Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.CreatinineUrease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Argininosuccinate Synthase: An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.MethylaminesRumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
  • Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited and rare metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to break down certain amino acids, leading the individual to produce urine that has a distinctive maple syrup odor. (healthician.org)
  • FDA-approved indication: For adjunctive therapy in the prevention and treatment of hyperammonemia in patients with urea cycle enzymopathy due to carbamylphosphate synthetase, ornithine, transcarbamylase, or argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Total branched-chain amino acids requirement in patients with maple syrup urine disease by use of indicator amino acid oxidation with L-[1-13C]phenylalanine. (sickkids.ca)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Maple Syrup Urine Disease" by people in Profiles. (sickkids.ca)
  • Kaur J, Nagy L, Wan B, Saleh H, Schulze A, Raiman J, Inbar-Feigenberg M. The utility of dried blood spot monitoring of branched-chain amino acids for maple syrup urine disease: A retrospective chart review study. (sickkids.ca)
  • Ben-Omran TI, Blaser S, Phillips H, Callahan J, Feigenbaum A. Atypical phenotype in a boy with a maple syrup urine disease. (sickkids.ca)
  • This concentration depends on the accumulation of urea in the renal medulla, permitted by an intrarenal recycling of urea among collecting ducts, vasa recta and thin descending limbs, all equipped with specialized, facilitated urea transporters (UTs) (UT-A1 and 3, UT-B, and UT-A2, respectively). (physiology.org)
  • The test is frequently used in conjunction with the determination of creatinine for the differential diagnosis of prerenal hyperuremia (cardiac decompensation, water depletion, increased protein catabolism), renal hyperuremia (glomerulonephritis, chronic nephritis, polycistic kidney, nephrosclerosis, tubular necrosis) and postrenal hyperuremia (obstructions of the urinary tract).Urea is the final degradation product of protein and amino acid metabolism. (walkinlab.com)
  • Acute Renal Failure is diagnosed clinically by a sharp increase of the serum creatinine level from baseline (i.e., an increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl) and/or if the urine output is less than 400 ml per day (oliguria), though not strictly applicable for ARF. (medindia.net)
  • 1. Blood in the renal artery or renal vein (Which one has more urea? (topperlearning.com)
  • Direct physiological evidence from a renal tubular perfusion experiment by Sands and Knepper (1987) demonstrated the existence of urea permeability in the terminal inner medullar collecting duct that was higher than the level accounted for with simple diffusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because multiple factors (glomerular filtration rate, dietary protein intake, protein catabolic rate, hydration state, etc.) can independently affect the urinary excretion of urea, all of these factors must be taken into account when interpreting the results. (testcatalog.org)
  • In the kidney, deletion of UT-A1/UT-A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early in the 19th century, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler came across an absolute proof that the theory of vitalism was not particularly true by making synthetic urine - accidentally - while he was trying to make ammonium cyanate! (ibeweb.org)
  • Other less common ionic groups in urine include ammonium, sulfates from amino acids, and phosphates depending on parathyroid hormone levels. (news-medical.net)
  • These two materials are combined under high pressures and elevated temperatures to form ammonium carbamate, which then decomposes at much lower pressures to yield urea and water . (britannica.com)
  • If you don't have enough fluid in your body (dehydration), you may have extra urea in your blood because you aren't passing much urine. (rochester.edu)
  • Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed α-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. (nature.com)
  • Raised urea = Dehydration and excessive protein metaboism. (proprofs.com)
  • Ionic zinc and ionic silver were ineffective inhibitors of urea hydrolysis due to interactions with phosphate and chloride in urine, respectively, which caused precipitative loss of the metals from solution. (rsc.org)
  • The urea content of the medulla is reduced by half, whereas that of chloride is almost normal. (physiology.org)
  • however, all land animals excrete it through urine. (reference.com)
  • and 3 ) species differences among mice, rats, and humans related to their very different body size and metabolic rate, leading to considerably larger needs to excrete and to concentrate urea in smaller species (urea excretion per unit body weight in mice is 5 times that in rats and 23 times that in humans). (physiology.org)
  • The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Yut protein, a new type of urea transporter homologous to eukaryotic channels and functionally interchangeable in vitro with the Helicobacter pylori UreI protein. (nature.com)
  • Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) is a type of urea cycle disorder that is characterized specifically by high levels of argininosuccinic acid, a chemical involved in the urea cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sodium phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl-TM) is a drug that has been used to treat other types of urea cycle disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although Buphenyl-TM has been FDA-approved for use in people with some types of urea cycle disorders, there is little information on the effectiveness of the drug in children with ASA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Post-dilution was associated with reduced filter life without any beneficial effect on daily changes in urea and creatinine levels. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of urea was like striking gold because it can be used as a nitrogen source in fertilizers. (ibeweb.org)
  • It may not flush away the global energy crisis, but a new technology that uses urine could be powering cars and houses by the end of the year, according to a Discovery Channel report. (nydailynews.com)
  • There are probably more articles published about urea, the main ingredient of urine, than about any other organic substance. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • Nitrogen content in urine is high, mostly in urea, which makes up more than 50 percent of the total organic acids. (news-medical.net)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ureas. (hmdb.ca)
  • Urea is an organic compound perhaps best recognise for its presence in urine, but it also serves important roles in the metabolism too. (proprofs.com)
  • We investigated the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, and organic chlorination byproducts (OCBPs) during galvanostatic (10, 15, 20 mA·cm -2 ) electro-oxidation of urine on boron-doped diamond (BDD) and thermally decomposed iridium oxide film (TDIROF) anodes. (eawag.ch)
  • Urine lacks sufficient organic matter to sustain plant growth for more than a few years, but provides faster-releasing nutrients that complement slow-release nutrients from compost, which has a higher content of organic matter and beneficial microbes. (scidev.net)
  • Urea hydrolysis is a chemical reaction that occurs in soils, the human body, and in wastewater urine diversion systems. (rsc.org)
  • Urea hydrolysis is inhibited through different chemical additions that affect the function of the urease enzyme. (rsc.org)
  • Acetic acid, citric acid, and vinegar were effective at inhibiting urea hydrolysis at concentrations varying from 3.2 × 10 1 to 1.6 × 10 2 meq L −1 in both synthetic and real, fresh urine as indicated by the conductivity and pH remaining constant throughout the experiments. (rsc.org)
  • The trigger of precipitation is the hydrolysis of urea by bacterial urease. (lib4ri.ch)
  • An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome infectious rodent feces, urine, or saliva. (cdc.gov)
  • Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of "excreta-derived fertilizers" which vary in their properties and fertilizing characteristics: urine, dried feces, composted feces, fecal sludge (septage), sewage, sewage sludge and animal manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into how to make reuse of urine and feces safe in agriculture was carried out in Sweden since the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • We develop reactors for the separate treatment of urine, feces and water directly in the toilet. (eawag.ch)
  • Methods of estimating residual kidney urea clearance that use commonly available laboratory and clinical data, with or without urine volume information, may be useful tools. (elsevier.com)
  • Setting & Participants: Initial timed urine collections in 604 incident in-center hemodialysis patients on thrice-weekly treatments from a single academic center in which residual kidney urea clearance is measured in usual care. (elsevier.com)
  • Outcomes: Residual kidney urea clearance. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Urine volume alone was the strongest predictor of residual kidney urea clearance. (elsevier.com)
  • 2.5 mL/min (area under the curve, 0.91 in both development and bootstrap validation) and R 2 of 0.56 with outcome as a continuous residual kidney urea clearance value. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Estimation equations for residual kidney urea clearance that use commonly available data in dialysis clinics, with and without urine volume, may be useful tools for evaluation of hemodialysis patients who still have residual kidney function for individualization of dialysis prescriptions. (elsevier.com)
  • To keep your yard from smelling like dog urine you will need to use a product like Urea-Z. A natural microbial urine odor eliminator, that will eat up the urine crystals trapped in the astroturf and get rid of that unwanted smell. (urea-z.com)
  • Along with UUN, values for BUN, protein content of diet, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and notable outputs other than urine (gastric residual, fistula output, drainages) are needed to calculate nitrogen balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weeks, D. L., Eskandari, S., Scott, D. R. & Sachs, G. A H + -gated urea channel: the link between Helicobacter pylori urease and gastric colonization. (nature.com)
  • Both, bacteria and free urease, hydrolyse urea. (lib4ri.ch)
  • Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. (northside.com)
  • Then collect all urine in 24-hour period, ending with final collection at 8am the next morning. (walkinlab.com)
  • Then collect all urine, including the final specimen voided at the end of the 24-hour collection period (ie, 8 AM the following morning). (labcorp.com)
  • Score: 3.5 out of 5, Grade: B- UPass is a fully professional synthetic urine. (fvkasa.org)
  • Synthetic urine, stored away from light sources, will tend to last one year. (fvkasa.org)
  • The greatest benefit of UPass synthetic urine is the fact that you can get it at your local headshop or gas station and it's cheap. (fvkasa.org)
  • This time, instead of simply discarding it, he researched and experimented on what it could be - and found out that it was synthetic urine. (ibeweb.org)
  • This amazing feat freed up the rest of the world from treasuring their urine and storing up their pet's urine - factories could just manufacture synthetic urine, and the smelly less-than-great pee storage process could be stopped! (ibeweb.org)
  • Synthetic Urine reviews. (fvkasa.org)
  • You have wondered are there stores that sell synthetic urine near me ? (fvkasa.org)
  • What is synthetic urine? (fvkasa.org)
  • It is possible to make synthetic urine at home by securing the ingredients below and mixing them in precise quantities, but it's much easier to just buy pre-made synthetic urine. (fvkasa.org)
  • Synthetic urine is illegal in some states. (fvkasa.org)
  • Online is the best place to buy synthetic urine but it is also often available in head shops. (fvkasa.org)
  • It provides synthetic urine with the right electrolyte levels. (fvkasa.org)
  • Sodium phosphate provides your synthetic urine with the correct phosphate levels. (fvkasa.org)
  • Synthetic urine can be used for any urine tests for any kind of drug, including marijuana, opioids, even alcohol or nicotine. (fvkasa.org)
  • If it is managed, making use of fake urine may be a bit hard. (snowblink.org)
  • Directions: Heat your fake urine. (fvkasa.org)
  • Monkey Dong has the advantage that combines the fake urine with a fake penis to use because you sometimes have to produce a penis to give a urine sample under close watch. (fvkasa.org)
  • Fake urine comes in two main types, powdered and liquid. (fvkasa.org)
  • It is far more concentrated in the urine than in plasma and extracellular fluids. (physiology.org)
  • When fed diets with progressively increasing protein content (10, 20, and 40%), they cannot prevent a much larger increase in plasma urea than wild-type mice because they cannot raise U urea . (physiology.org)