An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
Uricosuric that acts by increasing uric acid clearance. It is used in the treatment of gout.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating lymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.

Separation of urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sodium cholate. (1/2112)

The capillary electrophoretic separation of the four nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (NPNs; urea, uric acid, creatine, and creatinine) typically employed in clinical and medical settings for the monitoring of renal function is described. Successful resolution of these compounds is achieved with the use of a bile salt micelle system composed of sodium cholate at phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The elution patterns of four NPNs are obtained within 30 min with a voltage of 30 kV. The effect of varying the applied voltage, temperature, and the mole ratio of phosphate buffer with bile salt surfactant on the migration behavior is also examined.  (+info)

Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow. (2/2112)

To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates.  (+info)

Gout and hyperuricemia. (3/2112)

Gout is a condition characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints or soft tissue. The four phases of gout include asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical gout and chronic tophaceous gout. The peak incidence occurs in patients 30 to 50 years old, and the condition is much more common in men than in women. Patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia do not require treatment, but efforts should be made to lower their urate levels by encouraging them to make changes in diet or lifestyle. Acute gout most commonly affects the first metatarsal joint of the foot, but other joints are also commonly involved. Definitive diagnosis requires joint aspiration with demonstration of birefringent crystals in the synovial fluid under a polarized light microscope. Treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, corticosteroids and analgesics. In patients without complications, NSAID therapy is preferred.  (+info)

Sparing effect of hemiplegia on tophaceous gout. (4/2112)

The sparing effect of hemiplegia on the development of tophaceous gout is described. The useless upper limb had no tophaceous deposits and the partially paralysed lower limb had only limited urate deposits. Disuse was presumably the major contributor to the limited deposition of urates on the paralysed side.  (+info)

Soccer players under regular training show oxidative stress but an improved plasma antioxidant status. (5/2112)

Physical activity is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals subjected to intense exercise. In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein profile and the plasma antioxidant status in a group of soccer players engaged in a regular training programme. As was expected for aerobic exercise, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL3-C levels were significantly increased in the sportsmen (P<0.05). Total plasma antioxidant capacity was 25% higher in sportsmen than in controls (P<0.005). Accordingly, plasma hydrosoluble antioxidant levels (ascorbic acid and uric acid) were found to be significantly elevated in the soccer players (P<0.005). In addition, these subjects showed high concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared with controls (P<0.005). Furthermore, an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in relation to exercise (P<0.01). The elevation in plasma activities of antioxidant enzymes and the higher levels of free radical scavengers of low molecular mass may compensate the oxidative stress caused by physical activity. High levels of high-density lipoprotein in plasma may offer additional protection by inhibiting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus liposoluble antioxidant consumption. Therefore, soccer players under regular training show an improved plasma antioxidant status in comparison to sedentary controls.  (+info)

Urate synthesis in the blood-sucking insect rhodnius prolixus. Stimulation by hemin is mediated by protein kinase C. (6/2112)

Hemin is a catalyst of the formation of reactive oxygen species. We proposed that hematophagous insects are exposed to intense oxidative stress because of hemoglobin hydrolysis in their midgut (Petretsky, M. D., Ribeiro, J. M. C., Atella, G. C., Masuda, H., and Oliveira, P. L. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 10893-10896). We have shown that hemin stimulates urate synthesis in the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus (Graca-Souza, A. V., Petretsky, J. H., Demasi, M., Bechara, E. J. H., and Oliveira, P. L. (1997) Free Radical Biol. Med. 22, 209-214). Once released by fat body cells, urate accumulates in the hemolymph, where this radical scavenger constitutes an important defense against blood-feeding derived oxidative stress. Incubation of Rhodnius fat bodies with okadaic acid raises the level of urate synthesis, suggesting that urate production can be controlled by protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Urate synthesis is stimulated by dibutyryl cAMP and inhibited by N(2((p-bromocinnamil)amino)ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89), an inhibitor of protein kinase A, as well as activated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In the presence of hemin, however, inhibition of urate synthesis by H-89 does not occur, suggesting that the hemin stimulatory effect is not mediated by protein kinase A. Calphostin C completely inhibits the hemin-induced urate production, suggesting that the triggering of urate antioxidant response depends on protein kinase C activation. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that in fat bodies exposed to hemin, both protein kinase C activity and phosphorylation of specific endogenous polypeptides are significantly increased.  (+info)

Ascorbate prevents prooxidant effects of urate in oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. (7/2112)

Uric acid and ascorbic acid are important low molecular weight antioxidants in plasma. Their interactions and combined effect on Cu(2+)-catalysed oxidation of human low density lipoprotein were studied in vitro. It was found that uric acid alone becomes strongly prooxidant whenever it is added to low density lipoprotein shortly after the start of oxidation (conditional prooxidant). Ascorbic acid, which is present in human plasma at much lower concentrations (20-60 microM) than urate (300-400 microM), is in itself not a conditional prooxidant. Moreover, ascorbate prevents prooxidant effects of urate, when added to oxidising low density lipoprotein simultaneously with urate, even at a 60-fold molar excess of urate over ascorbate. Ascorbate appears to have the same anti-prooxidant effect with other aqueous reductants, which, besides their antioxidant properties, were reported to be conditionally prooxidant. Such interactions between ascorbate and urate may be important in preventing oxidative modification of lipoproteins in the circulation and in other biological fluids.  (+info)

Favorable life-style modification and attenuation of cardiovascular risk factors. (8/2112)

In order to develop an effective counseling system for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the association of a favorably changed life-style with improved risk factors was examined. Participants were 7,321 office workers aged 30-69 years from in and around Nagoya city. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the likelihood of risk factor improvement by favorable life-style modifications during a 3-year period. Those who began to eat breakfast and increased their vegetable intake normalized their previously abnormal diastolic blood pressure with more than twice the likelihood (adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.89 [1.29-6.46] and 2.60 [1.18-5.75], respectively). 'Began to eat breakfast' was also significantly associated with normalized total cholesterol (TC) (1.84, [1.05-3.21]). 'Stopped eating till full' significantly normalized the body mass index (2.03; [1.25-3.28]), uric acid (1.65; [1.07-2.52]) and TC (1.43; [1.04-1.97]). Those who started regular exercise significantly normalized their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) abnormality with 1.69-times the likelihood (1.69; [1.24-2.29]) and those who began to walk briskly also improved their TC abnormality (1.85; [1.19-2.89]). HDL-C was normalized with 2.55-times the likelihood in those who quit smoking (2.55; [1.68-3.86]). Because favorable life-style modifications can attenuate abnormal cardiovascular risk factors, then proper advice on specific risk factors should be routinely given at each health check-up in order to prevent the onset of cardiovascular diseases in subsequent years.  (+info)

Uric acid is a chemical compound that is formed when the body breaks down purines, which are substances that are found naturally in certain foods such as steak, organ meats and seafood, as well as in our own cells. After purines are broken down, they turn into uric acid and then get excreted from the body in the urine.

However, if there is too much uric acid in the body, it can lead to a condition called hyperuricemia. High levels of uric acid can cause gout, which is a type of arthritis that causes painful swelling and inflammation in the joints, especially in the big toe. Uric acid can also form crystals that can collect in the kidneys and lead to kidney stones.

It's important for individuals with gout or recurrent kidney stones to monitor their uric acid levels and follow a treatment plan prescribed by their healthcare provider, which may include medications to lower uric acid levels and dietary modifications.

Hyperuricemia is a medical condition characterized by an excessively high level of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is a waste product that's produced when the body breaks down purines, which are substances found in certain foods and drinks, such as red meat, seafood, and alcoholic beverages. Normally, uric acid is dissolved in the blood and then excreted by the kidneys through urine. However, if there's too much uric acid in the body or if the kidneys can't eliminate it efficiently, it can build up in the blood, leading to hyperuricemia.

Mild cases of hyperuricemia may not cause any symptoms and may not require treatment. However, high levels of uric acid can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals, which can accumulate in the joints and tissues, causing inflammation and pain. This condition is known as gout. Hyperuricemia can also increase the risk of developing kidney stones and kidney disease.

Hyperuricemia can be caused by several factors, including a diet high in purines, genetic factors, kidney disease, certain medications, and conditions that cause rapid cell turnover, such as cancer or psoriasis. Treatment for hyperuricemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as reducing the intake of purine-rich foods and beverages, maintaining a healthy weight, and staying hydrated. Medications may also be prescribed to lower uric acid levels in the blood and prevent gout attacks.

Urate oxidase, also known as uricase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. This reaction is an essential part of purine metabolism in many organisms, as allantoin is more soluble and easier to excrete than uric acid. In humans, urate oxidase is non-functional due to mutations in the gene encoding it, which leads to the accumulation of uric acid and predisposes to gout and kidney stones. Urate oxidase is found in some bacteria, fungi, and plants, and can be used as a therapeutic agent in humans to lower serum uric acid levels in conditions such as tumor lysis syndrome and gout.

Gout is a type of inflammatory arthritis that occurs when urate crystals accumulate in and around the joints, causing sudden attacks of severe pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness. Urate crystals can form when there are high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down purines, substances that are found naturally in certain foods, such as steak, organ meats, and seafood. Other foods also promote higher levels of uric acid, such as alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and drinks sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose).

Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood and passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes either the body produces too much uric acid or the kidneys excrete too little uric acid. When this happens, uric acid can build up, forming sharp, needle-like urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling.

Gout most commonly affects the big toe but can also occur in any joint in the body. The symptoms of gout are often acute, occurring suddenly without warning and frequently at night. The attacks are characterized by a rapid onset of pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected joint. An attack of gout can be so painful that it wakes you up from sleep.

Over time, gout can cause permanent damage to the joints and surrounding tissue, resulting in chronic arthritis. If left untreated, gout also can lead to an accumulation of uric acid crystals in the kidneys, which can result in kidney stones.

Allopurinol is a medication used to treat chronic gout and certain types of kidney stones. It works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, which is the substance that can cause these conditions when it builds up in high levels. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, meaning it blocks an enzyme called xanthine oxidase from converting purines into uric acid. By doing this, allopurinol helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the body and prevent the formation of new kidney stones or gout attacks.

It is important to note that allopurinol can have side effects, including rash, stomach upset, and liver or kidney problems. It may also interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of any other drugs you are taking before starting allopurinol. Your healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and monitoring schedule based on your individual needs and medical history.

Gout suppressants are a type of medication used to treat acute gout attacks and reduce the risk of future episodes. They work by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body or improving its elimination, thereby reducing the formation of uric acid crystals that cause inflammation and pain in the joints. Common examples of gout suppressants include:

1. Colchicine: This medication is often used to treat acute gout attacks by reducing inflammation and swelling in the affected joint. It should be taken as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms for best results.

2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib, can help alleviate pain and inflammation during an acute gout attack. They are usually more effective when taken at the first sign of an attack.

3. Corticosteroids: In some cases, corticosteroid medications like prednisone may be prescribed to treat severe gout attacks that do not respond to other treatments. These drugs can be administered orally or injected directly into the affected joint.

4. Allopurinol and febuxostat: These medications are called xanthine oxidase inhibitors, which reduce uric acid production in the body. They are typically used for chronic gout management to prevent future attacks and lower the risk of complications such as kidney stones and joint damage.

It is important to note that some gout suppressants may have side effects or interact with other medications, so it is crucial to discuss any concerns with a healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy weight, following a low-purine diet, and staying hydrated can help manage gout symptoms and lower the risk of future attacks.

Allantoin is a naturally occurring substance that is found in some plants and animals, including humans. It is a white, crystalline powder that is only slightly soluble in water and more soluble in alcohol and ether. In the medical field, allantoin is often used as an ingredient in topical creams, ointments, and other products due to its ability to promote wound healing, skin soothing, and softening. It can also help to increase the water content of the extracellular matrix, which can be beneficial for dry or damaged skin. Allantoin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, making it useful in the treatment of various skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and sunburn. It is considered safe and non-irritating, making it a popular ingredient in many cosmetic and personal care products.

Glucose Transporter Proteins, Facilitative (GLUTs) are a group of membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of glucose and other simple sugars across the cell membrane. They are also known as solute carrier family 2 (SLC2A) members. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis within the body by regulating the uptake of glucose into cells. Unlike active transport, facilitative diffusion does not require energy and occurs down its concentration gradient. Different GLUT isoforms have varying tissue distributions and substrate specificities, allowing them to respond to different physiological needs. For example, GLUT1 is widely expressed and is responsible for basal glucose uptake in most tissues, while GLUT4 is primarily found in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue, where it mediates the increased glucose uptake in response to insulin signaling.

Uricosuric agents are a class of medications that work by increasing the excretion of uric acid through the kidneys, thereby reducing the levels of uric acid in the blood. This helps to prevent the formation of uric acid crystals, which can cause joint inflammation and damage leading to conditions such as gout.

Uricosuric agents achieve this effect by inhibiting the reabsorption of uric acid in the kidney tubules or by increasing its secretion into the urine. Examples of uricosuric agents include probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, and benzbromarone. These medications are typically used to manage chronic gout and hyperuricemia (elevated levels of uric acid in the blood). It is important to note that uricosuric agents may increase the risk of kidney stones due to increased excretion of uric acid in the urine, so it is essential to maintain adequate hydration while taking these medications.

Benzbromarone is a medication that was previously used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (elevated levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by increasing the excretion of uric acid through the kidneys. However, due to concerns about its potential hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity), it is no longer widely used and has been discontinued or restricted in many countries.

The chemical structure of benzbromarone is characterized by a benzene ring substituted with bromine and a propylamino group, which is further substituted with a carbamoyl group. This gives the compound its unique properties as a uricosuric agent.

It's important to note that benzbromarone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and patients should be closely monitored for signs of liver toxicity. Additionally, there are many alternative medications available to treat gout and hyperuricemia, so benzbromarone is typically reserved for use in specific cases where other treatments have failed or are contraindicated.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Xanthine is a purine base, which is a naturally occurring heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is formed in the body during the metabolism of purines, and it's a normal intermediate in the breakdown of nucleotides to uric acid. Xanthine is also found in various foods and beverages, such as coffee, tea, and chocolate. In the medical field, xanthine may refer to a class of drugs called xanthine derivatives, which include theophylline and caffeine, that act as bronchodilators and cardiac stimulants.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, which is the last step in purine metabolism. It's a type of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) during its reaction mechanism.

The enzyme exists in two interconvertible forms: an oxidized state and a reduced state. The oxidized form, called xanthine oxidase, reduces molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, while the reduced form, called xanthine dehydrogenase, reduces NAD+ to NADH.

Xanthine oxidase is found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and milk. An overproduction of uric acid due to increased activity of xanthine oxidase can lead to hyperuricemia, which may result in gout or kidney stones. Some medications and natural compounds are known to inhibit xanthine oxidase, such as allopurinol and febuxostat, which are used to treat gout and prevent the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys.

Oxypurinol is not exactly a medical term itself, but it's the main metabolite (a substance that your body makes when it breaks down another substance) of allopurinol, which is a medication commonly used to treat gout and kidney stones. Allopurinol works by reducing the production of uric acid in your body, and oxypurinol helps to continue this effect even after the allopurinol has been metabolized.

So, in a broader medical context, you could define Oxypurinol as:

The primary active metabolite of allopurinol, a medication used to lower uric acid levels in the body, preventing gout attacks and kidney stone formation. Oxypurinol inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for the production of uric acid, thereby reducing the risk of gout and kidney stones.

Hypoxanthine is a purine derivative and an intermediate in the metabolic pathways of nucleotide degradation, specifically adenosine to uric acid in humans. It is formed from the oxidation of xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. In the body, hypoxanthine is converted to xanthine and then to uric acid, which is excreted in the urine. Increased levels of hypoxanthine in the body can be indicative of various pathological conditions, including tissue hypoxia, ischemia, and necrosis.

Nephrolithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of stones or calculi in the kidney. These stones can form anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Nephrolithiasis is also commonly known as kidney stones.

Kidney stones are hard deposits made up of minerals and salts that crystallize in the urine. They can vary in size from tiny sand-like particles to larger pebble or even golf ball-sized masses. Kidney stones can cause pain, bleeding, and infection if they block the flow of urine through the urinary tract.

The formation of kidney stones is often associated with a variety of factors such as dehydration, high levels of calcium, oxalate, or uric acid in the urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions like gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment for nephrolithiasis depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake, while larger stones may require medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Hypoxanthine is not a medical condition but a purine base that is a component of many organic compounds, including nucleotides and nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, hypoxanthine is produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism and is converted to xanthine and then uric acid, which is excreted in the urine.

However, abnormally high levels of hypoxanthine in the body can indicate tissue damage or disease. For example, during intense exercise or hypoxia (low oxygen levels), cells may break down ATP (adenosine triphosphate) rapidly, releasing large amounts of hypoxanthine. Similarly, in some genetic disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, there is an accumulation of hypoxanthine due to a deficiency of the enzyme that converts it to xanthine. High levels of hypoxanthine can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other complications.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. They are fundamental components of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, purines can be synthesized endogenously or obtained through dietary sources such as meat, seafood, and certain vegetables.

Once purines are metabolized, they are broken down into uric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels of uric acid in the body can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals, resulting in conditions such as gout or kidney stones. Therefore, maintaining a balanced intake of purine-rich foods and ensuring proper kidney function are essential for overall health.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that form part of DNA and RNA. Specifically, XDH helps to break down xanthine and hypoxanthine into uric acid, a waste product that is excreted in the urine.

XDH can exist in two interconvertible forms: a dehydrogenase form (XDH) and an oxidase form (XO). In its dehydrogenase form, XDH uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor to convert xanthine into uric acid. However, when XDH is converted to its oxidase form (XO), it can use molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor instead, producing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. These reactive oxygen species can contribute to oxidative stress and tissue damage in the body.

Abnormal levels or activity of XDH have been implicated in various diseases, including gout, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound with the formula CaC2O4. It is the most common type of stone found in kidneys, also known as kidney stones. Calcium oxalate forms when there is too much calcium or oxalate in the urine. This can occur due to various reasons such as dietary habits, dehydration, medical conditions like hyperparathyroidism, or genetic factors.

Calcium oxalate stones are hard and crystalline and can cause severe pain during urination or while passing through the urinary tract. They may also lead to other symptoms like blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting, or fever. Prevention strategies for calcium oxalate stones include staying hydrated, following a balanced diet, and taking prescribed medications to control the levels of calcium and oxalate in the body.

Probenecid is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body and increasing its excretion through the kidneys.

In medical terms, probenecid is a uricosuric agent, which means it increases the urinary excretion of urate, the salt form of uric acid. It does this by inhibiting the reabsorption of urate in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, thereby promoting its elimination in the urine.

Probenecid is also used in conjunction with certain antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, to increase their concentration in the body by reducing their excretion by the kidneys. This is known as probenecid-antibiotic interaction.

It's important to note that probenecid should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions or in combination with specific medications.

Fructose is a simple monosaccharide, also known as "fruit sugar." It is a naturally occurring carbohydrate that is found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Fructose has the chemical formula C6H12O6 and is a hexose, or six-carbon sugar.

Fructose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion and is metabolized primarily in the liver. It is sweeter than other sugars such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), which makes it a popular sweetener in many processed foods and beverages. However, consuming large amounts of fructose can have negative health effects, including increasing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the cellular uptake and excretion of various organic anions, such as drugs, toxins, and endogenous metabolites. They are found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain, where they play important roles in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.

In the kidney, OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and mediate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the cells. From there, the anions can be further transported into the urine by other transporters located in the apical membrane. In the liver, OATs are expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and facilitate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the liver cells for metabolism and excretion.

There are several isoforms of OATs that have been identified, each with distinct substrate specificities and tissue distributions. Mutations in OAT genes can lead to various diseases, including renal tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria, and drug toxicity. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of OATs is important for developing strategies to improve drug delivery and reduce adverse drug reactions.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) is a metabolic complication that can occur following the rapid destruction of malignant cells, most commonly seen in hematologic malignancies such as acute leukemias and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The rapid breakdown of these cancer cells releases a large amount of intracellular contents, including potassium, phosphorus, and nucleic acids, into the bloodstream.

This sudden influx of substances can lead to three major metabolic abnormalities: hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate levels), and hypocalcemia (low calcium levels). Hyperuricemia (elevated uric acid levels) may also occur due to the breakdown of nucleic acids. These metabolic disturbances can cause various clinical manifestations, such as cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, renal failure, and even death if not promptly recognized and treated.

TLS is classified into two types: laboratory TLS (LTLS) and clinical TLS (CTLS). LTLS is defined by the presence of abnormal laboratory values without any related clinical symptoms, while CTLS is characterized by laboratory abnormalities accompanied by clinical signs or symptoms. Preventive measures, such as aggressive hydration, urinary alkalinization, and prophylactic medications to lower uric acid levels, are often employed in high-risk patients to prevent the development of TLS.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Sulfinpyrazone is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as uricosurics. It works by increasing the amount of uric acid that is removed from the body through urine, which helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood. This makes it useful for the treatment of conditions such as gout and kidney stones that are caused by high levels of uric acid.

In addition to its uricosuric effects, sulfinpyrazone also has antiplatelet properties, which means that it can help to prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes in people who are at risk.

Sulfinpyrazone is available by prescription and is typically taken by mouth in the form of tablets. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications, depending on the individual patient's needs and medical condition. As with any medication, sulfinpyrazone should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should follow their provider's instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Trichlormethiazide is a thiazide diuretic drug, which is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions such as heart failure, kidney disease, or liver cirrhosis. It works by increasing the excretion of salt and water from the body through urine, thereby reducing fluid volume and lowering blood pressure.

The medical definition of Trichlormethiazide is:

A potent long-acting oral thiazide diuretic with a chlorothiazide side chain at position 2 and trichloromethyl group at position 6 of the benzothiadiazine ring. It has a longer duration of action than other thiazides, making it suitable for once-daily dosing in the management of hypertension and edema. Its diuretic effect is mainly due to inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, leading to increased excretion of water and electrolytes (particularly sodium and chloride ions) in the urine.

Trichlormethiazide is available under various brand names, such as Metahydrin, Naqua, and Diuril Sodium. It should be used with caution and under medical supervision due to potential side effects like electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, hypotension, and impaired glucose tolerance.

Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of ammonia (NH3) in water, and it is also known as aqua ammonia or ammonia water. It has the chemical formula NH4OH. This solution is composed of ammonium ions (NH4+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), making it a basic or alkaline substance with a pH level greater than 7.

Ammonium hydroxide is commonly used in various industrial, agricultural, and laboratory applications. It serves as a cleaning agent, a pharmaceutical aid, a laboratory reagent, and a component in fertilizers. In chemistry, it can be used to neutralize acids or act as a base in acid-base reactions.

Handling ammonium hydroxide requires caution due to its caustic nature. It can cause burns and eye damage upon contact, and inhalation of its vapors may lead to respiratory irritation. Proper safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear, should be taken when handling this substance.

... levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels. Hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid), which ... These uric acid stones are radiolucent, so do not appear on an abdominal plain X-ray. Uric acid crystals can also promote the ... Uric acid is released in hypoxic conditions (low oxygen saturation). In humans uric acid (actually hydrogen urate ion) is the ... Excess blood uric acid (serum urate) can induce gout, a painful condition resulting from needle-like crystals of uric acid ...
... is differentiated from other forms of acute kidney failure by the finding of a urine uric acid/ ... Acute uric acid nephropathy is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals within the kidney interstitium and tubules, leading ... "Acute uric acid nephropathy". Med Clin North Am. 74 (4): 859-71. PMID 2195258. Robinson RR, Yarger WE (1977). "Acute uric acid ... that is caused by high levels of uric acid in the urine (hyperuricosuria). Acute uric acid nephropathy is usually seen as part ...
Hitchings, G. H. (1978). "Uric Acid: Chemistry and Synthesis". In Kelley, William N.; Weiner, Irwin M. (eds.). Uric Acid. ... He was the first to synthesise uric acid from glycine in 1882. He also noticed that aminoacids were building blocks of proteins ...
"Uric Acid" (1963, with Wendell T. Caraway) "Free Amino Acids in Plasma and Urine by the Gasometric Ninhydrin-Carbon Dioxide ... "Uric acid." In Standard methods of clinical chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 239-247. Elsevier, 1963. (Articles with short description, ... "Factors that influence the passage of ascorbic acid from serum to cells in human blood." The Journal of Clinical Investigation ... "Free Amino Acids in Plasma and Urine by the Gasometric Ninhydrin-Carbon Dioxide Method* *Based on the method of Van Slyke and ...
Lesinurad reduces blood uric acid levels by preventing uric acid absorption in the kidneys. It was approved in the United ... Probenecid may be used if undersecretion of uric acid is present (24-hour urine uric acid less than 800 mg). It is, however, ... Levels of uric acid in serum in patients with metabolic syndrome]" [Levels of uric acid in serum in patients with metabolic ... the salts of uric acid. Underexcretion of uric acid by the kidney is the primary cause of hyperuricemia in about 90% of cases, ...
... uric acid lithiasis; acute uric acid nephropathy; neoplastic disease and myeloproliferative disease with high cell turnover ... Allopurinol, therefore, decreases uric acid formation and may also inhibit purine synthesis. The HLA-B*5801 allele is a genetic ... It is specifically used to prevent gout, prevent specific types of kidney stones and for the high uric acid levels that can ... "Uric Acid-Lowering Drugs Pathway, Pharmacodynamics". PharmGKB. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. "PharmGKB". ...
... high serum uric acid levels). Dosage is adjusted to maintain a reduced urinary excretion of uric acid. Serum uric acid level at ... The formation of uric-acid stones requires a combination of hyperuricosuria (high urine uric-acid levels) and low urine pH; ... The mainstay for medical management of uric acid stones is alkalinization (increasing the pH) of the urine. Uric acid stones ... the solubility of uric acid in urine is 158 mg/100 mL. Reducing the pH to 5.0 decreases the solubility of uric acid to less ...
A chick on up to its fifth day of development excretes ammonia; from its 5th to 9th day, urea; and thereafter, uric acid. Based ... Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acids present in all living organisms. They are present in the ... The compounds studied most are proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, peptides etc. Physiology is the study of working of organs ... uric acid is excreted by terrestrial life forms. A frog, in its tadpole stage excretes ammonia just like a fish. When it turns ...
Uric acid (8) was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine (10), which was converted with HI and PH4I to give 2,6- ... I." [On uric acid. I.]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 17: 328-338. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170196. Archived ... The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid (8), which had been isolated from kidney stones by Carl Wilhelm ... Other notable purines are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. [contradictory ...
Sautin YY, Johnson RJ (June 2008). "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 ( ... Uric acid has the highest concentration of any blood antioxidant and provides over half of the total antioxidant capacity of ... Uric acid's antioxidant activities are also complex, given that it does not react with some oxidants, such as superoxide, but ... See also selenium in biology and zinc in biology.) Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant oxypurine produced from xanthine by the ...
Drugs that reduce blood uric acid are not all uricosurics; blood uric acid can be reduced by other mechanisms (see other help ... Antiuricosuric drugs raise serum uric acid levels and lower urine uric acid levels. These drugs include all diuretics, ... are substances that increase the excretion of uric acid in the urine, thus reducing the concentration of uric acid in blood ... However, the increased uric acid levels in urine can contribute to kidney stones. Thus, use of these drugs is contraindicated ...
"Uric Acid In Multiple Sclerosis". WebCite. 2018. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Neuhaus O, Hartung HO. "Immune ... After ingestion, inosine is metabolized into uric acid, which has been suggested to be a natural antioxidant and peroxynitrite ... a study was initiated at the University of Pennsylvania MS Center to determine whether raising the levels of uric acid by the ... Inosine has also been found to be an important feed stimulant by itself or in combination with certain amino acids in some ...
First, it produces uric acid after ingestion, which is a natural antioxidant; second, it has been shown to induce axonal ... Related to this, MS patients have been reported to have low levels of uric acid, which is a natural antioxidant, and has been ... "Uric Acid In Multiple Sclerosis". 1997-2005. Archived from the original on 2005-05-07. Retrieved 2006-05-10. Kean RB, Spitsin ... They can also remove other reactive oxygen species It is also known that uric acid levels decrease during the course of the ...
In 1972, Yu co-authored and published Gout and Uric Acid Metabolism and in 1982, she published the book called The Kidney in ... Yu studied probenecid, a uricosuric drug which causes the removal of excess uric acid by being excreted with urine. She later ... Yu helped to establish an understanding of the metabolic relationship between elevated levels of uric acid and the pain ... Talbott, John; Tsai-Fan (1976). Gout and Uric Acid Metabolism. New York: Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corporation. " ...
Harkness, R. A.; Nicol, A. D. (December 1969). "Plasma Uric Acid Levels in Children". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 44 (238 ...
Ohtsuka Y, Zaitsu M, Ichida K, Isomura N, Tsuji K, Sato T, Hamasaki Y (2007). "Human uric acid transporter 1 gene analysis in ... Probenecid also facilitates uric acid secretion. Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197891 - Ensembl, ... "FDA approves Zurampic to treat high blood uric acid levels associated with gout". United States Food and Drug Administration. ... and serum uric acid levels in Japanese". Life Sci. 79 (23): 2234-7. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.07.030. PMID 16920156. ...
A uric acid deficiency was implicated in this process. Uric acid added in physiological concentrations (i.e. achieving normal ... Uric acid levels are lower during relapses. It is not known what causes MS. Several problems appear together with the white ... The low level of uric acid found in people with MS is manifestedly causative rather than a tissue damage consequence in the ... Kean R, Spitsin S, Mikheeva T, Scott G, Hooper D (2000). "The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid prevents inflammatory cell ...
One can find out that the uric acid level in the blood is high when a blood test is done. Gout is caused by high uric acid ... "Uric acid - blood : MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15. "Kidney Biopsy". www.niddk.nih. ... Affected individuals also have an elevation in the blood uric acid level. In MCKD, the kidney has difficulty getting rid of ...
In a catabolic pathway, the purine nucleotide cycle, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted ... "Regulation of uric acid metabolism and excretion". International Journal of Cardiology. 213: 8-14. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.08 ... It is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix adenylyl-. AMP ... Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ...
Holland, C. T. (1915). Uric Acid Stones Under The X Rays. British Medical Journal. 2(2860), 624. Holland, C. T. (1915). Stone ...
This has led to the theory that uric acid is protective, although its exact importance remains unknown. Obesity during ... Spitsin S, Koprowski H (2008). "Role of Uric Acid in Multiple Sclerosis". Advances in multiple Sclerosis and Experimental ... Gout occurs less than would be expected and lower levels of uric acid have been found in people with MS. ...
... can significantly reduce serum uric acid. This reduction has no known detrimental effect and may be helpful in ...
Laster L, Blair A (October 1963). "An intestinal phosphorylase for uric acid ribonucleoside". The Journal of Biological ...
... is only able to grow in the presence of uric acid, allantoin, or allantoic acid. This species has been ... Bacillus fastidious has the ability to use uricase to degrade uric acid to allantoin, and then use allantoinase to degrade ... This bacterium is typically grown on 1% uric acid agar and colonies can have a rhizoid appearance. Colonies are typically ... Bongaerts, G. P. A; Vogels, G. D (1976). "Uric Acid Degradation by Bacillus fastidiosus Strains". Journal of Bacteriology. 125 ...
Proteinuria, leucocytosis and elevated uric acid concentrations > 7.8 mg. Decreased serum haptoglobin and haemoglobin levels. ... As a consequence of hemolysis, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemoglobin are released, with the latter binding to serum ...
AMP → IMP → Inosine → Hypoxanthine → Xanthine → Uric acid. Unfortunately, the studies on PGM1-CDG only tested for serum ammonia ... and uric acid. These studies supported that when the exercise is stopped or sufficient ATP is produced from other fuels (such ... and the buildup of AMP and other nucleotides covert into nucleosides and leave the muscle cell to be converted into uric acid, ... Free fatty acids are the slowest of the body's bioenergetic systems to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, at ...
On its own uric acid would not dissolve in water. Then, in an effort to increase the water solubility of uric acid, lithium was ... He started to work on uric acid. In order to do that, he made artificial solutions of uric acid. To make up different strengths ... There are 2 toxic substances in urine: urea and uric acid. He found urea was the same in both ill and healthy people. ... of uric acid he needed to convert it into a substance that he could more easily manipulate. ...
... refers to uric acid in the urine. Urine levels of uric acid can be described as: Hyperuricosuria, an abnormally high ... level of uric acid in the urine Hypouricosuria, an abnormally low level of uric acid in the urine Agents that increase uric ... acid in the urine are termed uricosurics. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Uricosuria. If an ...
Kosugi T, Nakagawa T, Kamath D, Johnson RJ (February 2009). "Uric acid and hypertension: an age-related relationship?". J Hum ...
Broadbent listed one hundred Uric Acid free recipes. The book promoted the consumption of plasmon but this food was ...
Uric acid levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels. Hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid), which ... These uric acid stones are radiolucent, so do not appear on an abdominal plain X-ray. Uric acid crystals can also promote the ... Uric acid is released in hypoxic conditions (low oxygen saturation). In humans uric acid (actually hydrogen urate ion) is the ... Excess blood uric acid (serum urate) can induce gout, a painful condition resulting from needle-like crystals of uric acid ...
This article outlines the importance of uric acid in the human body. ... Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans due to the loss of uricase activity by various mutations of ... Unlike the majority of mammals, uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, due to the loss of uricase ...
Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are normally produced in the body ... This test is done to see if you have a high level of uric acid in your blood. High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout ... If your body produces too much uric acid or does not remove enough of it, you can get sick. A high level of uric acid in the ... This test checks to see how much uric acid you have in your blood. Another test that can be used to check the level of uric ...
... which includes a high serum uric acid and uric acid nephropathy. Prompt measures to reduce serum uric acid and prevent uric ... Uric acid inhibitors. Class Summary. These drugs are used to prevent acute uric acid nephropathy associated with leukocytosis ... Inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that synthesizes uric acid from hypoxanthine. Reduces synthesis of uric acid without ... Unlike uric acid, allantoin soluble and easily excreted by kidneys. Elimination half-life is 18 h. ...
There is some evidence that lemon may help to neutralize uric acid, which could reduce gout attacks. Learn more about lemon ... There is some evidence that lemon juice may help reduce uric acid levels in people with gout. Uric acid, or urate, can trigger ... high uric acid levels, or another form of arthritis found that drinking lemon water for 6 weeks reduced uric acid levels in all ... A uric acid buildup can sometimes lead to gout, which causes very painful symptoms. Learn about 11 natural ways to lower uric ...
The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant ... Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension. ... Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in ... Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (,svg xmlns: ...
Studies suggest that vitamin C may reduce the levels of uric acid in your blood, and may be beneficial to people diagnosed with ... a condition where there is too much uric acid in your body, is considered to be the cause of gout. ... A uric acid blood test determines how much uric acid is in your blood. The test can help determine how well your body produces ... Too much uric acid in your body can result in the formation of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) which can build up in your ...
The impact of uric acid. Wu said UA is made in the human body as an end product of purine metabolism. It also acts as a kind of ... Drawbacks of traditional uric acid monitoring. Wenzhuo Wu (right), the Ravi and Eleanor Talwar Rising Star Associate Professor ... "My team and I have created new noninvasive, wearable sensors that monitor levels of uric acid in human sweat," Wu said. "These ... Wu and his team have developed EPICS, which are flexible and noninvasive sensors that monitor uric acid in human sweat. They ...
Sugar-rich diets lead to a buildup of uric acid, a natural waste product that is linked to poor kidney health when elevated. In ... Uric acid is an end-product from the breakdown of purines, which are important building blocks in our DNA. But uric acid is ... Uric acid levels also tend to increase with age and can predict the onset of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. "It will be ... Accumulation of uric acid is a known direct cause of kidney stones in humans, as well as gout, a form of inflammatory arthritis ...
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... ... To assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, body mass index, ... 2017)‎. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose level, lipid profile, HbA1c and uric acid among medical students in Karachi, ... Changes in blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, HbA1c, uric acid and triglyceride were not statistically ...
Gout is a multifactorial metabolic and inflammatory disease that occurs when increased uric acid (UA) induce HU resulting in ... Uric acid en route to gout Wei-Zheng Zhang. Adv Clin Chem. 2023. ... and inflammatory disease that occurs when increased uric acid ( ...
Keiths GoutPal Story 2020 › Forums › Please Help My Gout! › Uric AcidUric Acid Levels ... and Gout Forum Uloric Forum Uloric Liver Warning Urate Urate Deposits Uric Acid In The Body What foods are high in uric acid? ... How does uric the acid level vary throughout the day and wht is the best time of day to take a measurement?. Also how long does ... 1. How Your Uric Acid Level Changes and morning (though consistency is preferred to any specific time). ...
The liver and intestinal mucosa produce most of the uric acid. ... breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans is uric acid. ... Uric has a pKa of 5.75 and 10.3 and thus is a weak acid. The ionized forms of uric acid, urates, are present in synovial fluid ... Uric has a pKa of 5.75 and 10.3 and thus is a weak acid. The ionized forms of uric acid, urates, are present in synovial fluid ... The liver and intestinal mucosa produce most of the uric acid. The kidneys eliminate two thirds of the uric acid, with the GI ...
Our data suggest that increased serum uric acid levels are independently and significantly associated with risk of ... Increased serum uric acid levels had a positive relationship to cardiovascular mortality in men and women and in black and ... Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992. National Health and ... Deaths due to ischemic heart disease in both men and women increased when serum uric acid levels were in the highest quartile ...
Get the medical uric acid range list now. ... Everyone gets Uric acid level ranges wrong. Normal is useless. ... or if you want more uric acid facts.. I can help you understand your uric acid levels, and how to manage your personal uric ... Uric Acid Reference Range for Blood. Uric Acid Level Ranges References. *Ruoff, Gary, and N. Lawrence Edwards. "Overview of ... More help with Uric Acid Level Ranges. You should now decide if you want some practical help with your uric acid levels, ...
Adjust Uric Acid Cure. Move up the gears with higher uric acid cure doses. Or switch tracks to avoid adverse effects. ... Maintain Uric Acid Cure. Stay on the road to Gout Freedom. Maintain safe uric acid levels. ... Uric Acid Test. What are your uric acid test results? See why its important to know. ... Start Uric Acid Cure. Begin your journey to gout freedom. Start your uric acid cure. ...
Hyperuricemia is the medical term for elevated uric acid. This imbalance results when the body metabolizes purines, as well as ... Uric acid is a waste substance excreted by the kidneys. ... The Gout and Uric Acid Education Society * Juicing for Health. ... Uric acid is a waste substance excreted by the kidneys. Hyperuricemia is the medical term for elevated uric acid. This ... Too much uric acid can cause the formation of crystals that may lodge in the joints and cause painful gout symptoms, often ...
Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol ... Results In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p,0.0001 and p = 0.01, ... The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, ... Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. ...
Aim To evaluate the prognostic value of serum uric acid (SUA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods Systematic ... On-admission serum uric acid predicts outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and metaanalysis of ... "On-admission serum uric acid predicts outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and metaanalysis of ... "On-admission serum uric acid predicts outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and metaanalysis of ...
Dissociation between uric acid and urea clearances in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone related ... G. Decaux, F. Prospert, P. Cauchie, A. Soupart; Dissociation between uric acid and urea clearances in the syndrome of ... sodium excretion, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, urea excretion, uric acid excretion ... despite similar levels of hyponatraemia and of osmotic and uric acid clearances. In six hyponatraemic patients, an increase in ...
4-nitrophenyl phosphate + 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uric acid = 4-nitrophenol + 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uric acid 5-phosphate ... Ligand 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uric acid. Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all ... Links to other databases for 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uric acid. top print hide ...
Effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose level, lipid profile, HbA1c and uric acid among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan ... Lastly, the mean value of uric acid of 4.75 in visit 1 increased to 5.35 in visit 2, but decreased nonsignificantly to 5.17 in ... ABSTRACT To assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, body mass ... Changes in blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, HbA1c, uric acid and triglyceride were not statistically ...
For 14C-uric acid, cells were washed three times in 25 mM of 2-MES acid (pH 5.5/125 mM sodium gluconate), and solubilized in ... 2016) Lesinurad, a novel, oral compound for gout, acts to decrease serum uric acid through inhibition of urate transporters in ... 2018) Metabolism and disposition of lesinurad, a uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in humans. Xenobiotica 12:1-12. ... In Vitro Assays to Evaluate the Inhibitory Effect against Uric Acid Reabsorption Transporters. Stable Cell-Line Uptake Assays. ...
Salivary uric acid is a predictive marker of body fat percentage in adolescents. Author: Araujo DS, et al. (2020) Nutrition ... Salivary Uric Acid as an Indicator of Body Fat Accumulation and Monitoring Nutritional Status in Adolescents. ... and uric acid (UA) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography in saliva collected at home (12-hour fast). ...
... on renal uric acid excretion in gout patients. This prospective observational study involved 106 primary gout patients and 51 ... uric acid clearance, glomerular filtration load of uric acid, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per ... Effect of benzbromarone on serum uric acid level and uric acid excretion of patients with gout]. Zöllner N, Griebsch A, Fink JK ... Gout patients have impaired renal uric acid excretion. ULTs reduce renal urate load and enhance the renal capacity of uric acid ...
Uric acid. Uric acid is a waste product that tends to be present in high amounts when a person has gout, which is another form ... Learn more about uric acid tests here.. Complete blood count. The complete blood count (CBC) test checks the bloods white ... A person typically has a high level of uric acid, also known as hyperuricemia, when their blood levels are higher than 800 mg ... joint fluid samples that look for uric acid crystals or other compounds ...
LBXSUA - Uric acid (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXSUA. SAS Label: Uric acid (mg/dL). English Text: Uric acid (mg/dL). Target: Both ... LBDSUASI - Uric acid (umol/L). Variable Name: LBDSUASI. SAS Label: Uric acid (umol/L). English Text: Uric acid (umol/L). Target ... Uric Acid. In this method uric acid is oxidized by uricase. Then the peroxide produced from this reaction is acted upon by ... Uric Acid. Uric acid measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous renal and metabolic disorders, including ...
Uric acid stones. A uric acid stone may form when a childs urine contains too much uric acid. Medical conditions or inherited ... Less often, eating fish, shellfish, and meat-especially organ meats-may increase uric acid in urine and lead to kidney stones. ... allopurinol, which is used to treat high levels of uric acid in the body ... hyperuricosuria, a disorder in which too much uric acid is in the urine ...
Uric acid is the relatively water-insoluble end product of purine nucleotide metabolism. It poses a special problem for humans ... Acute uric acid nephropathy. Overproduction of uric acid occurs primarily when tissue breakdown is accelerated. Acute uric acid ... also result from uric acid precipitation in the collecting system. Uric acid stones are related to uric acid exceeding its ... Properties of uric acid. Uric acid, the product of the xanthine oxidase-catalyzed conversion of xanthine and hypoxanthine, is ...
  • High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions, including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also be done to monitor people with gout, and to choose the best medicine to lower the uric acid level in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A high level of uric acid in the body is called hyperuricemia and it can lead to gout or kidney damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gout can be caused by decreased excretion of uric acid, increased production of uric acid, or a high dietary intake of purines. (healthline.com)
  • Decreased excretion of uric acid is the most common cause of gout. (healthline.com)
  • Increased uric acid production can also cause gout. (healthline.com)
  • While high blood levels of uric acid are common and may result in symptoms of gout, unusually low uric acid levels develop infrequently and are usually a sign of another underlying health condition. (livestrong.com)
  • An example of an alarm symptoms is called gout , which is an accumulation of uric acid crystals, called tophi. (botanical-online.com)
  • Total Cleanse Uric Acid is a natural product based on natural ingredients that are used in the care and rehabilitation of conditions caused by inflammation and gout. (jointhealthmagazine.com)
  • Total Cleanse Uric Acid is a dietary supplement that is made to target gout in people. (jointhealthmagazine.com)
  • Total Cleanse Uric Acid has been touted to be the ultimate answer to gout. (jointhealthmagazine.com)
  • Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis worldwide and frequent monitoring of Uric Acid levels is critical for disease management. (salimetrics.com)
  • When our body is not able to expel waste, it raises uric acid in the body, which form solid crystals in the joints, called gout. (indiatimes.com)
  • High Uric Acid and Hereditary Gout hello! (goutpal.com)
  • Uric Acid and Iron - a bad mix for gout Uric acid serves as an antioxidant in the blood. (goutpal.com)
  • low uric acid with tophi About 20 years ago I had a bump removed from my elbow that proved to be gout. (goutpal.com)
  • Normal Uric Acid levels and Gout Hi All I recently had a gout attach (well… so I assume). (goutpal.com)
  • Uric Acid Test Survey I am carrying out a survey of gout sufferers who have had their blood tested for uric acid. (goutpal.com)
  • When uric acid levels are over 6mg/dL, you remain at risk of a gout attack. (goutpal.com)
  • I've heard from many gout sufferers who think risks are low because they remember their uric acid number as "under 7," If they actually mean 0. (goutpal.com)
  • In this risky uric acid levels range, you might find adequate gout treatment hard to get. (goutpal.com)
  • When gout symptoms are examined as gout is first suspected, reliance is often placed on uric acid blood test results. (goutpal.com)
  • The common misdiagnosis is "It can't be gout because uric acid is in the normal range. (goutpal.com)
  • If gout symptoms are diagnosed correctly, uric acid lowering treatment should be started to make uric acid levels safe. (goutpal.com)
  • If your uric acid levels are in the risky range, you have a chance of getting gout attacks. (goutpal.com)
  • Either take steps to get uric acid lower, or risk more gout attacks. (goutpal.com)
  • Research done by Kory on scientists found that high uric acid can contribute to gout, kidney stones , hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic problems, and other kidney ailments. (jiva.com)
  • Cutolo M, Cimmino MA, Perez-Ruiz F. Potency on lowering serum uric acid in gout patients: a pooled analysis of registrative studies comparing febuxostat vs. allopurinol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Potency on lowering serum uric acid in gout patients: a pooled analysis of registrative studies comparing febuxostat vs. allopurinol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This blood test is used to detect high levels of uric acid in the blood to help diagnose gout. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • One interesting observation is that gout patients have a significantly lower incidence of Parkinson's disease and uric acid has been found to be reduced in the serum of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis," says Steve Granger, Ph.D., Salimetrics CSO. (salimetrics.com)
  • In summary it can be concluded that dietary purines are absorbed to a variable extent, depending on the degree of hydrolysis to nucleosides and/or nucleotides, and that they are oxidized to uric acid in the gut and excreted as uric acid, which is bad for gout but without influence on purine metabolism. (goutpal.com)
  • Finally, though we can see that some form of purine control may help gout, it is absolutely pointless to attempt this if you do not monitor your uric acid numbers. (goutpal.com)
  • You might still experience gout pain when uric acid is lowering because old urate crystals can cause a gout reaction before they dissolve completely. (goutpal.com)
  • Research published by Joosten in 2010 has led to suggestions that free fatty acids might be more important than purines in gout diet management [1] . (goutpal.com)
  • Certainly, uric acid and gout are affected by more dietary factors than purines alone. (goutpal.com)
  • For most of us, if we've heard of uric acid at all, it's only in relation to gout - a painful form of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in the blood and forms tiny, needle-like crystals. (firstforwomen.com)
  • Historically, doctors only thought about uric acid in two ways: the normal amount that the body produces and excretes and the high amount that builds up and causes painful conditions such as gout or kidney stones. (firstforwomen.com)
  • According to Dr. Perlmutter, metabolic problems begin to brew when uric acid reaches a level of 5.5 mg/dL, even though gout doesn't form until levels reach around 7 mg/dL. (firstforwomen.com)
  • Gout, Uric Acid, and Purine Metabolism in Pediatric Nephrology. (medscape.com)
  • These Homeopathic formulations are designed to provide exceptional relief for high uric acid issues, normalizing elevated uric acid levels and mitigating the risk of conditions like gout. (e-sathi.com)
  • Therefore, uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism leading to a relative hyperuricemic state, which contributes to pathological processes such as gout and nephrolithiasis. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Gout is a type of arthritis that is associated with elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • It is believed that lowering uric acid levels through small changes in your diet may help reduce the chance of future gout attacks. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • For more information on this, in my program Kill Your Gout For Good I outline a step by step plan for how to create a low-acid lifestyle, which will take care of the problem of hyperuricemia. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • When your body cannot eradicate the waste products, uric acid starts rising in the body, gradually turning into crystals, and we become vulnerable to gout. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs when too much uric acid builds up in your blood. (healthline.com)
  • Gout occurs when excess uric acid crystals form in the body. (healthline.com)
  • These are compounds the body breaks down into uric acid, and excess uric acid can lead to gout. (healthline.com)
  • Excess uric acid in the blood can cause serious health complications such as developing gout. (top-health-today.com)
  • Arthritis, which is another kind of gout, is also a common affliction to people with high uric acid in their blood. (top-health-today.com)
  • Gout occurs when uric acid forms urate crystals, which accumulates in your joints, causing inflammation and intense pain. (activejar.com)
  • If you have gout, you may have crystals of uric acid in your synovial fluid, the substance that surrounds joints to help them move smoothly. (bartonhealth.org)
  • Higher than normal levels of uric acid in the blood or urine can suggest gout, but the only way your doctor can definitively diagnose the condition is by measuring the levels of uric acid in your synovial fluid. (bartonhealth.org)
  • If your synovial fluid sample shows uric acid crystals, you may have gout. (bartonhealth.org)
  • But even if your sample doesn't show uric acid crystals, you still may have gout. (bartonhealth.org)
  • This is also true for diseases such as gout, where eating foods high in uric acid can reduce some symptoms. (adoxymedia.com)
  • If you have gout due to high uric acid, eating a banana a day can reduce the amount of uric acid in the blood, thereby reducing the risk of gout. (adoxymedia.com)
  • By reducing pain, cherries also prevent uric acid, the main cause of gout, from crystallizing and accumulating in the joints. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Many studies have proven that green tea extract can reduce uric acid in the body, so green tea is a good drink for people suffering from gout or having too much uric acid in the blood. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some foods are especially high in purines and can raise uric acid levels in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • When our diet is too rich in purines , uric acid concentration in our blood begins to increase, because of this excess. (botanical-online.com)
  • The purines are precursors of uric acid production. (botanical-online.com)
  • Uric acid is the byproduct of the breakdown of purines. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Supplements of dietary purines produce dose-proportional increases in plasma uric acid concentrations, uric acid pool size and renal uric acid excretion. (goutpal.com)
  • Many do contain purines, which are a source of uric acid, but as Zöllner points out, there are different types of purine, and they metabolize to uric acid at different rates. (goutpal.com)
  • He also points out that we do not really need to digest purines for uric acid, as we can make our own by reprocessing dead cells. (goutpal.com)
  • Ngati tidya zakudya zambiri zopezeka ndi purines nthawi imodzi, thupi lanu limatha kukhala ndi uric acid wambiri osadziwa. (nutridieta.com)
  • No milk dairy foods do not affect uric acid production as they are one of the few things that come from animals or plants for that mater that do not have purines. (answers.com)
  • Uric acid is a substance generated by the organism itself as a result of the breakdown of purines . (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Uric acid is a normal waste product formed from the breakdown of food, particularly compounds called purines. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Food and drinks high in purines also increase the level of uric acid. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Some foods are very high in purines and may contribute to high uric acid levels in the body. (healthline.com)
  • When purines are broken down to uric acid in the blood, the body gets rid of it when you urinate or have a bowel movement. (bartonhealth.org)
  • Bananas are naturally low in purines, a natural compound that breaks down uric acid, so they're a good choice for you. (adoxymedia.com)
  • The failure of recycling together with the increased synthesis of purines is the basis for the overproduction of uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • A cucumber is also a great option for those people with high uric acid in the blood. (indiatimes.com)
  • Pulses and legumes are also not considered good for people with high uric acid. (jiva.com)
  • In humans, about 70% of daily uric acid disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5-25% of humans, impaired renal (kidney) excretion leads to hyperuricemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Too much uric acid in the blood is also known as hyperuricemia . (healthline.com)
  • When the concentration of uric acid in the blood, that's to say, when uric acid accumulates more than it should, exceeding values of ​​7mg/dl in women and 7.5mg/dl in men , there is a condition called hyperuricemia or excess of uric acid in blood. (botanical-online.com)
  • The accumulation of uric acid (hyperuricemia) caused because the concentration is higher than normal, implies the acidification of the pH of the blood, causing tissue damage. (botanical-online.com)
  • When Uric Acid concentrations are elevated in a condition known as hyperuricemia, significant harmful health effects result. (salimetrics.com)
  • In the clinical space, uric acid is often associated with understanding the effects of hyperuricemia. (salimetrics.com)
  • The term "hyperuricemia" refers to an excessively high level of uric acid in the blood. (healthmgz.com)
  • Along these lines, hyperuricemia is the condition in which uric corrosive dimensions are excessively high since it amasses in light of the fact that the kidneys don't dispose of it well with pee. (healthmgz.com)
  • If too much uric acid stays in the body, a condition called hyperuricemia will occur. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Hyperuricemia can cause crystals of uric acid to form. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Excess uric acid in your blood is referred to as hyperuricemia and its byproduct in the body is uric acid. (top-health-today.com)
  • [ 1 ] The overproduction of uric acid is associated with hyperuricemia . (medscape.com)
  • The increased production of uric acid leads to hyperuricemia. (medscape.com)
  • Since uric acid is near its physiologic limit of solubility in the body, the persistent hyperuricemia increases the risk of uric acid crystal precipitation in the tissues to form tophi. (medscape.com)
  • Normal excretion of uric acid in the urine is 270 to 360 mg per day (concentration of 270 to 360 mg/L if one litre of urine is produced per day - higher than the solubility of uric acid because it is in the form of dissolved acid urates), roughly 1% as much as the daily excretion of urea. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proportion of people have mutations in the urate transport proteins responsible for the excretion of uric acid by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal excretion of uric acid involves 4 pathways: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and postsecretory reabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • Extracellular volume expansion or contraction, respectively, enhances or reduces uric acid excretion through the paired movement of sodium. (medscape.com)
  • Fluids, too, are beneficial as they help in the removal of the uric acid from the body through excretion. (indiatimes.com)
  • Madani A, Kermani N, Ataei N, Esfahani ST, Hajizadeh N, Khazaeipour Z. Urinary calcium and uric acid excretion in children with vesicoureteral reflux. (medscape.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers. (duke.edu)
  • Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers. (duke.edu)
  • 24-h urine excretion of uric acid and phosphate was found to be significantly higher in stone patients as compared to controls. (duke.edu)
  • Uric acid is present in all body fluids, and the serum level is determined by its rate of synthesis, excretion, and metabolism. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Medications can be used as a preventive measure to decrease production or to increase excretion of uric acid. (healthline.com)
  • Extreme values of serum uric acid levels in the blood can markedly reduce a patient's chance of surviving and reduce their lifespans by up to 11 years, according to a new study by researchers at University of Limerick's School of Medicine. (nkdss.ie)
  • Approximately 80% of patients with elevated serum triglyceride levels also have increased serum uric acid levels. (medscape.com)
  • About 5% of hospitalized patients have decreased serum uric acid levels, with a postoperative state, diabetes mellitus, drugs, and SIADH being the most common causes. (medscape.com)
  • Our most respected scientific literature is bursting with evidence that elevated uric acid levels lie at the root of many pervasive health conditions, but mainstream medicine for the most part remains unaware of this connection. (saclibrary.org)
  • Your doctor can check the amount of uric acid in your body by performing a simple blood test. (livestrong.com)
  • If your body fluids don't contain enough salt due to a condition called the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion or SIADH, the amount of uric acid in your blood may also be unusually low. (livestrong.com)
  • Similarly, low amount of uric acid can result in other health problems such as diabetes and oxidative stress. (jiva.com)
  • In most cases uric acid can be treated and managed at home with the use of simple home remedies, however, if the amount of uric acid becomes access, it starts causing pain in the joints, as well as increases the risk of other health complications. (jiva.com)
  • The test will provide a numeric value of the amount of uric acid that is present in your body. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Doctors can also prescribe medications to help reduce the amount of uric acid in the body. (healthline.com)
  • Three forms of kidney disease have been attributed to excess uric acid: acute uric acid nephropathy, chronic urate nephropathy, and uric acid nephrolithiasis. (medscape.com)
  • These disorders share the common element of excess uric acid or urate deposition, although the clinical features vary. (medscape.com)
  • Excess of uric acid does not usually present any symptoms, so it is harder to detect it quickly. (botanical-online.com)
  • Lime and lemon contain citric acid which helps in dissolving the excess uric acid in the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • The fibrous components absorb all the excess uric acid in the bloodstream and help in efficiently managing it. (indiatimes.com)
  • Total Cleanse Uric Acid is known to act directly to get rid of excess uric acid which is known to cause inflammation. (jointhealthmagazine.com)
  • Excess uric acid is found when you consume a lot of non-vegetarian products, alcohol-based beverages, or seafoods. (jiva.com)
  • Ayurveda is very effective treatment against uric acid, as well as diseases caused by excess presence of uric acid in the body. (jiva.com)
  • The excess uric acid develops into precious stones that accumulate in the joints and cause pain. (healthmgz.com)
  • In species such as birds and reptiles, uric acid is used as a means of eliminating excess nitrogen. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Fiber absorbs uric acid from the blood and removes excess uric from the body. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Eating these foods can help you control uric acid levels in your body as they remove excess uric. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Lower Uric Acid Levels to Lose Weight Fast! (firstforwomen.com)
  • The good news is that it's easy to lower uric acid, and when you do, weight loss becomes easier than it's been in years. (firstforwomen.com)
  • People with kidney disease are known to benefit from the apple cider while lemon juice and turmeric have been found to lower uric acid. (activejar.com)
  • Apples are rich in dietary fiber, which helps lower uric acid. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Certain foods and drinks in a person's diet can either reduce uric acid or increase it. (healthline.com)
  • If you are looking for ways on how to control uric acid, you will be pleased to know that properly planned uric acid diets can help a lot. (jiva.com)
  • How to control uric acid with diet? (jiva.com)
  • If you have been looking for natural ways on how to control uric acid, it is highly recommended to approach an ayurveda doctor for comprehensive and holistic home remedies for uric acid . (jiva.com)
  • Brew these teas to control uric acid. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that serum uric acid (UA), a product of xanthine oxidase (XO), may be a useful marker for metabolic, hemodynamic, and functional staging in heart failure (HF) and a valid predictor of survival in HF patients. (nih.gov)
  • Many medications can affect the renal transport of uric acid through effects of proximal tubular absorption and secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Acute uric acid nephropathy is the term applied to the development of acute oligoanuric kidney failure caused by renal tubular obstruction by urate and uric acid crystals. (medscape.com)
  • Acute renal failure due to obstructive uric acid stones associated with acute gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
  • Feasibility of discriminating uric acid from non-uric acid renal stones using consecutive spatially registered low- and high-energy scans obtained on a conventional CT scanner. (medscape.com)
  • Chronically elevated urine uric acid levels predispose some individuals to develop urolithiasis, gouty arthritis, and renal dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Uric acid levels are affected by age, sex, and renal function. (medscape.com)
  • Renal NF-κB activation impairs uric acid homeostasis to promote tumor-associated mortality independent of wasting. (bvsalud.org)
  • We further indicate that renal IMD-NF-κB activation caused uric acid (UA) overload to reduce survival of tumor -bearing flies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Salimetrics' innovative Salivary Uric Acid Assay Kit provides researchers with the opportunity to quickly monitor uric acid levels in saliva samples using non-invasive and participant-centric saliva collection devices. (salimetrics.com)
  • A new study, "The validity, stability, and utility of measuring uric acid in saliva," published in Biomarkers in Medicine, used the Salimetrics Salivary Uric Acid Assay Kit as part of a longitudinal study to better understand the biological value of measuring uric acid in saliva samples. (salimetrics.com)
  • The Dalmatian has a genetic defect in uric acid uptake by the liver and kidneys, resulting in decreased conversion to allantoin, so this breed excretes uric acid, and not allantoin, in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys, where it passes out in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the collecting tubules of the kidneys, where the pH can fall to 5.0, uric acid formation is favored. (medscape.com)
  • Uric acid is normally removed from your body by your kidneys. (healthline.com)
  • Common causes of lower-than-normal uric acid levels include Wilson's disease -- a disease in which copper abnormally accumulates in your vital organs, and Fanconi syndrome -- a condition in which your kidneys allow certain waste products to be reabsorbed by your bloodstream rather than passing into your urine and out of your body. (livestrong.com)
  • However, because of certain reasons such as ineffective kidney functions, obesity , or some other underlying health problems, the kidneys unable to remove uric acid. (jiva.com)
  • The kidneys eliminate two thirds of the uric acid, with the GI tract excreting the other one third. (medscape.com)
  • Also, is that the kidneys are the organs in charge of expelling this substance from the body through pee, with the goal that the aggregation of uric corrosive can prompt this kind of afflictions. (healthmgz.com)
  • Most uric acid dissolves in the blood, passes through the kidneys and leaves the body in urine. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Kidney stones that are found inside the kidneys come about due to excessive concentration of uric acid in the urine. (top-health-today.com)
  • But if your body makes too much uric acid, or if your kidneys aren't working properly, uric acid can build up in the blood. (bartonhealth.org)
  • These findings indicate that HFCS acutely increases vascular resistance in the kidneys, independent of caffeine content and beverage osmolality, which likely occurs via simultaneous elevations in circulating uric acid and vasopressin. (cdc.gov)
  • Low uric acid levels affect only 0.5 percent of the normal population each year, according to UpToDate. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have questions or concerns regarding your blood levels of uric acid, seek additional care from your medical provider. (livestrong.com)
  • Healthy, normal blood levels of uric acid range between 3 and 7 mg/dL, according to MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (livestrong.com)
  • If your uric acid blood levels fall beneath this range, you may have hypouricemia -- the medical term used to describe unusually low blood levels of uric acid. (livestrong.com)
  • The type of symptoms you may experience due to low uric acid levels may vary depending upon the cause of your condition. (livestrong.com)
  • Frequently, low uric acid levels do not cause noticeable symptoms. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have low uric acid levels due to Fanconi syndrome, you may develop bone pain or feel unusually weak. (livestrong.com)
  • Your doctor is the only person qualified to recommend a particular treatment to raise your uric acid levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Slightly low uric acid levels are not normally a cause for concern. (livestrong.com)
  • In certain cases, simply increasing the amount of purine you consume as a part of your regular diet may help stabilize your blood levels of uric acid. (livestrong.com)
  • Alternatively, your doctor may prescribe medication that specifically treats the cause of your low uric acid levels. (livestrong.com)
  • It also maintains normal levels of uric acid. (jointhealthmagazine.com)
  • While uric acid provides health benefits when present at normal levels, abnormally high or low levels can cause adverse health effects. (salimetrics.com)
  • Systemic uric acid concentrations are influenced by dietary levels of purine rich foods, body mass index (BMI), and cardiometabolic risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride levels and fasting blood glucose. (salimetrics.com)
  • Uric Acid (UA) is an end product of purine nucleotide catabolism in humans that provides health benefits at normal levels, constituting a large portion of the antioxidant capacity of blood. (salimetrics.com)
  • Consistent with this concept, a recent report indicates that high blood levels of Uric Acid may be protective against Alzheimer diseases. (salimetrics.com)
  • Blood uric levels above 7 mg/dl leads to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. (salimetrics.com)
  • High blood Uric Acid levels are also associated with a wide variety of diseases including hypertension, increased cardiovascular mortality, obesity and metabolic syndrome. (salimetrics.com)
  • They are related to the uric acid formation and thus, is extremely helpful in reducing the uric acid levels. (indiatimes.com)
  • For those suffering from high levels of uric acid in their body, choosing the right types of fruits can help in maintaining level of uric acid. (indiatimes.com)
  • It is always suggested not to include any citrus fruits in the diet when suffering from increased levels of uric acid in the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Therefore, drinking more fluids and water will help in reducing the uric acid levels. (indiatimes.com)
  • This particular substance is beneficial and helpful in reducing high uric acid levels. (indiatimes.com)
  • Fruits, just like the vegetables, are extremely helpful in providing relief from increasing levels of uric acid. (indiatimes.com)
  • Tomatoes, which are also counted as a fruit rather than a vegetable, are good for your body and their high vitamin C content can help in reducing the uric acid levels. (indiatimes.com)
  • However, if you are diagnosed with high level of uric acid, vegetables such as spinach, asparagus, peas and cauliflower should be avoided a they may contribute to increase the uric acid levels. (indiatimes.com)
  • Theobromine alkaloid is very helpful to reduce high uric acid levels as it can help relax the bronchial muscles of lungs. (indiatimes.com)
  • Uric Acid Levels query Hi all Some advice would be greatly appreciated. (goutpal.com)
  • Uric Acid slow rise My uric acid levels have gone from 186 to 295 (Can. (goutpal.com)
  • Uric Acid levels Hi I am new to this forum and find the info here invaluable. (goutpal.com)
  • Is cranberry juice good for uric acid?It is possible to get your high uric acid levels under control through dietary changes. (diethealthclub.com)
  • I list a range of risky uric acid levels in my Uric Acid Level Ranges . (goutpal.com)
  • In my opinion, this risky range is the worst there is for uric acid levels. (goutpal.com)
  • As I have explained in safe uric acid levels , 5mg/dL is recognized by most professional rheumatologists. (goutpal.com)
  • Regular reader will be aware of my distress and contempt for "normal" uric acid levels . (goutpal.com)
  • As you will see in my explanation of dangerous uric acid levels, the higher up the scale you choose to go, the more you risk serious, even life-threatening, consequences. (goutpal.com)
  • Leave Risky Uric Acid Levels to browse more Uric Acid guidelines . (goutpal.com)
  • Please vote for reviewing this page at Review Risky Uric Acid Levels . (goutpal.com)
  • This test can also be used to monitor levels of uric acid for people that are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Similar to patterns seen in studies examining serum uric acid, males exhibited significantly higher levels than females and BMI was also positively correlated with salivary uric acid levels. (salimetrics.com)
  • This study also added to a growing body of research reporting correlations between serum and salivary uric acid measurements, further reinforcing salivary uric acid's association with systemic uric acid levels. (salimetrics.com)
  • Dr. Perlmutter discovered, "As uric acid levels rise, so do BMI and waist measurements. (firstforwomen.com)
  • In one study, folks with lower acid levels had waists that were 4 inches slimmer , on average. (firstforwomen.com)
  • Are high uric acid levels causing you discomfort and concern? (e-sathi.com)
  • If you have joint or muscle discomfort, your uric acid levels may already be high. (toneshealth.com)
  • While hyperuricosuria can contribute to stone formation, elevated urinary uric acid levels can be tolerated in the presence of normal urinary pH without stone formation. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Thus, having high levels of uric acid can be detrimental to health for several reasons. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • High levels of uric acid can cause crystals to form in the joints, causing pain and swelling. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • The way to keep your uric acid levels within the normal range is to focus on overall health, especially kidney health, and eating high-purine foods in moderation or not at all. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • If untreated, high uric acid levels may eventually lead to permanent bone, joint and tissue damage, kidney disease and heart disease. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Research has also shown a link between high uric acid levels and type 2 diabetes , high blood pressure, and fatty liver disease. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Patients suffering from hypothyroidism including those with obesity are likely to experience high levels of uric acid. (top-health-today.com)
  • Chances of developing diabetes when you have high uric acid levels are high. (top-health-today.com)
  • High levels of uric acid in the blood can be reduced below 7.0mg/dL. (top-health-today.com)
  • However, the affected people have reported it has reduced uric levels significantly. (activejar.com)
  • The uric acid test measures levels of uric acid that can collect in joint fluid. (bartonhealth.org)
  • Uric acid levels can also increase when you eat too many high-purine foods or take certain medications like diuretics, aspirin, and niacin. (bartonhealth.org)
  • Your doctor may also order blood and urine tests to measure uric acid levels. (bartonhealth.org)
  • The New York Times bestselling author of Grain Brain and Brain Wash offers simple dietary and lifestyle tweaks to help you lose weight, prevent (and reverse) disease, and live a long and healthy life by reducing high uric acid levels-the hidden health risk you didn't know you had. (saclibrary.org)
  • All can be stoked by high uric acid levels. (saclibrary.org)
  • How to easily test your uric acid levels at home-a test routinely performed in your doctor's office during regular check-ups but typically ignored. (saclibrary.org)
  • Featuring the groundbreaking "LUV" (Lower Uric Values) diet, 35 delicious recipes, self-assessment quizzes, and a 21-day program for dropping levels, Drop Acid empowers readers with the information they need to address this hidden danger and live longer, leaner, and healthier lives. (saclibrary.org)
  • Try these 6 foods for naturally high uric acid and low levels. (adoxymedia.com)
  • thereby lowering uric levels. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Oranges can be really good for lowering your uric levels. (adoxymedia.com)
  • Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans uric acid (actually hydrogen urate ion) is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine metabolism and is excreted in urine, whereas in most other mammals, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This test may also be done to check whether a high uric acid level in the urine is causing kidney stones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One end product of nucleoprotein metabolism is uric acid, which is excreted in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • [3, 4] In other lower mammalian species, uric acid is a byproduct of purine metabolism, and is converted to the urine soluble compound, allantoin, by the enzyme uricase. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • There are three urinary contributors to the pathophysiology of uric acid stones- persistently low urine pH, low urine volume, and in rare instances hyperuricosuria. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • [6-9] Individuals with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes have a much higher incidence of persistently acidic urine and uric acid nephrolithiasis. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ammonium production in the proximal tubule and decreased in urine pH, creating a favorable environment for uric acid kidney stone formation. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Uric acid, which is soluble in water usually, finds its way out of the body through urine. (top-health-today.com)
  • Increasing wet bulb globe temperature, high uric acid, decreased urine pH, urinary leukocyte esterase, and serum hyperosmolality were risk factors for decline in kidney function. (cdc.gov)
  • Most urinary uric acid appears to be derived from tubular secretion, possibly from the S2 segment of the proximal tubule. (medscape.com)
  • Two cases of ammonium acid urate urinary stones related to anorexia nervosa and laxative abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Because pure uric acid urinary stones typically are radiolucent, they may not be detected with plain abdominal radiography but can be detected with noncontrast CT scanning. (medscape.com)
  • Low urinary pH is the main determinant of uric acid stone formation. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Patients with uric acid stones present with signs and symptoms similar to other patients with stones, including pain, hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, nausea, and emesis. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Low urinary pH and a lower stone attenuation value on computed tomography should lead one to suspect uric acid stone composition. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Management of uric acid stones is directed at pH manipulation therapy, since uric acid stones dissolve readily in a favorable urinary pH. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Then crystals of uric acid can form and collect in the joints, causing painful inflammation. (bartonhealth.org)
  • Apple cider vinegar contains malic acid which not only breaks down uric acid but also removes it from the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • The enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyzes the formation of uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6.8 mg/dL) can result from decreased elimination or uric acid, increased formation of uric acid, or a combination of these processes. (medscape.com)
  • One the other hand, one should stay away from foods with high purine content as they increase the uric acid. (activejar.com)
  • But you can develop some symptoms as a result of the accumulation of uric acid. (botanical-online.com)
  • If this balance is broken, it can lead to an accumulation of uric acid. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • A high concentration of uric acid in the bloodstream can lead to several health issues. (indiatimes.com)
  • The cause may be hereditary, or you may have kidney problems that make you less able to remove uric acid. (healthline.com)
  • The loss of uricase in higher primates parallels the similar loss of the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid, leading to the suggestion that urate may partially substitute for ascorbate in such species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both uric acid and ascorbic acid are strong reducing agents (electron donors) and potent antioxidants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of their adaptation from marine life, terrestrial plants began producing non-marine antioxidants such as ascorbic acid ( vitamin C ), polyphenols and tocopherols . (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] These preservatives include natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA, E300) and tocopherols (E306), as well as synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, E310), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, E321). (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 1 ] and because humans do not possess the enzyme uricase, which converts uric acid into the more soluble compound allantoin. (medscape.com)
  • Uric Acid is an end product of purine nucleotide catabolism in humans. (salimetrics.com)
  • In humans, uric acid is one of the most potent and most prevalent anti-oxidants in the blood, contributing over half the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma. (salimetrics.com)
  • The final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans is uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to have a thorough understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stones in patients with this condition. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Moreover, hyperuricosuria as the sole cause of uric acid nephrolithiasis is considered relatively rare. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Allopurinol is useful to control the overproduction of uric acid and reduces the risk of nephrolithiasis and gouty arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • In birds and reptiles, and in some desert-dwelling mammals (such as the kangaroo rat), uric acid also is the end product of purine metabolism, but it is excreted in feces as a dry mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uric acid is the relatively water-insoluble end product of purine nucleotide metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Uric acid, the product of the xanthine oxidase-catalyzed conversion of xanthine and hypoxanthine, is the final metabolite of endogenous and dietary purine nucleotide metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The urate crystals deposit in tissues when there's too much uric acid in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • Salivary uric acid offers researchers a unique opportunity to easily and non-invasively monitor uric acid's effects on human health," says Dr. Granger. (salimetrics.com)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Uric acid was first isolated from kidney stones in 1776 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of kidney stones, approximately 5-10% of the 3.3 million Americans seeking medical care for kidney stones are due to elevated Uric Acid. (salimetrics.com)
  • Also, the presence of high uric acid can lead to kidney stones or kidney failure. (anylabtestnow.com)
  • Uric acid stones account for 7-10% of all kidney stones in the United States. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • Uric acid is a chemical naturally produced and excreted by your body. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, consuming a diet low in purine -- a substance your body naturally converts to uric acid -- can also result in hypouricemia. (livestrong.com)
  • [ 4 ] When urate is filtered at exceedingly high concentrations from the plasma and is further concentrated through the course of the tubular system, with the pH becoming progressively more acidic, uric acid precipitation and obstruction in the tubules, collecting ducts, and even pelves and ureters may result. (medscape.com)
  • This would include eating low-acid foods, drinking low acid drinks, avowing acidic toxins, and more. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Juice extracted from French beans might not taste the best but can help in toning down the symptoms of uric acid like swelling and pain. (indiatimes.com)
  • I've been using Lifetones Uric Acid Support for about 5 years now and it continues to keep my Fibromylagia symptoms at bay. (toneshealth.com)
  • We'll explain what uric acid symptoms to look out for as well as many other helpful details. (healthmgz.com)
  • It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal concentration range of uric acid (or hydrogen urate ion) in human blood is 25 to 80 mg/L for men and 15 to 60 mg/L for women (but see below for slightly different values). (wikipedia.org)
  • The uric acid blood level can be checked using a blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This test may be done to help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Uric acid is a substance that can normally be found in our blood. (botanical-online.com)
  • There is also an increase in uric acid in our blood when we perform fasting periods. (botanical-online.com)
  • Such anomaly is improved if you manage to diminish acid uric in blood. (botanical-online.com)
  • People suffering from high uric acid level in blood, find it difficult to pick the right and healthy foods that they can include in their diet. (indiatimes.com)
  • Also, they are high in fibre content that helps in promoting the reduction of uric acid in the blood. (indiatimes.com)
  • These enzymes promote the synthesis of uric acid in the blood. (indiatimes.com)
  • Determining my uric acid level This discussion about diy uric acid blood tests is now closed. (goutpal.com)
  • EULAR (EUropean League Against Rheumatism) has produced 6 still images of a uric acid crystal meeting a white blood cell. (goutpal.com)
  • The images used in my sequence were taken from a set of six images showing the progress of white blood cells as they engulf uric acid crystals . (goutpal.com)
  • White blood cells avidly ingest small uric acid crystals. (goutpal.com)
  • Now, salivary uric acid can further advance studies that have been previously limited by participant compliance and the ability to collect blood samples. (salimetrics.com)
  • Now, for the first time, leading scientists suspect that uric acid, once thought to be a trivial substance in the body, is at the root of the obesity epidemic and other health challenges, including diabetes, high blood pressure, fatty liver and body-wide inflammation. (firstforwomen.com)
  • Truth be told, much of the time, individuals who experience the ill effects of it don't understand until the specialist sees in blood tests that the dimension of uric corrosive surpasses ordinary qualities. (healthmgz.com)
  • Uric acid is a waste product found in blood. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Maybe you've had a blood test, and you've found a high uric acid value in your blood. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Victims of high uric acid in their blood also risk contracting atherosclerosis. (top-health-today.com)
  • In general, the water solubility of uric acid and its alkali metal and alkaline earth salts is rather low. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solubility of the acid and its salts in ethanol is very low or negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical physical property of uric acid in the clinical setting is solubility. (medscape.com)
  • Overproduction of uric acid occurs primarily when tissue breakdown is accelerated. (medscape.com)
  • In animal models of uric acid nephropathy, the precipitation of uric acid and urate occurs primarily in the collecting duct system and, to some extent, in the vasa recta. (medscape.com)
  • Oxythiamine, Uric Acid, and High Fructose Corn Syrup: Are There Connections? (hormonesmatter.com)
  • Adding lemon to your diet can work wonders in managing uric acid. (indiatimes.com)
  • Patients suffering from painful uric acid are often recommended a diet full of fibrous foods. (indiatimes.com)
  • You must include bananas, oats, and grains like jowar and bajra in your diet to tame uric acid. (indiatimes.com)
  • It is extremely necessary to eat a balanced diet which includes all the essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and healthy fatty acids. (indiatimes.com)
  • Opting for a fibre rich diet can be helpful to reduce the uric acid level in the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Oats, whole grains, vegetables like broccoli, pumpkin and celery should be included in the diet to lower the uric acid level. (indiatimes.com)
  • Even with an underlying health problem, uric acid can be managed by following a proper diet and lifestyle regimen. (jiva.com)
  • And Ayurvedic uric acid diet is planned by Doctor after thorough consultation with the patient. (jiva.com)
  • If you have had a history of high uric acid, or someone in your close family has suffered from uric acid in the past, follow the recommended diet routines described above, and do not delay if you start experiencing pain. (jiva.com)
  • High Uric acid is terrible its patients always have to be careful in their diet . (goutinfoclub.com)
  • What Fruit juice is best for uric acid diet? (answers.com)
  • To much juice in the diet leads to hair loss, decaying teeth from the acid, and far worse effects on the stomach lining. (answers.com)
  • Increases in serum uric acid were greater in the HFCS trial (0.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dL, P = 0.04) compared with the Water and Diet trials, and serum copeptin increased in the HFCS trial (by 0.8 +/- 1.0 pmol/L, P = 0.06). (cdc.gov)
  • Uric Acid shows a strong potential to define key biological pathways that can now be monitored with painless, less expensive, (no need for needles, trained phlebotomists, expensive collection supplies or biohazard disposal), and non-invasive saliva samples. (salimetrics.com)
  • These types of foods are filled with dietary fibres that are extremely beneficial in the absorption of the uric acid and in eliminating it from the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Individuals with a past history of stone disease should be advised to reduce their dietary intake of foods rich in uric acid (meat, liver and beans). (duke.edu)
  • [20] One study showed that uric acid was the second most common stone composition after the age of 55 and that men comprised 72% of uric acid stone formers. (bladeresearchinc.com)
  • You can gorge on cherries, strawberries and blueberries if you are suffering from joint pain due to uric acid. (indiatimes.com)
  • While investigators have long been studying the relationship between serum uric acid and oxidative stress, more recently, research on salivary uric acid has shown strong associations with neurological activity, suggesting a deep neurological influence. (salimetrics.com)
  • If your body produces too much uric acid or does not remove enough of it, you may get sick. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When your body breaks them down, they turn into uric acid. (healthline.com)
  • High level of uric acid in the body can cause various health issues like arthritis. (indiatimes.com)
  • Hence, we have mentioned a few healthy food choices that can help you in regulating uric acid in the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Carrots and cucumber are great for health if you have high uric acid content in the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Due to their high fibre content, they are also helpful in expelling the uric acid content from the body. (indiatimes.com)
  • Uric acid is one of those waste products that the body produces after digesting purine-based foods. (jiva.com)
  • A Sneaky Body Acid Is Packing On Fat - Dr. David Perlmutter Reveals The Easy Ways To Lower It So Fat Just Falls Off! (firstforwomen.com)
  • He adds, "Popular calorie-restricted plans overlook this powerful alarm signal - elevated uric acid - that tells the body to prepare for food scarcity and cling to fat. (firstforwomen.com)
  • Luckily, it's never too late to cleanse your body, break down uric acid crystals, and feel amazing. (toneshealth.com)
  • It is still unclear to many people as to what high level of uric acid can do to your body. (top-health-today.com)
  • Some studies suggest that warm water taken with apple cider vinegar, lemon juice, and turmeric may help reduce the uric acid level in the body. (activejar.com)
  • Dairy intake in the form of a glass of milk or yogurt might help you lower the uric acid level in the body. (activejar.com)
  • Apples also contain malic acid, which can neutralize the effects of uric in the body. (adoxymedia.com)