Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Presence of blood in the urine.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
"Medicine in Art" refers to the depiction or use of medical themes, practices, or symbolism in various art forms, such as paintings, sculptures, literature, and performing arts, often serving educational, historical, or aesthetic purposes.
A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The consumption of liquids.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.

Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. (1/743)

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers. (2/743)

The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excellent for 8 of 13 analytes (r > or = 0.90); the correlations for albumin, potassium, and calcium were clinically unreliable. The linear regression analysis revealed that several analytes had slopes significantly different from unity, which was likely related to methodological differences. Compared to the wet reagent analyzer, the dry reagent analyzer showed excellent agreement for alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase (feline), urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin (canine), and total protein. However, it showed only slight to substantial agreement for amylase (canine), calcium, albumin, potassium, and total bilirubin (feline).  (+info)

Urinary tract toxicity in rats following administration of beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists. (3/743)

ZD7114, [(S)-4-[2-(2-hydroxy-3 phenoxypropylamine)ethoxy]-N-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxyacetamide], and ZD2079, [(R)-N-(2-[4- (carboxymethyl)phenoxy]ethyl)-N-(beta-hydroxyphenethyl)ammonium chloride], are beta 3-adrenoceptor stimulants with selectivity for brown adipose tissue. ZD7144 is the hydrochloride salt of the S-enantiomer of the racemic amide ZD2079. They were developed as potential novel treatments for obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Male and female rats were dosed separately by gavage for a minimum of 28 days with 0, 10, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day of ZD7114 or with 0, 10, 30, and 150 mg/kg/day of ZD2079. Two further groups of male and female rats were dosed with 0 and 500 mg/kg/day of ZD7114 for 28 days and were then allowed a 6-wk, undosed withdrawal period. At high doses, both compounds caused urinary tract toxicity, which primarily affected the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney via tubular necrosis. They also caused ureteric inflammation, cystitis, and accumulation of crystalline inclusions throughout the urinary tract. As a result of urinary tract toxicity, affected animals from one or both studies showed reduced red blood cell indices, lower platelet counts, and higher white cell counts. Blood chemistry revealed lower plasma concentrations of glucose (7.28 +/- 1.37 compared to 8.11 +/- 0.65 for the control) and total protein (63.42 +/- 3.65 compared to 69.17 +/- 3.24 for the control) and increased plasma urea (37.15 +/- 19.96 compared to 8.09 +/- 0.87 for the control). Urinalysis showed an increase in the number of crystals, blood, and protein. In the urinary tract, the severe crystalluria with accumulation of crystalline material indicated that this may have a role in the etiology of the target organ toxicity. Poor solubility of the compounds at normal urinary pH was considered a possible mechanism for the crystalluria.  (+info)

Determination of the urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid and trans,trans-muconic acid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (4/743)

To investigate how various levels of exposure affect the metabolic activation pathways of benzene in humans and to examine the relationship between urinary metabolites and other biological markers, we have developed a sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous quantitation of urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). The assay involves spiking urine samples with [13C6]S-PMA and [13C6]t,t-MA as internal standards and clean up of samples by solid-phase extraction with subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-ES-MS/MS-SRM) in the negative ionization mode. The efficacy of this assay was evaluated in human urine specimens from smokers and non-smokers as the benzene-exposed and non-exposed groups. The coefficient of variation of runs on different days (n = 8) for S-PMA was 7% for the sample containing 9.4 microg S-PMA/l urine, that for t,t-MA was 10% for samples containing 0.07 mg t,t-MA/l urine. The mean levels of urinary S-PMA and t,t-MA in smokers were 1.9-fold (P = 0.02) and 2.1-fold (P = 0.03) higher than those in non-smokers. The mean urinary concentration (+/-SE) was 9.1 +/- 1.7 microg S-PMA/g creatinine [median 5.8 microg/g, ranging from not detectable (1 out of 28) to 33.4 microg/g] among smokers. In non-smokers' urine the mean concentration was 4.8 +/- 1.1 microg S-PMA/g creatinine (median 3.6 microg/g, ranging from 1.0 to 19.6 microg/g). For t,t-MA in smokers' urine the mean (+/-SE) was 0.15 +/- 0.03 mg/g creatinine (median 0.11 mg/ g, ranging from 0.005 to 0.34 mg/g); the corresponding mean value for t,t-MA concentration in non-smokers' urine was 0.07 +/- 0.02 mg/g creatinine [median 0.03 mg/g, ranging from undetectable (1 out of 18) to 0.48 mg/g]. There was a correlation between S-PMA and t,t-MA after logarithmic transformation (r = 0.41, P = 0.005, n = 46).  (+info)

A two-year study of microscopic urinalysis competency using the urinalysis-review computer program. (5/743)

BACKGROUND: The microscopic examination of urine sediment is one of the most commonly performed microscope-based laboratory tests, but despite its widespread use, there has been no detailed study of the competency of medical technologists in performing this test. One reason for this is the lack of an effective competency assessment tool that can be applied uniformly across an institution. METHODS: This study describes the development and implementation of a computer program, Urinalysis-ReviewTM, which periodically tests competency in microscopic urinalysis and then summarizes individual and group test results. In this study, eight Urinalysis-Review exams were administered over 2 years to medical technologists (mean, 58 technologists per exam; range, 44-77) at our academic medical center. The eight exams contained 80 test questions, consisting of 72 structure identification questions and 8 quantification questions. The 72 structure questions required the identification of 134 urine sediment structures consisting of 63 examples of cells, 25 of casts, 18 of normal crystals, 8 of abnormal crystals, and 20 of organisms or artifacts. RESULTS: Overall, the medical technologists correctly identified 84% of cells, 72% of casts, 79% of normal crystals, 65% of abnormal crystals, and 81% of organisms and artifacts, and correctly answered 89% of the quantification questions. The results are probably a slight underestimate of competency because the images were analyzed without the knowledge of urine chemistry results. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the feasibility of using a computer program for competency assessment in the clinical laboratory. In addition, the study establishes baseline measurements of competency that other laboratories can use for comparison, and which we will use in future studies that measure the effect of continuing education efforts in microscopic urinalysis.  (+info)

Influence of sex on clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever. (6/743)

Clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever were correlated with sex through a retrospective case note review of 102 hospitalized culture-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. Intestinal perforation (P = 0.04), occult blood losses in stools (P = 0.04), and a mild reticulocytosis in the absence of hemolysis (P = 0.02) occurred more frequently in males than in females. A single pretreatment Widal O antibody titer > or = 1:640 was also a statistically significant occurrence in males (P = 0. 006). Female patients were significantly more severely ill (P = 0.0004) on admission and had chest signs consistent with bronchopneumonia (P = 0.04), transverse myelitis (P = 0.04), abnormal liver function test results (P = 0.0003), and abnormal findings in urinalyses (P = 0.02). Typhoid hepatitis (P = 0.04) and glomerulonephritis (P = 0.02) were present significantly more frequently in females. Whether these differences were due to differences in host's immune response to acute infection need to be determined in a prospective study.  (+info)

Improved cleanup and determination of dialkyl phosphates in the urine of children exposed to organophosphorus insecticides. (7/743)

Analysis of dialkylphosphate urinary metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides has been used to estimate dose in nonoccupationally exposed populations, including children. Analytical methods must continue to be improved in order to accurately and reproducibly measure less than 10 ng/mL of these metabolites. Dialkyl phosphates are commonly determined as their pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatives via gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Presented here is an improved method for precleanup of urine using solid-phase extraction, followed by derivatization and GC analysis. The method includes the quantitative determination of the following dialkyl phosphate metabolites: dimethylphosphate, diethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and dimethyldithiophosphate. Additional cleanup of urine samples allows for increasing sample size and improving sensitivity while minimizing interferences and variability associated with derivatization. Sample aliquot size was 5 mL with limits of quantitation of 10 ng/mL of urine for dimethylphosphate and diethylphosphate and 2 ng/mL of urine for dimethylthiophosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and dimethyldithiophosphate. This level of method sensitivity allows for quantitative determination of trace dialkyl phosphates in approximately 75% of individuals in nonoccupationally exposed populations. This streamlined method increases sample throughput, provides a clean extract for analysis, and requires no custom glassware.  (+info)

Direct semiquantitative screening of drugs of abuse in serum and whole blood by means of CEDIA DAU urine immunoassays. (8/743)

The purpose of this study was to test the direct applicability of CEDIA DAU urine immunoassays to serum or whole blood. The performance of the urine assays for sensitive screening of amphetamines (AMP), benzoylecgonine (BZE), benzodiazepines (BENZ), methadone (MET), opiates (OPI), and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) was evaluated on the BM/Hitachi 911 analyzer with unpretreated serum and whole blood. The limit of detection was 0 ng/mL for all tests. Cutoff values were set from 10 to 40 ng/mL for the different assays. The assays were found to be linear between the following concentrations: AMP 0-2500 ng/mL, BZE 0-1200 ng/mL, BENZ 0-1600 ng/mL, MET 0-600 ng/mL, OPI 0-720 ng/mL, and THCCOOH 24-60 ng/mL. Precision results (within run) for different concentrations were as follows: AMP 3.1-5.7%, BZE 2.4-6.6%, BENZ 4.3-8.0%, MET 2.0-5.5%, OPI 2.8-7.6%, and THCCOOH 1.4-2.4%. Between-run results were as follows: AMP 8.7-15.5%, BZE 6.4-7.5%, BENZ 8.2-15.8%, MET 2.7-5.1%, OPI 4.3-11.2%, and THCCOOH 2.6-7.4%. Sensitivity, specificity, and comparison of CEDIA semiquantitation with GC-MS quantitative results were performed on 500 original serum and whole blood samples. The data provided sufficient documentation to use the CEDIA urine-screening technique without any adaptation as a sensitive serum/whole blood screening for BZE, BENZ, MET, OPI, and THCCOOH. Serum screening for amphetamines is not sensitive enough in the unchanged urine mode. It will require some adaptation to a serum mode (probably a higher sample volume [BM/Hitachi 911] combined with protein precipitation of the sample).  (+info)

Urinalysis is a medical examination and analysis of urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver problems. A urinalysis can also help monitor medications and drug compliance. The test typically involves checking the color, clarity, and specific gravity (concentration) of urine. It may also include chemical analysis to detect substances like glucose, protein, blood, and white blood cells, which could indicate various medical conditions. In some cases, a microscopic examination is performed to identify any abnormal cells, casts, or crystals present in the urine.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible to the naked eye, which is called gross hematuria, or detected only under a microscope, known as microscopic hematuria. The blood in urine may come from any site along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Hematuria can be a symptom of various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, or cancer of the urinary tract. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice blood in your urine to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Urobilinogen is a colorless or slightly yellowish compound that is formed in the intestines as a byproduct of the breakdown of bilirubin, which is a waste product produced from the breakdown of old red blood cells. Some urobilinogen gets reabsorbed into the bloodstream and is carried to the liver, where it is converted back into bilirubin. The rest is excreted in the stool, giving it its normal brown color.

Abnormally high levels of urobilinogen in the urine can be a sign of certain medical conditions, such as liver disease or hemolytic anemia, which can cause increased breakdown of red blood cells and therefore increased production of bilirubin and urobilinogen. Low levels of urobilinogen in the urine can also be significant, as they may indicate a problem with the liver's ability to reabsorb or metabolize urobilinogen.

It is important to note that urobilinogen testing is not typically used as a standalone diagnostic tool, but rather as one piece of information to be considered in conjunction with other test results and clinical findings.

Glycosuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of glucose in the urine. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. However, when the blood glucose levels become excessively high, such as in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, the kidneys may not be able to reabsorb all of the glucose, and some of it will spill over into the urine.

Glycosuria can also occur in other conditions that affect glucose metabolism or renal function, such as impaired kidney function, certain medications, pregnancy, and rare genetic disorders. It is important to note that glycosuria alone does not necessarily indicate diabetes, but it may be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Hemoglobinuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of hemoglobin in the urine. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Normally, when red blood cells die, they are broken down and their hemoglobin is recycled. However, in certain conditions such as intravascular hemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells inside blood vessels), hemoglobin can be released into the bloodstream and then filtered by the kidneys into the urine.

Hemoglobinuria can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, including hemolytic anemias, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), severe infections, snake bites, and exposure to certain toxins or medications. It is important to identify the underlying cause of hemoglobinuria, as treatment will depend on the specific condition.

In some cases, hemoglobinuria can lead to kidney damage due to the toxic effects of free hemoglobin on the renal tubules. This can result in acute or chronic kidney injury, and in severe cases, it may require dialysis or transplantation.

Bacteriuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine. The condition can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, and it can occur in various populations, including hospitalized patients, pregnant women, and individuals with underlying urologic abnormalities.

There are different types of bacteriuria, including:

1. Significant bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine (usually greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter or CFU/mL) and is often associated with urinary tract infection (UTI).
2. Contaminant bacteriuria: This occurs when bacteria from the skin or external environment enter the urine sample during collection, leading to a small number of bacteria present in the urine.
3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms of UTI. It is more common in older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of bacteriuria typically involves a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the type and quantity of bacteria present in the urine. Treatment depends on the type and severity of bacteriuria and may involve antibiotics to eliminate the infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria often does not require treatment unless it occurs in pregnant women or individuals undergoing urologic procedures.

Criminology is the scientific study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. It involves the application of various social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology, to understand and explain these phenomena. The field of criminology also encompasses the development and evaluation of policies and interventions aimed at preventing and controlling crime, as well as understanding the impact of those policies on individuals and communities.

Criminologists may study a wide range of topics related to crime, such as the causes of criminal behavior, the social and economic factors that contribute to crime, the effectiveness of different criminal justice policies and interventions, and the experiences of victims of crime. They may also conduct research on specific types of crime, such as violent crime, property crime, white-collar crime, or cybercrime.

The ultimate goal of criminology is to develop a better understanding of crime and the criminal justice system in order to inform policy and practice, and ultimately reduce crime and improve public safety.

The Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) is a type of immunoassay used for the quantitative or qualitative determination of various substances, such as drugs, hormones, or antibodies. The technique utilizes an enzyme-linked antigen or antibody that reacts with the substance being measured (analyte) in the sample to form an immune complex. This complex then interacts with a second enzyme-labeled antigen or antibody, leading to the formation of an enzyme-analyte-enzyme "sandwich." The enzymes present in this sandwich are capable of catalyzing a reaction that produces a colored product, which can be measured spectrophotometrically.

The amount of color produced is proportional to the concentration of the analyte present in the sample. This allows for the determination of the analyte's concentration through comparison with a standard curve generated using samples with known concentrations of the analyte. EMIT is widely used in clinical laboratories for diagnostic and therapeutic drug monitoring purposes, as well as in forensic toxicology to detect drugs of abuse.

In summary, Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) is a sensitive and specific immunoassay method that utilizes enzyme-labeled antigens or antibodies to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the concentration of various substances in a sample.

Pyuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of pus or purulent exudate (containing white blood cells) in the urine. It's typically indicative of a urinary tract infection (UTI), inflammation, or other conditions that cause an elevated number of leukocytes in the urine. The pus may come from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Other possible causes include sexually transmitted infections, kidney stones, trauma, or medical procedures involving the urinary tract. A healthcare professional will usually confirm pyuria through a urinalysis and might recommend further testing to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Proteinuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of excess proteins, particularly albumin, in the urine. Under normal circumstances, only small amounts of proteins should be found in the urine because the majority of proteins are too large to pass through the glomeruli, which are the filtering units of the kidneys.

However, when the glomeruli become damaged or diseased, they may allow larger molecules such as proteins to leak into the urine. Persistent proteinuria is often a sign of kidney disease and can indicate damage to the glomeruli. It is usually detected through a routine urinalysis and may be confirmed with further testing.

The severity of proteinuria can vary, and it can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney diseases. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control blood pressure, manage diabetes, or reduce protein loss in the urine.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

"Medicine in Art" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the intersection and representation of medical themes, practices, or symbols in various art forms. It can include but is not limited to:

1. The depiction of medical scenes, practitioners, or patients in paintings, sculptures, or photographs.
2. The use of medical imagery such as X-rays, MRIs, or anatomical drawings in mixed media works.
3. The exploration of medical issues, diseases, or treatments in conceptual art.
4. The creation of art by artists with medical conditions, which can provide insight into their experiences.
5. The use of art therapy as a healing modality in medical settings.

This term is often used in the context of art history, visual culture, and medical humanities to analyze and understand the complex relationships between art, medicine, and society.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Urogenital tuberculosis (UTB) is a less common form of TB that affects the urinary and genital systems. It occurs when the bacteria spread through the bloodstream from the initial site of infection, usually the lungs, to the kidneys. The infection can then spread to other parts of the urinary system, including the ureters, bladder, and urethra, as well as the genital organs in both men and women.

UTB symptoms may include:
- Persistent dull pain in the lower back or side
- Frequent urination or urgent need to urinate
- Painful urination (dysuria)
- Blood in the urine (hematuria)
- Incontinence
- Sexual dysfunction in men, such as epididymitis or infertility
- Scrotal mass in men
- Amenorrhea or irregular menstruation in women

Diagnosis of UTB typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), urine analysis and culture, and sometimes biopsy. Treatment usually consists of a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics to eliminate the infection. Surgery may be required in some cases to repair damaged organs or remove scar tissue.

Urologic diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra in both males and females, as well as the male reproductive system. These diseases can range from relatively common conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), to more complex diseases like kidney stones, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer.

Some of the common urologic diseases include:

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are more common in women than men.
2. Kidney Stones: These are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine when passed.
3. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause difficulty urinating, frequent urination, and a weak urine stream.
4. Bladder Cancer: This is a type of cancer that begins in the bladder, usually in the lining of the bladder.
5. Prostate Cancer: This is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland, which is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid.
6. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): This is a condition where a man has trouble achieving or maintaining an erection.
7. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This is a condition characterized by the sudden and strong need to urinate frequently, as well as involuntary loss of urine (incontinence).

Urologic diseases can affect people of all ages and genders, although some conditions are more common in certain age groups or among men or women. Treatment for urologic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Hematologic tests, also known as hematology tests, are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the health and function of different components of blood, such as red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. These tests can detect various disorders, including anemia, infection, bleeding problems, and several types of cancer. Common hematologic tests include complete blood count (CBC), coagulation studies, peripheral smear examination, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The specific test or combination of tests ordered will depend on the patient's symptoms, medical history, and physical examination findings.

The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) is a term used in toxicology and safety assessments, which refers to the highest dose or concentration of a chemical or substance that does not cause any harmful or adverse effects in test subjects during a specific study. It is typically determined through laboratory experiments on animals, where different doses of the substance are administered to various groups, and the effects are closely monitored and evaluated for a specified period. The NOAEL is established based on the dose at which no observable adverse effects were found in comparison to a control group that did not receive the substance. It serves as an essential reference point in risk assessment to estimate safe exposure levels for humans. However, it is important to note that extrapolating NOAEL values from animal studies to human health risks involves many uncertainties and assumptions.

Blood chemical analysis, also known as clinical chemistry or chemistry panel, is a series of tests that measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These tests can help evaluate the function of organs such as the kidneys and liver, and can also detect conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

The tests typically include:

* Glucose: to check for diabetes
* Electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate): to check the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
* Calcium: to check for problems with bones, nerves, or kidneys
* Creatinine: to check for kidney function
* Urea Nitrogen (BUN): to check for kidney function
* Albumin: to check for liver function and nutrition status
* ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase): to check for liver function
* Alkaline Phosphatase: to check for liver or bone disease
* Total Bilirubin: to check for liver function and gallbladder function
* Cholesterol: to check for heart disease risk
* Triglycerides: to check for heart disease risk

These tests are usually ordered by a doctor as part of a routine check-up, or to help diagnose and monitor specific medical conditions. The results of the blood chemical analysis are compared to reference ranges provided by the laboratory performing the test, which take into account factors such as age, sex, and race.

Enuresis is a medical term that refers to the involuntary or unconscious release of urine, especially at night during sleep, in children who are at least 5 years old. It's commonly known as bedwetting. Enuresis can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary enuresis occurs when a child has never achieved consistent dryness during sleep, while secondary enuresis happens when a child starts wetting the bed again after having been dry for at least six months.

Enuresis can have various causes, including developmental delays, small bladder capacity, urinary tract infections, constipation, sleep disorders, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be associated with genetic factors. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include behavioral interventions, bladder training, alarm systems, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

"Autoanalysis" is not a term that is widely used in the medical field. However, in psychology and psychotherapy, "autoanalysis" refers to the process of self-analysis or self-examination, where an individual analyzes their own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences to gain insight into their unconscious mind and understand their motivations, conflicts, and emotional patterns.

Self-analysis can involve various techniques such as introspection, journaling, meditation, dream analysis, and reflection on past experiences. While autoanalysis can be a useful tool for personal growth and self-awareness, it is generally considered less reliable and comprehensive than professional psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, which involves a trained therapist or analyst who can provide objective feedback, interpretation, and guidance.

Erythrocyte count, also known as red blood cell (RBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood. Red blood cells are important because they carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. A low erythrocyte count may indicate anemia, while a high count may be a sign of certain medical conditions such as polycythemia. The normal range for erythrocyte count varies depending on a person's age, sex, and other factors.

Urography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves the use of a contrast material that is injected into a vein or given orally, which then travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys and gets excreted in the urine. This allows the radiologist to visualize the structures and any abnormalities such as tumors, stones, or blockages. There are different types of urography, including intravenous urography (IVU), CT urography, and retrograde urography.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

In a medical context, nitrites are typically referred to as organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula R-N=O, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in medicine as vasodilators, which means they widen and relax blood vessels, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

One example of a nitrite used medically is amyl nitrite, which was previously used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use has largely been replaced by other medications due to safety concerns and the availability of more effective treatments.

It's worth noting that inorganic nitrites, such as sodium nitrite, are also used in medicine for various purposes, including as a preservative in food and as a medication to treat cyanide poisoning. However, these compounds have different chemical properties and uses than organic nitrites.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

Clinical laboratory techniques are methods and procedures used in medical laboratories to perform various tests and examinations on patient samples. These techniques help in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases by analyzing body fluids, tissues, and other specimens. Some common clinical laboratory techniques include:

1. Clinical chemistry: It involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid to measure the levels of chemicals, hormones, enzymes, and other substances in the body. These measurements can help diagnose various medical conditions, monitor treatment progress, and assess overall health.

2. Hematology: This technique focuses on the study of blood and its components, including red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. Hematological tests are used to diagnose anemia, infections, bleeding disorders, and other hematologic conditions.

3. Microbiology: It deals with the identification and culture of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Microbiological techniques are essential for detecting infectious diseases, determining appropriate antibiotic therapy, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

4. Immunology: This technique involves studying the immune system and its response to various antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and allergens. Immunological tests are used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and allergies.

5. Histopathology: It is the microscopic examination of tissue samples to identify any abnormalities or diseases. Histopathological techniques are crucial for diagnosing cancer, inflammatory conditions, and other tissue-related disorders.

6. Molecular biology: This technique deals with the study of DNA, RNA, and proteins at the molecular level. Molecular biology tests can be used to detect genetic mutations, identify infectious agents, and monitor disease progression.

7. Cytogenetics: It involves analyzing chromosomes and genes in cells to diagnose genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Cytogenetic techniques include karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

8. Flow cytometry: This technique measures physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles as they flow through a laser beam. Flow cytometry is used to analyze cell populations, identify specific cell types, and detect abnormalities in cells.

9. Diagnostic radiology: It uses imaging technologies such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to diagnose various medical conditions.

10. Clinical chemistry: This technique involves analyzing body fluids, such as blood and urine, to measure the concentration of various chemicals and substances. Clinical chemistry tests are used to diagnose metabolic disorders, electrolyte imbalances, and other health conditions.

Interstitial nephritis is a condition characterized by inflammation in the interstitium (the tissue between the kidney tubules) of one or both kidneys. This inflammation can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to certain toxins.

The inflammation may lead to symptoms such as hematuria (blood in the urine), proteinuria (protein in the urine), decreased urine output, and kidney dysfunction. In some cases, interstitial nephritis can progress to chronic kidney disease or even end-stage renal failure if left untreated.

The diagnosis of interstitial nephritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests (such as urinalysis and blood tests), and imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan). A kidney biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the inflammation.

Treatment for interstitial nephritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, or discontinuation of any offending medications. In some cases, supportive care such as dialysis may be necessary to manage kidney dysfunction until the inflammation resolves.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

IGA glomerulonephritis (also known as Berger's disease) is a type of glomerulonephritis, which is a condition characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units in the kidneys. In IgA glomerulonephritis, the immune system produces an abnormal amount of IgA antibodies, which deposit in the glomeruli and cause inflammation. This can lead to symptoms such as blood in the urine, protein in the urine, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, it can also lead to kidney failure. The exact cause of IgA glomerulonephritis is not known, but it is often associated with other conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

'Diagnostic tests, routine' is a medical term that refers to standard or commonly used tests that are performed to help diagnose, monitor, or manage a patient's health condition. These tests are typically simple, non-invasive, and safe, and they may be ordered as part of a regular check-up or when a patient presents with specific symptoms.

Routine diagnostic tests may include:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): A test that measures the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin in the blood. It can help diagnose conditions such as anemia, infection, and inflammation.
2. Urinalysis: A test that examines a urine sample for signs of infection, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
3. Blood Chemistry Tests: Also known as a chemistry panel or comprehensive metabolic panel, this test measures various chemicals in the blood such as glucose, electrolytes, and enzymes to evaluate organ function and overall health.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, which can help diagnose heart conditions such as arrhythmias or heart attacks.
5. Chest X-ray: An imaging test that creates pictures of the structures inside the chest, including the heart, lungs, and bones, to help diagnose conditions such as pneumonia or lung cancer.
6. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal conditions.
7. Pap Smear: A test that collects cells from the cervix to check for abnormalities that may indicate cervical cancer or other gynecological conditions.

These are just a few examples of routine diagnostic tests that healthcare providers may order. The specific tests ordered will depend on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and current symptoms.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

A physical examination is a methodical and systematic process of evaluating a patient's overall health status. It involves inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating different parts of the body to detect any abnormalities or medical conditions. The primary purpose of a physical examination is to gather information about the patient's health, identify potential health risks, diagnose medical conditions, and develop an appropriate plan for prevention, treatment, or further evaluation.

During a physical examination, a healthcare provider may assess various aspects of a patient's health, including their vital signs (such as blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and respiratory rate), height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and overall appearance. They may also examine different organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems, to identify any signs of disease or abnormalities.

Physical examinations are an essential part of preventive healthcare and are typically performed during routine check-ups, annual physicals, and when patients present with symptoms or concerns about their health. The specific components of a physical examination may vary depending on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and presenting symptoms.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Glomerulonephritis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessel clusters in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. This inflammation can impair the kidney's ability to filter blood properly, leading to symptoms such as proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), edema (swelling), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure.

Glomerulonephritis can be acute or chronic, and it may occur as a primary kidney disease or secondary to other medical conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or vasculitis. The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies, with confirmation often requiring a kidney biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease but may include medications to suppress inflammation, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms.

Kidney function tests (KFTs) are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning by measuring the levels of various substances in the blood and urine. The tests typically assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an indicator of how efficiently the kidneys filter waste from the blood, as well as the levels of electrolytes, waste products, and proteins in the body.

Some common KFTs include:

1. Serum creatinine: A waste product that's produced by normal muscle breakdown and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
2. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Another waste product that's produced when protein is broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Increased BUN levels can suggest impaired kidney function.
3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): A calculation based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race that estimates the GFR and provides a more precise assessment of kidney function than creatinine alone.
4. Urinalysis: An examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as protein, blood, or bacteria that may indicate kidney disease.
5. Electrolyte levels: Measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood to ensure they're properly balanced, which is essential for normal kidney function.

KFTs are often ordered as part of a routine check-up or when kidney disease is suspected based on symptoms or other diagnostic tests. Regular monitoring of kidney function can help detect and manage kidney disease early, potentially preventing or slowing down its progression.

Samples for urinalysis are collected into a clean (preferably sterile) container. The sample can be collected at any time of ... Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed medical laboratory tests. It is frequently used to help diagnose urinary tract ... Urinalysis, a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis, is a panel of medical tests that includes physical (macroscopic) ... Urinalysis is commonly used to help diagnose urinary tract infections, but the significance of the results depends on the ...
Urine Analysis (Urinalysis) - After the patient provides a urine specimen, it is sent to the lab for analysis using a variety ... Some findings on urinalysis that are consistent with nephritic syndrome include red blood cells (hematuria), red blood cell ... "Urinalysis". MedlinePlus. February 7, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2020. Lee, Andrew; Mirrett, Stanley; Reller, L. Barth; ...
"Urinalysis". webpath.med.utah.edu. v t e (Urine, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs). ...
Merck Manual Jaundice Last full review/revision July 2009 by Steven K. Herrine "Urinalysis: three types of examinations". Lab ... "Urinalysis". Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Butterworths. ISBN 9780409900774. PMID ...
For instance, the results of the routine urinalysis can provide information about the functioning of the kidneys and urinary ... 51-3. Wu X (March 2010). "Urinalysis: a review of methods and procedures". Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 22 ( ... ISBN 978-0-323-41315-2. Mundt LA, Shanahan K (2016). Graff's Textbook of Urinalysis and Body Fluids (3 ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ... Some examples of urine tests include: Urinalysis - assessment of the visual properties of the urine, chemical evaluation using ...
Urinalysis: A Comprehensive Review Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 15;71(6):1153-1162. ... "Urinalysis". Archived from the original on 2006-08-10. Retrieved 2006-08-06. Retrieved 2007-01-20 "Answers - the Most Trusted ... Simerville JA, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ (2005). "Urinalysis: a comprehensive review". American Family Physician. 71 (6): 1153-62. ... Friedlander, Ed (1 January 2016). "URINALYSIS". pathguy.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2006. "Pneumaturia". ...
Urinalysis. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. ...
Urinalysis "Urinometer". warwick.ac.uk. Retrieved 2022-07-27. "Synthetic Urine Kits: Review Of Fake Urine Brands". Retrieved ...
... and urinalysis. Other diagnostic tests have no recognized value unless indicated on an individual basis to confirm or exclude a ... and C-Reactive protein Iron tests Celiac disease screening Urinalysis for blood cells, protein and glucose In addition to the ...
"Urinalysis: a comprehensive review". American Family Physician. 71 (6): 1153-62. PMID 15791892. Normal Reference Range Table ...
Urinalysis is a test that studies urine for abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection. A Full Ward Test, also ... Urinalysis may also involve MC&S microscopy, culture and sensitivity Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the ... Simerville, Jeff A. (2005-03-15). "Urinalysis: A Comprehensive Review". American Family Physician. 71 (6): 1153-1162. ISSN 0002 ... known as dipstick urinalysis, involves the dipping of a biochemically active test strip into the urine specimen to determine ...
Urinalysis - Image by Mikael Häggström. Reference: Wojcik, EM; Kurtycz, DFI; Rosenthal, DL (2022). "We'll always have Paris The ... It can be part of a broader urinalysis. If a cancerous condition is detected, other tests and procedures are usually ...
14: "Urinalysis". In Reilly & Perazella 2005, pp. 209-26. Knudsen BE, Beiko DT, Denstedt JD, Ch. 16: "Uric Acid Urolithiasis". ... Diagnosis of kidney stones is made on the basis of information obtained from the history, physical examination, urinalysis, and ...
I. bei harnuntersuchungen - In urinalysis. II. bei vitalen tinktionsversuchen - In vital tincture tests. Goppelsroeder, ...
Routine urinalysis is recommended as a basic yet fundamental step in identifying renal damage and/or urinary tract disease at ... In veterinary medicine, especially in cats and dogs, the test strip can be used for urinalysis. In many cultures urine was once ... The test is a rapid screen for possible infections by enteric bacteria, but it does not replace the urinalysis tests nor ... Urinalysis Strips Instructions (CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 errors: missing ...
Urinalysis (Texas Collaborative for Teaching Excellence). Retrieved 4 March 2012. Kalatzis, V; Cherqui S; Jean G; Cordier B; ...
Greenberg A (2014-01-01). "Chapter 4 - Urinalysis and Urine Microscopy". In Gilbert SJ, Weiner DE (eds.). National Kidney ...
Urinalysis typically demonstrates hematuria and proteinuria. Levels of the complement protein C3 are low, while levels of C- ...
Records of urinalysis for uroscopy date back as far as 4000 BC, originating with Babylonian and Sumerian physicians. At the ... Urinalysis Urology Connor, Henry (2001-11-01). "Medieval uroscopy and its representation on misericords - Part 1: uroscopy". ... Armstrong, J.A. (March 2007). "Urinalysis in Western culture: A brief history". Kidney International. 71 (5): 384-387. doi: ...
Urinalysis is used to distinguish between them.[citation needed] The genitals are physically examined to ensure that there are ... Diagnosis is usually determined after a medical professional performs a urinalysis on a urine specimen that is obtained shortly ...
Urinalysis revealed hematuria (blood in the urine). Venous Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities demonstrated left popliteal ...
"Urinalysis: What It Is, Purpose, Types & Results". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2022-04-29. Cereda A, Carey JC (October 2012). " ... and gonorrhea when indicated Mantoux test for tuberculosis Urinalysis and culture HIV screen Genetic screening for Down ...
Drivers will only be tested through urinalysis. The random selection process will take place on the day of the event, treating ...
Diagnosis is by urinalysis or urine culture. Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium found. People without symptoms ...
Farr, Christina (June 26, 2020). "Healthy.io, Israeli maker of smartphone urinalysis tech, buys its largest U.S. rival". CNBC. ... and Scanaflo, an at-home, full-panel urinalysis testing device designed to give consumers immediate information about their ... Hein, Buster (6 January 2015). "Scanaflo brings hospital-quality urinalysis to your home". Cult of Mac. Retrieved 9 January ...
Lillian A. Mundt; Kristy Shanahan (2010). Graff's Textbook of Routine Urinalysis and Body Fluids. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...
A urinalysis will provide information about the kidneys. Complete Blood Count (CBC) as it will show the basic information about ...
Urinalysis tests urine for many analysts, including microscopically. If more precise quantification of urine chemicals is ...
Urinalysis serves as a first-line diagnostic tool. Conjugated bilirubin, being water-soluble, is excreted through urine. Hence ... Diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia depends on physical examination, urinalysis, serum tests, medical history and imaging to ...
Reports from urinalysis showed positive results for marijuana. Ko had appeared in a 2012 anti-drug advertisement in Taiwan ...
Samples for urinalysis are collected into a clean (preferably sterile) container. The sample can be collected at any time of ... Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed medical laboratory tests. It is frequently used to help diagnose urinary tract ... Urinalysis, a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis, is a panel of medical tests that includes physical (macroscopic) ... Urinalysis is commonly used to help diagnose urinary tract infections, but the significance of the results depends on the ...
Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure ... Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure ... urinalysis; UTI - urinalysis; Urinary tract infection - urinalysis; Hematuria - urinalysis ... Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure ...
BD Vacutainer® Urinalysis Preservative Plus Urine Tubes are 8.0 mL draw volume, with a urinalysis preservative. A minimum fill ... BD Vacutainer® Urinalysis Preservative Plus Urine Tubes are designed for automated and manual chemistry dipstick urinalysis and ... The urinalysis preservative is intended to inhibit the metabolism of or render non-viable the bacteria normally present in ... The BD Vacutainer® Urinalysis Preservative Plus Urine Tubes are single use tubes designed for collection, storage and transport ...
The urinalysis ChemStrip manual procedure uses a dipstick to test a urine sample for the presence of substances such as ketones ... Urinalysis. Urinalysis is the process in which a urine specimen is given by person to evaluate the contents of his or her urine ... Urinalysis can also be used to monitor treatment of a medical disorder. It is always recommended to do urine testing on a fresh ... When discussing the urinalysis ChemStrip manual procedure, it can be seen that the ChemStrip is a product name for a chemical ...
Test includes a dipstick & microscopic evaluation. ...
Comprehensive urinalysis involves inspection of the urine, dipstick chemical analysis, and microscopy and can be performed in ... Urinalysis can be outsourced or performed in the office by clinical staff. Familiarity with a visual inspection of the urine, ... Urinalysis: case presentations for the primary care physician. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(8):542-547. ... Comprehensive urinalysis involves inspection of the urine, dipstick chemical analysis, and microscopy and can be performed in ...
Read about urinalysis, a common test used to diagnose and monitor a wide range of health issues, including diabetes, kidney ... Finding a Urinalysis Test. How can I get a urinalysis test?. During an in-office visit, your doctor may order a urinalysis and ... Taking a Urinalysis Test. It is necessary to provide a urine sample for a urinalysis. Your doctor will inform you about what ... When should I get a urinalysis test?. Urinalysis testing is very common. And its a good idea to talk to your doctor if you ...
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The Randox Acusera Liquid Urinalysis quality control is specifically designed for use with both manual and automated methods of ... The Randox Acusera Urinalysis quality control is specifically designed for use with both manual and automated methods of urine ...
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Diastix reagent strips are used for urinalysis to measure glucose levels in urine. Here are some key points about Diastix ...
Tag: urinalysis. * Urine Luck! - A Urinalysis Simulation. Examine urine samples from patients and suggest a diagnosis and ...
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Is Preoperative Screening Urinalysis Needed? Study Says, No. Aug 3, 2021 , Urinalysis & Toxicology ... Beckman Coulter Introduces DxU Iris Workcell for Urinalysis. Sep 28, 2021 , Urine Analyzers ... Oct 22, 2021 , Immunoassay Reagents & test Kits, Specimen Collection & Handling, Urinalysis & Toxicology ...
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Rapid growth in emerging economies and technological development in the urinalysis diagnostics sphere with the advent of ... arket Trends - Product launches and research for advanced Urinalysis. The Urinalysis Markets valuation was USD 3.12 Billion in ... Urinalysis Market Projected to Grow at CAGR of 7.5% , Reports and Data. January 18th, 2021 Reports and Data Releases ... Urinalysis should not be used as a guiding treatment in isolation due to the chances of false positives, regardless of its ...
Diastix Reagent Strips for Urinalysis provides a fast, convenient way of testing urine for the presence of glucose. Diastix is ... Diastix Reagent Strips for Urinalysis provides a fast, convenient way of testing urine for the presence of glucose. ...
Web complete urinalysis dipstick result sheet blank online with us legal forms. Web complete printable urinalysis form online ... Printable Blank Urinalysis Forms - Web printable urinalysis forms are forms used to record the results of a urinalysis test. ... Web printable urinalysis forms are forms used to record the results of a urinalysis test. Cocodoc is the best spot for you to ... Web the urinalysis report form is a document used to record the results of a urinalysis, which is a laboratory test that ...
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Urinalysis and Self-Reporting Urinalysis and self-reporting allow us to monitor drugs on the illegal market for the substances ... Urinalysis and Self-Reporting Urinalysis and self-reporting allow us to monitor drugs on the illegal market for the substances ... The Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project (CUSP) was developed and is being rolled out in multiple phases:. *Phase 1 ( ... The standardized system used by the Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project (CUSP) for monitoring the content of illegal ...
In its market research collateral archive, CRIFAX added a report titled North America Urinalysis Market, 2023-2033 ... The North America Urinalysis market is predicted to witness substantial expansion during the forecast period, i.e., 2023-2033. ... North America Urinalysis Market Size With Future Trends And Share With Revenue Forecast 2023 To 2033. ... In its market research collateral archive, CRIFAX added a report titled North America Urinalysis Market, 2023-2033′ . This ...
Our Urinalysis Test In Fredericksburg Can Determine A Number Of Health Problems From A Single Urine Sample. ... Urinalysis (Routine Checkup). The Urinalysis can determine a number of health problems. It will see if your kidneys are ... The Urinalysis (UA) tests for the following:. 1. Leukocytes. 2. Nitrite. 3. Urobilinogen. 4. Protein. 5. pH. 6. Blood. 7. ... Some doctors request a Urinalysis before surgery or during the early stages of pregnancy. ...
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Data were collected from harm reduction sites in seven regions across Canada that participated in the Community Urinalysis and ... Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project: Cross-Canada Report on the Use of Drugs from the Unregulated Supply, 2019-2021 ... Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project: Cross-Canada Report on the Use of Drugs from the Unregulated Supply, 2019-2021 ... Data were collected from harm reduction sites in seven regions across Canada that participated in the Community Urinalysis and ...
Perform urinalysis within 30 minutes of collection or refrigerate. Allow urine to warm up to room temperature before analysis ... Urinalysis: a step by step approach (Proceedings). May 1, 2011. Susan J. Tornquist, DVM, PhD, DACVP ... Perform urinalysis within 30 minutes of collection or refrigerate. Allow urine to warm up to room temperature before analysis ... Perform urinalysis within 30 minutes of collection or refrigerate. Allow urine to warm up to room temperature before analysis ...
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25 thoughts on "How Can an Egghead Nerd Clear Out a Room Full of Bodybuilders? Just Scream "Urinalysis!"" Comment navigation. ... How Can an Egghead Nerd Clear Out a Room Full of Bodybuilders? Just Scream "Urinalysis!". ...
As with any probation noncompliance, a FAILED/MISSED/OR DILUTED random urinalysis test may result in your re-arrest. ... Random urinalysis for the presence of illicit drugs, alcohol, or illicit drugs and alcohol, may be required as a condition of ... You must prepay through CMG before showing up for your random urinalysis test (Note: If you get notified on a Sunday for a ... You will need to pay and register through CMG each time you receive notification of an upcoming random urinalysis test and ...
"These findings highlight the harms of urinalysis overuse in this patient population because positive urinalysis results can ... While urinalysis has excellent negative predictive value for ruling out a urinary tract infection, a positive result is ... Urinalysis is overused in the emergency department, with most patients who are tested lacking an appropriate clinical ... Urinalysis is overused in the emergency department, with most patients who are tested lacking an appropriate clinical ...
  • The BD Vacutainer® Urinalysis Preservative Plus Urine Tubes are single use tubes designed for collection, storage and transport of urine specimens for chemistry dipstick and automated sediment examination for in vitro diagnostic use. (bd.com)
  • BD Vacutainer® Urinalysis Preservative Plus Urine Tubes are designed for automated and manual chemistry dipstick urinalysis and to obtain sediment for examination. (bd.com)
  • Comprehensive urinalysis involves inspection of the urine, dipstick chemical analysis, and microscopy and can be performed in the office setting. (aafp.org)
  • A complete urinalysis will typically include a visual (also called physical) examination, a microscopic examination, and a chemical dipstick test, each of which involves different measurements and evaluations. (testing.com)
  • Web open the printable urinalysis dipstick results form and follow the instructions easily sign the blank urine dipstick form with your. (procurement.ie)
  • Send urinalysis dipstick result sheet blank via email, link, or fax. (procurement.ie)
  • Dipstick urinalysis measures chemical constituents of urine. (clevelandheartlab.com)
  • Other investigations should be avoided, and the dipstick and microscopic urinalysis should be repeated twice within 2 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to a dipstick evaluation, always perform a microscopic urinalysis in these patients. (medscape.com)
  • CCSA coordinates the Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project (CUSP), which collects anonymous surveys of recent drug use from people accessing harm reduction services and compares them with urine toxicology results. (ccsa.ca)
  • The standardized system used by the Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project (CUSP) for monitoring the content of illegal drugs was originally developed by the B.C. Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) and the Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l'Ile-de-Montréal (CCSMTL). (ccsa.ca)
  • Data were collected from harm reduction sites in seven regions across Canada that participated in the Community Urinalysis and Self-Report Project between 2019 and 2021. (ccsa.ca)
  • The North America Urinalysis market is predicted to witness substantial expansion during the forecast period, i.e., 2023-2033. (menafn.com)
  • In addition to this, the rising need for advanced healthcare services, backed by the growing concern for the prevalence of chronic diseases amongst individuals are also projected to drive the growth of North America Urinalysis market. (menafn.com)
  • Diastix Reagent Strips for Urinalysis provides a fast, convenient way of testing urine for the presence of glucose. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • Rapid growth in emerging economies and technological development in the urinalysis diagnostics sphere with the advent of portable and battery-operated urinalysis devices are key factors contributing to high CAGR of the market during the forecast period. (medgadget.com)
  • Streck also offers UA-Cellular® for IQ , a truly cellular urinalysis control designed specifically for the Iris Diagnostics iQ ® automated urine analyzers. (genomax.com.my)
  • UA-Cellular for IQ is a urinalysis control designed specifically for the Iris Diagnostics iQ® automated urine analyzers . (genomax.com.my)
  • Urinalysis, a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis, is a panel of medical tests that includes physical (macroscopic) examination of the urine, chemical evaluation using urine test strips, and microscopic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diastix reagent strips are used for urinalysis to measure glucose levels in urine. (moggies.co.uk)
  • Urinalysis is the process in which a urine specimen is given by person to evaluate the contents of his or her urine. (brighthub.com)
  • With urinalysis, they had to isolate the location to prevent specimen substitution - resulting in no work being done for several hours. (psychemedics.com)
  • A urinalysis involves a series of assessments of a urine sample. (testing.com)
  • Rotations through automated and specialized labs include Chemistry, Special Chemistry, Urinalysis, Phlebotomy and Processing, Point of Care and Toxicology. (ucsd.edu)
  • UA-Cellular® Complete , a comprehensive cellular and chemistry analyte urinalysis control, is the only truly integrated urinalysis control for the Siemens CLINITEK Atlas®/Sysmex® UF-1000i™ and Arkray AUTION HYBRID™ AU-4050 integrated systems. (genomax.com.my)
  • UA-Cellular Complete is a comprehensive combined chemistry and micro urinalysis control designed specifically for the Siemens CLINITEK Atlas®/Sysmex® UF-1000i™ and the Arkray AUTION HYBRID™ AU-4050 integrated urinalysis systems. (genomax.com.my)
  • While urinalysis has excellent negative predictive value for ruling out a urinary tract infection, a positive result is nonspecific and has been estimated to occur in as many as 90 percent of asymptomatic elderly patients. (g2intelligence.com)
  • Evaluation included assessment of indications for urinalysis (symptoms of urinary tract infection or acute kidney injury), as well as the frequency of empirical therapy for urinary tract infection, orders for urine culture, and antimicrobial prescriptions based on urine culture results. (g2intelligence.com)
  • These findings highlight the harms of urinalysis overuse in this patient population because positive urinalysis results can introduce cognitive biases in favor of a urinary tract infection diagnosis even when patients lack accepted guideline-based criteria," write the authors led by Penny Yin, M.D., from University of Toronto in Canada. (g2intelligence.com)
  • Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed medical laboratory tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visual, chemical, and microscopic tests are all part of a complete urinalysis. (testing.com)
  • Urinalysis tests may be conducted periodically over time to see how well treatment is working or to see if the severity of a condition has changed. (testing.com)
  • Limited service 8 p.m. - 7 a.m. All special urinalysis tests other than general and microscopic. (uamshealth.com)
  • As a motor carrier, J.B. Hunt conducts urinalysis drug tests in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations in order to satisfy federal testing requirements. (psychemedics.com)
  • All DOT required (urinalysis) tests had been conducted and it was concluded that these drivers were likely substituting their urine samples. (psychemedics.com)
  • Urinalysis is frequently used to screen for urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney and liver issues, and diabetes. (testing.com)
  • Because some liver and kidney issues may not initially generate symptoms, a urinalysis test is often used to check the health of these organs. (testing.com)
  • When you begin to experience changes related to urination or other symptoms that can be tied to liver or kidney problems, a doctor may recommend urinalysis to help determine the cause. (testing.com)
  • Urinalysis results are reliable for detecting the likeliness of certain health conditions, like urinary tract infections, kidney disorder, liver problems, and diabetes. (healthhearty.com)
  • The urinalysis preservative is intended to inhibit the metabolism of or render non-viable the bacteria normally present in urine while maintaining cellular integrity. (bd.com)
  • Urinalysis can help detect UTIs and other conditions that affect the function of the urinary system. (testing.com)
  • Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When discussing the urinalysis ChemStrip manual procedure, it can be seen that the ChemStrip is a product name for a chemical reagent strip. (brighthub.com)
  • Glucose and ketones are also measured by urinalysis. (brighthub.com)
  • Hair testing detects drug use approximately 3 months back, as opposed to urinalysis, which typically only detects drug use from the past few days and sometimes as little as hours. (psychemedics.com)
  • Samples for urinalysis are collected into a clean (preferably sterile) container. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinalysis can also screen for underlying health problems during a pregnancy checkup or pre-surgery assessment, looking for unidentified health issues to reduce the risk of future complications. (testing.com)
  • Some doctors request a Urinalysis before surgery or during the early stages of pregnancy. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • High occurrence of diabetes leads to the increasing sales of different urinalysis devices, disposable, dipsticks worldwide. (medgadget.com)
  • Rising cases of kidney diseases, diabetes, and UTI, and the rapid introduction of modern, user-friendly, and non-invasive urinalysis tools would further promote the market's growth. (medgadget.com)
  • Urinary crystals of calcium oxalate, uric acid, or cystine may occasionally be found upon urinalysis. (medscape.com)
  • A medical professional will use the urinalysis ChemStrip manual procedure to test the pH to determine a problem within the kidneys. (brighthub.com)
  • A urinalysis is a test that checks several components of a urine sample. (testing.com)
  • The purpose of a urinalysis test is to check for abnormalities in the appearance or composition of your urine. (testing.com)
  • When should I get a urinalysis test? (testing.com)
  • The Randox Acusera Urinalysis quality control is specifically designed for use with both manual and automated methods of urine test strip analysis. (randox.com)
  • Printable Blank Urinalysis Forms - Web printable urinalysis forms are forms used to record the results of a urinalysis test. (procurement.ie)
  • Web the urinalysis report form is a document used to record the results of a urinalysis, which is a laboratory test that analyzes. (procurement.ie)
  • Many drivers who passed the DOT urinalysis test but failed the hair test are likely working somewhere else. (psychemedics.com)
  • If required to undergo random urinalysis testing, you will receive a text notification from Probation Services the day before you are to appear for your test. (keyscourts.net)
  • You must prepay through CMG before showing up for your random urinalysis test (Note: If you get notified on a Sunday for a Monday test, you will not be able to call CMG until Monday morning, since their hours are M-F 8am to 6pm). (keyscourts.net)
  • You will need to pay and register through CMG each time you receive notification of an upcoming random urinalysis test and prepay before arriving at your testing site. (keyscourts.net)
  • As with any probation noncompliance, a FAILED/MISSED/OR DILUTED random urinalysis test may result in your re-arrest. (keyscourts.net)
  • Urine test or urinalysis is a procedure conducted for testing the various components of urine and more importantly, their concentration. (healthhearty.com)
  • A few extensively used urinalysis instruments include the analyzers of urine sediment, biochemical urine which are automated and semi-automated, and microscopic urine. (medgadget.com)
  • Urinalysis is a simple, inexpensive means of detecting urologic and systemic conditions such as infection, urolithiasis, malignancy, and metabolic diseases. (aafp.org)
  • In symptomatic patients, the researchers say that "appropriate urinalysis orders" were used "effectively" to exclude urinary tract infections and withhold unnecessary antimicrobial therapy. (g2intelligence.com)
  • In emergency medicine urinalysis is used to investigate numerous symptoms, including abdominal and pelvic pain, fever, and confusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • A urinalysis may be performed during a routine check-up, to evaluate certain symptoms, or upon admission to the hospital. (testing.com)
  • Some telling symptoms that trigger health care professionals to suggest a urinalysis include frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, other urinary difficulties, ongoing abdominal back pain, or if you are pregnant or soon undergoing a surgical procedure. (testing.com)
  • For proceeding with urinalysis, urine sample (preferably the first morning one) is collected in a clean and sterilized bottle. (healthhearty.com)
  • Urinalysis is overused in the emergency department, with most patients who are tested lacking an appropriate clinical indication, according to a study published in the October issue of JAMA Internal Medicine. (g2intelligence.com)
  • In total, roughly six in ten patients (62.0 percent) underwent urinalysis at the time of admission at the discretion of either the emergency department or general medicine physicians. (g2intelligence.com)
  • As might be expected, positive urinalysis results were significantly associated with increased likelihood of urine culture orders, as well as antibiotic prescription among asymptomatic patients. (g2intelligence.com)
  • Limiting indiscriminate urinalysis ordering has the potential to improve urine culture and antimicrobial prescribing practices among general medicine patients. (g2intelligence.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ La réadmission de patients diabétiques après leur sortie de l'hôpital peut être une information utile en tant qu'indicateur de la qualité des soins. (who.int)
  • La présente étude cas-témoin, de cohorte et rétrospective visait à déterminer le taux de réadmission des patients diabétiques dans les 28 jours suivant leur sortie de l'hôpital et la relation entre la qualité des soins en séjour hospitalier et une réadmission non programmée. (who.int)
  • A 24 hour urinalysis is a simple, non-invasive diagnostic tool that your nutritional consultant can use to help identify how well you are: digesting the food that you eat, absorbing the nutrients you've digested and getting rid of the body's wastes. (lakesidedigestion.com)
  • This article reviews and updates the practical use of office-based urinalysis and the differential diagnosis for abnormal results. (aafp.org)
  • Thus, the urinalysis results are compared with standard parameters to find out abnormal changes. (healthhearty.com)
  • Providing valuable patient's health information to physicians and doctors, urinalysis has become crucial for screening foreign substances in urine. (medgadget.com)
  • Web complete blank urinalysis forms online with us legal forms. (procurement.ie)
  • UA-Cellular Complete features true cellular components - no latex or other synthetic material - and provides three concentrations of combined urinalysis control to represent the various patient sample scenarios. (genomax.com.my)
  • Urinalysis can be outsourced or performed in the office by clinical staff. (aafp.org)
  • Only the presence of multiple comorbidities was significantly associated with urinalysis orders without a clinical indication. (g2intelligence.com)
  • Apart from detecting these substances, urinalysis can also be used for detecting infections and systemic diseases. (medgadget.com)
  • Urinalysis and self-reporting allow us to monitor drugs on the illegal market for the substances they contain and compare this to what people who use those drugs expect them to contain. (ccsa.ca)
  • The leukocytes in urinalysis are because of excess secretion by the immune system to fight against pathogenic infections. (healthhearty.com)
  • Automated urinalysis aids in the monitoring and diagnosis of a broad array of urological and nephrological conditions and screening of urinary tract. (medgadget.com)
  • Urinalysis can also be used to monitor treatment of a medical disorder. (brighthub.com)
  • 52.6 percent women) to assess the appropriateness of urinalysis orders on admission to the general medical service of a large tertiary care center. (g2intelligence.com)
  • AAHA's Urinalysis Sticker works well in the medical record. (aaha.org)
  • What would make a look back in time at old-school urinalysis feel weird probably has to do with the lack of fancy medical language and their choice of container. (cracked.com)
  • It is recommended that urinalysis is performed within two hours of sample collection if the urine is not refrigerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of CCSA's continuing efforts, CUSP is collaborating with project partners to develop guidelines, tools and templates that make implementing urinalysis and self-reporting easy for harm reduction sites and that standardize data collection and reporting across sites. (ccsa.ca)
  • Perform urinalysis within 30 minutes of collection or refrigerate. (dvm360.com)
  • Urine Collection and Urinalysis. (hayesfirstaidsupplies.com)
  • Latest applications of automated urinalysis show fruitful outcomes in the fast identification of urothelial cancer. (medgadget.com)

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