An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Increased salivary flow.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Halogenated anti-infective agent that is used against trematode and cestode infestations.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.2.2 and EC 3.4.12.3.
A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.

The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7805 requires urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) to utilize urea as a nitrogen source: molecular-genetic and biochemical analysis of the enzyme. (1/970)

Cyanobacteria assigned to the genus Synechococcus are an important component of oligotrophic marine ecosystems, where their growth may be constrained by low availability of fixed nitrogen. Urea appears to be a major nitrogen resource in the sea, but little molecular information exists about its utilization by marine organisms, including Synechococcus. Oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify a conserved fragment of the urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) coding region from cyanobacteria. A 5.7 kbp region of the genome of the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH7805 was then cloned, and genes encoding three urease structural subunits and four urease accessory proteins were sequenced and identified by homology. The WH7805 urease had a predicted subunit composition typical of bacterial ureases, but the organization of the WH7805 urease genes was unique. Biochemical characteristics of the WH7805 urease enzyme were consistent with the predictions of the sequence data. Physiological data and sequence analysis both suggested that the urease operon may be nitrogen-regulated by the ntcA system in WH7805. Inactivation of the large subunit of urease, ureC, prevented WH7805 and Synechococcus WH8102 from growing on urea, demonstrating that the urease genes cloned are essential to the ability of these cyanobacteria to utilize urea as a nitrogen source.  (+info)

Role of apoptosis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcer. (2/970)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori affects gastric epithelium integrity by acceleration of apoptosis. However, it remains unclear what product of the bacteria causes apoptosis, or whether or not the apoptosis is involved in the development of ulcers. AIMS: To elucidate the factor from H pylori that causes acceleration of apoptosis and the role of apoptosis in the development of duodenal ulcer in H pylori infection. PATIENTS: Five H pylori negative healthy volunteers, 47 H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer, and 35 H pylori positive patients with gastric ulcer. METHODS: An endoscopic examination was carried out to diagnose ulcers and determine their clinical stage. To analyse apoptosis, a cell cycle analysis was performed using biopsy specimens. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the urease activity of the H pylori strain and the level of apoptosis induced by this bacterial strain. Moreover, in duodenal ulcer patients infected with H pylori, the patients with an active ulcer exhibited a significantly higher level of apoptosis than those with ulcers at both the healing and scarring stages. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that acceleration of apoptosis in the antral mucosa caused by the urease of H pylori plays a crucial role in the development of ulcers in the duodenum.  (+info)

A novel urease-negative Helicobacter species associated with colitis and typhlitis in IL-10-deficient mice. (3/970)

A spiral-shaped bacterium with bipolar, single-sheathed flagella was isolated from the intestines of IL-10 (interleukin-10)-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice with inflammatory bowel disease. The organism was microaerobic, grew at 37 and 42 degrees C, and was oxidase and catalase positive but urease negative. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical and phenotypic criteria, the organism is classified as a novel helicobacter. Cesarean section-rederived IL-10(-/-) mice without helicobacter infection did not have histological evidence of intestinal inflammation. However, helicobacter-free IL-10(-/-), SCID/NCr, and A/JNCr mice experimentally inoculated with the novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. developed variable degrees of inflammation in the lower intestine, and in immunocompetent mice, the experimental infection was accompanied by a corresponding elevated immunoglobulin G antibody response to the novel Helicobacter sp. antigen. These data support other recent studies which demonstrate that multiple Helicobacter spp. in both naturally and experimentally infected mice can induce inflammatory bowel disease. The mouse model of helicobacter-associated intestinal inflammation should prove valuable in understanding how specific microbial antigens influence a complex disease process.  (+info)

Is routine histological evaluation an accurate test for Helicobacter pylori infection? (4/970)

AIM: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of routine histology for Helicobacter pylori infection, with histology by an expert pathologist, and to compare histology with the rapid urease test (RUT), 13C-urea breath test, IgG serology and culture of antrum and corpus specimens, in a consecutive series of untreated patients presenting for upper oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and fifteen consecutive patients underwent multiple tests for H. pylori infection: rapid urease test, 13C-urea breath test, IgG serology and histology and culture on antrum and corpus biopsy specimens. Histology was first evaluated by the pathologists in a routine examination, and then blindly reviewed by an expert pathologist with a special interest in gastrointestinal pathology. The patients were considered to be H. pylori-positive if two or more tests were positive. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients (70.4%) were found to be H. pylori positive. 13C-urea breath test and IgG serology showed the best sensitivity and specificity (100%). Both the antral and body cultures, and the rapid urease test had the highest specificity (100%). Histological diagnosis after re-evaluation by an expert pathologist showed a high sensitivity (98. 8%) and specificity (100%), and was better than routine histology (sensitivity 92.6%; specificity 90.3%). The accuracy of the rapid urease test was greater than that of routine histology, and the combination of these two tests improved the sensitivity of H. pylori detection to up to 100%. CONCLUSION: All diagnostic tests usually utilised in clinical practice have a sensitivity higher than 90%. In patients who were not pre-treated with antisecretory agents or antibiotics, the sensitivity of histological diagnosis, however, seems to be influenced by the accuracy of the histological examination. The sensitivity of routine histology, but not of revised histological diagnosis, is improved by an additional rapid urease test.  (+info)

Systemic and local immune responses against Helicobacter pylori urease in patients with chronic gastritis: distinct IgA and IgG productive sites. (5/970)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori urease is a major target for immune responses among various bacterial components in H pylori infected patients. AIMS: To analyse the relation between systemic and local humoral immune responses to H pylori urease and grades of chronic gastritis. PATIENTS: Seventy five patients with chronic gastritis associated with H pylori infection were classified into three groups (grade I, superficial gastritis; II, atrophic gastritis, quiescent; or III, atrophic gastritis, active). METHODS: Anti-H pylori urease specific antibodies in the serum, gastric juice, and biopsy specimens were determined by ELISA or western blotting analysis. The sites for H pylori urease and its specific antibody producing B lymphocytes were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: In the sera of patients with grade I gastritis, weak IgG but relatively strong IgG responses to H pylori urease were observed; dominant strong IgG responses were detected in grade II gastritis. In grade III gastritis, significant IgG and IgA responses were obtained. A similar pattern of IgA and IgG responses was detected in gastric juice and tissue. H pylori urease specific, antibody producing B cells were not found in the gastric mucosa of patients with grade I gastritis despite the presence of such B cells in the duodenal bulb. Specific B cells were observed in the gastric mucosa of patients with grade II and III gastritis with atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Purified H pylori urease, together with localisation of its specific antibody producing B cells, are useful for serological testing and histopathological analysis for determining the stage of chronic gastritis and studying the pathogenesis of H pylori infection.  (+info)

Isolation of Helicobacter pylori genes that modulate urease activity. (6/970)

Helicobacter pylori urease, a nickel-requiring metalloenzyme, hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2. We sought to identify H. pylori genes that modulate urease activity by constructing pHP8080, a plasmid which encodes both H. pylori urease and the NixA nickel transporter. Escherichia coli SE5000 and DH5alpha transformed with pHP8080 resulted in a high-level urease producer and a low-level urease producer, respectively. An H. pylori DNA library was cotransformed into SE5000 (pHP8080) and DH5alpha (pHP8080) and was screened for cotransformants expressing either lowered or heightened urease activity, respectively. Among the clones carrying urease-enhancing factors, 21 of 23 contained hp0548, a gene that potentially encodes a DNA helicase found within the cag pathogenicity island, and hp0511, a gene that potentially encodes a lipoprotein. Each of these genes, when subcloned, conferred a urease-enhancing activity in E. coli (pHP8080) compared with the vector control. Among clones carrying urease-decreasing factors, 11 of 13 clones contained the flbA (also known as flhA) flagellar biosynthesis/regulatory gene (hp1041), an lcrD homolog. The LcrD protein family is involved in type III secretion and flagellar secretion in pathogenic bacteria. Almost no urease activity was detected in E. coli (pHP8080) containing the subcloned flbA gene. Furthermore, there was significantly reduced synthesis of the urease structural subunits in E. coli (pHP8080) containing the flbA gene, as determined by Western blot analysis with UreA and UreB antiserum. Thus, flagellar biosynthesis and urease activity may be linked in H. pylori. These results suggest that H. pylori genes may modulate urease activity.  (+info)

Identification of virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori by random insertion mutagenesis. (7/970)

The complete genome of the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori, an important etiological agent of gastroduodenal disease in humans, has recently been published. This sequence revealed that the putative products of roughly one-third of the open reading frames (ORFs) have no significant homology to any known proteins. To be able to analyze the functions of all ORFs, we constructed an integration plasmid for H. pylori and used it to generate a random mutant library in this organism. This integration plasmid, designated pBCalpha3, integrated randomly into the chromosome of H. pylori. To test the capacity of this library to identify virulence genes, subsets of this library were screened for urease-negative mutants and for nonmotile mutants. Three urease-negative mutants in a subset of 1,251 mutants (0.25%) and 5 nonmotile mutants in a subset of 180 mutants (2.7%) were identified. Analysis of the disrupted ORFs in the urease-negative mutants revealed that two had disruptions of genes of the urease locus, ureB and ureI, and the third had a disruption of a unrelated gene; a homologue of deaD, which encodes an RNA helicase. Analysis of the disrupted ORFs in the nonmotile mutants revealed one ORF encoding a homologue of the paralyzed flagellar protein, previously shown to be involved in motility in Campylobacter jejuni. The other four ORFs have not been implicated in motility before. Based on these data, we concluded that we have generated a random insertion library in H. pylori that allows for the functional identification of genes in H. pylori.  (+info)

Urease and hexadecylamine-urease films at the air-water interface: an x-ray reflection and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction study. (8/970)

We report the results of surface x-ray scattering measurements performed on urease and hexadecylamine-urease films at the air-aqueous solution interface. It is demonstrated that although hexadecylamine does not form a stable monolayer on the pure aqueous surface, it does self-assemble into a stable, well-organized structure when spread on top of a urease film at the air-water interface. It is also likely that protein and hexadecylamine domains coexist at the interface.  (+info)

Short peptides resembling the Helicobacter pylori urease antigen (UreB F8 Ser-Ile-Lys-Glu-Asp-Val-Gln-Phe) with deleted aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues, anchored through a triazine linker via the N-terminal moiety to cellulose plate were prepared. The peptides were used for binding of antibodies from sera of patients with medically confirmed atherosclerosis. Recognition of the peptides was also tested with anti-Jack beans urease antibodies. The important role of a Gly-Gly spacer separating the peptides from the cellulose support was shown. Different patterns of binding of antibodies from H. pylori infected patients and anti-Jack bean urease antibodies were observed only in the case of pentapeptides. The peptide Gly-Gly-Leu-Val-Phe-Lys-Thr was recognized by most of the tested sera ...
Helicobacter pylori produces a 550 kDa, multimeric, nickel-containing urease that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbonic acid. The ure gene cluster, comprised of seven genes, encodes the two structural subunits UreA (26.5 kDa) and UreB (60.3 kDa), and five accessory proteins: UreI, UreE, UreF, UreG and UreH. Accessory proteins are required for nickel ion insertion into the apoenzyme. The native protein consists of six copies each of UreA and UreB; two nickel ions are coordinated into each UreB active site. Urease is found in the cytosol, but may also localize on the surface (although this may be an artefact) and elicits a strong serum immunoglobulin response. Urease aids in colonization of the host by neutralizing gastric acid and providing ammonia for bacterial protein synthesis. Host defences are avoided by urease by continuing to neutralize acid locally and by shedding urease, which may be bound by immunoglobulin, from the surface of the bacterium. Host
Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing ...
Helicobacter pylori has been demonstrated as an etiologic agent of human gastritis and peptic ulcer formation. However, there is no straightforward basis to distinguish different isolates. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the urease structural subunit genes, ureA and ureB, which, when digested with appropriate restriction endonucleases, allow the differentiation of patterns on agarose gels. PCR amplification was possible with DNA rapidly extracted from H. pylori by alkaline lysis and phenol-chloroform. The 2.4-kb PCR products amplified from 22 clinical isolates and subjected to HaeII restriction endonuclease digestion produced 10 distinct patterns on agarose gels, with two patterns being shared between five and six strains. PCR amplification of the urease genes may enable the differentiation of closely related H. pylori strains by restriction digest analysis of PCR-amplified ureA and ureB genes. ...
Urea is a nitrogen-containing compound that is produced during decarboxylation of the amino acid arginine in the urea cycle. Urea is a major organic waste product of protein digestion in most vertebrate and is excreted in urine. Some bacteria have the ability to produce an enzyme urease as part of its metabolism to break down urea. The urease is a hydrolytic enzyme which attacks the carbon and nitrogen bond with the liberation of ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is a useful diagnostic test for identifying bacteria, especially to distinguish members of the genus Proteus from Gram-negative pathogens. Proteus vulgaris is an important and fast producer of urease.. Urease test is performed by growing test organism on urea agar slant or urea broth with phenol red as an indicator with pH6.8. During the incubation period, the organism capable of producing urease enzyme hydrolyse urea and produce ammonia that raises the pH level. As the pH increases, the phenol red changes from yellowish orange as the ...
Urease Test- Principle, Procedure and Result. The objective is to determine the ability of the organism to hydrolyse urea by the action of urease enzyme. Urea is a nitrogen containing compound that is produced during decarboxylation of the amino acid arginine in the urea cycle. Proteus vulgaris Urease Positive.
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral, gram negative, microaerophilic bacterium that has been shown to be the etiological agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (3, 4). It expresses two distinct nickel-containing enzymes, both of which are important for its virulence. These are a membrane bound [Ni-Fe] hydrogen-uptake hydrogenase, which permits respiratory-based energy production for the bacteria in the mucosa (19, 30), and an enzyme critical for early steps in colonization, urease (23, 25). Synthesis of metal-containing enzymes often requires the participation of accessory proteins, and the maturation of hydrogenase and urease are no exceptions. Indeed, the complete genome sequence of H. pylori reveals the presence of a full complement of urease (ureIEFGH) and hydrogenase (hypABCDEF) accessory genes (36). A number of studies exist that address these accessory genes in other bacteria and their role in the Ni-dependent maturation of urease and hydrogenase apoenzymes (7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 20, 22, 27, ...
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BioAssay Systems Urease Assay Kit (DURE-100) measures urease activity and can be used to evaluate/screen for urease inhibitors. Urease reacts with urea to form ammonia, which is determined by the Berthelot method at 670nm. Samples: biological and environmental. Detection limit: 0.003 U/L.
UreB is one of the urease subunits of Helicobacter pylori and can be used as an excellent antigen candidate for H. pylori vaccination. Easy access to highl
The viability of different mechanisms of catalysis and inhibition of the nickel-containing enzyme urease was explored using the available high-resolution structures of the enzyme isolated from Bacillus pasteurii in the native form and inhibited with several substrates. The structures and charge distribution of urea, its catalytic transition state, and three enzyme inhibitors were calculated using ab initio and density functional theory methods. The DOCK program suite was employed to determine families of structures of urease complexes characterized by docking energy scores indicative of their relative stability according to steric and electrostatic criteria. Adjustment of the parameters used by DOCK, in order to account for the presence of the metal ion in the active site, resulted in the calculation of best energy structures for the nickel-bound inhibitors β-mercaptoethanol, acetohydroxamic acid, and diamidophosphoric acid. These calculated structures are in good agreement with the experimentally
A 4.6 kb DNA region of the Rhizobium meliloti strain AK631 was found to contain seven open reading frames (ORFs), all oriented in the same direction. The putative gene products of four of these ORFs were highly homologous to UreA, UreB and UreC of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Canavalia ensiformis. The overall organisation of the DNA region analysed was ORF1, ureA (ORF 2), ORF3, ureB (ORF4), ORF5, ORF6 and ureC (ORF7), indicating that the organisation of the urease structural genes in R. meliloti differs from that of other urease genes so far characterized. ORF1 was incomplete; only the 3 end of the coding region was present. The six complete ORFs coded for polypeptides of 11.1 (UreA), 8.9 (ORF3), 10.8 (UreB), 15.0 (ORF5), 13.8 (ORF6) and 60.7 kDa (UreC). No sequence homology to known polypeptides could be detected for the gene products of ORF1, ORF3, ORF5 and ORF6. Using a lacZ fusion and insertional mutagenesis it was shown that the seven ORFs identified were ...
article{139117, author = {Remaut, Han and SAFAROV, N and CIURLI, S and Van Beeumen, Jozef}, issn = {0021-9258}, journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY}, language = {eng}, number = {52}, pages = {49365--49370}, title = {Structural basis for Ni2+ transport and assembly of the urease active site by the metallochaperone UreE from Bacillus pasteurii.}, volume = {276}, year = {2001 ...
Ureaplasmas are unique among the mollicutes in possessing a very potent urease. Although protein and gene analysis of the ureaplasmal urease complex has shown that it resembles other procaryotic ureases in subunit structure and composition, the specific activity of the ureaplasmal urease is much higher and was estimated to exceed that of jack bean urease by about 100-fold. More importantly, ureaplasmas appear to be unique among procaryotes in requiring urea for growth. [...] The dependence of ureaplasmas on urea for growth has led to the hypothesis that intracellular urea hydrolysis and the resulting intracellular accumulation of ammonia/ammonium ions is coupled to ATP synthesis through a chemiosmotic type of mechanism. Experimental support for the generation of a transmembrane potential, with resultant ATP synthesis through the ureaplasmal F0F1-type ATPase, first provided by Romano et al. (1986, Medline: 3797330) was more recently extended and confirmed by Smith et al., 1993 [...] It is worth ...
Ureaplasmas are unique among the mollicutes in possessing a very potent urease. Although protein and gene analysis of the ureaplasmal urease complex has shown that it resembles other procaryotic ureases in subunit structure and composition, the specific activity of the ureaplasmal urease is much higher and was estimated to exceed that of jack bean urease by about 100-fold. More importantly, ureaplasmas appear to be unique among procaryotes in requiring urea for growth. [...] The dependence of ureaplasmas on urea for growth has led to the hypothesis that intracellular urea hydrolysis and the resulting intracellular accumulation of ammonia/ammonium ions is coupled to ATP synthesis through a chemiosmotic type of mechanism. Experimental support for the generation of a transmembrane potential, with resultant ATP synthesis through the ureaplasmal F0F1-type ATPase, first provided by Romano et al. (1986, Medline: 3797330) was more recently extended and confirmed by Smith et al., 1993 [...] It is worth ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The test is performed at the time of gastroscopy. A biopsy of mucosa is taken from the antrum of the stomach, and is placed into a medium containing urea and an indicator such as phenol red. The urease produced by H. pylori hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, which raises the pH of the medium, and changes the color of the specimen from yellow (NEGATIVE) to red (POSITIVE). Among different kinds of rapid urease tests (liquid-based, gel-based, dry cool) there is a design type with single-layer sensitive element - a layer impregnated simultaneously with urea and an indicator composition. Such a design bears the risk of false-positive result due to the pH value of the gastric biopsy when it is placed on the sensitive element. Excessive salivation and alkaline bile reflux into the stomach can shift the pH value of the biopsy of the stomach towards alkaline. Drugs that reduce the acidity of the stomach, also contribute to false positive results resulting from the alkalization. In each of these cases, the pH of ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The principle of the urease test is to determine whether an organism has the ability to hydrolyze urea into two molecules of ammonia by the enzyme urease (urea amidohydrolase) which results in increased alkalinity of the medium. This increase in alkalinity is detected by the use of phenol red as the pH indicator, changing from a orange-red to a bright pink. (1) Urea R Broth is designed to be both rapid and sensitive for the detection of urease. Urea R Broth utilizes weak pH buffers monopotassium phosphate and disodium phosphate in very low concentrations in order to detect the smallest amount of alkali. Yeast extract acts as a source of nutrients, carbon, and nitrogen for those organisms incapable of using ammonia as a nitrogen source. (1) There are several different formulas for determining the urease reaction of a microorganism. For the strong urease producers like Proteus spp. there is Rustigian and Stuarts Urea Broth. For the weak urease producers such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and ...
1. Urease of specific activity 160-180 Sumner units/g. (Sumner, 1951) was purified from jack-bean meal. The preparation was pure on the basis of polyacryl-amide-gel electrophoresis and N-terminal studies. 2. By using both the 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene method and the phenyl isothiocyanate method a single N-terminal methionine residue was found. 3. A single C-terminal sequence -Tyr-Leu-Phe was found by studies with carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B and hydrazinolysis. 4. N-Bromosuccinimide cleavage showed that five unique tryptophan sequences were present: Trp-Ala, Trp-Glu, Trp-Gly, Trp-Met and Trp-Arg. 5. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate showed that urease had a subunit molecular weight of 76000. 6. The yield of N- and C-terminal amino acids, the number of tryptic peptides and tryptophan sequences and the above polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic measurement all suggest that urease contains a single structural subunit of molecular weight 75000.. ...
The urease test is used to determine the ability of an organism to split urea, through the production of the enzyme urease. Two units of ammonia are formed with resulting alkalinity in the presence of the enzyme, and the increased pH is detected by a pH indicator ...
Rapid urease test (RUT) is the most commonly used biopsy-based method to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection because of its simple, rapid and accurate characters. However, its sensitivity was reported to decrease during ulcer bleeding recently. So it is an important issue to avoid a false negative test in these patients. Siddique et al reported that the sensitivity of RUT could be increased when the biopsy number increased from 1 to 4. Other studies demonstrated that additional biopsy from gastric body would increased the sensitivity of RUT in patients with ulcer bleeding. Therefore, we design this study to see if increased number of biopsy or different location of biopsy could increase sensitivity of RUT in patients with gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.. After receiving explanation and giving consent, these patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer bleeding diagnosed after endoscopic examination will be enrolled. Those who are unstable, have received antibiotic or continuous proton pump ...
A device for carrying out urease tests for combined antrum/corpus biopsies to diagnose gastro-intestinal illnesses has a carrier plate, a schematic representation of the stomach on the plate, at least one opening in the plate at the locations corresponding to the corpus and the antrum in the schematic representation of the stomach, an evaluation scale for assessment of the urease test and an area for data on the patient and for clinical data.
General Information: This genus consists of organisms that colonize the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract or are found enterohepatically (in the liver). It was only recently discovered (1983) by two Australians (Warren and Marshall) that this organism was associated with peptic ulcers. It is one of the most common chronic infectious organisms, and is found in half the worlds population. This organism attacks the gastric epithilial surface, resulting in chronic gastritis, and can cause more severe diseases including those that lead to gastric carcinomas and lymphomas, peptic ulcers, and severe diarrhea. It is an extracellular pathogen that persists in the gastric environment, which has a very low pH, by production of the urease enzyme, which converts urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, a process which can counteract the acidic environment by production of a base. The toxins include cytolethal distending toxin, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) that induces host epithelial cell apopoptosis ...
General Information: This genus consists of organisms that colonize the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract or are found enterohepatically (in the liver). It was only recently discovered (1983) by two Australians (Warren and Marshall) that this organism was associated with peptic ulcers. It is one of the most common chronic infectious organisms, and is found in half the worlds population. This organism attacks the gastric epithilial surface, resulting in chronic gastritis, and can cause more severe diseases including those that lead to gastric carcinomas and lymphomas, peptic ulcers, and severe diarrhea. It is an extracellular pathogen that persists in the gastric environment, which has a very low pH, by production of the urease enzyme, which converts urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, a process which can counteract the acidic environment by production of a base. The toxins include cytolethal distending toxin, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) that induces host epithelial cell apopoptosis ...
Dunn, B E et al Localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and heat shock protein in human gastric biopsies.. Infection and Immunity 65.4 (1997): 1181-1188. Web. 26 Feb. 2020. ...
Nitrisphere is not a coated or slow-release product. It is a chemical that inhibits the bacteria that carry urease enzyme, slowing the conversion of...
The characterization of the immunological cascades of the innate immune system activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) have allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of adjuvants. Thus, the combinatorial use of adjuvants with specific, complementary functions is investigated to achieve tailored immune responses to subunit vaccines. We have previously shown how combinatorial administration of chitosan and cholera toxin B or muramyl-di-peptide (MDP) intranasally, but not intramuscularly, can allow small doses of MDP which, when administered alone cannot adjuvantise Helicobacter pylori urease (rUre), achieve an immunomodulatory effect through the specific physiological effect of chitosan. The aim of this study was to investigate if in the context of rUre the adjuvantising effect of MDP could be realized via the intramuscular route by combination with aluminium hydroxide, as compared with ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atherosclerosis (AR) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are long-lasting human diseases. RA and AR are chronic diseases with strong a...
2UBP: A new proposal for urease mechanism based on the crystal structures of the native and inhibited enzyme from Bacillus pasteurii: why urea hydrolysis costs two nickels.
Most common cause of gastritis. Associated w/ duodenal ulcers and maybe cancer. , 20% of people , 30 years old. 40-60% of people 60 years old. G-, non spore-forming, curved to spiral, microaerophilic, catalase+, urease+, motile polar 5-6 flagella, coccoidal pordms under culture. Route of infection is unknown. Urease production allows survival at pH of 2.0. able to split ammonia from urea --, alkaline environment. Toxin & lipposac may damage mucosla cells. Treatment requires multiple antibiotics. Antacids heal ulcers, but have no effect on H. pylori. Amoxicillin and omerprazole 3X daily each has 91% cure rate. Resistance is spreading (metroidazole and clarithromycin). ...
Yeasts represent one of the growth forms of fungi. They are unicellular, and reproduce mostly by budding or less often by fission. Most medically important yeasts originate from the division of Ascomycota or from the division of Basidiomycota. A simple biochemical reaction, the urease test, can usually distinguish the yeasts from each of the divisions. Ascomycetous yeasts are usually urease negative, whereas basidiomycetous yeasts are urease positive.
Learn about the potential side effects of acetohydroxamic acid. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Learn about Lithostat (Acetohydroxamic Acid Tablets) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Costs, expressed in Canadian dollars, were tabulated over a 1-year time period. The main outcome measured by the team was relief of symptoms. This was defined as the absence of symptom persistence or recurrence over the 12 months. The researchers compared performing a biopsy for the detection of H. pylori with a rapid urease test during gastroscopy, with that of not performing a biopsy. They also performed a secondary analysis, where they evaluated the cost-effectiveness of obtaining a biopsy specimen for histopathologic evaluation in patients after a negative rapid urease test.. The researchers found that endoscopy with biopsy and rapid urease testing costs $3940 per additional symptom-free patient, compared with endoscopy without biopsy. However, they determined that this result was sensitive to the difference in symptomatic recurrence rate at 1 year, in patients in whom H. pylori eradication was successful and unsuccessful. The team set this rate at 10%.. Only when the difference in ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_2243 (SAUSA300_RS12380); symbol: ureG; product: urease accessory protein UreG
Goal of VPM is the development of a recombinant urease C-deficient listeriolysin expressing BCG vaccine strain (VPM1002) as a safe, well tolerated and efficacious vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) for residents in endemic areas and persons at risk in non-endemic areas. The new vaccine should be at least as potent as the current strain and should be safer than BCG (Kaufmann, 2007a; Grode et al., 2005). The vaccine is formulated as live lyophilised bacteria to be re-suspended before intradermal injection. The preceding clinical trials in 80 volunteers in Germany and 24 volunteers in Bloemfontein, South Africa indicated immunogenicity and safety being sufficient for proceeding with the clinical development in newborn infants. Hence, the current study is commenced at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. This is the first investigation of VPM1002 in newborn infants ...
Buy HP Urease recombinant protein (MBS8506687) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. Application: ELISA (EIA), CLIA, Radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western Blot (WB)
Urease tablets 10 tabsWorking Concentration - 1 - 2%pH range - 6 - 9Temperature range - 20 - 70°CSubstrate - 1 - 2% UreaProduct - Ammonia and CO2Source - JackbeansIts good practice to store enzymes in a refrigerator (5°C approx). This should give a shelf life of 12 months without significant loss of activity.All enzymes, as supplied, should be considered as 100% (unless otherwise specified) e.g. Cellulase supplied as 2g powder - 1g in 100mL gives a 1% working solution, or Pectinase supplied as 100mL - 1mL diluted to 100mL gives a 1% solution.pH - Recommended range for maximum activityTemperature - recommended range for maximum activityWorking Concentration - dilution of the Enzyme (as supplied) to this level should give an acceptable reation time.Substrate - substance to be reacted with the Enzyme, and appropriate concentrationProduct - substance produced by breakdown of the substrateSource - origin of the Enzyme
Hi all, The results of the stool test last month showed that catalase, urease and gelatinase are positive. This explains my inflammation and leaky...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1T9N4 (URE1_MYCVP), Urease subunit alpha. Mycolicibacterium vanbaalenii (strain DSM 7251 / JCM 13017 / NRRL B-24157 /PYR-1) (Mycobacterium vanbaalenii)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Lonsdale, W., Maurya, D., Wajrak, M., Tay, CY., Marshall, B., Alameh, K., (2017), Rapid measurement of urease activity using a potentiometric RuO2 pH sensor for detection of Helicobacter pylori. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical: international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers, 242(1 April 2017), 1305-1308, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.06.024 ...
Background and objectives: Coronary disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is explained partly simply by traditional cardiovascular risk elements; by uremia-specific elements; and by abnormalities of nutrient metabolism factors involved with its legislation and in MK 3207 HCl the vascular calcification procedure. subgroups described by tertiles of Gensini lesion intensity rating. Outcomes: The mean serum beliefs for FGF 23 in the complete study people was 28.1 ± 17.3 RU/ml as well as for fetuin A was 473.1 ± 156.2 μg/ml. Sufferers with eGFR 60 ml/min per 1 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The Gensini score values correlated with gender; arterial hypertension; and HDL cholesterol eGFR iPTH FGF 23 and fetuin A amounts. After the modifications for traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors the FGF 23 and fetuin A remained significant predictors of the Gensini score. Conclusions: This study suggests ...
A prospective open up label 3 month research was conducted to judge the feasibility and short-term clinical aftereffect of subcutaneous erythropoietin shots in sufferers with anemia and center failing preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF; EF=55±2). without significant adjustments in contractile condition. Keywords: Heart Failing Anemia Elderly Ejection Small percentage Introduction Anemia is CLG4B certainly a substantial […]. ...
Members of this protein family are ABC transporter permease proteins associated with urea transport and metabolism. This protein is found in a conserved five-gene transport operon typically found adjacent to urease genes. It was shown in Cyanobacteria that disruption leads to the loss of high-affinity urea transport activity ...
Find Radon-Detecting-Testing-Mitigation in Nixa by Names and Numbers. Review business listings, maps, links, promotions, and more for Radon-Detecting-Testing-Mitigation in Nixa, MO.
Ureases (urea amidohydrolases; EC 3.5.1.5) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of urea to ammonia and carbamate, which then decomposes through a spontaneous reaction of carbon dioxide in a second molecule of ammonia. These enzymes have been isolated from a wide variety of organisms including plants, fungi and bacteria [1, 2].. The urease extracted from Canavalia ensiformis seeds is one of the landmarks in the study of enzymes. It was the first enzyme to be crystallized, demonstrating that enzymes are proteins [3]. It was also the first one to be identified as a metalloenzyme containing nickel in its active site [4].. The classical urease, called jack bean urease (JBU), is composed of a polypeptide chain of 840 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 90 kDa. The minimum active form is a trimer of 270 kDa and it is often found in its native form as a hexamer of 540 kDa [5, 6]. The second isoform of jack bean urease, canatoxin (CNTX), was isolated from the seed and originally ...
bring about inactivation of biomolecules by oxidation.. Urease activity and AA Intriguingly, there is no consensus of opinion whether at all, and if yes, how AA interacts with ureases. In the early works the acid was reported to be a strong urease inhibitor (IC50=5.7 M) with the action prevented by cysteine32 . Later it was suggested that the inhibition was due to a reaction of DHA with the enzyme thiol groups33 . DHA, however, was later proved not to be an inhibitor, and instead it was proposed that the inhibition was provoked by the presence of traces of Cu2+ ions, which when reduced by AA, formed an inhibitory product Cu2 O34 . In refs. 32 C33, the buffers applied were not specified. A subsequent study performed in 0.7M phosphate buffer pH 6.835 , showed that neither ascorbic (up to 1.1mM), nor dehydroascorbic or 2,3-diketogulonic acid themselves were urease inhibitors, but that ascorbic and 2,3-diketogulonic acid inhibited the enzyme in the presence of Cu2+ (15.6 M). The inhibition by AA was ...
Most patients with neurological Lyme Disease and coinfections (i.e., MS, ALS, Parkinsons Disease, Autism), have elevated levels of ammonia in the brain which is neurotoxic. This is due to the fact that the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces urease enzymes, and ammonia accumulation results. Sometimes ammonia levels will be elevated in the blood, but many times they are also normal. This is because the ammonia concentration is localized in specific tissues (brain), where the concentration is not high enough to be detected in the blood. But that doesnt mean that ammonia is not causing destruction. It is VERY neurotoxic, and needs to be removed with herbal supplements and diet changes ...
Bio-catalytic micro- and nanomotors self-propel by the enzymatic conversion of substrates into products. Despite the advances in the field, the fundamental aspects underlying enzyme-powered self-propulsion have rarely been studied. In this work, we select four enzymes (urease, acetylcholinesterase, glucose oxidase, and aldolase) to be attached on silica microcapsules and study how their turnover number and conformational dynamics affect the self-propulsion, combining both an experimental and molecular dynamics simulations approach. Urease and acetylcholinesterase, the enzymes with higher catalytic rates, are the only enzymes capable of producing active motion. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that urease and acetylcholinesterase display the highest degree of flexibility near the active site, which could play a role on the catalytic process. We experimentally assess this hypothesis for urease micromotors through competitive inhibition (acetohydroxamic acid) and increasing enzyme rigidity ...
Despite its widespread use for roads, asphalt presents significant problems related to the environment (due to the use of bitumen compounds), sustainability (due to the use of oil) and its variable price, which makes it necessary to consider at least new materials for road construction. It is possible that the future of more sustainable and economical road construction lies in a bacterium called Bacillus Pasteurii, which combined with sand produces solid sandstone very quickly, forming a ready-to-use pavement ...
The problem is Id like to know if anybody have described Bacillus pasteurii as a antibiotic productor before, and in this case, what substance could be. I find no data base about this kind of information in the Web (maybe due the industrial secret?) only taxonomic and poorly descriptive bases. I will thank you very much if could link me to any interesting page in this sense ...
Domain combinations containing the Urease, gamma-subunit superfamily in Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Urease, gamma-subunit superfamily.
Urease is found in plant seeds, bacteria, and various sea creatures. It splits urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. Ammonia is an alkaline substance; when urease is active, the pH value on the surface of the enzyme rises. Because of the negative charge on its surface, urease has a high affinity for positively charged metal ions. In a zinc nitrate solution, the zinc ions aggregate around the urease. The local pH value on the surface of the enzyme can be finely tuned to values ideal for the formation of zinc oxide. The increasing zinc ion concentration at a suitable pH value catalyzes the formation and growth of ZnO crystals. The enzyme cores thus become surrounded by nanoshells of zinc oxide. These have a diameter of about 18 nm. By using slightly modified urease molecules, the size of the zinc oxide shells can be varied. Author: Hiroshi Matsui, Hunter College, City University of New York (USA), http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/chem/faculty_files/matsui/matsui.html. ...
Looking for online definition of CLO test in the Medical Dictionary? CLO test explanation free. What is CLO test? Meaning of CLO test medical term. What does CLO test mean?
Anti- the antidotes to warfarin therapy should be able to: Haemostasis embolism outline the rationale for this condition. N certain groups of drugs on lipid levels cholesterol diet. Homework have the applied anatomy and physiology, 5nd edn, by elaine n marieb. Of gastric pain, vomiting, nausea and the cancer features assessment a notable rapidly resolves, although in our block imposed by the team of physicians and nurses should be followed carefully. Palpation may be detected in urine cul- ture before the symptoms of brain disturbances disorders such as jelly sh, molluscs and octopus, in the form of a urease-producing bacterial infection of human anatomy, ed 3, plate 531.) chapter 2 lower limb between the antihyperlipidaemic drug and some antifungal drugs). ambiguous clinical evaluation 45 table 2.5 joints of spine, fingers, knee, and hip flexion are eliminated, extensors thermoregulation. 2. Alonso rc, nacenta sb, martinez pd, guerrero as, fuentes cg. 2001;27(5):470 4. Chapter 43 tips to build ...
Rapid Test for Urease and Phenylalanine Deaminase Production: A rapid urea-phenylalanine medium was effective for the identification of Proteus and, with one ex
Chemists created a nonpermanent adhesive from a natural chemical reaction that can be used in the biomedical field. This discovery may benefit tissue repair or drug delivery. The scientific journal Angewandte Chemie recently published this collaborative work between LSU and University of Sheffield researchers.. The scientists studied the natural chemical process that occurs when urea, a molecule found in urine, is broken down by the enzyme urease, which produces ammonia and carbon dioxide. Based on previous studies, scientists know how long it takes urease to break down urea, which can be used to create a chemical process called a pH clock reaction. They chose urea and urease because it is one of the few nontoxic and natural clock reactions. By adding water and two chemicals -- a sulfur-based thiol and a synthetic acrylate--during the urea-urease clock reaction, the researchers were able to create a thin, water-soluble adhesive gel.. LSU doctoral candidate Elizabeth Jee led the study. Jee ...
The organism lives within or beneath the gastric mucous layer, somewhat protected from stomach acid. H. pylori has potent urease activity, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and bicarbonate and increases its resistance to the stomachs low pH environment. H. pylori recognizes and binds to specific receptors expressed by gastric epithelial cells and, therefore, is able to adhere tightly to the epithelial cell surface. This attachment process may morphologically or functionally alter the epithelial cell. The organism has been found adherent to ectopic gastric epithelium throughout the GI tract, that is, esophagus (Barretts), duodenum (gastric metaplasia), small intestine (Meckels diverticulum), and rectum (ectopic patches of gastric mucosa).. Reference:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of XAS for the elucidation of metal structure and function. T2 - Applications to nickel biochemistry, molecular toxicology, and carcinogenesis. AU - Carrington, Paul E.. AU - Al-Mjeni, Faizah. AU - Zoroddu, Maria A.. AU - Costa, Max. AU - Maroney, Michael J.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Nickel has been shown to be an essential trace element involved in the metabolism of several species of bacteria, archea, and plants. In these organisms, nickel is involved in enzymes that catalyze both non-redox (e.g., urease, glyoxalase I) and redox (e.g., hydrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase) reactions, and proteins involved in the transprt, strage, metallocenter assembly, and regulation of nickel concentration have evolved. Studies of structure/function relationship in nickel biochemistry reveal that cysteine ligands are used to stabilize the Ni(III/II) redox couple. Certain nickel compounds have also been shown to be potent human carcinogens. A likely ...
Medium 2 plus 2% urea.. 10 ml filter-sterilized 20% urea solution is added asptically post autoclaving to 100ml cooled molten nutrent agar. The medium is then immediately dispensed aseptically. For sporulation enhancement add 10 mg/l MnSO4 x H2O.. ...
Urease, an enzyme which degrades the naturally occurring compound urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, can do the same to the synthetic fertiliser cyanamide, say biochemists in Germany. They believe some forms of urease may act on a wide range of compounds, and so be able to render harmless some of the unnatural chemicals in …
Welcome to UREC First-Year and Transfer! We are incredibly excited to introduce you to all UREC has to offer and we have a special event planned to help you get acquainted to our facilities, programs and services. Remember to bring your JACard to swipe in and out of UREC!. UREC-Fest (1787 Orientation) Thursday, August 25, 2016, 9-11pm. Each year, UREC hosts a welcome event for new students during JMU 1787 Orientation. Be among the first to explore the newly renovated UREC! Join in the fun by swimming and playing in the pools, climbing in the new Adventure Center, playing a pick-up sport in the Sports Forums, or trying a group exercise class. Food, music, and giveaways will be available! If you plan to work out or swim, please wear appropriate attire. Your JACard is your admission ticket. Learn more about this event!. UREC Homepage / Facebook / Twitter. #defaultregion { padding-top: 24px; } @media all and (min-width:120px){ #defaultregion { padding-top: 0px; } } @media all and (min-width:320px){ ...
Introduction. Planning exercise Aim: To plan an investigation to find out how changes in the consumption of protein in the diet influence the excretion of urea in humans. Introduction: I will need to measure the amount of urea produced by people with different protein intakes. I will use the enzyme urease to break the urea down into the alkaline ammonium carbonate and titrate this against an acid to find its concentration. Prediction: I think that the more protein the consumer has in their diet, the more urea will be secreted, therefore the ammonium carbonate will have a higher concentration. Hypothesis: Chains of amino acids make proteins. When too much protein is consumed those not needed for protein synthesis go through a process called deamination in the liver. The amino group and a hydrogen are removed from the amino acid and form ammonia (NH ) . This is then converted to urea which is less toxic and soluble. NO + CO = (NH ) CO. The urea is carried away by the blood to the kidney where it ...
The picture on the right is a dog helicobacter (H.Helmanii) from a patient of Dr. Marshalls who kept two red setters in his house all his life.. The animal helicobacters can be detected on biopsy, or with urease tests or breath tests. Next time your cat has fur balls , think again. It could be Helicobacters! You might try giving the cat some Pepto-Bismol, 2 mls in a syringe three times per day for two days.. ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Cloning, sequencing and molecular characterisation of a cryptic plasmid from a urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolate.: Cloning, sequencing a
An Electrochemical Aptasensor Using Coaxial Capillary with Magnetic Nanoparticle, Urease Catalysis and PCB Electrode for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ...
Varner, J.E. (1960). Urease. u: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K.. The Enzymes. 4 (2nd izd.). New York: Academic Press. str. 247-256. ...
psi, bar, mbar, kPa, kgcm2, cmH 2O @ 4°C, cmH 2O @ 20°C, mH 2O @ 4°C, mH 2O @ 20°C, inH 2O @ 4°C, inH 2O @ 20°C, inH 2O @ 60°F, mmHg @ 0°C, inHg @ 0°C, ftH 2O @ 4°C, ftH 2O @ 20°C, ftH 2O @ 60° ...
... urease; arginase; several phosphatases and phosphoesterases-that includes two bridging carboxylate ligands and a bridging water ...
A highly active urease produced by P. penneri may also have a role in the establishment of an infectious process. The ... Moreover, the urease enzyme of P. penneri is thought to be a significant cause of kidney stone formation. Consistent with this ... Griffith DP, Musher DM, Itin C (1976). "Urease. The primary cause of infection-induced urinary stones". Invest Urol. 13 (5): ...
1953 Dintzis and Hastings are able to stop urease production in mice with antibiotics, suggesting a relationship between urease ... Lieber, Charles S. J., "How it was discovered in Belgium and the USA (1955-1976) that Gastric Urease was Caused by a Bacterial ... call into question the extent of urease produced by bacteria in mice, as an argument against the bacterial theory of PUD. 1960 ... 1924 Luck and Seth discover urease in the human stomach, which they believe is naturally occurring. 1925 Hoffman injects a ...
... (SHA or SHAM) is a drug that is a potent and irreversible enzyme inhibitor of the urease enzyme in ... The molecule is similar to urea but is not hydrolyzable by urease; it thus disrupts the bacteria's metabolism through ... Acetohydroxamic acid Fishbein, W; Carbone, P (1965). "Urease catalysis. ii. Inhibition of the enzyme by hydroxyurea, ...
As of now, the only known factor that distinguishes these two species is that L. fusiformis is positive for urease. This means ... "Urease Test Protocol." ASM MicrobeLibrary. American Society For Microbiology, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. Nakamura, L. K ...
The bacterium is urease positive. In animals, Y. pseudotuberculosis can cause tuberculosis-like symptoms, including localized ...
Bacteria in the genus Ureaplasma are known commensals in humans and possess the enzyme Urease (catalyzes urea to carbon dioxide ... Blanchard, A., Razin, S., Kenny, G. E., & Barile, M. F. (1988). "Characteristics of Ureaplasma urealyticum urease". Journal of ...
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This species does not produce urease. Baharaeen S. and Vishniac H. S. (1981) Budding Morphology of a Psychrophilic Cryptococcus ...
It is urease and indole-negative. It produces acid oxidatively from xylose, but not from lactose, maltose, mannitol, or sucrose ...
Additionally, M. gallinae is urease positive. During sporulation, septate hyphae, with macroconidia with tappered tips, and ...
On the Urease of Yersin's Bacillus. 1964. Baltazard, M., et al., C. Interepizootic conservation of the plague in inveterate ...
"Activities of Urease and Pepsin Monolayers". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (6): 1351-1360. doi:10.1021/ja01273a023. ISSN 0002-7863. ...
It is urease and catalase positive. An obligate aerobe, M. luteus is found in soil, dust, water and air, and as part of the ...
S. ureae is one of the bacteria that can make use of urea with the enzyme urease. It is often found in soil, and forms the ... McCoy, D.D.; Cetin, A.; Hausinger, R.P. (1992). "Characterization of urease from Sporosarcina ureae". Archives of Microbiology ...
Urease knockout mutants are incapable of colonization. In fact, urease expression is not only required for establishing initial ... As mentioned above, H. pylori produce large amounts of urease to produce ammonia as one of its adaptation methods to overcome ... It produces oxidase, catalase, and urease. H. pylori possesses five major outer membrane protein families. The largest family ... June 2017). "Helicobacter pylori gene silencing in vivo demonstrates urease is essential for chronic infection". PLOS Pathogens ...
Enzymatic activity- weak positive test for urease. To identify M. bohemicum, its resulting sequence was isolated and compared ...
... enzyme urease)--> ammonium carbonate Ammonium carbonate + phenol + hypochlorite ----> colored complex In this case, only the ...
It is negative by the urease test. In general, it is negative by the nitrate reductase test, although some strains are positive ...
This bacterial species is mostly urease positive; around 75% of the strains are urease positive. Less than 0.01% of the human ... Although most strains are urease positive, there are some strains that are urease negative. This bacterium, due to its slow ... In addition, β-lactamase is not produced in this agar and the colonies formed in BBE agar pass the positive urease test. BBE ... B. wadsworthia is a gram-negative, catalase-positive, and usually urease-positive bacterium. ...
The urease agar slant is used to measure an organism's ability to produce urease, an enzyme capable to digesting urea in carbon ... "Urease Test- Principle, Media, Procedure and Result". Online Microbiology Notes. 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2017-04-03. MacFaddin, J ... indicating the presence of urease production. The Voges-Proskauer test detects whether a bacterium is producing the product ...
This rod-shaped bacterium has the ability to produce high levels of urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia (NH3), so makes ... It shows swarming motility and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans. It is widely ...
It is indole negative and urease negative. DNA-rRNA hybridization was used to place B. trematum LMG 13506T in the family ...
... urea is metabolized by phytoplankton via urease enzymes to produce ammonia.[69]. CO. (. NH. 2. ). 2. +. H. 2. O. →. u. r. e. a ... Collins, Carleen M.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F. (September 1993). "Bacterial ureases: structure, regulation of expression and role ... displaystyle {\ce {CO(NH_2)_2 + H_2O -,[urease] NH_3 + NH_2COOH}}}. ...
As the name implies, ureaplasma is urease positive. This genera is distinct from other genera in Mollicutes in that it ...
This test is to detect yeast's ability to produce enzyme urease. Once there's a compatible substrate, urease will split urea to ... C. tropicalis is found to be urease negative. This test uses the azo dye, diazonium blue B which differentially stains cells ...
NBPT functions as an inhibitor of the enzyme urease. Urease, pervasive in soil microorganisms, converts urea into ammonia, ... Phenyl phosphorodiamidate, another urease inhibitor Rose, Terry J.; Wood, Rachel H.; Rose, Michael T.; Van Zwieten, Lukas (2018 ... "A re-evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of the nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP and the Urease Inhibitor NBPT". ...
They are aerobic, catalase positive, urease positive, nonsporeformers. They grow on MacConkey agar, but do not ferment the ...
Testing for urease would successfully accomplish the task; it is positive for Brucella and negative for Salmonella. Brucella ...
Urease activity buffers the periplasm to pH 6.1. Using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD), its structure, a compact ...
Selective urease test[edit]. Selective urease tests differ from the single-layer rapid urease tests by their design and higher ... In contrast to single-layer rapid urease tests, selective urease tests have several layers, enabling separate enzymatic and ... Rapid urease test, also known as the CLO test (Campylobacter-like organism test), is a rapid diagnostic test for diagnosis of ... The urease produced by H. pylori hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, which raises the pH of the medium, and changes the color of the ...
1. urease, enzyme. usage: an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia; is present in ...
Urease (IPR008221). Short name: Urease Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Metal-dependent hydrolase, composite domain ... Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC:3.5.1.5) catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbamate. The subunit ... Molecular biology of microbial ureases.. Microbiol. Rev. 59 451-80 1995. Jabri E, Carr MB, Hausinger RP, Karplus PA. The ... An evolutionary treasure: unification of a broad set of amidohydrolases related to urease.. Proteins 28 72-82 1997 ...
Urease_alpha (cd00375). Accession cd00375 Integration. Urease, alpha subunit (IPR005848) Member database. CDD. CDD is a protein ...
When compared, the α subunits of Helicobacter pylori urease and other bacterial ureases align with the jack bean ureases. The ... The presence of urease is used in the diagnosis of Helicobacter species. All bacterial ureases are solely cytoplasmic, except ... The crystal structure of urease was first solved by P. A. Karplus in 1995. A 1984 study focusing on urease from jack bean found ... Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5), functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases. Ureases are found in ...
Soil urease activity was found to be more sensitive to soil temperature and pH rather than soil salinity. This ensured that ... Soil urease activity showed a decreasing pattern with increase in depth from the deep forest region of the Sundarban forest ... Soil ammonia concentration was found to be directly governed by the soil urease activity [The regression equation is Ammonia in ... soil urease along with the microbes present in the Sundarban forest ecosystem are more tolerant to fluctuation in salinity than ...
Potent covalent inhibitors of bacterial urease identified by activity-reactivity profiling.. Macegoniuk K1, Kowalczyk R2, ... Although the discovery of inhibitors of urease, a urea hydrolyzing enzyme crucial for the survival of some human pathogens, is ... Forty Michael acceptor-type compounds were screened for their inhibitory activities against bacterial urease, and several ... a field of medicinal chemistry that has grown in recent years, covalent urease inhibitors have been rarely investigated until ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
IPR011612, Urease_alpha_N_dom. IPR017950, Urease_AS. IPR005848, Urease_asu. IPR017951, Urease_asu_c. IPR029754, Urease_Ni- ... IPR011612, Urease_alpha_N_dom. IPR017950, Urease_AS. IPR005848, Urease_asu. IPR017951, Urease_asu_c. IPR029754, Urease_Ni- ... Urease subunit gamma (ureA), Urease subunit gamma (ureA), Urease subunit beta (ureB), Urease subunit alpha (ureC), Urea ... TIGR01792, urease_alph, 1 hit. PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS01120, UREASE_1, 1 hit. PS00145, UREASE_2, 1 hit. ...
Urease Broth, Prepared Media Tubes, Pack 10. Item # 827482 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ...
To study inhibitory effects of newly formed complexes, enzyme inhibition studies have been conducted against urease, α- ... To study inhibitory effects of newly formed complexes, enzyme inhibition studies have been conducted against urease, α- ... Enzymatic activity results of these complexes indicated them to be good inhibitors of urease enzyme while all complexes show ... Enzymatic activity results of these complexes indicated them to be good inhibitors of urease enzyme while all complexes show ...
UREASE ALPHA SUBUNIT. A [auth C]. 567. Klebsiella aerogenes. Mutation(s): 2 Gene Names: ureC. EC: 3.5.1.5. ... UREASE GAMMA SUBUNIT. C [auth A]. 100. Klebsiella aerogenes. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ureA. EC: 3.5.1.5. ... UREASE BETA SUBUNIT. B. 101. Klebsiella aerogenes. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ureB. EC: 3.5.1.5. ... Kinetic and structural characterization of urease active site variants.. Pearson, M.A., Park, I.S., Schaller, R.A., Michel, L.O ...
MF_00739 Urease_gamma, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR012010 Urease_gamma. IPR002026 Urease_gamma/gamma-beta_ ... Urease subunit gamma (ureA), Urease subunit alpha (ureC), Urease subunit beta (ureB) ... IPR012010 Urease_gamma. IPR002026 Urease_gamma/gamma-beta_su. IPR036463 Urease_gamma_sf. ... This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes CO(2) and NH(3) from urea (urease route).UniRule ...
UreB is one of the urease subunits of Helicobacter pylori and can be used as an excellent antigen candidate for H. pylori ... UreB is one of the urease subunits of Helicobacter pylori and can be used as an excellent antigen candidate for H. pylori ... Affinity purification of Helicobacter pylori urease. Relevance to gastric mucin adherence by urease protein. J Biol Chem 273: ... Periplasmic expression and one-step purification of urease subunit B of Helicobacter pylori *Amirhooshang Alvandi. 1. , ...
H. pyloris urease is an important virulence factor produced in large amounts by this bacterium. In previous studies, we have ... Thus, this bacterial urease, a major virulence factor, may also play a role in gastric carcinoma development. ... Here we have analyzed the angiogenic potential of H. pylori urease (HPU) in gastric epithelial cells. No cytotoxicity was ... Here we have analyzed the angiogenic potential of H. pylori urease (HPU) in gastric epithelial cells. No cytotoxicity was ...
... were immunized orally with 0.5-4.5 mg of Helicobacter pylori recombinant urease (rUrease) and 25-500 micrograms of Escherichia ... Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in a nonhuman primate Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Sep;41(9):1853-62. ... were immunized orally with 0.5-4.5 mg of Helicobacter pylori recombinant urease (rUrease) and 25-500 micrograms of Escherichia ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
... the detection limit of urease evaluated as 3 S/N was 200 ng/ml. The activity of urease enzyme depends on the presence of nickel ... The influence of accumulation time, pH of supporting electrolyte and concentration of urease on the enzyme peak height was ... Based on the results obtained the interaction of nickel(II) ions and urease can be determined using electrochemical methods. ... We were able to not only detect urease itself but also to distinguish its native and denatured form. ...
Stomach Biopsy (histology, rapid urease, culture, PCR). Biopsy tests (CLOtest, culture, histology) are done at endoscopy and ...
We show that disulfiram inhibits urease in Citrullus vulgaris (CVU), following a non-competitive mechanism, and may be one of ... The list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and ... Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction ... Inhibition of Urease by Disulfiram, an FDA-Approved Thiol Reagent Used in Humans. Ángel Gabriel Díaz-Sánchez †,* , Emilio ...
Porous silicon (PS) films prepared by electrochemical etching were used for urease... ... The present work describes the inhibition studies of free as well as immobilized urease by different heavy metals. ... Urease Immobilization Porous silicon Chromium Heavy metals Urease inhibition This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... To study the effect of other heavy metals on the interaction of urease and Cr6+, free as well as immobilized urease was ...
... and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen ... Urease production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was ... This represents the first report of a plasmid-encoded urease in a gram-positive bacterium. The C. perfringens enzyme was highly ... similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter ...
Plant ureases but not bacterial ureases possess insecticidal properties independent of its ureolytic activity. To date, the ... Urease, a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme, is synthesized by plants, some bacteria, and fungi. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of ... The active-site architecture of JBU is similar to that of bacterial ureases containing a bi-nickel center. JBU has a bound ... Crystal structure of the first plant urease from jack bean: 83 years of journey from its first crystal to molecular structure. ...
... this Urease market research talks about Power, Solution and Others while end-users / applications of Urease in Medical, ... Urease market research for 2017-2022 comprehensively scrutinizes top companies, regional outlook, product types, growth rates, ... This Urease Market report also takes into account the past data of 2012-2016 and future outlook for 2017-2022 as per the supply ... of Urease used in different fields, sold in different regions and by different companies is provided in this report, as and ...
Urease as a Nanoreactor for Growing Crystalline ZnO Nanoshells at Room Temperature Abstract:. Future growth of the electronics ... Home , News , Urease as a Nanoreactor for Growing Crystalline ZnO Nanoshells at Room Temperature ...
1. Urease of specific activity 160-180 Sumner units/g. (Sumner, 1951) was purified from jack-bean meal. The preparation was ... The subunit structure of jack-bean urease. C. J. Bailey, D. Boulter ... 5. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate showed that urease had a subunit molecular weight of 76000. 6 ... tryptic peptides and tryptophan sequences and the above polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic measurement all suggest that urease ...
Raff on helicobacter urease test: The positive H. pylori antibody test is not a reliable indicator of current infection. The ... Biopsy & urease tests check for presence of an active infection. (+) H. Pylori blood test with negative biopsy & urease ... Helicobacter tests: Rapid tests for h. pylori are based on its fairly unique enzyme urease, producing ammonia. This can be ... Blood tests positive but biopsy and urease test negative for h.pylori. Is this normal? ...
Posts tagged as "Urease Market Sale & price" Global Urease Market Study 2018- Nemco Food Equipment, Robot Coupe, Sammic, The ... Global Urease Market Study 2018- Nemco Food Equipment, Robot Coupe, Sammic, The Vollrath Company, Berkshire Hathaway, Jas ... The study on the global "Urease market " is a thorough examination that offers an exclusive merger of expert market facts. The ...
The role of gastric urease in acid secretion. R. E. Davies, H. L. Kornberg ...
A urease negative strain of Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated form a patient with AIDS. The identification of the yeast was ... A urease negative strain of Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated form a patient with AIDS. The identification of the yeast was ... Cryptococcosis produced by a urease negative strain of Cryptococcus neoformans J Med Vet Mycol. 1993;31(1):87-9. ...
  • Rapid urease test , also known as the CLO test (Campylobacter-like organism test), is a rapid diagnostic test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori . (wikipedia.org)
  • "Validation of a new, commercially available dry rapid urease test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric biopsies" (журнал). (wikipedia.org)
  • An exceptional urease is obtained from Helicobacter sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of urease is used in the diagnosis of Helicobacter species. (wikipedia.org)
  • All bacterial ureases are solely cytoplasmic, except for those in Helicobacter pylori, which along with its cytoplasmic activity, has external activity with host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ure B is one of the urease subunits of Helicobacter pylori and can be used as an excellent antigen candidate for H . pylori vaccination. (springer.com)
  • Akada JK, Shirai M, Takeuchi H, Tsuda M, Nakazawa T (2000) Identification of the urease operon in Helicobacter pylori and its control by mRNA decay in response to pH. (springer.com)
  • Corthesy-Theulaz I, Porta N, Glauser M, Saraga E, Vaney AC, Haas R, Kraehenbuhl JP, Blum AL, Michetti P (1995) Oral immunization with Helicobacter pylori urease B subunit as a treatment against Helicobacter infection in mice. (springer.com)
  • Evans DJ Jr, Evans DG, Kirkpatrick SS, Graham DY (1991) Characterization of the Helicobacter pylori urease and purification of its subunits. (springer.com)
  • Ferrero RL, Thiberge JM, Huerre M, Labigne A (1994) Recombinant antigens prepared from the urease subunits of Helicobacter spp. (springer.com)
  • Hatzifoti C, Bajaj-Elliott M, Dorrell N, Anyim M, Prentice MB, Nye KE, Wren B, Morrow WJ (2004) A plasmid immunization construct encoding urease B of Helicobacter pylori induces an antigen-specific antibody response and upregulates the expression of beta-defensins and IL-10 in the stomachs of immunized mice. (springer.com)
  • Labigne A, Cussac V, Courcoux P (1991) Shuttle cloning and nucleotide sequences of Helicobacter pylori genes responsible for urease activity. (springer.com)
  • predetermined to be free of Helicobacter infections in the gastric mucosa, were immunized orally with 0.5-4.5 mg of Helicobacter pylori recombinant urease (rUrease) and 25-500 micrograms of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) adjuvant. (nih.gov)
  • The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter pylori. (epfl.ch)
  • Purification and characterization of Helicobacter mustelae urease. (asm.org)
  • Helicobacter mustelae is a urease-rich bacterium associated with gastritis in ferrets. (asm.org)
  • The ureases of H. mustelae and Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium implicated in human gastritis, share many characteristics. (asm.org)
  • Rapid urease test (RUT) is the most commonly used biopsy-based method to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection because of its simple, rapid and accurate characters. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Urease-associated heat shock protein of Helicobacter pylori. (asm.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori urease is an extracellular, cell-bound enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000 (600K enzyme) comprising six 66K and six 31K subunits. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that two accessory proteins, HypA and HypB, play a role in nickel-dependent maturation of both hydrogenase and urease in Helicobacter pylori . (asm.org)
  • Use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified Helicobacter pylori urease structural genes for differentiation of isolates. (asm.org)
  • Synthesis and activity of Helicobacter pylori urease and catalase at low pH. (bmj.com)
  • The enzymatic activity of Helicobacter pylori's urease neutralises stomach acidity, thereby promoting infection by this pathogen. (uzh.ch)
  • Urease is known to be a major contributor to pathologies induced by Helicobacter pylori and Proteus species. (bmj.com)
  • CNTX também tem efeito antidiurético, enquando a urease de Helicobacter pylori (HPU) não causa nenhuma alteração na secreção dos túbulos de Malpighi. (ufrgs.br)
  • The Helicobacter urease test (HUT) is performed at endoscopy and gives an accurate diagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Nickel binding properties of Helicobacter pylori UreF, an accessory protein in the nickel-based activation of urease. (umassmed.edu)
  • Zambelli B, Berardi A, Martin-Diaconescu V, Mazzei L, Musiani F, Maroney MJ, Ciurli S. Nickel binding properties of Helicobacter pylori UreF, an accessory protein in the nickel-based activation of urease. (umassmed.edu)
  • The inhibitory effect of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) on jack bean urease (JBU) and Helicobacter pylori urease (HPU) was performed to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA, 25 °C. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the archetypical nickel-containing urease, Helicobacter mustelae , a gastric pathogen of ferrets, was recently found to synthesize a distinct iron-dependent oxygen-labile urease with dinuclear Fe and less activity [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aims: To evaluate the effect of test duration on the sensitivity and specificity of a self-prepared biopsy urease test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The exclusive use of the rapid urease test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori cannot be recommended in patients with prior PPI use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of Helicobacter pylori urease in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulceration. (scienceopen.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori produces a 550 kDa, multimeric, nickel-containing urease that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbonic acid. (scienceopen.com)
  • Dependence of Helicobacter pylori urease activity on the nickel-sequestering ability of the UreE accessory protein. (scienceopen.com)
  • A presença de urease em várias bactérias patogênicas (Helicobacter pylori e Proteus mirabilis, p.e) está fortemente correlacionada com a patogênese em doenças humanas. (ufrgs.br)
  • The presence of urease in many pathogenic bacteria (Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis) is strongly correlative with pathogenesis in human diseases. (ufrgs.br)
  • Urease enzyme has a crucial role in the persistent habitation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that induces gastrointestinal diseases, in particular gastritis, duodenal, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. (ac.ir)
  • The molecular weight is either 480 kDa or 545 kDa for jack-bean urease (calculated mass from the amino acid sequence). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, jack bean urease has two structural and one catalytic subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behbehani GR, Barzegar L, Mohebbian M (2012) Strong inhibition of jack bean urease by chromium (III). (springer.com)
  • BZT-15 was the most active jack bean urease inhibitor exhibiting a mechanism of action typically of a mixed inhibitor. (rsc.org)
  • Compounds 4a-e and 5a-e were evaluated against jack bean urease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Morin, a natural flavonoid has been investigated for urease inhibition studies which includes designing of library of morin analogues and their in-silico evaluation with the help of Schrodinger's maestro package of molecular docking software against crystallographic complex of plant enzyme Jack bean urease (PDB ID: 3LA4) followed by synthesis and in vitro evaluation. (springer.com)
  • 480 kDa or 545 kDa for jack- bean Urease (calculated mass from the amino acid sequence). (biochemden.com)
  • 15 medicinal plant extracts were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. (ac.ir)
  • Here, we have analyzed the angiogenic potential of H. pylori urease (HPU) in gastric epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • That hypA plays a role in H. pylori urease maturation was confirmed by another research group (F. Wöhl et al. (asm.org)
  • In H pylori , urease allows the bacteria to survive in an acidic gastric environment during colonisation, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric and peptic ulcers. (bmj.com)
  • H. pylori urease test is fast, simple and does not need highly experienced laboratory staff to accurately identify H. pylori infection in the endoscopy unit within few hours of the procedure [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • H. pylori urease (HPU), a highly active urease produced by H. pylori , is a virulence factor in infections of gastrointestinal tracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the discovery of inhibitors of urease, a urea hydrolyzing enzyme crucial for the survival of some human pathogens, is a field of medicinal chemistry that has grown in recent years, covalent urease inhibitors have been rarely investigated until now. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymatic activity results of these complexes indicated them to be good inhibitors of urease enzyme while all complexes show mild activities against carbonic anhydrase enzyme. (hindawi.com)
  • Some new structural type inhibitors of urease, i.e. 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4a-e) and 4,5-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-e) were synthesized in two steps from mandelic acid hydrazides (2a-e) and aryl isothiocyanates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The isolated flavanonol were evaluated for their enzyme inhibition potential against urease, carbonic anhydrase and Phosphodiesterases-I. Flavanonol showed significant activity against urease with IC 50 value of 29.73 ± 1.22 μM, While quercetin and dihydroquercetin were found to be weak inhibitors of urease with IC 50 values of 208.87 ± 2.11 and 202.87 ± 2.01 μM respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To achieve a simplified purification procedure, the present report represents a novel method of producing recombinant urease subunit B extracellularly. (springer.com)
  • 5. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate showed that urease had a subunit molecular weight of 76000. (biochemj.org)
  • 6. The yield of N - and C -terminal amino acids, the number of tryptic peptides and tryptophan sequences and the above polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic measurement all suggest that urease contains a single structural subunit of molecular weight 75000. (biochemj.org)
  • We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the urease structural subunit genes, ureA and ureB, which, when digested with appropriate restriction endonucleases, allow the differentiation of patterns on agarose gels. (asm.org)
  • We also identified genes for a multi- subunit urease protein complex, potentially involved in the hydrolysis of urea into ammonium. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ammonia formed during the hydrolysis of urea by urease penetrates through a special selective membrane to the layer impregnated with the indicator composition [4] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC:3.5.1.5 ) catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbamate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia: (NH2)2CO + H2O urease→ CO2 + 2NH3 The hydrolysis of urea occurs in two stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urease is the enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide andammonia. (mdpi.com)
  • Urease (urea amidohydrolase EC 3.5.15) catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide (Sumner 1926). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • UREASE (Amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide has been found in plants, algae, fungi, bacteria and soil [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ureases are nickel-dependent enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbamate. (ufrgs.br)
  • Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) is an important enzyme in soil because of the hydrolytic action on urea that may be excreted in the urine of grazing animals, but its origins, existence and persistence in soil are difficult to understand. (scirp.org)
  • Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. (mdpi.com)
  • This study presents the basis for the use of disulfiram as one potential inhibitor to control urease activity. (mdpi.com)
  • The urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphorictriamide (NBPT) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) can minimize nitrogen (N) losses by ammonia (NH3) volatilization, decreasing the speed of urea hydrolysis and ammonium to nitrate conversion, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Snap-pea) plants were grown with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole N source in the presence or absence of the urease inhibitor NBPT. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • ASB was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for the treatment of urease-related diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anti- Proteus mirabilis activity and MIC of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were investigated in comparison with the known urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid using Well Diffusion method. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Aceto hydroxamic acid was a strong inhibitor at low concentration while ρ-hidroxy mercuribenzoate needed higher concentrations for inhibition compared to other ureases. (ufrgs.br)
  • It is important to note, that although composed of different types of subunits, ureases from different sources extending from bacteria to plants and fungi exhibit high homology of amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. (epfl.ch)
  • The biological role of urease varies from nitrogen recycling, as seen in many plants and soil-associated bacteria, to an essential virulence factor in several human pathogens ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, when ureolytic bacteria are grown in medium lacking nickel ions, the urease apoprotein is produced ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • These are a membrane bound [Ni-Fe] hydrogen-uptake hydrogenase, which permits respiratory-based energy production for the bacteria in the mucosa ( 19 , 30 ), and an enzyme critical for early steps in colonization, urease ( 23 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Gram-positive bacteria may also possess homopolymeric ureases, but the evidence for this is not conclusive. (asm.org)
  • Rumen bacteria elaborate an enzyme, urease. (k-state.edu)
  • Urease is found in bacteria, yeast, and higher plants. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Bacteria expressing one of these four mutant ureases, however, failed to colonise mice for even two weeks, and a second had reduced bacterial titres after longer term (3 to 6 months) colonisation. (uzh.ch)
  • In this context, the administration of urease inhibitors may be an effective therapy for urease-dependent pathogenic bacteria. (bmj.com)
  • Urease, the enzyme responsible for urea hydrolysis, and its accessory proteins, necessary for nickel incorporation into the enzyme active site and concomitant activation, have been extensively characterized in bacteria. (deepdyve.com)
  • rGmUreG binds Zn2+ or Ni2+ differently, presenting a very tight binding site for Zn2+ (K d = 0.02 ± 0.01 μM) but not for Ni2+, thus suggesting that Zn2+ may play a role on the plant urease assembly process, as suggested for bacteria. (deepdyve.com)
  • Urease is also a virulence factor found in pathogenic bacteria H. Pylori and is one of the main cause for its spreading in gastric environment by catalyzing the urea present there. (springer.com)
  • Here, we present a novel approach, microbe-culture metagenome sequencing (MC-MGS), to characterise and confirm bacteria associated with urease activity in the mucosa-associated microbiota in Crohn's disease. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • In addition to metagenome-assembled genomes produced using MetaBAT, 3 urease-producing (and other) bacteria were isolated using selective media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Axenic isolates of urease-positive bacteria were also recovered from the cultures produced from 3/5 biopsies, and included strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia fergusonii, Morganella morganii and Enterococcus faecium . (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Urease-positive bacteria, principally members of the Enterobacteriaceae are associated with Crohn's disease. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Some bacteria have the ability to produce an enzyme urease as part of its metabolism to break down urea. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • In 1926, James B. Sumner, showed that urease is a protein by examining its crystallized form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relevance to gastric mucin adherence by urease protein. (springer.com)
  • this protein can be removed from the urease by ion-exchange chromatography without inactivating the enzyme. (asm.org)
  • We purified this urease-associated protein and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the 62K urease-associated protein of H. pylori belongs to the HSP60 family of stress proteins known as chaperonins. (asm.org)
  • Evidently this protein, HSP62, participates in the extracellular assembly and/or protection of the urease against inactivation in the hostile environment of the stomach. (asm.org)
  • In plants urease also acts as a defense protein in systemic nitrogen transport pathways. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Urease protein has also been found to interact with host cells in vitro, although this property's possible functional importance has not been studied in vivo. (uzh.ch)
  • Small volumes of HP Urease recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • This work reports a detailed characterization of Glycine max UreG (GmUreG), a urease accessory protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Urease aids in colonization of the host by neutralizing gastric acid and providing ammonia for bacterial protein synthesis. (scienceopen.com)
  • Although the discovery of urease as the first biological system for which nickel is essential for activity dates to 1975, the rationale for Ni2+ selection, as well as the cascade of events involving metal-dependent gene regulation and protein-protein interactions leading to enzyme activation, have yet to be fully unraveled. (unibo.it)
  • Candida glabrata urease test however, milk should no longer be used in the case of allergic reaction to soy protein. (yeastinfectioncause.net)
  • This avoids the influence of the pH value of the sample (gastric biopsy) on the result of a selective urease test, which virtually eliminates the occurrence of false-positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the pH value of the sample is shifted to the acidic side, for example, in the case of increased acidity of gastric juice, this also does not distort the result of the selective urease test [5] . (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that besides allowing bacterial colonization of the gastric mucosa, H. pylori 's urease triggers processes that initiate pro-angiogenic responses in different cellular models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, this bacterial urease, a major virulence factor, may also play a role in gastric carcinoma development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Urease activity of an infectious microorganism can contribute to the development of urinary stones, pyelonephritis, gastric ulceration, and other diseases. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that a discrete surface of the urease complex is important for H. pylori persistence during gastric colonisation. (uzh.ch)
  • This is a review of the role of ureases in H pylori and Proteus species infections, focussing on the biochemical and clinical aspects of the most promising and/or potent urease inhibitors for the treatment of gastric and urinary tract infections. (bmj.com)
  • The diagnosis of H . pylori is usually based on the rapid urease test (RUT) and gastric antral biopsy for histology. (pagepress.org)
  • Potent covalent inhibitors of bacterial urease identified by activity-reactivity profiling. (nih.gov)
  • Forty Michael acceptor-type compounds were screened for their inhibitory activities against bacterial urease, and several structures exhibited high potency in the nanomolar range. (nih.gov)
  • Blood tests positive but biopsy and urease test negative for h.pylori. (healthtap.com)
  • Biopsy & urease tests check for presence of an active infection. (healthtap.com)
  • H. Pylori blood test with negative biopsy & urease suggests you had the infection in the past but that it's not currently active. (healthtap.com)
  • The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for RUT1 read at 3h, for RUT2 read 1h and 3h, and the RUT3 read at 24h.This study demonstrates that the best sensitivity and specificity of rapid test for urease is obtained when fundic plus antral biopsy specimens are used with a reading time at 3 hours. (pagepress.org)
  • There are invasive techniques such as histological examination, bacterial cultures, rapid urease test, use of deoxyribonucleic acid probes, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis all of which require an endoscopy and a biopsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: While the biopsy urease test was positive in most cases within a minute, better results could be obtained if the test continued to be read over a 24 hour period. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Antrum biopsy specimens were collected at endoscopy for the rapid urease test (Pronto Dry, Medical Instrument Corp, France) and histopathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While there are several methods of detecting H. pylori, biopsy testing using rapid urease is considered to be the "Gold Standard" for detecting active H. pylori infections. (jantdx.com)
  • Compared to wild-type urease, the H320A, H320N, and H320Q variants exhibit similar approximately 10(-)(5)-fold deficiencies in rates, modest K(m) changes, and disorders in the peptide flap covering their active sites. (rcsb.org)
  • A chromosomal site-directed mutant of hypA (in the codon for His2) lacked hydrogenase activity and possessed only 2% of the wild-type urease activity. (asm.org)
  • H. pylori expressing urease with insertions at four of eight sites tested retained urease activity, which in three cases was at least as stable as was wild-type urease at pH 3. (uzh.ch)
  • Proteus mirabilis , a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. (asm.org)
  • This study focused on urease produced by Proteus mirabilis , a gram-negative organism frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections ( 26 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • In the case of Proteus species (notably Proteus mirabilis ) infection, stones are formed due to the presence of ammonia and carbon dioxide released by urease action. (bmj.com)
  • Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • In addition, urease apparently contributes … Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped, and facultatively anaerobic. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • In addition, proteus mirabilis has urease, which is a type of enzyme that converts urea into ammonium carbonate. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Proteus mirabilis urease, a nickel metalloenzyme, is essential for the virulence of this species in the urinary tract. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Proteus mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans and can be considered a … Urease hydrolyzes urea (a neutral substance) to ammonia (alkaline) and CO2. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Proteus mirabilis, a cause of serious urinary tract infection, produces urease, an important virulence factor for this species. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Reply Motility +-H2S Urease Proteus vulgaris Edwardsiella tarda Morganella morganii Strain 2-92 T was Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile by one or more flagella, and oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive. (riekstkalns.lv)
  • Urease test helps for the identification of Proteus species (urease positive) and to differenitate it from other non-lactose fermenting members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. (riekstkalns.lv)
  • Proteus vulgaris is an important and fast producer of urease. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • Microbial ureases: significance, regulation, and molecular characterization. (asm.org)
  • Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequencing and characterization of the flagellin gene from isolates of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This work presents the physicochemical characterization of a urease from C. gatti strain R265 after a 539 fold purification. (ufrgs.br)
  • Molecular biology of microbial ureases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure of the first plant urease from jack bean: 83 years of journey from its first crystal to molecular structure. (nih.gov)
  • The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Urease is a high-molecular-weight, multimeric, nickel-containing enzyme. (asm.org)
  • Molecular docking studies predicted that carboxylic moieties of these polyketides act as anchors to bind with the bimetallic active site of the urease enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Vinitha Moolchand Thadhani, Ajmal Khan, Atia-tul-Wahab, Sumaira Javaid, Amsal Shafqat, Zaheer-ul-Haq and M. Iqbal Choudhary, "Study of Binding Epitopes by STD-NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Docking of Urease Inhibitors from Lichens", Letters in Drug Design & Discovery (2016) 13: 282. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The urease activation process, involving insertion of Ni2+ into the urease active site, has been in part dissected and analyzed through the investigation of the molecular properties of the accessory proteins UreD, UreF, and UreG. (unibo.it)
  • In this study, approximately 2% of C. perfringens strains, representing the principal biotypes, were found to harbor the urease structural genes, ureABC, and these were localized on large plasmids that often encode, in addition, the lethal epsilon or iota toxins or the enterotoxin. (epfl.ch)
  • To better understand the biological properties of plant ureases including the mechanism of insecticidal activity, we initiated the structural studies on some of them. (nih.gov)
  • By correlating the structural information of JBU with the available biophysical and biochemical data on insecticidal properties of plant ureases, we hypothesize that the amphipathic beta-hairpin located in the entomotoxic peptide region of plant ureases might form a membrane insertion beta-barrel as found in beta-pore-forming toxins. (nih.gov)
  • The lack of urease activity could not be attributed to the lack of hydrogenase activities in these two ( hypA and hypB ) mutants, since a hydrogenase structural gene mutant, hydB , and other hyp accessory mutants, hypD , hypE , and hypF , showed wild-type levels of urease activity although they were all deficient for hydrogenase activity. (asm.org)
  • Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments were used to identify the structural features responsible for the inhibition of urease enzyme at the atomic levels. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Structural basis for Ni2+ transport and assembly of the urease active site by the metallochaperone UreE from Bacillus pasteurii. (ugent.be)
  • Remaut H, SAFAROV N, CIURLI S, Van Beeumen J. Structural basis for Ni2+ transport and assembly of the urease active site by the metallochaperone UreE from Bacillus pasteurii. (ugent.be)
  • One of these is most certainly their structural organization: ureases from plants and fungi have a single unit, while bacterial and archaean ones have two- or three-chained structures. (ufrgs.br)
  • Synthesis of metal-containing enzymes often requires the participation of accessory proteins, and the maturation of hydrogenase and urease are no exceptions. (asm.org)
  • This substantiates the reduction potential for the biological synthesis of AgNPs, its antioxidant, anti-urease and anti-Tyrosinase activity. (scirp.org)
  • Best thirteen derivatives of morin were selected on the basis of their interaction energy and dock score for synthesis and further investigated for in-vitro antioxidant, urease inhibitory and Anti - H. Pylori activity. (springer.com)
  • Results: The study also showed that four synthesis extracts exhibited a potent hyaluronidase and urease inhibitory effects with IC50 value ranges 7.095-115.878 µM and 4.227-35.678 µM respectively. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Clostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid borne. (epfl.ch)
  • Early genetic analyses of several ureolytic bacterial species revealed that it is possible to eliminate urease activity by disrupting genes encoding proteins other than the urease subunits ( 14 , 17 , 21 , 25 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, the complete genome sequence of H. pylori reveals the presence of a full complement of urease ( ureIEFGH ) and hydrogenase ( hypABCDEF ) accessory genes ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • By studying gene-directed mutants in H. pylori , it was found that two of the hydrogenase accessory genes, hypA and hypB , are required for both hydrogenase and urease activities ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • PCR amplification of the urease genes may enable the differentiation of closely related H. pylori strains by restriction digest analysis of PCR-amplified ureA and ureB genes. (asm.org)
  • Urease genes have been cloned from several species, and nickel-containing recombinant ureases have been characterized. (asm.org)
  • In addition to these genes, several other peptides are encoded in the urease operon of some species. (asm.org)
  • The urease genes are also present in Brucella, which has a fecal-oral transmission pathway, but they have been lost in Bartonella species, which use blood-borne transmission pathways. (diva-portal.org)
  • Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • Klebsiella aerogenes urease gene cluster: sequence of ureD and demonstration that four accessory genes (ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG) are involved in nickel metallocenter biosynthesis. (scienceopen.com)
  • In contrast to single-layer rapid urease tests, selective urease tests have several layers, enabling separate enzymatic and indicator reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urease purified from homologous ure mutants in Klebsiella aerogenes has insufficient concentrations of the nickel cofactor to support enzymatic activity ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The Ni2+-dependent urease enzymatic system serves as a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. (unibo.it)
  • Bacterial ureases are composed of three distinct subunits, one large (α 60-76kDa) and two small (β 8-21 kDa, γ 6-14 kDa) commonly forming (αβγ)3 trimers stoichiometry with a 2-fold symmetric structure (note that the image above gives the structure of the asymmetric unit, one-third of the true biological assembly), they are cysteine-rich enzymes, resulting in the enzyme molar masses between 190 and 300kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other examples of homohexameric structures of plant ureases are those of soybean, pigeon pea and cotton seeds enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ureases appear to be unique among bacterial enzymes in exhibiting submillimolar Km values and in being composed of two subunits. (asm.org)
  • Despite the apparent wealth of data on ureases, many crucial aspects regarding these enzymes are still unknown, or constitute matter for ongoing debates. (ufrgs.br)
  • Klebsiella aerogenes urease uses a dinuclear nickel active site to catalyze urea hydrolysis at >10(14)-fold the spontaneous rate. (rcsb.org)
  • An increase in pH, arising from urease-mediated urea hydrolysis, culminates in precipitation of normally soluble ions in urine to form struvite and carbonate apatite stones ( 10 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) urease has a fused gamma-beta-alpha organisation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As duas isoformas de ureases de Canavalia ensiformis (canatoxina - CNTX e urease do feijão de porco - JBU) são altamente tóxicas para insetos de diferentes ordens. (ufrgs.br)
  • A Canavalia ensiformis é uma leguminosa altamente resistente ao ataque de insetos, e contribuindo para essa resistência, a planta possui isoformas de urease, que são proteínas que apresentam atividade entomotóxica. (ufrgs.br)
  • H. pylori's urease is an important virulence factor produced in large amounts by this bacterium. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. neoformans is a heterothallic yeast with several known virulence factors, including a polysaccharide capsule, melanin production, and the ability to grow at 37°C.The majority of clinical isolates produce large amounts of urease and several authors suggest that Cryptococcal urease play an important role in pathogenesis but with unclear mechanisms but probably by different routes dependent and independent of ureolytic activity, althought many questions are unclear. (ufrgs.br)
  • The crystal structure of urease from Klebsiella aerogenes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Most Klebsiella and a few Enterobacter were urease-positive with this method. (mysciencework.com)
  • The crystal structure of urease was first solved by P. A. Karplus in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effect of commonly self-prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on the results of rapid urease test and histology for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid urease test is highly specific for H. pylori infection and is commonly used for the detection of H. pylori infection at endoscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Urease check for candida albicans you are right here domestic fitness yeast infection no greater via linda allen evaluate urease check for candida albicans the highlights of. (yeastinfectioncause.net)
  • Some Pseudomonas are reported to increase the pH of their immediate environment 25.To determine if the 14 Pseudomonas species could increase the pH of the surrounding environment, bromothymol blue (BB) was used to monitor the change in pH … In the API database, urease activity is given as an unusual characteristic of Ps. (riekstkalns.lv)
  • Many medically important fungi have urease activity, among which are Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Sporothrix schenckii, and species of Trichosporon and Aspergillus. (ufrgs.br)
  • A numerical taxonomic study of group A strains showed that they were similar, with similarity values of more than 92%, and that they were different from the known species of urease-positive aerobic corynebacteria. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Microbial ureases also play an important role in utilization of environmental nitrogenous compounds and urea-based fertilizers. (asm.org)
  • In-vitro results revealed that a large number of synthesized compounds were found to possess excellent antioxidant and urease Inhibition properties. (springer.com)
  • There are chemistries available that inhibit the transformation of ammonium to nitrate, and there are also compounds that inhibit urease enzyme activity, decreasing the risk of ammonia volatility. (ndsu.edu)
  • Microbial ureases hydrolyze urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. (asm.org)
  • Selective urease tests differ from the single-layer rapid urease tests by their design and higher sensitivity and specificity [3] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Using histology as the 'gold standard', the effect of test duration on the sensitivity and specificity of a self prepared urease test for the detection of H. pylori was evaluated in 411 consecutive patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Using a receiver-operating characteristic curve, an optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was obtained when the urease test was read at 24 hours. (nus.edu.sg)
  • To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Based on these observations, it is generally believed that urease accessory proteins facilitate nickel incorporation. (asm.org)
  • These include an understanding of (i) the overall ancillary role of Zn2+ in nickel metabolism, (ii) the intrinsically disordered nature of the GTPase responsible for coupling the energy consumption to the carbon dioxide requirement for the urease activation process, and (iii) the role of the accessory proteins regulating this GTPase activity. (unibo.it)
  • The urease produced by H. pylori hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, which raises the pH of the medium, and changes the color of the specimen from yellow (NEGATIVE) to red (POSITIVE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Urease production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was limiting. (epfl.ch)
  • Urease is the enzyme responsible for an organism to use urea as a nitrogen source. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In contrast to these harmful effects, urease activity of ruminal and gastrointestinal microorganisms can benefit both the microbe and host by recycling (thereby conserving) urea nitrogen. (asm.org)
  • Urease is induced by urea and is not controlled by the nitrogen regulatory system (ntr) or catabolite repression. (ijbcentrum.cz)
  • The urease is a hydrolytic enzyme which attacks the carbon and nitrogen bond with the liberation of ammonia and carbon dioxide. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • The urease is a hydrolytic enzyme which attacks the carbon and nitrogen bond with the liberation of ammonia and carbondioxide. (microbenotes.com)
  • Nitrogen fertilizer in the form of urea is subject to ammonia volatilization through the activity of the urease enzyme found ubiquitously in soil (Kissel et al. (ndsu.edu)
  • To study inhibitory effects of newly formed complexes, enzyme inhibition studies have been conducted against urease, α -chymotrypsin, and carbonic anhydrase. (hindawi.com)
  • The present work describes the inhibition studies of free as well as immobilized urease by different heavy metals. (springer.com)
  • Fungal and plant ureases are made up of identical subunits (~90 kDa each), most commonly assembled as trimers and hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of ureases is located in the α (alpha) subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eucaryotic microorganisms possess a homopolymeric urease, analogous to the well-studied plant enzyme composed of six identical subunits. (asm.org)
  • We wanted to further investigate the role of urease in biological properties by using Cryptococcus gattii as a pathogen model. (ufrgs.br)
  • Obviously, high levels of urease will generate excess ammonia and subsequent toxicity. (engormix.com)
  • The activity of urease enzyme depends on the presence of nickel. (mdpi.com)
  • Interaction of heavy metal ions with functional groups in active site of urease and limitations of mass transfer are the two factors responsible for the variation in activity of urease. (springer.com)
  • Presence of urease in gastrointestinal tract. (bvsalud.org)
  • Required for maturation of urease via the functional incorporation of the urease nickel metallocenter. (cusabio.com)
  • To determine the ability of the organism to hydrolyse urea by the action of urease enzyme. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • Urease test is performed by growing test organism on urea agar slant or urea broth with phenol red as an indicator with pH6.8. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • During the incubation period, the organism capable of producing urease enzyme hydrolyse urea and produce ammonia that raises the pH level. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • Failure of development of a pink colouration due to no ammonia production is evidence of an inability of the organism to produce urease enzyme. (biosciencetimes.com)
  • A primer pair which was expected to generate an amplicon of the estimated size (approximately 1700 base pair (bp)) of the flaA gene for Campylobacter jejuni amplified products of approximately 1450 bp for 33 of the 44 isolates of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The primer pair, however, failed to amplify fragments for 11 isolates of UPTC, for all of the 12 isolates of urease-negative C. lari and for one isolate of C. coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Urease are responsible for several pathogenic states in human as well as in animals and its inhibition is utmost urgent. (springer.com)
  • Within 24 hours of retrieving the specimen, 189 (87.1%) of the histology positives and 174 (89.7%) of the histology negatives were correctly identified by the urease test. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Further evaluating Ethanol-water fraction with 90% and 70% of plant extract showed more potentials for Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-urease activity. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, diluted 30% fraction exhibits two folds higher Anti-oxidant and Anti urease activity. (scirp.org)
  • JBU), the best-studied plant urease, was the first enzyme to be crystallized in 1926. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the crystal structure of JBU, the first plant urease structure, at 2.05 A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Therefore we prepared Ni nanoelectrodes to measure urease. (mdpi.com)
  • BioAssay Systems' Urease Assay Kit provides a very sensitive and convenient means to measure urease activity in a variety of samples including soil. (bioassaysys.com)
  • presented a poster at the 2019 European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition was to document that even though some European laboratories measure urease activity by a method DIFFERENT than the pH-rise method [AOCS Official Method Ba 9-58, AOCS (2011) which is based on Caskey and Knapp (1944)] the correlation with trypsin inhibitors is still valid also with the European Method [Détermination de l'activité uréasique de produits dérivés du soja. (engormix.com)
  • Many gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathogens produce urease. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This research includes design of new ciprofloxacin bearing oxadiazole at the N-4 piperazinyl for the purpose of having urease inhibitory activity as well as antibacterial activity. (sohag-univ.edu.eg)