCI) via compression. DEN induced both hypertrophy (505+/-51 mg bladder weight) and a supersensitivity of the bladders to carbachol (EC50=0.7+/-0.1 uM). Some of the SCI rats regained the ability to void spontaneously (SPV). The bladders of these animals weighed 184+/-17 mg, significantly less than the bladders of non voiding rats (NV, 644+/-92 mg). The potency of carbachol was greater in bladder strips from NV SCI animals (EC50=0.54+/-0.1 uM) than either bladder strips from SPV SCI (EC50=0.93+/-0.3 microM), DEN or control (EC50=1.2+/-0.1 microM) animals. Antagonist affinities in control bladders for antagonism of carbachol induced contractions were consistent with M3 mediated contractions. Antagonist affinities in DEN bladders for 4-diphenlacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 8.5) and para fluoro hexahydrosilodifenidol (p-F-HHSiD, 6.6); were consistent with M2 mediated contractions, although the methoctramine affinity (6.5) was consistent with M3 mediated contractions. p-F-HHSiD inhibited carbachol induced contraction with an affinity consistent with M2 receptors in bladders from NV SCI (pKb=6.4) animals and M3 receptors in bladders from SPV SCI animals (pKb=7.9). Subtype selective immunoprecipitation of muscarinic receptors revealed an increase in total and an increase in M2 receptor density with no change in M3 receptor density in bladders from DEN and NV SCI animals compared to normal or sham operated controls. M3 receptor density was lower in bladders from SPV SCI animals while the M2 receptor density was not different from control. This increase in M2 receptor density is consistent with the change in affinity of the antagonists for inhibition of carbachol induced contractions and may indicate that M2 receptors or a combination of M2 and M3 receptors directly mediate smooth muscle contraction in bladders from DEN and NV SCI rats.  (+info)

Eosinophil peroxidase increases membrane permeability in mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. (5/3541)

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is required for neutrophil passage across the epithelial barrier of the infected urinary tract. (6/3541)

IL-8 is a major human neutrophil chemoattractant at mucosal infection sites. This study examined the C-X-C chemokine response to mucosal infection, and, specifically, the role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, one of the mouse IL-8 equivalents, for neutrophil-epithelial interactions. Following intravesical Escherichia coli infection, several C-X-C chemokines were secreted into the urine, but only MIP-2 concentrations correlated to neutrophil numbers. Tissue quantitation demonstrated that kidney MIP-2 production was triggered by infection, and immunohistochemistry identified the kidney epithelium as a main source of MIP-2. Treatment with anti-MIP-2 Ab reduced the urine neutrophil numbers, but the mice had normal tissue neutrophil levels. By immunohistochemistry, the neutrophils were found in aggregates under the pelvic epithelium, but in control mice the neutrophils crossed the urothelium into the urine. The results demonstrate that different chemokines direct neutrophil migration from the bloodstream to the lamina propria and across the epithelium and that MIP-2 serves the latter function. These findings suggest that neutrophils cross epithelial cell barriers in a highly regulated manner in response to chemokines elaborated at this site. This is yet another mechanism that defines the mucosal compartment and differentiates the local from the systemic host response.  (+info)

Nosema notabilis (Microsporidia), its ultrastructure and effect on the myxosporean host Ortholinea polymorpha. (7/3541)

Nosema notabilis Kudo, 1939 produces chain-forming meronts with a dense cell coat in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic microtubules and membranaceous whorls could be observed in meront cytoplasm. Sporonts differ in that they have a thicker cell wall and more conspicuous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. Sporoblasts have an externally ridged cell wall. Spores have an apically located anchoring disc, an isofilar polar tube with 6 to 9 turns and polyribosomal strands in the sporoplasm. Diplokarya occur in all stages. Heavily infected plasmodia of Ortholinea polymorpha (Davis, 1917) reveal marked pathological signs. The most prominent are reduction of surface projections and/or pinocytosis, inflated mitochondria with altered inner structures, affected vegetative nuclei, damage to generative cells and occurrence of various anomalous formations in the plasmodium cytoplasm. The damage may result in complete disintegration of the plasmodium. However, the development of the microsporidian is affected by a remarkably high percentage of teratological stages revealing membranaceous and tubular structures.  (+info)

Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways. (8/3541)

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Urinary bladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine before it is excreted from the body. These diseases can impair the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly, leading to various symptoms and complications. Here are some common urinary bladder diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Cystitis: This is an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by bacterial infections (known as UTI - Urinary Tract Infection). However, it can also be triggered by irritants, radiation therapy, or chemical exposure.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): A group of symptoms that include urgency, frequency, and, in some cases, urge incontinence. The bladder muscle contracts excessively, causing a strong, sudden desire to urinate.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort in the bladder and pelvic region, often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency. Unlike cystitis, IC/BPS is not caused by infection, but its exact cause remains unknown.
4. Bladder Cancer: The abnormal growth of cancerous cells within the bladder lining or muscle. It can present as non-muscle-invasive (superficial) or muscle-invasive, depending on whether the tumor has grown into the bladder muscle.
5. Bladder Diverticula: Small sac-like pouches that form in the bladder lining and protrude outward through its wall. These may result from increased bladder pressure due to conditions like OAB or an enlarged prostate.
6. Neurogenic Bladder: A condition where nerve damage or dysfunction affects the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly. This can lead to symptoms such as incontinence, urgency, and retention.
7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Although not a bladder disease itself, BPH is a common condition in older men where the prostate gland enlarges, putting pressure on the bladder and urethra, leading to urinary symptoms like frequency, urgency, and hesitancy.

Understanding these various bladder conditions can help individuals identify potential issues early on and seek appropriate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, refer to the formation of solid mineral deposits within the urinary bladder. These calculi develop when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together, forming a stone. Bladder stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny sand-like particles to larger ones that can occupy a significant portion of the bladder's volume.

Bladder stones typically form as a result of underlying urinary tract issues, such as bladder infection, enlarged prostate, nerve damage, or urinary retention. Symptoms may include lower abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and sudden, strong urges to urinate. If left untreated, bladder stones can lead to complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the stones or using other minimally invasive procedures to break them up and remove the fragments.

Urothelium is the specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a type of transitional epithelium that can change its shape and size depending on the degree of distension or stretching of the organs it lines.

The main function of urothelium is to provide a barrier against urine, which contains various waste products and potential irritants, while also allowing the exchange of ions and water. The urothelial cells are joined together by tight junctions that prevent the passage of substances through the paracellular space, and they also have the ability to transport ions and water through their cell membranes.

In addition to its barrier function, urothelium is also involved in sensory and immune functions. It contains specialized nerve endings that can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli, such as stretch or irritation, and it expresses various antimicrobial peptides and other defense mechanisms that help protect the urinary tract from infection.

Overall, urothelium plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of the urinary tract, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various urinary tract disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition characterized by the involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder, leading to symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia (the need to wake up at night to urinate), with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to void). It is important to note that OAB is not necessarily related to bladder volume or age-related changes, and it can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. The exact cause of OAB is not fully understood, but it may be associated with neurological disorders, certain medications, infections, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options for OAB include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions.

Cystitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can occur when bacteria from the digestive tract or skin enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel up to the bladder. This condition is more common in women than men due to their shorter urethras, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis may include a strong, frequent, or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back. In some cases, there may be blood in the urine, fever, chills, or nausea and vomiting.

Cystitis can usually be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Drinking plenty of water to flush out the bacteria and alleviating symptoms with over-the-counter pain medications may also help. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and avoiding using douches or perfumes in the genital area.

Urinary bladder neck obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a partial or complete blockage at the bladder neck, which is the area where the bladder connects to the urethra. This obstruction can be caused by various factors such as prostate enlargement, bladder tumors, scar tissue, or nerve damage.

The bladder neck obstruction can lead to difficulty in urinating, a weak urine stream, and the need to strain while urinating. In severe cases, it can cause urinary retention, kidney failure, and other complications. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures.

Neurogenic bladder is a term used to describe bladder dysfunction due to neurological damage or disease. The condition can result in problems with bladder storage and emptying, leading to symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, incontinence, and retention.

Neurogenic bladder can occur due to various medical conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetic neuropathy, and stroke. The damage to the nerves that control bladder function can result in overactivity or underactivity of the bladder muscle, leading to urinary symptoms.

Management of neurogenic bladder typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, bladder training, catheterization, and surgery in some cases. The specific treatment plan depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine (OH-BBN or BBN) is a chemical compound that is primarily used in laboratory research as a potent carcinogenic agent. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, particularly in the urinary bladder and liver, when administered to experimental animals.

The IUPAC name for Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Its molecular formula is C8H19NO3. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water and alcohol.

It is important to note that Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is not used in human medicine or therapy due to its carcinogenic properties. Its use is restricted to research purposes only, under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Urination, also known as micturition, is the physiological process of excreting urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra. It is a complex process that involves several systems in the body, including the urinary system, nervous system, and muscular system.

In medical terms, urination is defined as the voluntary or involuntary discharge of urine from the urethra, which is the final pathway for the elimination of waste products from the body. The process is regulated by a complex interplay between the detrusor muscle of the bladder, the internal and external sphincters of the urethra, and the nervous system.

During urination, the detrusor muscle contracts, causing the bladder to empty, while the sphincters relax to allow the urine to flow through the urethra and out of the body. The nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating these actions, with sensory receptors in the bladder sending signals to the brain when it is time to urinate.

Urination is essential for maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, as well as eliminating waste products such as urea, creatinine, and other metabolic byproducts. Abnormalities in urination can indicate underlying medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, bladder dysfunction, or neurological disorders.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss or leakage of urine that is sufficient to be a social or hygienic problem. It can occur due to various reasons such as weak pelvic muscles, damage to nerves that control the bladder, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease.

There are different types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence (leakage of urine during physical activities like coughing, sneezing, or exercising), urge incontinence (a sudden and strong need to urinate that results in leakage), overflow incontinence (constant dribbling of urine due to a bladder that doesn't empty completely), functional incontinence (inability to reach the bathroom in time due to physical or mental impairments), and mixed incontinence (a combination of any two or more types of incontinence).

Urinary incontinence can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing embarrassment, social isolation, and depression. However, it is a treatable condition, and various treatment options are available, including bladder training, pelvic floor exercises, medications, medical devices, and surgery.

Urinary catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine. This may be done to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output, or obtain a urine sample for laboratory testing. It can be performed as a clean, intermittent catheterization, or with an indwelling catheter (also known as Foley catheter) that remains in place for a longer period of time. The procedure should be performed using sterile technique to reduce the risk of urinary tract infection.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Urinary retention is a medical condition in which the bladder cannot empty completely or at all, resulting in the accumulation of urine in the bladder. This can lead to discomfort, pain, and difficulty in passing urine. Urinary retention can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term). Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, while chronic urinary retention may be managed with medications or surgery. The causes of urinary retention include nerve damage, bladder muscle weakness, prostate gland enlargement, and side effects of certain medications.

Cystectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the urinary bladder is removed. This procedure is often used to treat bladder cancer, but it may also be necessary in cases of severe bladder damage, infection, or inflammation that do not respond to other treatments.

There are several types of cystectomy, including:

1. Radical cystectomy: This is the most common type of cystectomy performed for bladder cancer. It involves removing the entire bladder, as well as nearby lymph nodes, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a portion of the vagina in women.
2. Partial cystectomy: In this procedure, only a part of the bladder is removed. This may be an option for patients with early-stage bladder cancer that has not spread deeply into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body.
3. Urinary diversion: After a cystectomy, the surgeon must create a new way for urine to leave the body. This may involve creating a urostomy, in which a piece of intestine is used to form a stoma (an opening) on the abdominal wall, through which urine can be collected in a bag. Alternatively, the surgeon may create an internal pouch using a segment of intestine, which can then be connected to the ureters and allowed to drain into the rectum or vagina.

As with any surgical procedure, cystectomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia. Patients may also experience long-term complications such as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and changes in bowel habits. However, for many patients with bladder cancer or other severe bladder conditions, cystectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

Urodynamics is a medical test that measures the function and performance of the lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder, urethra, and sphincters. It involves the use of specialized equipment to record measurements such as bladder pressure, urine flow rate, and residual urine volume. The test can help diagnose various urinary problems, including incontinence, urinary retention, and overactive bladder.

During the test, a small catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to measure bladder pressure while filling it with sterile water or saline solution. Another catheter may be placed in the rectum to record abdominal pressure. The patient is then asked to urinate, and the flow rate and any leaks are recorded.

Urodynamics can help identify the underlying cause of urinary symptoms and guide treatment decisions. It is often recommended for patients with complex or persistent urinary problems that have not responded to initial treatments.

'Bufo marinus' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the Cane Toad or Giant Toad. This toad is native to Central and South America, but has been introduced to various parts of the world including Florida, Australia, and several Pacific islands. The toad produces a toxic secretion from glands on its back and neck, which can be harmful or fatal if ingested by pets or humans.

Intravesical administration refers to the instillation of medication directly into the bladder through a catheter or other medical device. This method is often used to deliver treatments for various bladder conditions, such as interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and chronic bladder infections. The medication is held in the bladder for a specified period, usually ranging from a few minutes to several hours, before being urinated out. This allows the medication to come into close contact with the bladder lining, potentially enhancing its effectiveness while minimizing systemic side effects.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible to the naked eye, which is called gross hematuria, or detected only under a microscope, known as microscopic hematuria. The blood in urine may come from any site along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Hematuria can be a symptom of various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, or cancer of the urinary tract. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice blood in your urine to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

A urinary bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary bladder and another organ or structure, such as the skin, intestine, or vagina. This condition can result from various factors, including surgery, injury, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy, or malignancy.

Bladder fistulas may lead to symptoms like continuous leakage of urine through the skin, frequent urinary tract infections, and fecal matter in the urine (when the fistula involves the intestine). The diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as a CT scan or cystogram, while treatment often requires surgical repair of the fistula.

Urinary diversion is a surgical procedure that involves the creation of a new way for urine to leave the body, bypassing the native urinary system. This is typically performed in individuals who have damaged or removed urinary systems due to conditions such as cancer, severe trauma, or congenital abnormalities.

There are several types of urinary diversions, including:

1. Ileal Conduit: A segment of the small intestine (ileum) is used to create a passageway for urine to flow from the ureters to an external collection bag or pouch worn on the abdomen.
2. Continent Urinary Reservoir: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the ureters. The patient periodically empties the reservoir through a stoma (opening) in the abdominal wall using a catheter.
3. Orthotopic Neobladder: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the urethra, allowing for normal urination through the native urethral opening.

These procedures can significantly improve the quality of life for patients with severe urinary system damage or disease, although they do come with potential complications such as infections, stone formation, and electrolyte imbalances.

The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as the conduit for semen during ejaculation. The male urethra is longer than the female urethra and is divided into sections: the prostatic, membranous, and spongy (or penile) urethra. The female urethra extends from the bladder to the external urethral orifice, which is located just above the vaginal opening.

I'm not able to find a medical definition for the acronym "FANFT." It is possible that it could be a specialized or obscure term, or perhaps it is used in a specific context within medical research or literature. In general, when searching for medical definitions, it is best to use established and well-known terminology. If "FANFT" is a term you have encountered in your studies or research, I would recommend checking the source material for additional context or reaching out to the author for clarification.

Bladder exstrophy is a congenital birth defect that affects the urinary and reproductive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. In this condition, the bladder is not fully formed and is turned inside out and exposed on the outside of the body at birth. This results in the inability to control urination and can also lead to other complications such as infection and kidney damage if left untreated.

Bladder exstrophy occurs due to a problem with the development of the fetus during pregnancy, specifically during the formation of the lower abdominal wall. It is more common in boys than girls, and can occur on its own or as part of a spectrum of defects known as the exstrophy-epispadias complex.

Treatment for bladder exstrophy typically involves surgical reconstruction to repair the bladder and lower abdominal wall. This may be done in stages, starting with the closure of the abdominal wall and then followed by bladder reconstruction at a later time. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to address other associated defects or complications. With proper treatment, most children with bladder exstrophy can lead normal lives, although they may require ongoing medical management and monitoring throughout their lives.

Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) is a type of urinary incontinence that occurs when physical activities or movements, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising, or lifting heavy objects, put pressure on the bladder, causing unintentional leakage of urine. It is caused by weakened pelvic floor muscles and/or a malfunctioning urethral sphincter, which normally help maintain urinary continence. SUI is more common in women than men, especially those who have gone through pregnancy, childbirth, or menopause, but it can also affect older men with prostate gland issues.

Cacodylic acid is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2AsO2. It is the simplest dialkyl arsenic acid and is classified as a toxic organoarsenic compound. Cacodylic acid was once used in various medical applications, but its use has been largely discontinued due to its high toxicity and environmental concerns.

It's important to note that cacodylic acid is not commonly encountered in modern medicine or clinical practice. Its historical medical uses included as a treatment for some parasitic infections, but it has since been replaced by safer and more effective alternatives. Nowadays, cacodylic acid is primarily used in research and industrial settings, where it serves as a precursor for the synthesis of other organoarsenic compounds.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Saccharin is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used as an artificial sweetener. Medically speaking, saccharin is classified as an intense sugar substitute, meaning it is many times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) but contributes little to no calories when added to food or drink.

Saccharin is often used by people with diabetes or those who are trying to reduce their calorie intake. It has been in use for over a century and has undergone extensive safety testing. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified saccharin as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), although it once required a warning label due to concerns about bladder cancer. However, subsequent research has largely dismissed this risk for most people, and the warning label is no longer required.

It's important to note that while saccharin and other artificial sweeteners can be helpful for some individuals, they should not be used as a replacement for a balanced diet and regular exercise. Additionally, excessive consumption of these sugar substitutes may have negative health consequences, such as altering gut bacteria or contributing to metabolic disorders.

Urethral obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a blockage in the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. This blockage can be partial or complete and can be caused by various factors such as scar tissue, stones, tumors, or enlarged prostate gland in men. Symptoms may include difficulty in urinating, painful urination, frequent urination, and urinary retention. If left untreated, urethral obstruction can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage or infection.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder health condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and the surrounding pelvic region. It is also known as painful bladder syndrome (PBS). The symptoms can vary from person to person and may include:

1. Pain or pressure in the bladder and pelvis
2. Frequent urination, often in small amounts
3. Urgent need to urinate
4. Persistent discomfort or pain, which may worsen with certain foods, menstruation, stress, or sexual activity

Interstitial cystitis is a complex and poorly understood condition, and its exact cause remains unknown. There is no known cure for IC, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These treatments may include lifestyle modifications, physical therapy, oral medications, bladder instillations, and nerve stimulation techniques. In some cases, surgery might be considered as a last resort.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you suspect you have interstitial cystitis for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan tailored to your specific needs.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

A cystostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the wall of the bladder to allow urine to drain out. This opening, or stoma, is usually connected to a external collection device, such as a bag or a tube. The purpose of a cystostomy is to provide a stable and reliable way for urine to leave the body when a person is unable to urinate naturally due to injury, illness, or other medical conditions that affect bladder function.

There are several types of cystostomies, including temporary and permanent procedures. A temporary cystostomy may be performed as a short-term solution while a patient recovers from surgery or an injury, or when a person is unable to urinate temporarily due to an obstruction in the urinary tract. In these cases, the cystostomy can be closed once the underlying issue has been resolved.

A permanent cystostomy may be recommended for individuals who have irreversible bladder damage or dysfunction, such as those with spinal cord injuries, neurological disorders, or certain types of cancer. In these cases, a cystostomy can help improve quality of life by allowing for regular and reliable urinary drainage, reducing the risk of complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage.

It's important to note that a cystostomy is a significant surgical procedure that carries risks and potential complications, such as bleeding, infection, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it's essential to discuss the benefits and risks of a cystostomy with a healthcare provider to determine whether it's the right option for an individual's specific medical needs.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

A muscarinic M3 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a subtype of muscarinic receptors, which are named after the muscarine mushroom alkaloid that can activate them.

The M3 receptor is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, respiratory system, and vasculature. When activated by acetylcholine or muscarinic agonists, it triggers a range of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to various physiological responses, such as smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and modulation of neurotransmitter release.

The M3 receptor is known to couple primarily to the Gq/11 family of G proteins, which activate phospholipase C (PLC) and increase intracellular calcium levels. This leads to smooth muscle contraction and other downstream effects. The M3 receptor also interacts with other signaling pathways, such as those involving adenylyl cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and ion channels.

Dysregulation of muscarinic M3 receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders, overactive bladder syndrome, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, selective modulation of this receptor subtype is a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

Aminobiphenyl compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain two phenyl rings linked by a single carbon-nitrogen bond. The amino group (-NH2) is attached to one of the phenyl rings.

These compounds have been historically used in the manufacture of dyes and were also used as rubber accelerators. However, they have been largely phased out due to their carcinogenic properties. Exposure to certain aminobiphenyl compounds has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.

It is important to note that the medical definition of 'aminobiphenyl compounds' generally refers to their chemical structure and potential health hazards, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

Urologic diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra in both males and females, as well as the male reproductive system. These diseases can range from relatively common conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), to more complex diseases like kidney stones, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer.

Some of the common urologic diseases include:

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are more common in women than men.
2. Kidney Stones: These are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine when passed.
3. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause difficulty urinating, frequent urination, and a weak urine stream.
4. Bladder Cancer: This is a type of cancer that begins in the bladder, usually in the lining of the bladder.
5. Prostate Cancer: This is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland, which is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid.
6. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): This is a condition where a man has trouble achieving or maintaining an erection.
7. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This is a condition characterized by the sudden and strong need to urinate frequently, as well as involuntary loss of urine (incontinence).

Urologic diseases can affect people of all ages and genders, although some conditions are more common in certain age groups or among men or women. Treatment for urologic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Uroplakin III is a protein that is a component of urothelial plaques, which are specialized structures found on the surface of urothelial cells in the urinary bladder. Urothelial plaques play an important role in maintaining the barrier function and permeability properties of the urothelium.

Uroplakin III is a member of the uroplakin family of proteins, which includes UPIa, UPII, UPIII, and UPIIIA. These proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the Golgi apparatus, where they form heterodimers that are then transported to the plasma membrane. At the plasma membrane, the heterodimers assemble into larger complexes called urothelial plaques.

Uroplakin III is a transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 27 kDa. It has been shown to play a role in the formation and stability of urothelial plaques, as well as in the regulation of ion transport across the urothelium. Mutations in the gene encoding Uroplakin III have been associated with certain bladder diseases, including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Urinalysis is a medical examination and analysis of urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver problems. A urinalysis can also help monitor medications and drug compliance. The test typically involves checking the color, clarity, and specific gravity (concentration) of urine. It may also include chemical analysis to detect substances like glucose, protein, blood, and white blood cells, which could indicate various medical conditions. In some cases, a microscopic examination is performed to identify any abnormal cells, casts, or crystals present in the urine.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Uroplakin II is a type of protein that is a component of the urothelium, which is the tissue that lines the urinary tract. Specifically, uroplakins are part of the asymmetric unit membrane (AUM) of the urothelial plaques, which are specialized structures on the apical surface of the urothelium. These plaques help to provide a barrier function and protect the underlying tissues from various harmful substances in the urine. Uroplakin II is a transmembrane protein that forms heterodimers with other uroplakins, such as uroplakin Ib, to create the building blocks of the urothelial plaques.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Cocarcinogenesis is a term used in the field of oncology to describe a process where exposure to certain chemicals or physical agents enhances the tumor-forming ability of a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen). A cocarcinogen does not have the ability to initiate cancer on its own, but it can promote the development and progression of cancer when combined with a carcinogen.

In other words, a cocarcinogen is a substance or factor that acts synergistically with a known carcinogen to increase the likelihood or speed up the development of cancer. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as suppressing the immune system, promoting inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, or inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of cocarcinogens include tobacco smoke, alcohol, certain viruses, and radiation. These agents can interact with carcinogens to increase the risk of cancer in individuals who are exposed to them. It is important to note that while cocarcinogens themselves may not directly cause cancer, they can significantly contribute to its development and progression when combined with other harmful substances or factors.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Anti-infective agents for the urinary tract are medications used to prevent or treat infections caused by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses) in the urinary system. These agents can be administered locally (for example, via catheter instillation) or systemically (orally or intravenously).

Common classes of anti-infective agents used for urinary tract infections include:

1. Antibiotics: These are the most commonly prescribed class of anti-infectives for urinary tract infections. They target and kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria responsible for the infection. Common antibiotics used for this purpose include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and fosfomycin.
2. Antifungals: These medications are used to treat fungal urinary tract infections (UTIs). Common antifungal agents include fluconazole, amphotericin B, and nystatin.
3. Antivirals: Although rare, viral UTIs can occur, and antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat them. Examples of antiviral agents used for urinary tract infections include acyclovir and valacyclovir.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for any suspected urinary tract infection. Improper use or misuse of anti-infective agents can lead to antibiotic resistance, making future treatments more challenging.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

The hypogastric plexus is a complex network of nerves located in the lower abdomen, near the aortic bifurcation. It plays a crucial role in the autonomic nervous system, primarily controlling the parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation to the pelvic viscera, including the descending colon, rectum, bladder, and reproductive organs. The hypogastric plexus is formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior hypogastric nerves, which originate from the lumbar and sacral spinal cord levels, respectively. Damage to this plexus can lead to various pelvic autonomic dysfunctions, such as urinary and fecal incontinence or sexual impairment.

A muscarinic M2 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is one of five subtypes of muscarinic receptors (M1-M5) and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the heart, smooth muscle, and exocrine glands.

The M2 receptor is coupled to the G protein inhibitory Gαi/o, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and reduces intracellular cAMP levels. This leads to a variety of physiological responses, including negative chronotropy (slowing of heart rate) and negative inotropy (decreased contractility) in the heart, relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchioles and gastrointestinal tract, and inhibition of exocrine gland secretion.

The M2 receptor is an important target for drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and gastrointestinal disorders. Anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and ipratropium bind to the M2 receptor and block its activity, while muscarinic agonists such as bethanechol activate the receptor.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Urination disorders, also known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), refer to a range of clinical conditions that affect the bladder and urethra, resulting in abnormalities in the storage, transportation, and evacuation of urine. These disorders can be categorized into voiding symptoms, such as hesitancy, straining, slow stream, intermittency, and terminal dribble; and storage symptoms, including frequency, urgency, nocturia, and urge incontinence.

The causes of urination disorders are diverse, encompassing congenital abnormalities, neurological conditions, infections, inflammation, medications, and age-related changes. Common underlying pathologies include bladder overactivity, detrusor muscle instability, underactive bladder, and obstruction of the urethra.

Urination disorders can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, causing physical discomfort, sleep disturbances, emotional distress, and social isolation. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management require a comprehensive assessment of the patient's medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, and urodynamic studies. Treatment options may include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, neuromodulation, and surgical interventions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Continent urinary reservoirs refer to an artificial bladder or storage system that is created to store urine in individuals with bladder dysfunction or those who have undergone bladder removal. These reservoirs are implanted inside the body and are designed to provide continence, which means they prevent leakage of urine until a patient decides to empty it.

Continent urinary reservoirs can be created using different techniques and materials, such as small intestine or stomach tissue, which are fashioned into a pouch-like structure. A stoma or opening is created in the abdominal wall through which the reservoir can be periodically drained using a catheter.

These types of urinary diversions are typically recommended for patients who cannot undergo more conventional forms of urinary reconstruction, such as bladder augmentation or neobladder construction, due to various medical reasons. Continent urinary reservoirs offer several advantages over incontinent urinary diversions, including improved quality of life, greater social acceptance, and reduced risk of skin irritation and dehydration. However, they also require regular catheterization and careful monitoring to ensure proper functioning and prevent complications such as infection or stone formation.

Flavoxate is an anticholinergic and antispasmodic medication that is primarily used to treat various urinary tract disorders, including overactive bladder and associated symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, and incontinence. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles of the bladder, reducing spasms, and increasing the capacity of the bladder.

The medical definition of Flavoxate is:

Flavoxate hydrochloride (C~13~H~16~NO~2~·HCl), a tertiary amine antispasmodic agent, is used in the treatment of various urinary tract disorders. It has direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle, particularly the detrusor muscle of the bladder. Flavoxate's anticholinergic properties help to inhibit involuntary contractions of the bladder, thereby increasing bladder capacity and reducing symptoms such as frequency, urgency, and incontinence. It is available in various formulations, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, for oral administration.

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

Urge urinary incontinence is a type of urinary incontinence where there is a sudden, strong need to urinate that cannot be postponed, leading to an involuntary loss of urine. It is also known as overactive bladder (OAB) or detrusor instability. The underlying cause is often due to uninhibited contractions of the detrusor muscle, which is the main muscle in the bladder that helps with urination. This can be caused by various factors such as nerve damage, bladder infections, bladder stones, or certain medications. Treatment options may include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Benzidines are a class of chemical compounds with the basic structure of two benzene rings linked by a central nitrogen atom. The term "benzidine" can refer specifically to the parent compound, but it is more commonly used as a general term for a group of related compounds known as benzidine congeners or benzidine derivatives.

Benzidines are primarily used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments, although they have also been used in some industrial and laboratory applications. Exposure to benzidines has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health problems, so their use is regulated in many countries.

It's worth noting that the medical definition of "benzidines" primarily focuses on their chemical structure and potential health effects, rather than their specific medical uses or applications.

Diagnostic techniques in urology are methods used to identify and diagnose various urological conditions affecting the urinary tract and male reproductive system. These techniques include:

1. Urinalysis: A laboratory examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as infection, kidney stones, or other underlying medical conditions.
2. Urine Culture: A test used to identify and grow bacteria from the urine to determine the type of bacterial infection present in the urinary tract.
3. Imaging Studies: Various imaging techniques such as X-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans are used to visualize the internal structures of the urinary tract and identify any abnormalities.
4. Cystoscopy: A procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the bladder through the urethra to examine the bladder and urethra for signs of disease or abnormality.
5. Urodynamics: A series of tests used to evaluate bladder function, including measuring bladder pressure and urine flow rate.
6. Biopsy: The removal and examination of tissue from the urinary tract or male reproductive system to diagnose conditions such as cancer.
7. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: A blood test used to screen for prostate cancer by measuring the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland.
8. Voiding Diary: A record of urinary habits, including the frequency and volume of urination, that can help diagnose conditions such as overactive bladder or urinary incontinence.

Urography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves the use of a contrast material that is injected into a vein or given orally, which then travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys and gets excreted in the urine. This allows the radiologist to visualize the structures and any abnormalities such as tumors, stones, or blockages. There are different types of urography, including intravenous urography (IVU), CT urography, and retrograde urography.

Hydronephrosis is a medical condition characterized by the swelling of one or both kidneys due to the accumulation of urine. This occurs when the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder is obstructed, causing urine to back up into the kidney. The obstruction can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. If left untreated, hydronephrosis can lead to serious complications including kidney damage and infection. It is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

The urachus is a vestigial structure in humans, which is a fibrous cord that connects the umbilicus (navel or belly button) to the dome-shaped top of the bladder. In fetal development, the urachus is the passageway for urine to move from the developing bladder to the allantois, an outpouching of the hindgut that ultimately becomes part of the placenta.

After birth, the urachus usually obliterates and turns into a fibrous cord called the median umbilical ligament. However, in some cases, the urachus may not completely obliterate, leading to various congenital abnormalities such as urachal cysts, urachal sinuses, or urachal fistulas. These conditions can cause symptoms like lower abdominal pain, infection, and sometimes even sepsis if left untreated.

It's worth noting that the urachus is not a commonly discussed structure in routine medical practice, but it does have clinical significance in certain pediatric surgical cases and congenital anomalies.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Urology is a surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. This includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate gland, and testicles. Urologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in this field, and they may perform various surgical procedures such as cystoscopy, lithotripsy, and radical prostatectomy to treat conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, enlarged prostate, and infertility.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

Bufonidae is a family of toads, characterized by the presence of parotoid glands that produce bufotoxins, a group of toxic secretions. These toads are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and some isolated islands. They vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending on the species. Some notable members of this family include the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius). It is important to note that while these toads have toxic secretions, they are not typically harmful to humans unless ingested or if their secretions come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Muscarinic agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organ systems throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and when muscarinic agonists bind to them, they mimic the effects of acetylcholine.

Muscarinic agonists can have a range of effects on different organ systems, depending on which receptors they activate. For example, they may cause bronchodilation (opening up of the airways) in the respiratory system, decreased heart rate and blood pressure in the cardiovascular system, increased glandular secretions in the gastrointestinal and salivary systems, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the urinary and reproductive systems.

Some examples of muscarinic agonists include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma, and bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention. It's important to note that muscarinic agonists can also have side effects, such as sweating, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, due to their activation of receptors in various organ systems.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

A urinary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary tract and another organ or tissue, such as the bladder, ureter, or kidney, and the skin, vagina, or intestine. This condition can lead to urine leakage through the abnormal opening, causing discomfort, infection, and other complications if not treated promptly and effectively. Urinary fistulas can be caused by various factors, including surgery, injury, radiation therapy, inflammation, or cancer. The type and location of the fistula will determine the specific symptoms and treatment options.

The kidney pelvis, also known as the renal pelvis, is the funnel-shaped part of the upper end of the ureter in the kidney. It receives urine from the minor and major calyces, which are extensions of the renal collecting tubules, and then drains it into the ureter, which carries it to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body. The kidney pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium, which is designed to stretch and accommodate changes in urine volume.

Muscarinic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are found in various organ systems, including the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system. Muscarinic receptors are activated by muscarine, a type of alkaloid found in certain mushrooms, and are classified into five subtypes (M1-M5) based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

Muscarinic receptors play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions, such as heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and cognitive processes. Activation of M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic receptors leads to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which increase intracellular calcium levels and activate protein kinase C (PKC). Activation of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing the production of cAMP and modulating ion channel activity.

In summary, muscarinic receptors are a type of GPCR that binds to acetylcholine and regulates various physiological functions in different organ systems. They are classified into five subtypes based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Inverted papilloma is a specific type of benign (non-cancerous) growth that occurs in the mucosal lining of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. It is also known as schneiderian papilloma or cylindrical cell papilloma.

This condition is characterized by the growth of finger-like projections (papillae) that invert or grow inward into the underlying tissue, hence the name "inverted." The lesions are usually composed of an outer layer of stratified squamous epithelium and an inner core of connective tissue.

Inverted papillomas can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, sinus pressure, and difficulty breathing through the nose. In some cases, they may also lead to more serious complications, including recurrence after removal and a small risk of malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma.

It is important to note that while inverted papillomas are benign, they can still cause significant problems due to their location and tendency to recur. Therefore, they typically require surgical removal and close follow-up with an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist).

Urogenital neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the urinary and genital organs. These can include various types of cancer, such as bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and others. Some urogenital neoplasms may be benign (non-cancerous), while others are malignant (cancerous) and can spread to other parts of the body.

The term "urogenital" refers to the combined urinary and genital systems in the human body. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which are responsible for filtering waste from the blood and eliminating it as urine. The genital system includes the reproductive organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, prostate gland, testicles, and penis.

Urogenital neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include blood in urine, pain during urination, difficulty urinating, abnormal discharge, lumps or swelling in the genital area, and unexplained weight loss. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Purinergic receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to purines and pyrimidines, which are nucleotides and nucleosides. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and inflammation. There are two main types of purinergic receptors: P1 receptors, which are activated by adenosine, and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides.

P2 receptors are further divided into two subtypes: P2X and P2Y. P2X receptors are ionotropic receptors that form cation channels upon activation, allowing the flow of ions such as calcium and sodium into the cell. P2Y receptors, on the other hand, are metabotropic receptors that activate G proteins upon activation, leading to the activation or inhibition of various intracellular signaling pathways.

Purinergic receptors have been found to play a role in many diseases and conditions, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They are also being studied as potential targets for drug development.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Vasotocin is not generally recognized as a medical term or a well-established physiological concept in human medicine. However, it is a term used in comparative endocrinology and animal physiology to refer to a nonapeptide hormone that is functionally and structurally similar to arginine vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in mammals.

Vasotocin is found in various non-mammalian vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, and reptiles, where it plays roles in regulating water balance, blood pressure, social behaviors, and reproduction. In these animals, vasotocin is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland before being released into the circulation to exert its effects on target organs.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, vasotocin can be defined as a neuropeptide hormone that regulates various physiological functions in non-mammalian vertebrates, with structural and functional similarities to mammalian arginine vasopressin.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Urolithiasis is the formation of stones (calculi) in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These stones can be composed of various substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, or struvite. The presence of urolithiasis can cause symptoms like severe pain in the back or side, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine. The condition can be managed with medications, increased fluid intake, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove the stones.

An abdominal reflex is a withdrawal response that occurs when the skin in the lower abdomen is stimulated, leading to contraction of the muscles in the same side of the abdomen. This reflex is mediated by the T10-L1 spinal cord segments and is typically tested during a physical examination to assess the integrity of the nervous system. A decreased or absent abdominal reflex may indicate damage to the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in cancer studies. Therefore, I will provide you with a scientific definition of this compound.

Methylnitrosourea (MNU) is an alkylating agent and a nitrosourea compound. It is known to be highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. MNU acts by transferring its methyl group (-CH3) to DNA, RNA, and proteins, causing damage to these macromolecules. This methylation can lead to point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and DNA strand breaks, which contribute to genomic instability and cancer initiation and progression.

In research settings, MNU has been used as a model carcinogen to induce tumors in various animal models, primarily rodents, to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and evaluate potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agents. However, due to its high toxicity and mutagenicity, handling and use of MNU require strict safety measures and precautions.

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that involves the renal pelvis and the kidney parenchyma. It's typically caused by bacterial invasion, often via the ascending route from the lower urinary tract. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), but other bacteria such as Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas can also be responsible.

Acute pyelonephritis can lead to symptoms like fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. If left untreated, it can potentially cause permanent kidney damage, sepsis, or other complications. Chronic pyelonephritis, on the other hand, is usually associated with underlying structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, urinalysis, and imaging studies, while treatment often consists of antibiotics tailored to the identified pathogen and the patient's overall health status.

Dysuria is a medical term that describes painful or difficult urination. This symptom can be caused by various conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), bladder infections, kidney stones, enlarged prostate, and certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Dysuria can also occur as a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures.

The pain or discomfort associated with dysuria can range from a burning sensation to a sharp stabbing pain, and it may occur during urination, immediately after urination, or throughout the day. Other symptoms that may accompany dysuria include frequent urination, urgency to urinate, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, blood in the urine, and lower abdominal or back pain.

If you are experiencing dysuria, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment. In many cases, dysuria can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other interventions.

Urologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, and urethra. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of urologic neoplasms include renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer. It is important to note that early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for patients with urologic neoplasms.

Euthanasia, when used in the context of animals, refers to the act of intentionally causing the death of an animal in a humane and peaceful manner to alleviate suffering from incurable illness or injury. It is also commonly referred to as "putting an animal to sleep" or "mercy killing." The goal of euthanasia in animals is to minimize pain and distress, and it is typically carried out by a veterinarian using approved medications and techniques. Euthanasia may be considered when an animal's quality of life has become significantly compromised and there are no reasonable treatment options available to alleviate its suffering.

Adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists are a type of medication that selectively binds to and activates the beta-3 adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found primarily in adipose tissue, where their activation is thought to increase lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists have been studied as a potential treatment for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. By increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis, these drugs may help to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. However, their efficacy in humans has not been firmly established, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness.

Some examples of adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists include mirabegron, which is approved for the treatment of overactive bladder, and solabegron, which is being studied for its potential use in treating obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Ureteral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign ureteral neoplasms are rare and usually do not pose a significant health risk, although they may need to be removed if they cause obstructions or other complications.

Malignant ureteral neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant ureteral neoplasm is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), which arises from the cells that line the inside of the ureters. Other types of malignant ureteral neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcoma.

Symptoms of ureteral neoplasms may include hematuria (blood in the urine), flank pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as urine cytology and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

'Diamines' are organic compounds containing two amino groups (-NH2) in their molecular structure. The term 'diamine' itself does not have a specific medical definition, but it is used in the context of chemistry and biochemistry.

Diamines can be classified based on the number of carbon atoms between the two amino groups. For example, ethylenediamine and propylenediamine are diamines with one and two methylene (-CH2-) groups, respectively.

In medicine, certain diamines may have biological significance. For instance, putrescine and cadaverine are polyamines that are produced during the decomposition of animal tissues and can be found in necrotic or infected tissues. These compounds have been implicated in various pathological processes, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer progression.

It is important to note that while some diamines may have medical relevance, the term 'diamines' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Dioxolanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms, one oxygen atom, and two adjacent oxygen or sulfur atoms. The general structure of dioxolane is C2O2S2 or C2O3. These compounds are often used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds due to their high reactivity and ability to act as protecting groups for carbonyl functionalities. Dioxolanes can also be found naturally in some foods and plants.

Mesenchymoma is a very rare type of tumor that contains a mixture of different types of mesenchymal tissues, such as muscle, fat, bone, cartilage, or fibrous tissue. It typically occurs in children and young adults, and can be found in various parts of the body, including the head, neck, retroperitoneum (the area behind the abdominal cavity), and the limbs.

Mesenchymomas are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms until they reach a large size. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, but radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be used in some cases. The prognosis for mesenchymoma depends on several factors, including the location and size of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the specific types of tissue that are present in the tumor.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Oxotremorine is a muscarinic receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous system and are involved in various physiological functions, including cognition, motivation, reward, motor control, and sensory processing.

Oxotremorine is primarily used in research settings to study the role of muscarinic receptors in different physiological processes and diseases. It has been shown to produce effects similar to those caused by natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine, such as increased salivation, sweating, and gastrointestinal motility.

In addition, oxotremorine has been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. However, its clinical use is limited due to its side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms related to the lower urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. These symptoms can be categorized into storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Storage symptoms include frequency, urgency, nocturia, and urinary incontinence. Voiding symptoms consist of hesitancy, slow stream, straining, and intermittent flow. Post-micturition symptoms include a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying and post-void dribbling. LUTS can be caused by various underlying conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), overactive bladder (OAB), urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or bladder cancer. The evaluation and management of LUTS require a comprehensive assessment of the patient's medical history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.

Muscle hypertonia is a term used to describe an increased tone or tension in the muscles, which can be caused by various medical conditions. This state leads to a reduced ability to stretch the muscle fully, and it may interfere with normal movement. The two main types of muscle hypertonia are spasticity and rigidity.

1. Spasticity: It is a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone, which means that the resistance to passive movement increases as the speed of the movement increases. This type of hypertonia is often associated with upper motor neuron lesions, such as those caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis.
2. Rigidity: It is a constant and non-velocity dependent increase in muscle tone, meaning that the resistance to passive movement remains consistent regardless of the speed. This type of hypertonia can be seen in conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is essential to diagnose and manage muscle hypertonia effectively to prevent complications such as contractures, pain, and decreased functional abilities. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications (like antispasticity agents), orthoses, or surgical interventions in severe cases.

Bacteriuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine. The condition can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, and it can occur in various populations, including hospitalized patients, pregnant women, and individuals with underlying urologic abnormalities.

There are different types of bacteriuria, including:

1. Significant bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine (usually greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter or CFU/mL) and is often associated with urinary tract infection (UTI).
2. Contaminant bacteriuria: This occurs when bacteria from the skin or external environment enter the urine sample during collection, leading to a small number of bacteria present in the urine.
3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms of UTI. It is more common in older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of bacteriuria typically involves a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the type and quantity of bacteria present in the urine. Treatment depends on the type and severity of bacteriuria and may involve antibiotics to eliminate the infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria often does not require treatment unless it occurs in pregnant women or individuals undergoing urologic procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Methohexital is a rapidly acting barbiturate sedative-hypnotic agent primarily used for the induction of anesthesia. It is a short-acting drug, with an onset of action of approximately one minute and a duration of action of about 5 to 10 minutes. Methohexital is highly lipid soluble, which allows it to rapidly cross the blood-brain barrier and produce a rapid and profound sedative effect.

Methohexital is administered intravenously and works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), producing a range of effects from mild sedation to general anesthesia. At lower doses, it can cause drowsiness, confusion, and amnesia, while at higher doses, it can lead to unconsciousness and suppression of respiratory function.

Methohexital is also used for diagnostic procedures that require sedation, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cerebral angiography. It is not commonly used outside of hospital or clinical settings due to its potential for serious adverse effects, including respiratory depression, cardiovascular instability, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that Methohexital should only be administered by trained medical professionals under close supervision, as it requires careful titration to achieve the desired level of sedation while minimizing the risk of adverse effects.

A diverticulum is a small sac or pouch that forms as a result of a weakness in the wall of a hollow organ, such as the intestine. These sacs can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions like diverticulitis. Diverticula are common in the large intestine, particularly in the colon, and are more likely to develop with age. They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea if they become inflamed or infected.

"Pteridium" is the genus name for a group of ferns commonly known as bracken ferns. These ferns are found worldwide and are known for their hardy nature and ability to grow in a variety of environments. While "Pteridium" itself is not a medical term, extracts from some species of this fern have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that these uses are not supported by modern scientific evidence and some parts of the plant contain carcinogens and can be toxic if ingested. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or medication.

Efferent neurons are specialized nerve cells that transmit signals from the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, to effector organs such as muscles or glands. These signals typically result in a response or action, hence the term "efferent," derived from the Latin word "efferre" meaning "to carry away."

Efferent neurons are part of the motor pathway and can be further classified into two types:

1. Somatic efferent neurons: These neurons transmit signals to skeletal muscles, enabling voluntary movements and posture maintenance. They have their cell bodies located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and send their axons through the ventral roots to innervate specific muscle fibers.
2. Autonomic efferent neurons: These neurons are responsible for controlling involuntary functions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiration, and pupil dilation. They have a two-neuron chain arrangement, with the preganglionic neuron having its cell body in the CNS (brainstem or spinal cord) and synapsing with the postganglionic neuron in an autonomic ganglion near the effector organ. Autonomic efferent neurons can be further divided into sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric subdivisions based on their functions and innervation patterns.

In summary, efferent neurons are a critical component of the nervous system, responsible for transmitting signals from the CNS to various effector organs, ultimately controlling and coordinating numerous bodily functions and responses.

Diuresis is a medical term that refers to an increased production of urine by the kidneys. It can occur as a result of various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, or as a response to a physiological need, such as in the case of dehydration. Diuretics are a class of drugs that promote diuresis and are often used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema.

Diuresis can be classified into several types based on its underlying cause or mechanism, including:

1. Osmotic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine in response to a high concentration of solutes (such as glucose) in the tubular fluid. The high osmolarity of the tubular fluid causes water to be drawn out of the bloodstream and into the urine, leading to an increase in urine output.
2. Forced diuresis: This is a medical procedure in which large amounts of intravenous fluids are administered to promote diuresis. It is used in certain clinical situations, such as to enhance the excretion of toxic substances or to prevent kidney damage.
3. Natriuretic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of sodium and water in response to the release of natriuretic peptides, which are hormones that regulate sodium balance and blood pressure.
4. Aquaresis: This is a type of diuresis that occurs in response to the ingestion of large amounts of water, leading to dilute urine production.
5. Pathological diuresis: This refers to increased urine production due to underlying medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus or pyelonephritis.

It is important to note that excessive diuresis can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, so it should be monitored carefully in clinical settings.

The urogenital system is a part of the human body that includes the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. On the other hand, the genital system, also known as the reproductive system, is responsible for the production, development, and reproduction of offspring. In males, this includes the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and penis. In females, it includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and external genitalia.

The urogenital system is closely related anatomically and functionally. For example, in males, the urethra serves as a shared conduit for both urine and semen, while in females, the urethra and vagina are separate but adjacent structures. Additionally, some organs, such as the prostate gland in males and the Skene's glands in females, have functions that overlap between the urinary and genital systems.

Disorders of the urogenital system can affect both the urinary and reproductive functions, leading to a range of symptoms such as pain, discomfort, infection, and difficulty with urination or sexual activity. Proper care and maintenance of the urogenital system are essential for overall health and well-being.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Cystotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision into the urinary bladder. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as to remove bladder stones, to take a biopsy of the bladder tissue, or to repair damage to the bladder.

During a cystotomy, a veterinarian or surgeon makes an incision in the bladder and then carefully inspects the interior of the organ. Any abnormalities, such as bladder stones or tumors, can be removed during the procedure. The incision is then closed with sutures or staples.

Cystotomy is typically performed under general anesthesia, and patients will need to recover in a veterinary hospital or surgical center for several days following the procedure. During recovery, they may require pain medication and antibiotics to prevent infection. It's important to follow all post-operative instructions carefully to ensure proper healing.

Carcinosarcoma is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that occurs when malignant epithelial cells (carcinoma) coexist with malignant mesenchymal cells (sarcoma) in the same tumor. This mixed malignancy can arise in various organs, but it is most commonly found in the female reproductive tract, particularly in the uterus and ovaries.

In a carcinosarcoma, the epithelial component typically forms glands or nests, while the mesenchymal component can differentiate into various tissue types such as bone, cartilage, muscle, or fat. The presence of both malignant components in the same tumor makes carcinosarcomas particularly aggressive and challenging to treat.

Carcinosarcomas are also known by other names, including sarcomatoid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, or pseudosarcoma. The prognosis for patients with carcinosarcoma is generally poor due to its high propensity for local recurrence and distant metastasis. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Butylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a butyl group (a chain of four carbon atoms) attached to an amine functional group, which consists of nitrogen atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. The general structure of a primary butylamine is R-NH2, where R represents the butyl group.

Butylamines can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. Some of them have important uses in industry as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, or building blocks for pharmaceuticals. However, some butylamines are also known to have psychoactive effects and may be used as recreational drugs or abused.

It is worth noting that the term "butylamine" can refer to any of several specific compounds, depending on the context. For example, n-butylamine (also called butan-1-amine) has the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2, while tert-butylamine (also called 2-methylpropan-2-amine) has the formula (CH3)3CNH2. These two compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to their structural differences.

In a medical context, butylamines may be encountered as drugs of abuse or as components of pharmaceuticals. Some examples of butylamine-derived drugs include certain antidepressants, anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, it is important to note that these compounds are often highly modified from their parent butylamine structure, and may not resemble them closely in terms of their pharmacological properties or toxicity profiles.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is a group of enzymes involved in the metabolism of aromatic amines, which are found in a variety of substances including tobacco smoke, certain drugs, and environmental contaminants. NAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the aromatic amine, which can help to detoxify these compounds and make them more water-soluble for excretion. There are two main forms of NAT in humans, known as NAT1 and NAT2, which have different tissue distributions and substrate specificities. Variations in NAT activity due to genetic polymorphisms can affect individual susceptibility to certain chemical exposures and diseases, including cancer.

Purinergic P2X receptors are a type of ligand-gated ion channel that are activated by the binding of extracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and other purinergic agonists. These receptors play important roles in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, pain perception, and immune response.

P2X receptors are composed of three subunits that form a functional ion channel. There are seven different subunits (P2X1-7) that can assemble to form homo- or heterotrimeric receptor complexes with distinct functional properties.

Upon activation by ATP, P2X receptors undergo conformational changes that allow for the flow of cations, such as calcium (Ca^2+^), sodium (Na^+^), and potassium (K^+^) ions, across the cell membrane. This ion flux can lead to a variety of downstream signaling events, including the activation of second messenger systems and changes in gene expression.

Purinergic P2X receptors have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including chronic pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. As such, they are an active area of research for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde with the chemical formula CH2CHCHO. It is a colorless liquid that has a distinct unpleasant odor and is highly reactive. Acrolein is produced by the partial oxidation of certain organic compounds, such as glycerol and fatty acids, and it is also found in small amounts in some foods, such as coffee and bread.

Acrolein is a potent irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat, and exposure to high levels can cause coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It has been shown to have toxic effects on the lungs, heart, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

In the medical field, acrolein is sometimes used as a laboratory reagent or as a preservative for biological specimens. However, due to its potential health hazards, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with this compound.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Urethral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign urethral neoplasms may include conditions such as urethral polyps or papillomas, which are usually not life-threatening and can often be removed with surgery.

Malignant urethral neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. These include urethral carcinomas, which can be further classified into different types such as squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, depending on the type of cells involved.

Urethral neoplasms are relatively rare, but when they do occur, they can cause a variety of symptoms such as difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, pain during urination or sexual intercourse, and discharge from the urethra. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Urethral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort during urination, difficulty in urinating, blood in urine, and abnormal discharge. Some common urethral diseases include urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra due to scar tissue or inflammation), and urethral cancer. The causes of urethral diseases can vary, including infections, injuries, congenital abnormalities, and certain medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing urethral diseases and preventing complications.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

A serous membrane is a type of thin, smooth tissue that lines the inside of body cavities and surrounds certain organs. It consists of two layers: an outer parietal layer that lines the cavity wall, and an inner visceral layer that covers the organ. Between these two layers is a small amount of fluid called serous fluid, which reduces friction and allows for easy movement of the organs within the body cavity.

Serous membranes are found in several areas of the body, including the pleural cavity (around the lungs), the pericardial cavity (around the heart), and the peritoneal cavity (around the abdominal organs). They play an important role in protecting these organs and allowing them to move smoothly within their respective cavities.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A urinary catheter is a flexible tube that is inserted into the bladder to drain urine. It can be made of rubber, plastic, or latex and comes in various sizes and lengths. The catheter can be inserted through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder) and is called a Foley catheter or an indwelling catheter. A straight catheter, on the other hand, is inserted through the urethra and removed after it has drained the urine.

Urinary catheters are used in various medical situations, such as when a person is unable to empty their bladder due to surgery, anesthesia, medication, or conditions that affect bladder function. They may also be used for long-term management of urinary incontinence or to drain the bladder during certain medical procedures.

It's important to note that the use of urinary catheters carries a risk of complications, such as urinary tract infections, bladder spasms, and injury to the urethra or bladder. Therefore, they should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Cholinergic agonists are substances that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors, which are neuroreceptors that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These agents can mimic the effects of acetylcholine in the body and are used in medical treatment to produce effects such as pupil constriction, increased gastrointestinal motility, bronchodilation, and improved cognition. Examples of cholinergic agonists include pilocarpine, bethanechol, and donepezil.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

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In addition, he was Founding Director of the NCI-funded National Urinary Bladder Flow Cytometry Network which established ... urinary bladder flow cytometry; image analysis; holographic microscopy; robotic telepathology; quantitative ... "Changes in Plasma Membrane Structure Associated with Malignant Transformation in Human Urinary Bladder Epithelium". Cancer ... which qualified patients for inclusion in urinary bladder cancer clinical trials. ...
Bleisch VR, Konikov NF (October 1952). "Malakoplakia of urinary bladder; report of four cases and discussion of etiology". AMA ... bladder, adrenal gland, abdomen and muscle. Telling apart clinically a XP from a tumor condition can be challenging as pointed ...
Vesical calculus disease of childhood". In Reen, Robert Van (ed.). Idiopathic Urinary Bladder Stone Disease. Department of ... They photographed the surface of the bladder and urethra at a magnification of 30,000 times, and found it to be far from ... They found that the irregularities resolved with urethral and bladder distension. Lloyd-Davies later became head of clinical ... It contains images including those of pathological specimens, photographs of the bladder at endoscopy and diagrams that explain ...
Primary urinary tract EMZLs of the urinary bladder and kidney are extremely rare but the most common forms of lymphoma that are ... inflammation of the bladder due to urinary tract infection or other causes. Presenting symptoms of primary bladder lymphoma ... Venyo AK (2014). "Lymphoma of the urinary bladder". Advances in Urology. 2014: 327917. doi:10.1155/2014/327917. PMC 3912819. ... Treatment of primary bladder EMZL depends on the extent of disease. Localized disease should be confirmed using, e.g. Positron ...
doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(13)90046-8. Box, C. R. (1914). "Hypertrophied and Dilated Urinary Bladder". Proceedings of the Royal ... Box, C. R.; Pardoe, J.; Parkinson, J. P. (15 October 1910). "Discussion on Infections of the Urinary Tract by Bacillus coli in ...
Urinary tract: Ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. Radical prostatectomy and radical cystectomy both require anastomosis of the ... Urinary diversion Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Olofsson, Per; Syk, Ingvar; Thorlacius, Henrik; Grönberg, Anders (2015). "The Compression ... bladder to the urethra in order to restore continuity.[citation needed] Microsurgery: The advent of microsurgical technique ...
Lewin, Richard J.; Dillard, George V.; Porter, Robert W. (1967). "Extrapyramidal inhibition of the urinary bladder". Brain ...
Brosman, SA (1991). "BCG vaccine in urinary bladder cancer". West J Med. 155 (6): 633. PMC 1003114. PMID 1812634. Gradmann, ...
Long and slender gall bladder. The kidneys rounder than in humans, and the ureters are different. Longer urinary bladder No ...
If the urinary bladder is the subject of interest, a person will be asked to pass urine and the amount of urine left in the ... Ultrasound of the urinary tract involves the use of an ultrasound probe to image parts of the urinary tract. The urinary tract ... Determination of how much urine is in the bladder, for example to assess for urinary retention. To look for evidence and the ... bladder may be recorded. For imaging of the urinary tract it may involve: Assessment of the urinary tract for abnormalities ...
Lewis, Simon A.; -- (February 1975). "Active sodium transport by mammalian urinary bladder". Nature. 253 (5494): 747-748. ... and Degradation of Sodium Channels in Rabbit Urinary Bladder". Science. 221 (4617): 1288-1290. Bibcode:1983Sci...221.1288L. doi ...
Another example occurs in the urinary bladder. Intestinal metaplasia Squamous metaplasia Micrograph of Barrett's esophagus, an ... Ward AM (July 1971). "Glandular metaplasia and mucin production in transitional cell carcinomas of bladder". J. Clin. Pathol. ...
A Description of the Human Urinary Bladder ... [together with] Animadversions on Lithontriptic Medicines, particularly those of ...
Meesa IR, Junewick JJ (August 2008). "Pelvic plexiform neurofibroma involving the urinary bladder". Pediatric Radiology. 38 (8 ... A 14-year-old girl with NF1 was diagnosed with a neurofibroma involving her bladder, a rare location. Once a plexiform ...
Intravesical infusion is into the urinary bladder. Intravitreal, through the eye. Subcutaneous (under the skin). This generally ...
Transporting point of SI: Urinary Bladder 27. Conception vessel - anterior midline from perineum to lower lip. This is also the ... The turbid is sent downwards to the large intestine, while the useless water is infused to the bladder. The disorders of the ... manifesting stool and urinary disturbance, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, scanty urine, etc. The Small intestine and its ...
Iannaccone PM, Galat V, Bury MI, Ma YC, Sharma AK (January 2018). "The utility of stem cells in pediatric urinary bladder ... The two main methods for replacing bladder function involve either redirecting urine flow or replacing the bladder in situ. ... Standard methods for replacing the bladder involve fashioning a bladder-like pouch from intestinal tissue. As of 2017 methods ... Tissue Engineering of Urinary Bladder; We Still Have a Long Way to Go?". Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 6 (11): 2033-2043. ...
Shehata R (1976). "The arterial supply of the urinary bladder". Acta Anatomica. 96 (1): 128-134. doi:10.1159/000144666. PMID ... They supply the bladder and terminal ureter. The two most prominent are the superior vesical artery and the inferior vesical ... Andersson KE, Boedtkjer DB, Forman A (January 2017). "The link between vascular dysfunction, bladder ischemia, and aging ... bladder dysfunction". Therapeutic Advances in Urology. 9 (1): 11-27. doi:10.1177/1756287216675778. PMC 5167073. PMID 28042309. ...
Janis C. Kelly (26 October 2015). "Urinary Biomarkers Not Useful for Bladder Cancer Diagnosis". Medscape. Retrieved 31 December ... for its bladder cancer tests. Pacific Edge's suite of tests for bladder cancer are called CxBladder, with specialist subtype ... "Warning over bladder cancer test". Stuff.co.nz. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2015. "Pacific Edge sales up; still no ... Pacific Edge Limited is a cancer diagnostics New Zealand company that offers a genetic biomarker based suite of bladder cancer ...
Cancer of the urinary bladder has been observed in many cases treated with chlornaphazine. It has been implied that the ... The N-hydroxy metabolite can be further metabolized in the liver or transported to the urinary bladder. In the liver, it can ... The carcinogenic effect of this compound on the human urinary bladder is well known. The bioactivation of 2-naphthylamine in ... Young, J.F.; Kadlubar, F.F. (1982). A pharmacokinetic model to predict exposure of the bladder epithelium to urinary N- ...
Cystectomy is the removal of the urinary bladder. It also means removal of a cyst. Corpectomy is the removal of a vertebral ... Hemicorporectomy is the surgical amputation of the entire body below the waist, including the legs, genitalia, urinary system, ...
... is often prescribed for underactive urinary bladder. Hospitals sometimes administer a solution containing ... and urinary retention without the presence of a blockage. It is also used in anaesthesia to end the effects of non-depolarising ... "The effectiveness of parasympathomimetics for treating underactive bladder: A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). ...
Smith, Z., Sehgal, S., Van Arsdalen, K. and Goldstein, I. (2014). Placenta Percreta With Invasion into the Urinary Bladder. ...
Urinary bladder disease includes urinary bladder inflammation such as cystitis, bladder rupture and bladder obstruction ( ... Bladder rupture (rupture of bladder, N32.4) may occur if the bladder is overfilled and not emptied. This can occur in the case ... Ultrasound showing bladder rupture - Week 1 Ultrasound showing bladder rupture - Week 2 Bladder tamponade is obstruction of the ... Underactive bladder Overactive bladder Meijlink, Jane M (April 2014). "Interstitial cystitis and the painful bladder: A brief ...
encoded search term (Pathology of Urinary Bladder Inverted Papilloma) and Pathology of Urinary Bladder Inverted Papilloma What ... in the development of inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder by evaluating 27 inverted papillomas of the urinary bladder for ... Pathology of Urinary Bladder Inverted Papilloma Updated: May 11, 2021 * Author: Alessia Cimadamore, MD; Chief Editor: Liang ... Sung MT, Eble JN, Wang M, Tan PH, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L. Inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder: a molecular genetic ...
... urinary incontinence, which is a condition that involves the accidental loss or leaking of urine. ... Learn about one of the most common bladder control problems, ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Control Problems ( ... Bladder control problems affect the way a person holds or releases urine. A person has urinary incontinence (UI) when urine ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works The urinary tract is the bodys drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of ...
Urinary System. Urinary Bladder. Narrative. Information on the following lesions is available in this section:. *. Urinary ...
Women with common forms of urinary incontinence have various bacteria in their bladder, according to data presented today by ... Women with common forms of urinary incontinence have various bacteria in bladder. *Download PDF Copy ... Women with common forms of urinary incontinence have various bacteria in their bladder, according to data presented today by ... Lower urinary tract disorders, including incontinence, are highly common in American women. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) ...
... urinary urgency acts as a distraction which causes changes in gait and a subsequent increased risk of falls, a recent study has ... Urinary Urgency Causing Falls in Older Adults with Overactive Bladder?. -In older adults with overactive bladder, urinary ... Using Bladder Diaries to Identify Subgroups in Men With LUTS Researchers utilized data from bladder diaries of men with LUTS to ... Urinary urgency acts as a source of divided attention leading to changes in gait in older adults with overactive bladder. PLoS ...
Drawing of the side view of the male urinary tract, with the bladder, prostate, and urethra labeled. ... Male urinary tract, with the bladder, prostate, and urethra labeled. View full-sized image Download Media Please credit each ... Drawing of the side view of the male urinary tract, with the bladder, prostate, and urethra labeled. ... Drawing of the side view of the male urinary tract, with the bladder, prostate, and urethra labeled. ...
... www.qld.gov.au/health/condition/bladder-kidney-and-urinary-tract-health%#top ) ...
Leiomyoma of the Urinary Bladder Floor: Diagnosis by Transvaginal Ultrasound Subject Area: Further Areas ... Ferná;ndez Fernández, Mayayo Dehesa; Leiomyoma of the Urinary Bladder Floor: Diagnosis by Transvaginal Ultrasound. Urol Int 1 ... Transurethral Enucleation of Bladder Leiomyoma: A Series of Six Cases and Review of the Literature Urol Int (September,2018) ... We think that this new application of the transvaginal echography should be included in the study of bladder flow masses in the ...
When frequent bladder infection (UTI) occurs, its time to work with your vet. This article ranges in ideas for at home to ... Urinary tract infection (UTI) can occur when first learning how to fully express a paralyzed dogs bladder. The urinalysis is a ... Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract ... urinary_tract_infections.html. Larry G. Adams, DVM, PhD, DACVIM. Diagnosing and managing recurrent urinary tract infections ( ...
Kidney-bladder-urinary may be helpful for these symptoms and causes below. Kidney Bladder Urinary. Bladder / Urinary Tract ... About Kidney-Bladder-Urinary Browse Recipes. INGREDIENTS AFFECTING KIDNEY-BLADDER-URINARY View By: Dosha. Herbal Action. ... Browse Kidney-bladder-urinary Recipes. HERBS & SUPPLEMENTS AFFECTING KIDNEY-BLADDER-URINARY View By: Dosha. Herbal Action. ... Urinary Tonic. URINARY-TONIC. An herb that tonifies and strengthens the urinary system. These can be helpful for urinary ...
... and specific use of the Urinary Bladder 23 (UB 23) acupuncture point. ... Urinary Bladder 01 (UB 1) Urinary Bladder 02 (UB 2) Urinary Bladder 03 (UB 3) Urinary Bladder 04 (UB 4) Urinary Bladder 05 (UB ... Urinary Bladder 06 (UB 6) Urinary Bladder 07 (UB 7) Urinary Bladder 08 (UB 8) Urinary Bladder 09 (UB 9) Urinary Bladder 10 (UB ... Urinary Bladder 11 (UB 11) Urinary Bladder 12 (UB 12) Urinary Bladder 13 (UB 13) Urinary Bladder 14 (UB 14) Urinary Bladder 15 ...
... and specific use of the Urinary Bladder 03 (UB 3) acupuncture point. ... Urinary Bladder 01 (UB 1) Urinary Bladder 02 (UB 2) Urinary Bladder 03 (UB 3) Urinary Bladder 03 (UB 3) Urinary Bladder 04 (UB ... Urinary Bladder 05 (UB 5) Urinary Bladder 06 (UB 6) Urinary Bladder 07 (UB 7) Urinary Bladder 08 (UB 8) Urinary Bladder 09 (UB ... Urinary Bladder 10 (UB 10) Urinary Bladder 11 (UB 11) Urinary Bladder 12 (UB 12) Urinary Bladder 13 (UB 13) Urinary Bladder 14 ...
... also called urinary incontinence, including leaking, limiting activities, and avoiding intimacy. ... Learn about possible symptoms of bladder control problems, ... or even bladder cancer.. What causes bladder control problems? ... Symptoms & Causes of Bladder Control Problems (Urinary Incontinence). In this section:. *What are the symptoms of bladder ... What else causes bladder control problems in men?. What are the symptoms of bladder control problems?. You may have bladder ...
... in urinary bladder tissue. Antibody staining with HPA020959 and HPA053471 in immunohistochemistry. ... URINARY BLADDER - Expression summary. Protein expression. Urinary bladderi On the top, protein expression in current human ... TISSUE PRIMARY DATA URINARY BLADDER ADIPOSE TISSUE ADRENAL GLAND AMYGDALA APPENDIX BASAL GANGLIA BONE MARROW BREAST BRONCHUS ... SMOOTH MUSCLE SOFT TISSUE SPINAL CORD SPLEEN STOMACH TESTIS THYMUS THYROID GLAND TONGUE TONSIL URINARY BLADDER VAGINA ...
I am also experiencing lower urinary tract symptoms. As per the doctor, ,b,he needs to get operated but after the surgery, we ... My 33 years old husband has been diagnosed with the problem called dynamic obstruction of the urinary bladder neck after a ... How can dynamic obstruction of the urinary bladder be treated?. Answered by: Dr Dharm Raj Singh , Chief of Urology, Campbellton ... Is there history of blood in the urine or history of urinary infection? As for as dynamic obstrucion of the urinary bladder ...
Bladder Control for Women, Urinary Incontinence (NIH). Home » Healthcare Entries » Bladder Control for Women, Urinary ... Bladder Control for Women, Urinary Incontinence (NIH). Bladder Control for women, and urinary incontinence information from the ... talking to your doctor and healthcare team about bladder control problems, and more. Site by the National Institute of Diabetes ... National Institutes of Health (NIH). Topics include menopause & bladder control, ...
Pelvis,Urinary bladder. Scale. Doc. Method. NM. Additional Names. Short Name. NM Bladder Views W RNC IV. Associated ... Urinary bladder to Pelvis,Urinary bladder for conformance with the LOINC/Radlex unified model.; Method of Radnuc was ... NM Urinary bladder Views Active Fully-Specified Name. Component. Views^W radionuclide IV. Property. Find. Time. Pt. System. ...
Urinary Bladder Support , Explore some of Vitality Sciences most effective supplements for dogs urinary bladder support and ... Best Urinary Bladder Support & Kidney Supplements For Dogs. Effective Supplements For Dogs Urinary Bladder Support & Kidney ... urinary bladder support and kidney health. There are a number of effective supplements for dogs that can support urinary ... All our products are made from natural ingredients and are highly effective in treating urinary tract infections. ...
Bladder Neoplasms , Urothelial Cancer , Evaluation of Non-Invasive Assays for the Detection of Urothelial Cancer ... Control Group: No known evidence of bladder cancer-one urine sample. Yes for Control Group: No known evidence of bladder cancer ... superficial bladder tumors (stages Ta, Tis and T1) account for 75-80% of bladder neoplasms, while the remaining 15-20% are ... Yes for Patients scheduled to have a nephroureterectomy, cystectomy, cytoscopy (newly diagnosed bladder cancer and those with ...
Pre and post-op images of urinary bladder lesion.. Histopathology: papillary urothelial (TCC) carcinoma, low grade without ... "urinary-bladder-carcinoma-1","modality":"Ultrasound","series":[{"id":5354806,"content_type":"image/jpeg","frames":[{"id": ... "urinary-bladder-carcinoma-1","modality":"Ultrasound","series":[{"id":5354862,"content_type":"image/jpeg","frames":[{"id": ... Patel M, Urinary bladder carcinoma. Case study, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 04 Oct 2023) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-26497 ...
Urinary bladder trauma describes a spectrum of damage that can be caused to the urinary bladder, usually in the context of ... An extraluminal position of a urinary catheter indicates bladder rupture, although, in an underfilled bladder, the tip of the ... In cases of bony fragments within the urinary bladder, rectal or vaginal lacerations, or bladder neck injury, immediate repair ... Imaging of urinary bladder trauma is indicated when there is external trauma causing pelvic fracture with gross or microscopic ...
... urinary tract, and bladder health. 4,000 mg. Astragalus Root 1,000 mg... ... Kidney Assist XT actually has ingredients in it to help with bladder and urinary tract health as well. We do hope to have ... Kidney Assist XT actually has ingredients in it to help with bladder and urinary tract health as well. We do hope to have ... Kidney Assist XT actually has ingredients in it to help with bladder and urinary tract health as well. We do hope to have ...
Urinary bladder cancer is a form of cancer primarily arising in the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is the most common ... Background: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Jordan. No research on survival from bladder cancer at ... This was a survival analysis of patients with bladder cancer. All Jordanians with urinary bladder cancer registered in the ... of cancer deaths were due to bladder cancer (4). However, no research on survival from urinary bladder cancer at the national ...
Bladder and Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders - Learn about from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... When a person urinates, the urinary sphincter, located at the bladders outlet (where the bladder and urethra meet), opens to ... The rest of the urinary tract consists of the following: Two ureters (the tubes connecting each kidney to the bladder) The ... The bladder gradually increases in size to accommodate an increasing volume of urine. When the bladder is full, nerve signals ...
Collection: Bladder & Urinary Tract Health. Sort by. Featured. Best selling. Alphabetically, A-Z. Alphabetically, Z-A. Price, ...
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Desmoid-type fibromatosis mimicking uterine fibroid invade the urinary bladder: A case report and literature review. ... Desmoid-type fibromatosis mimicking uterine fibroid invade the urinary bladder: A case report and literature review ... Case report: A 36-year-old woman presented with urinary frequency and a palpable lower abdominal mass, which was suspected as ... During surgery, an abdominal wall mass was found to be densely adherent to the bladder. Permanent pathology revealed that the ...
Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to Adenocarcinomas of the Gynecologic Tract Involving the Urinary Bladder: A ... Subject: Adenocarcinomas of the Gynecologic Tract Involving the Urinary Bladder: A Series of 16 Cases Potentially Mimicking ... Adenocarcinomas of the Gynecologic Tract Involving the Urinary Bladder: A Series of 16 Cases Potentially Mimicking Urothelial ... Adenocarcinomas of the Gynecologic Tract Involving the Urinary Bladder: A Series of 16 Cases Potentially Mimicking Urothelial ...
  • Bladder control problems affect the way a person holds or releases urine. (nih.gov)
  • A person has urinary incontinence (UI) when urine leaks accidentally. (nih.gov)
  • You may have a bladder control problem if you often feel a sudden urge to go to the bathroom or if you leak urine during normal activities. (nih.gov)
  • The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid. (nih.gov)
  • Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the loss of urine from physical activity such as coughing, sneezing and running. (news-medical.net)
  • The bladder stays the healthiest when urine is regularly released so the bad bacteria can't breed to reach an infectious level. (dodgerslist.com)
  • When there are frequent bladder infection UTI's, it is time to take a sample to send out to a lab where the bacteria will be grown over the course of days and different antibiotics tested, a Urine Culture and Sensitivity Test. (dodgerslist.com)
  • Herbs that promote urine formation, thereby flushing the kidneys and urinary tract while eliminating any excess water retention. (joyfulbelly.com)
  • See a health care professional if you have symptoms of a bladder problem, such as trouble urinating, a loss of bladder control, waking to use the bathroom, pelvic pain, or leaking urine. (nih.gov)
  • Weak pelvic floor muscles can make it hard for your bladder to hold urine in during stress incontinence. (nih.gov)
  • Stress incontinence occurs when an action-coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity-puts pressure on your bladder and causes urine to leak. (nih.gov)
  • Is there history of blood in the urine or history of urinary infection? (ndtv.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if analysis of DNA and protein material found in urine will be useful in the detection of urothelial cancer of the bladder and kidney. (centerwatch.com)
  • The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of emerging technologies in the detection of bladder tumor cells using non-invasive approaches utilizing voided urine samples. (centerwatch.com)
  • Hematuria , abdominal pain and difficulty passing urine have been described as a triad of symptoms, but bladder trauma is frequently a radiological rather than clinical diagnosis 7 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Urine accumulates in the bladder as it arrives from the ureters. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The bladder gradually increases in size to accommodate an increasing volume of urine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When a person urinates, the urinary sphincter, located at the bladder's outlet (where the bladder and urethra meet), opens to allow urine to flow out. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Simultaneously, the bladder wall contracts automatically, creating pressure that forces the urine down the urethra. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The ends of the ureters in the bladder wall remain tightly shut during contraction of the bladder to prevent urine from flowing back into the ureters toward the kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters (tubes that carry urine to the bladder for storage), the urinary bladder, the male dog's prostate (which encircles the bladder neck), and the urethra that conducts urine outside the body. (vin.com)
  • The urine is moved down the ureters and into the bladder. (vin.com)
  • The urinary bladder is a muscular little bag that stores the urine until we are ready to get rid of it. (vin.com)
  • Bloody urine (though an infection must either involve a special organism, a bladder stone, a bladder tumor or be particularly severe to make urine red to the naked eye). (vin.com)
  • Bladder infection results when bacteria from the lower tract climb into the bladder, defeating the natural defense mechanisms of the system (forward urine flow, the bladder lining, inhospitable urine chemicals etc. (vin.com)
  • At the entrance to the bladder, the ureters have sphincters that prevent the backflow of urine. (pressbooks.pub)
  • The ureter then carries the urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • to propel urine down the ureters from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • As shown in Figure 16.5.4, urine enters the urinary bladder from the ureters through two ureteral openings on either side of the back wall of the bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Urine leaves the bladder through a sphincter called the internal urethral sphincter. (pressbooks.pub)
  • When the sphincter relaxes and opens, it allows urine to flow out of the bladder and into the urethra. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Like the ureters, the bladder is lined with transitional epithelium, which can flatten out and stretch as needed as the bladder fills with urine. (pressbooks.pub)
  • As the bladder fills, the detrusor muscle automatically relaxes to allow it to hold more urine. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Stress Incontinence - This is a urine leak when you put pressure on your bladder, rather from coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercise or lifting a heavy object. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra . (wikidoc.org)
  • This encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra . (wikidoc.org)
  • For the urine to exit the bladder, both the autonomically controlled internal sphincter and the voluntarily controlled external sphincter must be opened. (wikidoc.org)
  • The urinary bladder usually holds 400-620 mL of urine, but it can hold twice this without rupturing if, for example, the outflow is obstructed. (wikidoc.org)
  • Hematuria , or presence of blood in the urine, is a reason to seek medical attention without delay, as it is a symptom of bladder cancer as well as bladder and kidney stones . (wikidoc.org)
  • Bladder stones develop when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated, causing minerals in your urine to crystallize. (aadilhospital.com)
  • But if a stone irritates the bladder wall or blocks the flow of urine, signs and symptoms can develop. (aadilhospital.com)
  • Urinary incontinence touches more than 25 million people in the U.S. The severity of urinary incontinence ranges from leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having that strong "gotta go" urge or feeling. (auanet.org)
  • Our bladder serves two roles - 1) store urine and 2) empty urine. (auanet.org)
  • Overview of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) In healthy people, urine in the bladder is sterile-no bacteria or other infectious organisms are present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra) contains no bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although antibiotics quickly clear bacteria from the urine in the bladder, most of these drugs cannot penetrate well enough into the prostate to quickly cure an infection there. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Stress incontinence is associated with any physical exertion that increases your abdominal and bladder pressure and leads to the unintentional leakage of urine. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • The bladder essentially spills over when retaining too much urine. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Typically, your doctor will be able to diagnose your urinary incontinence by evaluating your medical history, conducting a physical examination, and obtaining a urine specimen for analysis. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Urinary incontinence involves the unintentional loss of urine. (thriveportland.com)
  • Stress incontinence occurs when specific physical movements such as coughing, sneezing, running, or heavy lifting place stress on the bladder leading to accidental urine loss. (thriveportland.com)
  • Any activity that places pressure on the bladder increases the risk of urine leakage especially if the bladder is full. (thriveportland.com)
  • As the bladder fills with urine, it expands. (thriveportland.com)
  • When the muscles and tissues that support the bladder and the muscles that regulate urine release weaken, stress incontinence occurs. (thriveportland.com)
  • The muscles that support your bladder and regulate urine may lose strength due to childbirth, prostate surgery, or age. (thriveportland.com)
  • Drinking too much leads to large amounts of urine (polyuria), and can, therefore, cause urgency feelings and frequent visits to the toilet as the bladder quickly becomes full. (tena.ie)
  • That's because concentrated urine tends to irritate the bladder lining, which results in smelly urine and, again, urge symptoms. (tena.ie)
  • It's also common to keep track on what and how much you drink and test the bladder in different ways, to measure the speed, bladder pressure, and amount of urine left in your bladder after urination. (tena.ie)
  • It is important to study the mechanism of urinary bladder dysfunctions such as urinary incontinence, pollakisuria (urinary frequency) and residual urine (incomeplete voiding), because these problems increase with aging and affect the quality of life in elderly people [1]. (scirp.org)
  • The urinary bladder is a muscular sac that stores urine produced by the kidneys before it is excreted from the body. (sigma-systems.com)
  • The main function of the urinary bladder is to store urine produced by the kidneys until it is ready to be excreted from the body. (sigma-systems.com)
  • The urine is then transported to the urinary bladder through the ureters, which are long tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. (sigma-systems.com)
  • As the urinary bladder fills with urine, the smooth muscle walls of the organ begin to stretch and expand. (sigma-systems.com)
  • When the individual is ready to urinate, the muscles of the urinary bladder contract, expelling the urine through the urethra and out of the body. (sigma-systems.com)
  • The urinary bladder is a hollow organ, which absorbs, stores and releases urine, and is thereby exposed to enormous deformation. (sigma-systems.com)
  • Aging and prostate problems may cause urinary incontinence in men. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment depends on the type of urinary incontinence you have. (nih.gov)
  • Women with common forms of urinary incontinence have various bacteria in their bladder, according to data presented today by researchers from Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • Lower urinary tract disorders, including incontinence, are highly common in American women. (news-medical.net)
  • Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is the strong or sudden need to urinate. (news-medical.net)
  • While further research is needed, evaluating the urinary microbiome may be a useful tool to characterize women with urinary incontinence prior to and following treatment to better treat their condition,' Dr. Brubaker said. (news-medical.net)
  • These can be helpful for urinary incontinence or improving function after a urinary tract infection. (joyfulbelly.com)
  • Some health problems can be short-term, like a urinary tract infection or constipation, and can cause temporary incontinence . (nih.gov)
  • Functional incontinence can occur when there is a problem getting the messages from your brain to a part of your urinary tract-usually the bladder, the sphincters , or both. (nih.gov)
  • Bladder Control for women, and urinary incontinence information from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (consumerhealthratings.com)
  • Urinary incontinence is loss of bladder control [1] . (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Symptoms of urinary incontinence can range from occasional leakage when you cough or sneeze (which is called 'Stress Incontinence") to a powerful urge to run to a toilet - to the point you may not even make it there in time. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • So what can you do to manage urinary incontinence? (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • A little (or a lot of) Confitrol24 can help fight urinary incontinence as well, and bring some resemblance of control back in your life. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Urinary incontinence can happen for a variety of reasons. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Overflow Incontinence - This is frequent or constant dribbling from a bladder that doesn't seem to fully empty. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Mixed Incontinence - As the name implies, this is a mix of different forms of urinary incontinence. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • So why is it that some folks get hit by urinary incontinence while other people seem to get spared? (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Age - You're at higher risk of urinary incontinence as you get older. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Smoking - You can count urinary incontinence among the many health risks of smoking. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Genes - You're at higher risk of urinary incontinence if a family member has it too. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Also, sometimes urinary incontinence is caused by an underlying health concern or factor. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • These can include pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, changes from age, menopause, hysterectomy, enlarged prostate, obstruction and neurological disorders - among others - can all lead to urinary incontinence and various points in your life. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Those are your risk factors for urinary incontinence. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • This is another effective way to fight urinary incontinence, which often happens because of weakened bladder muscles. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Two common health problems affecting the bladder are urinary incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) . (auanet.org)
  • For most, simple lifestyle changes or health care treatments can ease your symptoms or stop urinary incontinence. (auanet.org)
  • With OAB, these functions are not as effective and can cause strong, sudden urges to go to the bathroom and, for some patients, result in urinary incontinence or leakage. (auanet.org)
  • If you feel you may have symptoms of OAB or urinary incontinence, be sure to talk to your doctor about which treatment is right for you. (auanet.org)
  • You should not have to scale back your life because of the embarrassing symptoms of urinary incontinence. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • We are confident we can markedly improve or completely cure even the most complex case of urinary incontinence. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Tens of millions of people in the United States experience urinary incontinence. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • We believe women should not accept urinary incontinence as a way of life. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Urgency incontinence / Overactive bladder / Detrusor overactivity - Urgency is the sensation of a sudden and strong need to urinate. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • This type of incontinence feels like the bladder is in a rush or like the bladder is impatient and will not wait until you reach the bathroom before emptying. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Overflow incontinence - Overflow incontinence occurs when your bladder never completely empties properly, which leads to involuntary leakage. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • There are several treatment approaches to urinary incontinence. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Behavioral treatments - Simple lifestyle changes could help relieve your urinary incontinence. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Stress urinary incontinence affects approximately 8 million United States women. (thriveportland.com)
  • Patients who experience urinary incontinence are often embarrassed and may limit their outside personal and professional activities. (thriveportland.com)
  • Smoking, obesity, previous pelvic surgery, years of high impact physical activity, or illnesses that cause chronic coughing or sneezing may contribute to or put patients at higher risk of stress urinary incontinence. (thriveportland.com)
  • In this article, we will share some of the most important things to know about bladder spasms and urge urinary incontinence, and what you can do to ease the symptoms. (tena.ie)
  • The purpose is to become aware of incontinence patterns, and re-learning skills necessary for storage and proper emptying of the bladder. (tena.ie)
  • The rest of the urinary tract consists of the following: Two ureters (the tubes connecting each kidney to the bladder) The bladder (an expandable muscular. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It passes from the kidneys through the other organs of the urinary system, starting with the ureters. (pressbooks.pub)
  • 16.5.2 Besides the kidneys, the urinary system includes two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. (pressbooks.pub)
  • It lines much of the urinary system, including the renal pelvis, bladder, and much of the urethra, in addition to the ureters. (pressbooks.pub)
  • The ureters enter the bladder diagonally from its dorsolateral floor in an area called the trigone , which is a triangular shaped area on the postero-inferior wall of the bladder. (wikidoc.org)
  • An X-ray of your kidneys, ureters and bladder helps your doctor determine whether stones are present in your urinary system. (aadilhospital.com)
  • The material is injected into a vein in your arm and flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining each of these organs. (aadilhospital.com)
  • The urothelial cells also line other parts of the urinary tract in the pelvic region, which connect the kidneys to the ureters, the ureters and the urethra. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • A patient, who has been diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, may have synchronous tumours in the pelvis, ureters and urethra too, making it essential to check the entire urinary system and plan treatment approaches accordingly. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • In urinary schistosomiasis, there is progressive damage to the bladder, ureters and kidneys. (who.int)
  • Overview of the Urinary Tract Normally, a person has two kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • are tube-like structures that connect the kidneys with the urinary bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Solidago is a homeopathic combination formulated for the urinary bladder, urinary tract and kidneys. (healthpalace.ca)
  • they are the connector from the kidneys to the bladder. (sigma-systems.com)
  • Cystitis is common, sometimes referred to as urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria, bladder rupture occurs when the bladder is overfilled and not emptied while bladder tamponade is a result of blood clot formation near the bladder outlet. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection in which case it is referred to as a urinary tract infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • When frequent bladder infection (UTI) occurs, it's time to work with your vet. (dodgerslist.com)
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI) can occur when first learning how to fully express a paralyzed dog's bladder. (dodgerslist.com)
  • So why do some dogs keep having frequent bladder infection (UTI)? (dodgerslist.com)
  • Often the case is the original bladder infection was due to multiple bacteria strains. (dodgerslist.com)
  • Other strains can cause urinary tract infection. (dodgerslist.com)
  • They can also strengthen the bladder to ward off a urinary tract infection. (joyfulbelly.com)
  • Objectives: To assess the rate of urinary tract infection (UTI), the characteristics of the bacterial aetiological agents involved, the type and duration of antibiotics used, and the clinical risk factors of UTI in a multi-institutional cohort of patients who had undergone radical cystectomy (RC). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The urinary tract infection is one of the most common ailments in small animal practice, yet many pet owners are confused about the medical approach. (vin.com)
  • A urinary tract infection could involve any of these areas, though most commonly when we speak of a urinary tract infection, or UTI, we mean "bladder infection. (vin.com)
  • Because bladder infections are localized to the bladder, there are rarely signs of infection in other body systems: no fever, no appetite loss, and no change in the blood tests. (vin.com)
  • While a kidney infection is technically also a urinary tract infection, we usually use the term pyelonephritis to describe a kidney infection. (vin.com)
  • It is not a bladder infection. (vin.com)
  • Bladder Infection: What Does it look like and Where Did it Come from? (vin.com)
  • When bacteria (or any other organisms, for that matter) gain entry and establish growth in the bladder, infection occurs and symptoms can result. (vin.com)
  • A bladder infection is not contagious. (vin.com)
  • Bladder infection is somewhat unusual in cats under the age 10 years. (vin.com)
  • Bladder infection is somewhat unusual in neutered male dogs. (vin.com)
  • A urinalysis also helps determine whether you have a urinary tract infection, which can cause or be the result of bladder stones. (aadilhospital.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs following persistent irritation of the bladder's inner lining which can occur due to long-term urinary catheterization, bladder stone disease or schistosomal infection (Bilharziasis). (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • These include individuals with recurrent urinary tract infections, long-term catheterization, and parasitic infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Bilharziasis). (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Cystitis is infection of the bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes it is the first and only symptom of a urinary tract infection. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Dehydration is also a risk factor for constipation which is a known risk to get a urinary infection. (tena.ie)
  • Underactive bladder Overactive bladder Meijlink, Jane M (April 2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinary Urgency Causing Falls in Older Adults with Overactive Bladder? (medpagetoday.com)
  • In older adults with overactive bladder, urinary urgency acts as a distraction which causes changes in gait and a subsequent increased risk of falls, a recent study has found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • We hypothesized that the sensation of urinary urgency acts as a source of divided attention in older adults with overactive bladder (OAB), that urgency will cause similar gait changes to distraction and that this, at least in part, explains the observed association between falls and LUTS in older people," the study authors noted in PLoS One . (medpagetoday.com)
  • This article, "Urinary urgency acts as a source of divided attention leading to changes in gait in older adults with overactive bladder," was written by Dr. Gibson and colleagues, and published in October 2021 in PLoS One . (medpagetoday.com)
  • An estimated 17% of adult women have an overactive bladder . (thriveportland.com)
  • Urinary bladder disease includes urinary bladder inflammation such as cystitis, bladder rupture and bladder obstruction (tamponade). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystitis is a urinary bladder inflammation that results from any one of a number of distinct syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms can signal a serious health problem, including inflammation of the bladder, also called cystitis , or even bladder cancer . (nih.gov)
  • It is also important to note that the term UTI is frequently erroneously used to refer to feline idiopathic cystitis , which is a common inflammatory condition of the feline bladder affecting young adult cats. (vin.com)
  • Pregnant women are especially likely to develop cystitis because the pregnancy itself can interfere with emptying of the bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In addition, a drooping (prolapsed) uterus or bladder may cause poor emptying of the bladder and predispose to cystitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rarely, cystitis recurs because of an abnormal connection between the bladder and the vagina (vesicovaginal fistula). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Induced desquamation of urinary bladder epithelial cells, also called urothelial cells, is frequently used in studies of bladder epithelial regeneration and also in treating recurrent bacterial cystitis. (uni-lj.si)
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Pelvic organ prolapse involves relaxation or weakening of the ligaments, connective tissue, and muscles of the pelvis, causing the bladder, urethra, small intestine, rectum, or uterus to bulge. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In mammals, including humans and fetal pigs, the urinary bladder is located in the pelvis. (sigma-systems.com)
  • Such heavy bleeding is usually due to bladder cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. (centerwatch.com)
  • Previous publications from this Urology Department have introduced the idea of a non-invasive, molecular-based assay for the detection and monitoring of bladder cancer (Levesque et al. (centerwatch.com)
  • The cancer assays to be tested use DNA analysis and antibodies to specific proteins as well as functional assays for proteins to attempt to identify bladder tumor presence. (centerwatch.com)
  • Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Jordan. (who.int)
  • No research on survival from bladder cancer at the national level has been conducted before. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to estimate the probability of survival in patients with bladder cancer in Jordan and identify factors associated with survival. (who.int)
  • All cases of urinary bladder cancer in Jordanians registered during 2005-2014 were included in the study (n = 2139). (who.int)
  • The overall 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival probabilities for urinary bladder cancer were 85%, 73%, 69% and 59%, respectively (standard error = 0.01 for each). (who.int)
  • The survival of patients with bladder cancer in Jordan is comparable to that reported from developed countries. (who.int)
  • Urinary bladder cancer is a form of cancer primarily arising in the tissues of the urinary bladder. (who.int)
  • There are three main types of bladder cancer: transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (1). (who.int)
  • Urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma is the most common histological type of bladder cancer, accounting for almost 90% of all cases. (who.int)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 4% of cases of bladder cancer, adenocarcinoma for about 2% and all other types for about 4% of cases (2). (who.int)
  • According to the global cancer statistics, bladder cancer is the 10th most common cancer in the world, with an estimated 549 393 new cases and 7.2/100 100 population crude death rate in 2018 (3,4). (who.int)
  • About 60% of all bladder cancer cases and 50% of bladder cancer deaths occur in the less developed regions of the world (5). (who.int)
  • Greece is reported to have the highest rates of bladder cancer among men with an age standardized rate of 40.4 cases per 100 000, while Lebanon has the highest rate among women with 9.4 cases per 100 000 in 2018 (6). (who.int)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America (USA), urinary bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the country, accounting for 4.7% of new cases of cancer and 2.8% of all cancer deaths in 2017 (7). (who.int)
  • In Sweden, the 5-year relative survival rate for 31 266 patients (74% men, 26% women) with urinary bladder cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2011 was 72% (10). (who.int)
  • Bladder cancer research group at Lund University Cancer Centre explains the importance of research done in the past years. (lu.se)
  • What is the future of bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment? (lu.se)
  • Did you know you can directly contact the research centre if you experience bladder cancer symptoms? (lu.se)
  • Get to know the top bladder cancer researchers in the world and dive into the field of personalized medicine, high-tech imaging and mini-organs production. (lu.se)
  • Cancer of the urinary bladder is the abnormal condition of the urothelial cells that form the inner lining of the urinary bladder, which then spreads into the deeper tissues of the urinary bladder wall after a period of time. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Urothelial carcinoma is also known as transitional cell carcinoma and is the most common type of bladder cancer. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • They comprise less than 1% of bladder cancer. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Tobacco smokers have a three-fold increased risk of contracting bladder cancer as compared to non-smokers and even ex-smokers have a two-fold increased risk. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Radiation to the pelvic region also increases one's risk of contracting bladder cancer. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • If an immediate family member (siblings/parents) has been affected with bladder cancer, it increases the individual's risk of having the same genetic mutations and thus contracting bladder cancer. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • A family history of Lynch syndrome [hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)], increases the risk of cancer in the urinary system. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Smoking, exposure to chemicals, chronic conditions, radiation and family history of cancer are some factors that increase the risk of acquiring Urinary Bladder Cancer. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Blue light cystoscopy (BLC) is the most recent clinical approach in the detection and diagnosis of bladder cancer, a common type of cancer with a high rate of recurrence. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Infographic illustrating the currently available (yellow boxes) and potential microdevices (colour bordered boxes) for urinary bladder cancer diagnosis, as described in Tables 1 and 2 below. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Table 1 provides a nonexhaustive list of studies involving these biomarkers that have resulted in commercially available tests for bladder cancer diagnosis. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • How is bladder cancer staged? (medscape.com)
  • The urinary form of schistosomiasis is also associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in adults. (who.int)
  • In this study we have demonstrated that the sensation of urinary urgency acts as a source of distraction, inducing changes to gait, and this may explain at least in part, the association between falls and lower urinary tract symptoms. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Urinary urgency was induced in participants through drinking non-caffeinated fluids as desired to the point of needing to void. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In terms of kinematic data, urinary urgency and distraction did not appear to affect the trunk lean while walking. (medpagetoday.com)
  • If the subject is distracted the desire can fade and return with more urgency as the bladder continues to fill. (wikidoc.org)
  • A series of hip and core strengthening exercises to help improve strength of core muscles to help decreased urinary leakage related to weakness. (pelvicgym.co)
  • This can lead to frequent urination as patients try to continually empty their bladders to avoid involuntary leakage. (thriveportland.com)
  • All our products are made from natural ingredients and are highly effective in treating urinary tract infections. (vitalityscience.com)
  • Cranberry is by far the most popular natural supplement taken for urinary tract infections (UTI's) and is commonly used to promote optimal kidney and urinary tract health. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Are bladder infections contagious? (vin.com)
  • People with bladder infections typically report a burning sensation while urinating. (vin.com)
  • Preventing Bladder Infections. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and circular bundles. (wikidoc.org)
  • These cancers form in the urothelial cells, that form the innermost layer of the urinary bladder. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • They start in the muscle layer of the urinary bladder and are very rare, but aggressive tumours. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Spiral CTs can detect even very small stones and are considered one of the most sensitive tests for identifying all types of bladder stones. (aadilhospital.com)
  • Explore normal bladder and urinary habits, tips for good bladder health, and types of bladder dysfunction. (pelvicgym.co)
  • They stem from Loyola's Urinary Research and Educational Collaboration, an institutional effort to identify and characterize urinary bacteria and how they relate to urinary health and disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Loyola's Urinary Research and Educational Collaboration has allowed us to identify valuable information about the existence and function of bacteria in the female lower urinary tract,' said Linda Brubaker, MD, MS, co-lead investigator and dean, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • Resistant UTIs can be blamed on multiple species of bacteria growing in the bladder and some may be drug resistant explaining why they are so hard to treat and the need for a more involved treatment plan. (dodgerslist.com)
  • Cranberries are rich in proanthocyanidins, which may prevent certain types of bacteria from attaching to the lining of the urethra and bladder. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The bladder is a sterile area of the body, which means that bacteria do not normally reside there. (vin.com)
  • Sexual intercourse can contribute, too, because the motion can cause a tendency for bacteria to reach the urethra, from which they ascend to the bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Alpha Science Kidney Support 120 Capsules : Promotes Kidney and Urinary Tract Health. (healthpalace.ca)
  • Ultrasound showing bladder rupture - Week 1 Ultrasound showing bladder rupture - Week 2 Bladder tamponade is obstruction of the bladder outlet due to heavy blood clot formation within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common symptoms of inverted papillomas, leading to their discovery, are bladder outlet obstruction, hematuria, dysuria, and irritative voiding, with approximately 25% of cases presenting with more than one symptom. (medscape.com)
  • How can dynamic obstruction of the urinary bladder be treated? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » How can dynamic obstruction of the urinary bladder be treated? (ndtv.com)
  • My 33 years old husband has been diagnosed with the problem called dynamic obstruction of the urinary bladder neck after a cystoscopy. (ndtv.com)
  • Long-term cyclophosphamide administration for treatment of other cancers or rheumatological conditions, particularly in patients with bladder outlet obstruction. (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Bladder rupture (rupture of bladder, N32.4) may occur if the bladder is overfilled and not emptied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority (70%) of inverted papillomas occur in the bladder, most often in the trigone, followed by the bladder neck, bladder dome, posterior wall, and lateral wall. (medscape.com)
  • In order for normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. (nih.gov)
  • The signs of bladder trauma are difficult to define as injuries to the bladder usually occur in the setting of multiple injuries. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Significant histopathological changes within the bladder wall occur in response to synthetic mesh as compared to CFX over two tested time intervals. (canjurol.com)
  • These account for only about 1% of bladder cancers and usually occur in the upper part of the urinary bladder (also called the dome of the bladder). (thangamcancercenter.com)
  • Imaging of urinary bladder trauma is indicated when there is external trauma causing pelvic fracture with gross or microscopic hematuria, or widening of pubic symphysis or obturator ring of more than 1 cm on pelvic x-ray 9 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Figure 16.5.4 This diagram of the urinary bladder shows (a) a cross-sectional drawing of the entire bladder and (b) a microscopic cross-section of the tissues in the wall of the bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Representing a significant advance over previous approaches, this photodynamic diagnostic technique uses a photosensitiser prodrug as an adjunct to white light cystoscopy to enhance the in vivo detection of malignant tissues in the bladder based on their distinctive fluorescence. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Weak pelvic floor muscles can allow your bladder to leak. (nih.gov)
  • Bladder trauma is generally associated with high energy injuries, and is associated with pelvic fractures in the majority of cases 3,6 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Smoking increases your chances of embarrassing spillage, along with pelvic exercises that strengthen your bladder. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • In anatomy , the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals . (wikidoc.org)
  • In a fetal pig, the urinary bladder is located in the pelvic cavity, posterior to the pubic bones. (sigma-systems.com)
  • As for as dynamic obstrucion of the urinary bladder neck causing LUTS, there are various medications which may be tried initially. (ndtv.com)
  • A piece of Mesh or CFX was fixed in direct contact with the anterior bladder neck wall. (canjurol.com)
  • The medial pubovisceral portion of the levator ani complex also is a major contributor to active bladder neck and urethral closure in similar situations. (medscape.com)
  • Support of the urethra and bladder neck is thought to be important in the maintenance of continence during sudden increases in intra-abdominal pressure. (medscape.com)
  • Men have a prostate gland that surrounds the opening of the bladder. (nih.gov)
  • In males, the bladder is superior to the prostate , and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation . (wikidoc.org)
  • Your doctor will likely feel your lower abdomen to see if your bladder is enlarged (distended) and, in some cases, perform a rectal exam to determine whether your prostate is enlarged. (aadilhospital.com)
  • When the bladder is full, nerve signals are sent to the brain to convey the need to urinate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The desire to urinate usually starts when the bladder reaches around 75% of its working volume. (wikidoc.org)
  • Your clinician may also recommend a bladder diary, which involves you keeping track of your habits, such as fluid intake, types of fluid you drink and how often you urinate, or a urinalysis. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Bladder retraining and timed voiding - For some patients, the message of the need to urinate is not strong enough, so they can be taught to recognize subtle sensations. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • Nerves also carry messages from the brain to the bladder, telling muscles either to tighten or release. (nih.gov)
  • Nerves carry signals from your brain to your bladder and sphincter muscles. (nih.gov)
  • You can thank weakening bladder muscles for that, along with changes to your bladder's capacity. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • Obesity - This puts extra weight on the bladder and muscles that surround it. (leadingedgehealth.com)
  • It's caused by heavy bladder contractions, that overrides the sphincter muscles of the urethra which usually keeps control over your bladder, resulting in leaks. (tena.ie)
  • Bladder rupture is divided into intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rupture, with the latter encompassing 85% of post-traumatic bladder rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diseases and disorders of the human urinary bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of functional changes in aged rat urinary bladder, we studied the influence of senescence on, 1) the α-adrenergic contractile response to phenylephrine in the urinary bladder body and trigone, 2) the muscarinic contractile response to carbachol in the body and trigone. (scirp.org)
  • The urinary bladder consists of two regions: bladder body and bladder base (trigone). (scirp.org)
  • We revealed that the muscarinic receptor-mediated response was not affected by aging, while the contractile response to α-adrenergic stimulation was significantly augmented in both bladder body and trigone. (scirp.org)
  • Urodynamics is a test performed in the office that allows your physician to assess your bladder muscle and nerve function as your bladder fills and empties. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • The walls of the urinary bladder are composed of smooth muscle tissue, which allows the bladder to contract and relax as it fills and empties. (sigma-systems.com)
  • To evaluate and compare histological tissue reactions of the urinary bladder to human cadaveric fascia lata (CFX) slings and synthetic mesh. (canjurol.com)
  • The animals were sacrificed at 6- and 12-week intervals, and their bladders were collected for histological analysis. (canjurol.com)
  • In order to elucidate the mechanisms of age-related changes in urinary bladder function, we studied the influence of aging on the contractile response to muscarinic and α-adrenergic stimulation, and on the binding characteristics of [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]QNB) to muscarinic cholinoceptors, in addition to histological examination in rat urinary bladder. (scirp.org)
  • Carbachol-induced contraction in aged rat bladder was identical to that obtained in young rat. (scirp.org)
  • The maximal voiding rate and the contractility of urinary bladder are decreased, and the uninhibited bladder contraction is frequently observed in aged people [2]. (scirp.org)
  • Occurs in approximately ~15% (range 10-20%) of major bladder injuries, typically resulting from a direct blow to the distended bladder. (radiopaedia.org)
  • That's not the case when you suffer from bladder spasms or OAB, as the sensation usually occurs very sudden. (tena.ie)
  • Approximately 90% of malignant tumors arising in the bladder are of epithelial origin, the majority being transitional cell carcinomas. (centerwatch.com)
  • The urethral epithelium is composed of stratified squamous cells, which variably becomes transitional as the bladder is approached. (medscape.com)
  • You can't always prevent bladder control problems, but good habits-such as eating right, drinking enough fluids, and keeping a healthy weight-may help keep your bladder as healthy as possible. (nih.gov)
  • Below are a number of tips to help keep your bladder in good shape. (auanet.org)
  • Despite the patients ' experiences of bladder issues or the risk of urinary retention postoperatively, the link to hip surgery remained unknown to the patients , leaving them searching for self-management strategies and further care. (bvsalud.org)
  • Group A showed fibrosis within the detrusor of the bladder wall in half of specimens, including marked trans-mural inflammation in one case. (canjurol.com)
  • In group B, no fibrosis or inflammation was seen within the bladder wall. (canjurol.com)
  • Histologically, the aged bladder did not show pathologic changes such as inflammation and hypertrophy. (scirp.org)
  • Early stage bladder tumors have been classified into two groups with distinct behaviors and different molecular profiles: Low-grade tumors (always papillary and usually superficial), and high-grade tumors (either papillary or non-papillary and often invasive). (centerwatch.com)
  • Clinically, superficial bladder tumors (stages Ta, Tis and T1) account for 75-80% of bladder neoplasms, while the remaining 15-20% are invasive (T2, T3, T4) or metastatic lesions at the time of presentation. (centerwatch.com)
  • In the last few years, it has become clear that activation events associated with FGFR-3 can be found associated with 40%-60% of low-grade, low-stage bladder tumors whilst p53 mutations are linked to a more aggressive phenotype progressing via the CIS pathway. (centerwatch.com)
  • Conversely, desmoid tumors involving the bladder are less described. (dtrf.org)
  • The outer covering of the bladder is peritoneum, which is a smooth layer of epithelial cells that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most abdominal organs. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Talk with a health care professional about bladder control problems right away. (nih.gov)
  • See a health care professional if you have any bladder problems. (nih.gov)
  • Health care professionals use medical history and a physical exam to help find the cause of bladder control problems. (nih.gov)
  • Childbirth, menopause, aging, and other health factors can cause or contribute to a woman's bladder control problems. (nih.gov)
  • Bladder problems can affect your quality of life and cause other health problems. (nih.gov)
  • At Vitality Science, explore some of the most effective supplements for dogs' urinary bladder support and kidney health. (vitalityscience.com)
  • There are a number of effective supplements for dogs that can support urinary bladder health and kidney function. (vitalityscience.com)
  • Kidney Assist XT is a comprehensive multi-faceted supplement designed to help support optimal kidney, urinary tract, and bladder health. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Astragalus has been shown in numerous clinical studies to support healthy kidney function and detoxification and is one or the most commonly used herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for a wide variety of uses including to help support kidney and urinary health. (anabolicminds.com)
  • November is Bladder Health Month! (auanet.org)
  • While many of us are not always thinking about our bladder health, this month serves as a vital reminder to get the facts about common bladder health problems and to take an active role in taking care of our health. (auanet.org)
  • While bladder health is not often top of mind, there are ways to keep your bladder healthier year-round. (auanet.org)
  • Follow the Bladder Health discussion all November long by following #NovBHealth and the Urology Care Foundation on Twitter , Facebook , Pinterest and Instagram ! (auanet.org)
  • Treatment is with an indwelling urinary catheter . (radiopaedia.org)
  • CT cystography is performed by instilling water-soluble contrast into the bladder through a urinary catheter. (radiopaedia.org)
  • An extraluminal position of a urinary catheter indicates bladder rupture, although, in an underfilled bladder, the tip of the catheter may falsely appear extraluminal. (radiopaedia.org)
  • During this test, your bladder is filled with water through a tiny flexible catheter while pressure readings from the bladder and the abdomen are taken. (pelvicfloordoctor.com)
  • The patients had received no or limited details for the recurrent bladder care interventions (such as bladder scans and prompted voiding) while at the hospital . (bvsalud.org)
  • This is followed by a submucosa layer, which connects the lining of the bladder with the detrusor muscle in the walls of the bladder. (pressbooks.pub)
  • When the bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle . (wikidoc.org)
  • Layers of the urinary bladder wall and cross section of the detrusor muscle. (wikidoc.org)