A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic HYPERAMMONEMIA may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. (1/5625)

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (2/5625)

Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin.  (+info)

Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins. (3/5625)

The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of major intrinsic microsomal membrane proteins. (4/5625)

Treatment of the membrane matrix derived from hepatic microsomes with buffered 1 M urea resulted in the selective extraction of a group of proteins together with a portion of the membrane lipid. Thorough chemical characterization of this fraction has been performed, and the proteins have been fractionated by two different procedures. The first of these, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has produced five highly homogeneous membrane proteins which have been characterized with regard to molecular weight, electrophoretic behavior in five different polyacrylamide systems, NH2 terminus, relative carbohydrate content, isoelectric point, and amino acid composition. The five proteins of this group fell in the molecular weight range of 54,000 to 96,000 and had isoelectric points ranging from pH 4.9 to pH 6.7. Further fractionation of the urea-soluble proteins by gel filtration in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium resulted in the isolation of four homogeneous molecular weight classes of proteins which have been characterized with respect to various physicochemical parameters. The major membrane glycoprotein (apparent molecular weight, 171,000) was isolated by this procedure and found to contain approximately equal amounts of NH2-terminal glycine and serine. suggesting the presence of at least two polypeptide chains in this molecular weight region. From the urea-insoluble fraction of the membrane comprising approximately 80% of the total protein, five intrinsic polypeptides designated S-5 through S-9 were isolated. S-5 (54,000) and S-6 (49,000) represent the most prominent components in the microsomal membrane, accounting for close to 30% of the total protein. Also isolated and characterized is the smallest membrane protein (S-9), a hydrophobic polypeptide of molecular weight 16,000. All of the urea-insoluble proteins are glycoproteins, and S-7 (35,000) gives the second most intense stain for carbohydrate of all proteins in the microsomal membrane.  (+info)

Role of glucagon on the control of hepatic protein synthesis and degradation in the rat in vivo. (5/5625)

The effect of glucagon on hepatic protein systhesis and proteolysis has been investigated. The intraperitoneal administration of 200 mug of glucagon produced an increase of the polypeptide chains completion time which was maximal 5 min after its administration and approached control values at 20 min. The increase of the polypeptides chains completion time observed at 5 min after the hormone administration represents a 38% inhibition of the hepatic protein synthetic rate. When glucagon was continuously supplied by intravascular infusion, maximal inhibition was attained throughout the experiment. This inhibition of protein synthesis brought about by glucagon was accompanied by an increase in the polyribosomal state of aggregation, indicating that the hormone acts mainly if not exclusively, on the elongation or termination step, or both. The administration of glucagon produced also a progressive increase in the hepatic valine concentration. This increase could not be accounted for the the decrease in plasma valine levels, suggesting that the rise in haptic valine concentration is an expression of hepatic proteolysis rather than the result of an accelerated transport of amino acids across the hepatocyte plasma membrane. The different time sequence in the glucagon-induced effects of protein synthesis and proteolysis suggests that both effects are independent and probably mediated by different mechanisms.  (+info)

Tolerance of Arc repressor to multiple-alanine substitutions. (6/5625)

Arc repressor mutants containing from three to 15 multiple-alanine substitutions have spectral properties expected for native Arc proteins, form heterodimers with wild-type Arc, denature cooperatively with Tms equal to or greater than wild type, and, in some cases, fold as much as 30-fold faster and unfold as much as 50-fold slower than wild type. Two of the mutants, containing a total of 14 different substitutions, also footprint operator DNA in vitro. The stability of some of the proteins with multiple-alanine mutations is significantly greater than that predicted from the sum of the single substitutions, suggesting that a subset of the wild-type residues in Arc may interact in an unfavorable fashion. Overall, these results show that almost half of the residues in Arc can be replaced by alanine en masse without compromising the ability of this small, homodimeric protein to fold into a stable, native-like structure.  (+info)

Specificity of native-like interhelical hydrophobic contacts in the apomyoglobin intermediate. (7/5625)

On exposure to mildly acidic conditions, apomyoglobin forms a partially folded intermediate, I. The A, B, G, and H helices are significantly structured in this equilibrium intermediate, whereas the remainder of the protein is largely unfolded. We report here the effects of mutations at helix pairing sites on the stability of I in three classes of mutants that: (i) truncate hydrophobic side chains in native helix packing sites, (ii) truncate hydrophobic side chains not involved in interhelical contacts, and (iii) extend hydrophobic side chains at residues not involved in interhelical contacts. Class I mutants significantly decrease the stability and cooperativity of folding of the intermediate. Class II and III mutants show smaller effects on stability and have little effect on cooperativity. Qualitatively similar results to those found in I were obtained for all three classes of mutants in native myoglobin (N), demonstrating that hydrophobic burial is fairly specific to native helix packing sites in I as well as in N. These results suggest that hydrophobic burial along native-like interhelical contacts is important for the formation of the cooperatively folded intermediate.  (+info)

Influence of haemodialysis on plasma total homocysteine concentration. (8/5625)

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in uraemic patients is of interest because of the cardiovascular risk associated with increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration. Treatment with folic acid lowers tHcy in haemodialysis patients, however, in most patients not to normohomocysteinaemic levels. With possible tHcy-lowering modifications in mind, we studied the influence of standard haemodialysis on tHcy. METHODS: In 56 folate-loaded haemodialysis patients, tHcy and parameters of dialysis adequacy were measured. In six patients, interdialytic curves of tHcy and serum creatinine concentrations were obtained and in five patients, the amount of homocysteine (Hcy) in dialysate was determined. RESULTS: tHcy (21.8+/-14.4 micromol/l) correlated significantly with Kt/V (r=0.32, P<0.05), total Kt/V (r=0.29, P<0.05), nPCR (r=0.30, P<0.05) and serum concentrations of albumin (r=0.28, P<0.05) and cobalamines (r=-0.27, P<0.05). In a multiple linear regression analysis, only serum albumin concentrations significantly predicted tHcy (r=0.34, P < 0.05). During dialysis, tHcy decreased by 28% and remained constant for at least 8 h after treatment. The amount of Hcy recovered in dialysate was 63 micromol (12-158 micromol). There was no difference in tHcy between those who had residual renal function and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: The direct relationship between tHcy and Kt/V seemed to be mediated by the serum albumin concentration. The shape of the interdialytic tHcy curve suggested facilitated Hcy removal for at least 8 h after dialysis possibly due to reduced levels of inhibitory activities against relevant enzyme(s). The dialysed amount of Hcy did not seem to contribute significantly to Hcy removal. Thus, modifications of standard dialytic regimens are not likely to be effective from a tHcy-lowering point of view whereas convective procedures such as haemofiltration or haemodiafiltration might be more effective.  (+info)

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The thermal decomposition of aqueous ammonium nitrate, aqueous urea and aqueous urea ammonium nitrate was investigated by means of simultaneous TGA/DTA/DTG/MS analysis under ambient pressure, and DSC under applied pressures of 5 and 10 MPa. Aqueous urea ammonium nitrate was previously suggested as a low carbon nitr
Thirty six multiparous Danish Holstein cows, 222 days from calving with a standard deviation (±) of 102 days, 627±7 kg of body weight, and 32±3 kg/d energy corrected milk were used to investigate the effect of forage particle size (FPS) and dietary urea supplementation on excretion of phosphorus (P) in feces and urine when cows were fed P below requirement. Dietary P content was 2.5 g P/kg DM in all treatments. Treatments (CONTROL, SHORT and LOW-N) were all based on the same content of forage ingredients but varied in FPS and dietary urea content. In CONTROL and SHORT rumen degradable protein was optimized according to the Nordic protein evaluation system by supplementing dietary urea, whereas urea was excluded in LOW-N in order to obtain a supply of rumen degradable protein below requirements. It was hypothesized that dietary factors that reduce saliva secretion via reduced chewing activity will reduce the inevitable loss of endogenous P (IL) of P and that dietary factors that reduce the ...
In the 1970s-1980s, a number of clearance, micropuncture, and microperfusion studies as well as anatomic-functional correlations have brought a good understanding of the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism (16, 87) (see reviews in Refs. 6 and 50). It has been understood that urea is accumulated and somehow sequestrated (104) in the renal medulla at a concentration increasing from the outer medulla to the tip of the papilla. This accumulation results from three associated processes (Fig. 2). 1) Urea becomes progressively concentrated along the CD because of vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption in a segment poorly permeable to urea, thus bringing a highly concentrated urea solution to the terminal CD. 2) A vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of the terminal IMCD (due to UT-A1/3) enables this concentrated urea to be transported into the interstitial tissue of the deep inner medulla. 3) Medullary urea, which continuously tends to escape the inner medulla via the ...
For use in business, urea is produced from artificial ammonia and carbon dioxide. Synthetic urea is created from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide and could be produced as a liquid or a strong. The strategy of dehydrating ammonium carbamate under circumstances of high heat and stress to produce urea was first implemented urea fertilizer suppliers in 1870 and continues to be in use today. Uses of synthetic urea are quite a few and subsequently production is excessive. Approximately one million pounds of urea is manufactured in the United States alone every year, most of it used in fertilizers ...
As the heading suggests, now we are going to talk about the principle and reagents in the test. Let us now first discuss the principle on which this test is based.. Ammonia is produced by the hydrolysis of urea by urease which is the first step. This produced Ammonia is reacted with some other substance including NADH for the production of glutamate and NAD+. If there is more amount of urea then absorbance will decrease. This relation is directly proportional. The TC Matrix System automatically proportions the appropriate sample and reagent volumes into the cuvette. The system monitors the change in absorbance at 340 nanometers. This change in absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of urea in the sample and is used by the TC Matrix System to calculate and express the urea concentration. And this constituent the principle of this test. Let us now talk about the reagent of the test.. The reagents used in this test are categorized as Urea Reagent 1 and Urea reagent 2. This is no ...
Results: Postponement of measurements resulted in a significant increase in pH and a significant decrease of buffering capacity, phosphate and urea concentration. The results suggest that the time-related pH increase could primarily be attributed to loss of dissolved carbon dioxide from saliva, and confirm the importance of hydrogen carbonate in the neutralisation of hydrogen ions, but they do not support the principle of catalysed phase-buffering for the hydrogen carbonate buffer system in saliva. A decrease in phosphate and urea concentration affects salivary buffering capacity ...
The report firstly introduced Sulfur Coated Urea basic information included Sulfur Coated Urea definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; Sulfur Coated Urea production and sales by manufacturers by technology by regions or countries, and also introduced global key manufacturers manufacturing bases and capacity distribution, Sulfur Coated Urea product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Sulfur Coated Urea capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Sulfur Coated Urea products customers application capacity market position company contact information etc ...
Urea effect on mice spleen cells - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hi, I am going to do lymphocyte proliferation assay using mouse spleen cells in order to assess the cytokine profile of the cells (IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10) after induction with the target protein. I have purified my recombinant protein of interest using denaturing method by 6M Urea. Since my protein disappears after dialysis, I wondered if I could use the protein for inducing cells without dialysis. I would...
by Prof. Evangelos D. Danopoulos, M.D.. In 1987 in the Cancer Victors Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3 and in the Townsend Letter for Doctors (Feb./Mar. 1988) was published my article The Possibility of Treating Malignancies with Urea.. Since this article was published, experience has led me to change my concept somewhat and to greatly improve my method of treating malignancies.. In the previous article I said that urea taken per os, once it has entered the blood circulation, is quickly excreted by the kidneys in urine. It is for this reason that urea, when administered intravenously, cannot reach organs with a high enough concentration to have anti-cancer effect. Taken per os, urea reaches the liver via the portal vein in a high enough concentration to have a most helpful effect on a primary liver malignancy or on a liver metastasis. After passing through the liver, urea comes to other organs in too low a concentration to have anti-cancer effect, so that concentration of urea in organs other than the ...
We use multi-microsecond simulations of the hexameric channel assembly to investigate the atomic detail mechanics that regulate pH-gating, solute selectivity, and flux limitation. In addition, we will study the export route and transport mechanisms of the urea hydrolysis products, CO2 and NH3, back into the periplasmic space. Inhibition of either urea or CO2 and NH3 transport would render H. pylori susceptible to acidic degradation, thus presenting a good opportunity for targeted drug development. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying channel function is vital for the design of suitable inhibitors and new therapies. Blocking of this channel would be expected to result in a specific and effective monotherapy for eradication of the organism. This would provide a preventive approach to serious upper gastro-intestinal diseases, particularly gastric cancer. Our studies require multi-microsecond simulations that are able to capture channel function of the native UreI ...
Hepatic NH, detoxification by ureagenesis requires an input of aspartate-N, originating either from amino acid-N or NH3-N. The relative importance of these two routes may depend on the nutritional state.. To test this, four volunteers were given a liquid diet for 2 d and then on day 3 were either fed every 20 min or fasted. Doses of WH,Cl were taken orally every 20 min for 6 h (total 1.5 g) and blood was sampled hourly. Urea-N elimination under fasted conditions was only 0.75 of that for the fed state. Considering the increase in body urea pool during feeding, ureagenesis during fasting was probably closer to 0.6 of that during feeding. Since the [14N15murea enrichment was not different between the fed and fasted states, the proportion of the lsNH3 dose converted to urea during fasting was also 0.6 of that during the fed condition. No change in (4NSN]urea and Iamide-15N]glutamine enrichment suggested that NH, enrichment was also not affected by nutritional state. Enrichment of [1sN15N]urea was ...
This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine.. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks down protein. Its carried in your blood, filtered out by your kidneys, and removed from your body in your urine. If your liver isnt healthy, it may not break down proteins the way it should. And if your kidneys arent healthy, they may not properly filter urea. Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. If you dont have enough fluid in your body (dehydration), you may have extra urea in your blood because you arent passing much urine. ...
The solution conformation properties of penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) have been characterised by near- and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and differential sedimentation velocity. The enzyme (86 kDa) was found to be spherical and stable unfolding over a narrow range of urea concentrations in an apparently cooperative fashion with a mid-point of 4.5 M urea. Separation of its constituent alpha and beta peptides (23.8 kDa and 62.2 kDa, respectively) was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity and unfolding, the kinetics of unfolding being highly dependent upon urea concentration. Urea gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the separated beta peptide aggregates over a wide range of urea concentrations but that the alpha peptide refolds reversibly to a compact state. Physical studies showed that the refolded alpha peptide has a compact but asymmetric structure with more alpha helix than the native enzyme, but is more sensitive to ...
High-urea nitrogen counts often indicate kidney dysfunction, explains Healthline. Symptoms of kidney dysfunction include frequent urination, discolored urine, restless legs, back pain and swelling in...
Mathematical modeling techniques have been useful in providing insights into biological systems, including the kidney. This article considers some of the mathematical models that concern urea transport in the kidney. Modeling simulations have been conducted to investigate, in the context of urea cycling and urine concentration, the effects of hypothetical active urea secretion into pars recta. Simulation results suggest that active urea secretion induces a urea-selective improvement in urine concentrating ability. Mathematical models have also been built to study the implications of the highly structured organization of tubules and vessels in the renal medulla on urea sequestration and cycling. The goal of this article is to show how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models may provide insights into renal functions ...
In mammals, there are two types of urea transporters (UTs), UT-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporter is mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells; while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract and other tissues. Over the past few years, multiple UT knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different UTs. In the kidney, deletion of UTA1/A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. Since UT-B has a wide distribution, multiple phenotypic abnormalities were found in UT-B null mice, such as defective urine concentration, heart block with aging, depression-like behavior and earlier male sexual maturation. This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs from UT knockout mice. Finally, we take a glance at the pharmacological prospect of UTs.
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A five months old, Flat-Coated Retriever puppy with poor body condition diagnosed with pyelonephritis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was referred for a nutritional consult. The conflicting protein and phosphorus requirements for growth and poor body condition versus CKD were scrutinised. To maximise the quality of life (QoL) despite the poor prognosis, several diet plans were advised taking into account the different growth periods of this medium breed puppy. At 15 months of age, body condition was still below target and the creatinine level had increased consistently since the first consult. Despite the progressive decline in kidney function, serum urea concentration decreased compared with seven months before, whereas serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and phosphate remained normal at all times. With the different adjusted diet plans, the QoL of the puppy was improved, allowing for a normal and exceptionally energetic life until the age of nearly three years ...
The Urea blood test, along with the Creatinine blood test, is used to evaluate renal function. Urea is formed in the liver deriving from the protein breakdown. It then passes to blood circulation and is eliminated from the body through kidneys. If kidneys do not function properly or the body organism uses large amounts of protein, urea levels increase in the blood. In case of severe liver disease, the exactly opposite occurs, i.e. urea levels reduce in the blood.. ...
The use of urea (NH2CONH2) to remove nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust streams was investigated using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion exhaust gases. The urea was injected into the gases as a urea-water solution. The decomposition processes of the urea-water solutions and urea powder were examined. For both the nitric oxide removal and the urea decomposition experiments, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The products from the decomposition were examined every 50 K from 500 K to 800 K. The dominant products were ammonia (NH3), isocyanuric acid (HNCO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In case of urea-water solution decomposition, for gas temperatures between 550 and 650 K, the highest concentrations were for NH3 and HNCO. On the other hand, the concentrations of CO2 were highest for gas temperatures of about 500 - 550 K. For temperatures above ...
Methods and preparatons for treating disorders of the eye and/or causing posterior vitreous disconnection or disinsertion. Preparations containing a) urea, b) urea derivatives (e.g., hydroxyurea, thiourea), c) a non-steroidal anti-inflamatory agents, d) antmetabolites, e) urea, urea derivatives, non-enzymatic proteins, nucleosides, nucleotides and their derivatives (e.g., adenine, adenosine, cytosine, cytadine, guanine, guanitadine, guanidinium, thymidine, thimitadine, uradine, uracil, cystine), uric acid, calcium acetal salicylate, ammonium sulfate or other compound capable of causing non-enzymatic dissolution of the hyaloid membrane or e) any of the possible combinations thereof, are administered to the eye in therapeutically effective amounts.
While similar, osmolarity and tonicity are not the same. The key difference between the two is that tonicity implies a membrane that is impermeable to the solutes on either side of it. This is not a necessary condition in the case of osmolarity. Osmolarity is a measure of the osmotically active particles in a solution and in fact makes no explicit assertion with respect to the solute permeability of any involved membranes. The derivatives of the term: isosmotic, hyperosmotic, and hypoosmotic, should not be confused with istonic, hypertonic and hypotonic. Example: A urea solution that is isosmotic with respect to the cytosol of an erythrocyte is nonetheless not isotonic respective to the same erythrocyte. Urea freely diffuses across cellular membranes and is also an osmotically active particle. Normally, urea is present in a lower concentration in the nju of an erythrocyte than in an urea solution. Because urea is freely permeable to cell membranes and the concentration of urea is normally lower ...
Guideline II.4.1 A. Indices used to quantify the efficiency of HD depend upon the blood urea concentration in pre‐ and post‐HD blood samples. Therefore, it is crucial that these samples be taken carefully with a standard method. (Evidence level: A) Guideline II.4.2 A. The delivered dose of HD should be checked at least monthly. (Evidence level: B) B. Renal function may only be included in the assessment if it is measured monthly at the same time as the delivered dose of HD. Because renal function may change over time, historic renal function data may not be used. Guideline II.4.3 A. If a patient fails to receive the adequate HD dose, or if a significant difference between the prescribed and the delivered dose is observed, a search for the cause of the problem must be undertaken. (Evidence level: B) ...
Urea N46% HSS specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer We sell urea N46% and large qty, prilled & granular,300000mt month. Detail following:Payment: By L/c or T/TMinimum order:12500MTIf need samll qty, price big different.Product specifications prilled urea:Nitrogen:46% minimumBiuret:1% maximumMoisture:0
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the first passage of a bolus of hyperpolarized (13)C urea through the rodent heart using flow-sensitizing gradients to reduce signal from the blood pool. METHODS: A flow-sensitizing bipolar gradient was optimized to reduce the bright signal within the cardiac chambers, enabling improved contrast of the agent within the tissue capillary bed. The gradient was incorporated into a dynamic golden angle spiral (13)C imaging sequence. Healthy rats were scanned during rest (n = 3) and under adenosine stress-induced hyperemia (n = 3). RESULTS: A two-fold increase in myocardial perfusion relative to rest was detected during adenosine stress-induced hyperemia, consistent with a myocardial perfusion reserve of two in rodents. CONCLUSION: The new pulse sequence was used to obtain dynamic images of the first passage of hyperpolarized (13)C urea in the rodent heart, without contamination from bright signal within the neighboring cardiac lumen. This probe of myocardial
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the first passage of a bolus of hyperpolarized (13)C urea through the rodent heart using flow-sensitizing gradients to reduce signal from the blood pool. METHODS: A flow-sensitizing bipolar gradient was optimized to reduce the bright signal within the cardiac chambers, enabling improved contrast of the agent within the tissue capillary bed. The gradient was incorporated into a dynamic golden angle spiral (13)C imaging sequence. Healthy rats were scanned during rest (n = 3) and under adenosine stress-induced hyperemia (n = 3). RESULTS: A two-fold increase in myocardial perfusion relative to rest was detected during adenosine stress-induced hyperemia, consistent with a myocardial perfusion reserve of two in rodents. CONCLUSION: The new pulse sequence was used to obtain dynamic images of the first passage of hyperpolarized (13)C urea in the rodent heart, without contamination from bright signal within the neighboring cardiac lumen. This probe of myocardial
In western medicine, there is not yet an effective way to remove the immune complex deposits. The kidney experts in our hospital create an effective therapy through combining Chinese medicine and western medical technology. That is Immunotherapy. So far, it is the best treatment for a wide range of kidney disorders. This therapy also have extraordinary effects on reducing high creatinine and urea level in blood for kidney patients. Are you still looking for better therapy for your condition? Immunotherapy is undoubtedly the right choice ...
2021-7-7 · About half of the urea in mix 2 can be used by the animal as protein. The high urea level creates a bitter taste which in turn controls intake. Under the above conditions, recommended intake of either mix is: Weaners 1.0 to 1.5 kg/hd/d; Dry cattle 1.5 to 2.0 kg/hd/d; Lactating cows 2.0 to 3.0 kg/hd/d; Cattle in poor condition, little dry feed. Get Price ...
Low toxicity is predicted for urea: the substance is widely used as a plant nutrient (N-source) in fertiliser, hence toxicity is unlikely. The results of a study in soy bean plants confirm the low short-term toxicity of urea. The substances urea and phosphoric acid do have a very high water solubility and its chemical properties do not indicate bioaccumulation and/or adsorption to soil. Therefore, the study is not considered necessary. ...
December 28, 2011 , Article LCNs Urea 10% Foot series offers optimum care for very dry and sensitive skin. Known for its moisture-binding features, urea - or uric acid - is the main ingredient of the product line.. Keywords: callus foot care foot masks heel creams urea ...
The salt recommendations mentioned by Peat in some of his articles have been the source of much controversy. He has given accounts of people with...
Does creatinine 2.5 nd urea 93 indicate kidney disease? In fact, both of creatinine and urea level are the indicators of kidney disease
Urea is a major organic component found in human urine, which is a waste product expelled by animals after being excreted from the kidneys. Urea, also know
Why? In prerenal failure like hemorrhagic shock, you have less renal blood flow, you will filter less and GFR will decrease. When GFR decreases, it gives the proximal tubule more time to reabsorb urea. Thus, there is an increase in serum urea ...
Substituted cinnamoyl ureas have been identified as novel compounds with their various biological acti vities. The novel cinnamoyl ureas were synth..
Introduction. Planning exercise Aim: To plan an investigation to find out how changes in the consumption of protein in the diet influence the excretion of urea in humans. Introduction: I will need to measure the amount of urea produced by people with different protein intakes. I will use the enzyme urease to break the urea down into the alkaline ammonium carbonate and titrate this against an acid to find its concentration. Prediction: I think that the more protein the consumer has in their diet, the more urea will be secreted, therefore the ammonium carbonate will have a higher concentration. Hypothesis: Chains of amino acids make proteins. When too much protein is consumed those not needed for protein synthesis go through a process called deamination in the liver. The amino group and a hydrogen are removed from the amino acid and form ammonia (NH ) . This is then converted to urea which is less toxic and soluble. NO + CO = (NH ) CO. The urea is carried away by the blood to the kidney where it ...
De-Nox technologies, SNCR, denox, cement SNCR, DNT, Urea SNCR, Ammonia SNCR, Dry Urea Systems, de-nox, denox, Small SCR Systems, Cost Effective NOx Controls
Urea and Electrolytes Sodium 141 mmol/L 133-146 Potassium 4.9 mmol/L 3.5-5.3 Urea 4.3 mmol/L 2.5-7.8 Bone Calcium 2.42 mmol/L 2.10-2.58 Adjusted...
Find everything you need to know about Ammonium Lactate And Urea (Carb-O-Lac5), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. Learn more about Ammonium Lactate And Urea (Carb-O-Lac5) at EverydayHealth.com.
If you buy or sell Urea or related products, you need up-to-date global pricing data and the background information to help you understand it.. Our network of price reporters across Asia, Europe and the US enables us to deliver this. We publish their insights in our comprehensive daily and weekly price reports, plus we offer the news and analysis you need to put pricing information into context.. Find out more about our Urea coverage. ...
Homework Statement Urea is known to react with an acid to form salt. The carbonyl oxygen of urea is protonated in the process to form uronium ion. But, I...
Learn about the potential side effects of Gordons Urea (urea). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Find everything you need to know about Urea Topical, including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. Learn more about Urea Topical at EverydayHealth.com.
AdBlue is an extremely pure, colorless liquid. This contains demineralized water and urea (32.5%). AdBlue is used in diesel engines and is also known outside Europe under the names DEF, ARLA 32 or AUS 32.. The main active component of AdBlue is ammonia. This is chemically formed by hydrolysis of automotive urea, which is the main raw material for AdBlue. Different types of urea are used for the production of fertilizers and many other applications.. Read more ...
1. Under the strain induced by the administration of urea, it is possible to demonstrate the relation between the degree of anatomical damage in the kidney and the degree of defect in the urea-excreting capacity induced by uranium.. 2. The closest correlation between structure and function was obtained when the ratio between the urea content of the urine and of the blood was used as the measure of function.. ...
1dmp: Improved cyclic urea inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease: synthesis, potency, resistance profile, human pharmacokinetics and X-ray crystal structure of DMP 450.
To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model ...
Blood Testing for Urea at a private BMI hospital in the UK, over 100 tests to select, add further tests at considerable discount.
Hello. I am a healthy, normal 35 years old male. I had a dull pain in my flank area for a while, and went to a doctor. (NOTE; I live in a foreign country and communicating with the doctors is very difficult. That is why I am asking this question here.) Ultrasound showed nothing abnormal, but blood test showed Creatinie: 2.00/ BUN: 37/ Urea: 79 and ...
... which is the metabolic pathway for urea formation. It is now known as the urea cycle, and is sometimes also referred to as the ... Urea cycle (Krebs-Henseleit cycle)[edit]. While working at the Medical Clinic of the University of Freiburg, Krebs met Kurt ... Thus the urea cycle (or "ornithine cycle") was established, and it was the first metabolic cycle to be discovered.[15][25] ... He found that citrulline acted as a catalyst in the metabolic reactions of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. He and ...
Urea fertilization[edit]. Main article: Ocean nourishment. Ian Jones proposes fertilizing the ocean with urea, a nitrogen rich ... Australian company Ocean Nourishment Corporation (ONC) plans to sink hundreds of tonnes of urea into the ocean to boost CO. 2- ... "Urea 'climate solution' may backfire". ABC Science. Australian Broadcasting Commission. Retrieved May 9, 2010 ...
Urea fertilization[edit]. According to Ramsay et al.,[67] urea fertilization could cause damage to the rich marine biodiversity ... urea is metabolized by phytoplankton via urease enzymes to produce ammonia.[69]. CO. (. NH. 2. ). 2. +. H. 2. O. →. u. r. e. a ... were 1000 tons of urea was injected into the ocean.[22] The goal was to prove that urea fertilization would enrich the algae ... These include the use of iron fertilization, urea fertilization, mixing layers, seaweed,[28][29] as well as direct carbon ...
Role in urea cycle[edit]. L-Ornithine is one of the products of the action of the enzyme arginase on L-arginine, creating urea ... producing urea. The nitrogens of urea come from the ammonia and aspartate, and the nitrogen in ornithine remains intact. ... Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the ... Therefore, ornithine is a central part of the urea cycle, which allows for the disposal of excess nitrogen. Ornithine is ...
Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle. Interactive pathway map[edit]. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to ...
A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, ... Urea and Electrolytes. This test is performed to measure the function of kidney.. ...
Urea analogues: Acetohydroxamic acid. *Salicylhydroxamic acid. *Other: Collagen. *Dimethyl sulfoxide. *Magnesium hydroxide ...
Urea Hydrolysis Negative Oxidase Negative Phenylalanine Deaminase Negative Eosin-methylene blue Positive ...
Zamani M, Sharifi Tehrani A, Ali Abadi AA (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. 72 (4): 773-7. PMID 18396809 ...
"Urea". Molecules in Motion. Imperial College London. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Cohen, Paul S.; Cohen, Stephen M ... Friedrich Wöhler's conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea in 1828 is often cited as the starting point of modern organic ... Ramberg, Peter J. (2000). "The Death of Vitalism and the Birth of Organic Chemistry: Wohler's Urea Synthesis and the ... 1996). "Wöhler's Synthesis of Urea: How do the Textbooks Report It?". Journal of Chemical Education. 73 (9): 883. doi:10.1021/ ...
Urea-formaldehyde panels 0.88-1.06. R-5-R-6. 35-42 Urea foam[47] 0.92. R-5.25. 36.4 ...
In the translation of messenger RNA molecules to produce polypeptides, cysteine is coded for by the UGU and UGC codons. Cysteine has traditionally been considered to be a hydrophilic amino acid, based largely on the chemical parallel between its sulfhydryl group and the hydroxyl groups in the side chains of other polar amino acids. However, the cysteine side chain has been shown to stabilize hydrophobic interactions in micelles to a greater degree than the side chain in the nonpolar amino acid glycine and the polar amino acid serine.[19] In a statistical analysis of the frequency with which amino acids appear in different chemical environments in the structures of proteins, free cysteine residues were found to associate with hydrophobic regions of proteins. Their hydrophobic tendency was equivalent to that of known nonpolar amino acids such as methionine and tyrosine (tyrosine is polar aromatic but also hydrophobic[20]), those of which were much greater than that of known polar amino acids such ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[1] Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage [2] and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. The acetyl group (indicated in blue in the structural diagram on the right) of acetyl-CoA is linked to the sulfhydryl substituent of the β-mercaptoethylamine group. This thioester linkage is a "high energy" bond, which is particularly reactive. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is exergonic (−31.5 kJ/mol). CoA is acetylated to acetyl-CoA by the breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis and by the breakdown of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB metabolism is the reversible transamination of leucine to [α-KIC] that occurs mainly extrahepatically (Block and Buse 1990). Following this enzymatic reaction, [α-KIC] may follow one of two pathways. In the first, HMB is produced from [α-KIC] by the cytosolic enzyme KIC dioxygenase (Sabourin and Bieber 1983). The cytosolic dioxygenase has been characterized extensively and differs from the mitochondrial form in that the dioxygenase enzyme is a cytosolic enzyme, whereas the dehydrogenase enzyme is found exclusively in the mitochondrion (Sabourin and Bieber 1981, 1983). Importantly, this route of HMB formation is direct and completely dependent of liver KIC dioxygenase. Following this pathway, HMB in the cytosol is first converted to cytosolic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), which can then be directed for cholesterol synthesis (Rudney 1957) (Fig. 1). In fact, ...
An alternate way to make dulcin is by mixing urea and p-phenetidine hydrochloride to a mixture of hydrochloric acid and glacial ...
InChI=1S/C25H40N7O19P3S/c1-12(23(37)38)24(39)55-7-6-27-14(33)4-5-28-21(36)18(35)25(2,3)9-48-54(45,46)51-53(43,44)47-8-13-17(50-52(40,41)42)16(34)22(49-13)32-11-31-15-19(26)29-10-30-20(15)32/h10-13,16-18,22,34-35H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,27,33)(H,28,36)(H,37,38)(H,43,44)(H,45,46)(H2,26,29,30)(H2,40,41,42)/t12?,13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1 ...
... (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter - interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction. Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl. ...
When both imidazole ring nitrogens are protonated, their 15N chemical shifts are similar (about 200 ppm, relative to nitric acid on the sigma scale, on which increased shielding corresponds to increased chemical shift). NMR shows that the chemical shift of N1-H drops slightly, whereas the chemical shift of N3-H drops considerably (about 190 vs. 145 ppm). This indicates that the N1-H tautomer is preferred, it is presumed due to hydrogen bonding to the neighboring ammonium. The shielding at N3 is substantially reduced due to the second-order paramagnetic effect, which involves a symmetry-allowed interaction between the nitrogen lone pair and the excited π* states of the aromatic ring. As the pH rises above 9, the chemical shifts of N1 and N3 become approximately 185 and 170 ppm. An entirely deprotonated form of the imidazole ring, the imidazolate ion, would be formed only above a pH of 14, and is therefore not physiologically relevant. This change in chemical shifts can be explained by the ...
Ammonia (as ammonium) is then excreted predominantly as urea, synthesised in the liver. Transamination can thus be linked to ... and finally excreted from the body in the form of urea. ...
... (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). The glycerate is a biochemically significant metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle. This anion is often termed PGA when referring to the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, 3-phosphoglycerate is the product of the spontaneous scission of an unstable 6-carbon intermediate formed upon CO2 fixation. Thus, two equivalents of 3-phosphoglycerate are produced for each molecule of CO2 that is fixed.[1][2] ...
KAFCO Urea Jetty. 1. Vessel having LOA of 186 meters will be allowed to take berth at KAFCO (Urea) ... Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Jetty. 1. Vessels up to 176 meters and can be loaded up to maximum draft of 8.5 meters ...
This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups and atrazine degradation. Urea carboxylase Maitz GS, Haas ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is urea-1-carboxylate amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called allophanate lyase. ... doi:10.1016/0304-4165(82)90158-1. Roon RJ, Levenberg B (1972). "Urea amidolyase. I. Properties of the enzyme from Candida ... Sumrada RA, Cooper TG (1982). "Urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase are components of a multifunctional protein in yeast ...
It functions as a controlled-release fertiliser owing to its low solubility, which limits the rate of its hydrolysis to urea, ... It is produced by the condensation reaction of isobutyraldehyde and two equivalents of urea: (CH3)2CHCHO + 2 OC(NH2)2 → (CH3) ... A number of CRF's have been developed based on urea. Related to IBDU is crotonylidene diurea (Crotodur). Simpler are various ... C. Nitschke, G. Scherr (2012). "Urea Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ...
"Urea herbicides". alanwood.net. Retrieved 2021-03-26. Metz, J; Pakrasi, H; Seibert, M; Arntzer, C (1986). "Evidence for a dual ... In 1952, chemists at E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company patented a series of aryl urea derivatives as herbicides. Several ... Subsequently, over thirty related urea analogs with the same mechanism of action reached the market worldwide. As described in ... ureas and herbicidal compositions and methods employing same", issued 1953-10-13, assigned to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co Liu ...
In contrast to the reluctance of amides as substrates, urea is more susceptible to this exchange process. Transamidation is ... Urea Method p-Ethoxyphenylurea". Org. Synth. 31: 11. 1951. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.031.0011.. ... PMID 27199089.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) C. Nitschke; G. Scherr (2012). "Urea Derivatives". Ullmann's ... is produced from methylamine and urea. Phenylurea is produced similarly but from anilinium chloride: (H2N)2CO + [C6H5NH3]Cl → ( ...
Isobutylidenediurea ("IBDU") and urea-formaldehyde slowly convert in the soil to urea, which is rapidly uptaken by plants. IBDU ... A substance that inhibits hydrolytic action on urea by the enzyme urease. Most slow-release fertilizers are derivatives of urea ... Seed ball Coated urea Dittmar, Heinrich; Drach, Manfred; Vosskamp, Ralf; Trenkel, Martin E.; Gutser, Reinhold; Steffens, Günter ... Urease inhibitors, at levels of 0.05 weight percent, are added to urea-based fertilizers to control its conversion to ammonia. ...
"Urea herbicides". alanwood.net. Retrieved 2021-03-26. Oettmeier W (1992). "Herbicides of photosystem II". The Photosystems. pp ... the triazines derived from cyanuric chloride of which atrazine and simazine are the most commonly used and the aryl ureas which ...
... is a complicating by-product in the industrial synthesis of melamine from urea. Urea Biuret Cyanuric acid International ... It is a product from the pyrolysis of urea. Triuret is a colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic solid, slightly soluble in cold ... The compound is typically prepared by heating thin layers of urea, the thin layers facilitating escape of ammonia: 3 (H2N)2CO ... doi:10.1107/S0365110X65000737 C. Nitschke, G. Scherr (2012). "Urea Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry ...
In 1952, chemists at E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company patented a series of aryl urea derivatives as herbicides. Several ... "Urea herbicides". alanwood.net. Retrieved 2021-03-26. Broser, Matthias; Glöckner, Carina; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Guskov, Albert; ... Subsequently, over thirty related urea analogs with the same mechanism of action reached the market worldwide. As described in ... US patent 2655445, Todd C.W., "3-(Halophenyl)-1-methyl-1-(methyl or ethyl) ureas and herbicidal compositions and methods ...
Urea synthesisEdit. Ammonium carbamate is an intermediate in the industrial production of urea. A typical industrial plant that ... At higher temperatures ammonium carbamate condenses into urea: NH2CO2NH4 → (H. 2N). 2C=O + H. 2O. This reaction was first ... Clark, K. G.; Gaddy, V. L.; Rist, C. E. (1933). "Equilibria in the Ammonium Carbamate-Urea-Water System". Ind. Eng. Chem. 25 ( ... Ammonium carbamate serves a key role in the formation of carbamoyl phosphate, which is necessary for both the urea cycle and ...
Urea Nitrogen Clearance (Urine). Does this test have other names?. Urine urea nitrogen, 24-hour urine test ... This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine.. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks ... And if your kidneys arent healthy, they may not properly filter urea. Either of these problems can lead to changes in the ... amount of urea nitrogen in your body. If you dont have enough fluid in your body (dehydration), you may have extra urea in ...
Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form its crystallization was described in the early 18th ... urea. urea yo͝oē´ə [key], organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was ... and in 1773 it was noted that urea gave off ammonia when heated. This discovery provided a clue to its structure. In 1828 urea ... Urea is transported in the blood to the kidneys, where it is filtered out its concentration in urine is about 60 to 70 times as ...
ALTHOUGH urea is an inexpensive laboratory chemical, its solvent properties do not appear to have been fully appreciated by ... ALTHOUGH urea is an inexpensive laboratory chemical, its solvent properties do not appear to have been fully appreciated by ... CLARK, R. Urea as a Solvent. Nature 168, 876 (1951). https://doi.org/10.1038/168876a0 ...
here are usually few symptoms of a raised urea unless the figure becomes very high indeed and the kidneys begin to fail which ... High urea. here are usually few symptoms of a raised urea unless the figure becomes very high indeed and the kidneys begin to ... There are usually few symptoms of a raised urea unless the figure becomes very high indeed and the kidneys begin to fail which ... I am certain your kidney disease is being closely monitored, and any worrying rise in your urea would be noticed and acted on. ...
Urea, , the diamide of carbonic acid. Its formula is H2NCONH2. Urea has important uses as a fertilizer and feed supplement, as ... Urea, also called Carbamide, the diamide of carbonic acid. Its formula is H2NCONH2. Urea has important uses as a fertilizer and ... The use of urea to make urea-formaldehyde resin (q.v.) is second in importance only to its use as a fertilizer. Large amounts ... the liver and excreted as urea, a readily soluble and harmless product. The sequence leading to the formation of urea, commonly ...
... is a organic anion (CHEBI:25696) urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832) is conjugate base of urea-1- ... urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) is conjugate acid of urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832). ... CHEBI:15832 - urea-1-carboxylate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) ...
The buildup of ammonia in the body is toxic and can cause brain damage, seizures and coma.
Tubercle Bacilli and Urea. Br Med J 1945; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4406.841 (Published 16 June 1945) Cite this as: ...
... is a ureas (CHEBI:47857) urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889) is conjugate acid of urea-1- ... urea-1-carboxylate (CHEBI:15832) is conjugate base of urea-1-carboxylic acid (CHEBI:9889). carbamoylcarbamoyl group (CHEBI: ... A member of the class of ureas that is urea in which one of the hydrogens has been replaced by a carboxy group.. ... CHEBI:9889 - urea-1-carboxylic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
The treatment of disorders related to the urea cycle is a lifelong process aimed at managing symptoms and doesnt cure the ... Development of a urea cycle disorder (UCD) treatment plan involves a dedicated medical team of doctors from diverse disciplines ... When other treatment and management options fail, liver transplant is an option in case of CPS or OTC deficiency, as the urea ... The treatment of disorders related to the urea cycle is a lifelong process aimed at managing symptoms and doesnt cure the ...
Urea cycle disorders are inherited metabolic disorders makes it hard for your body to break down proteins. Learn more about ... The urea leaves his body in his urine.. If your child has a urea cycle disorder, his liver cant make one of the enzymes the ... Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of diseases. They make it hard for your childs body to remove waste products as he ... This happens in a process called the urea cycle. Your babys liver makes things called enzymes that turn waste nitrogen into ...
... blood urea nitrogen) test, which can provide important information about your kidney function. ... The test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood ... What is a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test?. A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your ... Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Emerg Med Clin North Am [Internet]. 1986 May 4 [cited 2017 Jan 30]; 4(2):223-33. Available ...
... any of a class of synthetic resins obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal obtained from ammonia) and ... formaldehyde (a highly reactive gas obtained from methane). Urea-formaldehyde resins are used mostly as adhesives for the ... Urea-formaldehyde resin, any of a class of synthetic resins obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal obtained ... In industrial production, urea resins are made by the condensation of formaldehyde and urea in an aqueous solution, using ...
These reactions are collectively called the urea cycle or the Krebs-Henseleit cycle. ... of the nitrogen excreted is in the form of urea, which is produced through a series of reactions occurring in the cytosol and ... The urea cycle or ornithine cycle converts excess ammonia into urea in the mitochondria of liver cells. The urea forms, then ... 2NH3 + CO2 + 3ATP g urea + 2ADP + AMP + PPi + 2Pi. Significance of the Urea Cycle. The main purpose of the urea cycle is to ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Urea Nitrogen, Serum or Plasma. 3. Urea Nitrogen, Urine. 4. Storz Fluid Filter - 0.2 micron. 5. Storz Fluid Filter - 0.45 ...
Urea phosphate is often used in drip irrigation to clean pipe systems. Chemically, the urea phosphate compound is made of an ... The acidity of urea phosphate allows Ca, Mg and P to co-exist in solution. Under less acidic conditions, there would be ... Urea phosphate is a fertilizer having NPK formula 17-44-0. It is soluble in water, and produces a strongly acidic solution. ... Urea phosphate is sometimes added to blends which contain calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate and potassium nitrate to produce ...
Urea perchlorate is a sheet-shaped crystallite with good chemical stability and strong hygroscopicity. It has usage as an ... The compound is synthesized by gradual addition of urea into a perchloric acid solution: CO(NH2)2 + HClO4 → CO(NH2)2·HClO4 An ... alternative route is addition of urea to hydrochloric acid solution, followed by addition of sodium perchlorate, and filtration ...
The incidence of urea cycle disorders.. Summar ML1, Koelker S, Freedenberg D, Le Mons C, Haberle J, Lee HS, Kirmse B; European ... The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about ... A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and ... Members of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC). Electronic address: http://rarediseasesnetwork.epi.usf.edu/ucdc/. ...
UREA ADDUCT; UREA, REACTION PRODUCTS WITH FORMALDEHYDE; POLYMER WITH FORMALDEHYDE UREA; POLYNOXYLIN; UREA, POLYMER WITH ... About POLYOXYMETHYLENE UREA (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER): Polyoxymethylene Urea is a reaction product of urea and formaldehyde.. ... FORMALDEHYDE; UREA, REACTION PRODUCTS WITH FORMALDEHYDE; UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN; ACRISIN FS 017; AEROLITE 300; AEROLITE A 300 ... Synonym(s): POLYOXYMETHYLENE UREA, CARBAMIDE-FORMALDEHYDE COPOLYMER; FORMALDEHYDE, ...
Urea-Formaldehyde volume market is expected to reach 18.7 million tons by 2016 primarily supported by the product end-user; ... 11, 2013-- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the Urea-Formaldehyde- A Global Market Watch, 2011- 2016 report ... "Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) - A Global Market Watch, 2011 - 2016" report to their offering.. Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) volume market is ... of the market share are expected to support the Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) industry going forward. Geographical analysis for Urea- ...
UREA; N- [1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -2,5-DIOXO-4-IMIDAZOLIDINYL] -N,N-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) UREA; UREA, N- [1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL ... UREA; DIAZOLIDYNL UREA; N- (HYDROXYMETHYL) -N- (1,3-DIHYDROXYMETHYL-2,5-DIOXO-4-IMIDAZOLIDINYL) -N- (HYDROXYMETHYL) UREA; N- [ ... About DIAZOLIDINYL UREA (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER): Diazolidinyl urea is an antimicrobial preservative that works by forming ... About DIAZOLIDINYL UREA (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER): Diazolidinyl urea is an antimicrobial preservative that works by forming ...
Most urea foliar sprays are between 0.5 percent and 2 percent urea. If youre trying to make a small amount of urea work for a ... Urea is one of the main chemicals in urine. It is an excellent source of nitrogen. This recipe makes a liter of urea solution. ... How to Dissolve Urea for a Foliar Fertilizer By Eric Moll eHow ... How to Dissolve Urea for a Foliar Fertilizer ... In the early morning or at night, spray your plants leaves with the urea solution. A light coating will do - just make sure to ...
To maintain osmotic balance and reduce the energetic costs of making urea, it is important for these animals to minimize urea ... This is the first facilitated urea transporter to be identified in a marine fish. We propose that the ShUT protein is involved ... Injection of ShUT cRNA into Xenopus oocytes induced a 10-fold increase in 14C-labeled urea uptake, inhibitable by phloretin ( ... Marine elasmobranch fishes retain relatively high levels of urea to balance the osmotic stress of living in seawater. ...
Professional guide for Urea (Topical). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse ... Urea softens hyperkeratotic areas by dissolving the intracellular matrix, resulting in loosening the horny layer of the skin, ... Urea Nail: 45% (28 mL) [contains edetate disodium, menthol, propylene glycol]. X-Viate: 40% (15 mL [DSC]) [contains ... Carb-O-Lac5: Urea 20% and Ammonium Lactate 5% (236 g [DSC]) [contains propylene glycol] ...
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to evaluate kidney function, to help diagnose kidney disease, and to monitor acute ... Formal name: Blood Urea Nitrogen. Related tests: Creatinine, Creatinine Clearance, eGFR, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel, Basic ... Also known as: BUN; Urea Nitrogen; Urea. ...
Cost and carbon efficient urea based products, e.g. AdBlue® Diesel Exhaust Fluid from BOF gas. Enabled by the SEWGS technology ... Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas to Urea. Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas to Urea. Accelerating the energy transition by deploying Dutch ... The project sets out to (1) optimise the process to produce urea from basic oxygen furnace gas at a cost level lower than that ... the BOF2UREA project targets emission and energy reduction for the production of urea based products, e.g. AdBlue® Diesel ...
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test - Learn how to prepare, what to expect and possible results of this test to assess kidney and ... Generally, a high blood urea nitrogen level means your kidneys arent working well. But elevated blood urea nitrogen can also ... During the blood urea nitrogen test, a member of your health care team takes a sample of blood by inserting a needle into a ... Urea nitrogen levels tend to increase with age. Infants have lower levels than other people do, and the range in children ...
Urea Nitrogen Clearance. 013508. Urea Nitrogen, U. mg/dL. 12967-6. 002329. Urea Nitrogen Clearance. 135301. Urea Clearance. mL/ ... Urea Nitrogen Clearance. 001040. BUN. mg/dL. 3094-0. 002329. Urea Nitrogen Clearance. 013236. Urea Nitrogen, 24hr. g/24 hr. ...
  • and in 1773 it was noted that urea gave off ammonia when heated. (infoplease.com)
  • In 1828 urea also became the first organic compound to be synthesized from inorganic materials (lead or silver cyanate and ammonia) this work was done by German chemist Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. (infoplease.com)
  • In metabolism of proteins and other materials, the ammonia molecule that enters the cycle originates from glutamic acid, but glutamic acid can acquire the group that generates this ammonia from many other amino acids thus most of the nitrogen in protein can eventually be converted to nitrogen in urea. (infoplease.com)
  • These amino groups are converted to ammonia (NH 3 ), which is toxic to the body and thus must be converted to urea by the liver . (britannica.com)
  • Urea is now prepared commercially in vast amounts from liquid ammonia and liquid carbon dioxide . (britannica.com)
  • Because its nitrogen content is high and is readily converted to ammonia in the soil, urea is one of the most concentrated nitrogenous fertilizers . (britannica.com)
  • Pharmaceutical grade L-citrulline supplements are used for carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency and L-arginine is used in case of argininosuccinate synthase deficiency and citrullinemia to catalyze the enzymes in urea cycle and support optimum ammonia removal. (news-medical.net)
  • Urea-formaldehyde resin , any of a class of synthetic resins obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal obtained from ammonia ) and formaldehyde (a highly reactive gas obtained from methane ). (britannica.com)
  • In industrial production, urea resins are made by the condensation of formaldehyde and urea in an aqueous solution , using ammonia as an alkaline catalyst . (britannica.com)
  • The urea cycle or ornithine cycle converts excess ammonia into urea in the mitochondria of liver cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The main purpose of the urea cycle is to eliminate toxic ammonia from the body. (news-medical.net)
  • A dysfunctional urea cycle would mean excess amount of ammonia in the body, which can lead to hyperammonemia and related diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Our analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia control in children ages 2 months through 5 years with urea cycle disorders: comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate. (medscape.com)
  • Urea is produced in the body of mammals as a consequence of normal physiological processes, primarily by the detoxification of ammonia resulting from protein catabolism, via the urea cycle. (europa.eu)
  • Since ammonia is toxic to cells, urea is a convenient, relatively non-toxic compound that can be eliminated in urine safely through the kidneys. (fsu.edu)
  • The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle ) is a cycle of biochemical reactions occurring in many animals that produces urea from ammonia (NH 3 ). (bionity.com)
  • Organisms that cannot easily and quickly remove ammonia usually have to convert it to some other substance, like urea or uric acid , which are much less toxic. (bionity.com)
  • The Sabah Ammonia Urea, or SAMUR project consists of an ammonia plant, urea plant and a granulation plant, as well as utilities and jetty facilities. (petronas.com.my)
  • Urea also plays a very important role in protein catabolism, removal of toxic ammonia from the body, and the countercurrent system which allows for reabsorption of water and critical ions in the nephrons. (abcam.com)
  • The UBE converted about 86 per cent of the urea into ammonia, the report stated. (news.com.au)
  • Normally, ammonia is converted into urea and then removed from the body in the form of urine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An urea cycle disorder or urea cycle defect is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes in the urea cycle which is responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. (bionity.com)
  • In urea cycle disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia , a highly toxic substance, and is not removed from the body. (bionity.com)
  • Additionally, even though urea converts quickly to ammonium in the right conditions, in dry conditions, urea converts to ammonia and a significant amount of nitrogen is lost through evaporation. (gardenguides.com)
  • The ammonia is then turned into urea and eliminated from your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Enzymes from bacteria in the rumen, specifically urease, break down urea to carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia. (cattletoday.com)
  • The ammonia which is liberated from urea is utilized in one of two ways. (cattletoday.com)
  • UCDs are a group of disorders caused by genetic mutations that result in a deficiency in one of the six enzymes that catalyze the urea cycle, which can lead to an excess accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream, a condition known as hyperammonemia. (yahoo.com)
  • Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) solution, produced by combining urea, nitric acid, and ammonia, is a liquid fertilizer product with a nitrogen content that typically ranges from 28 percent to 32 percent. (cfindustries.com)
  • This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine. (rochester.edu)
  • Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. (rochester.edu)
  • If you're trying to make a small amount of urea work for a lot of plants, consider using a concentration of 0.5 percent. (ehow.com)
  • A BUN test measures the amount of urea nitrogen that's in your blood. (mayoclinic.org)
  • I want to mix nitric acid with small amount of urea about 0.025 percent. (wisegeek.com)
  • A test can be done to measure the amount of urea in the urine. (northside.com)
  • In addition, a small amount of urea is also excreted in sweat. (medscape.com)
  • Considering the high concentration of urea in human (285 mmol/L), rat (700 mmol/L), and mouse (1800 mmol/L) urine, the amount of urea in the urine should inevitably cause osmotic diuresis in the renal collecting ducts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most diseases that affect the kidneys or liver can affect the amount of urea present in the blood. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • If you don't have enough fluid in your body (dehydration), you may have extra urea in your blood because you aren't passing much urine. (rochester.edu)
  • Urea is transported in the blood to the kidneys, where it is filtered out its concentration in urine is about 60 to 70 times as great as that in blood. (infoplease.com)
  • The urea then passes to the kidneys and is eventually excreted in the urine. (britannica.com)
  • Urea was first isolated from urine in 1773 by the French chemist Hilaire-Marin Rouelle. (britannica.com)
  • The urea leaves his body in his urine . (webmd.com)
  • The urea forms, then enters the blood stream, is filtered by the kidneys and is ultimately excreted in the urine. (news-medical.net)
  • Urea is one of the main chemicals in urine. (ehow.com)
  • We propose that the ShUT protein is involved in urea reabsorption by the renal tubules of the dogfish shark, which in turn minimizes urea loss in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Prodrug rapidly converted PO to phenylacetylglutamine, which serves as substitute for urea and is excreted in the urine carrying 2 mol of nitrogen per mol of phenylacetylglutamine, assisting in clearance of nitrogenous waste. (medscape.com)
  • Some urea is transported by specific transport systems back into the urine. (europa.eu)
  • Urea is produced in large quantities by the human body as a product of normal metabolism and is excreted unchanged in the urine. (europa.eu)
  • An adult human typically excretes about 25 grams of urea per day in about 1,500 milliliters of urine, while a dog may range from 65 to 400 milliliters of urine per day, depending on its breed and diet. (fsu.edu)
  • Urea Assay Kit ab83362 is a rapid, simple, sensitive, and reliable assay used to quantify urea in a variety of samples such as serum, plasma, and urine, etc. (abcam.com)
  • Urine urea nitrogen is a measure of protein breakdown in the body. (northside.com)
  • They have developed a system whereby human urine is separated into drinking water and urea, which is used to power a fuel cell. (news.com.au)
  • Although urea represents roughly 40% of all urinary solutes in normal human urine, the handling of urea in the tissues has been largely neglected in the past and few clinical or experimental studies now report data on urea. (indigo.ca)
  • Normally, the urea is transferred into the urine and removed from the body. (bionity.com)
  • Urea builds up in your blood, and the excess is excreted by the kidneys through your urine. (livestrong.com)
  • Two tests measure urea levels in your body: the urea nitrogen urine test and the blood urea nitrogen, or BUN, test. (livestrong.com)
  • Normally, you excrete 12 to 20 grams of urea nitrogen a day in your urine. (livestrong.com)
  • In the kidney, deletion of UT-A1/UT-A3 results in polyuria and a severe urine concentrating defect, indicating that intrarenal recycling of urea plays a crucial role in the overall capacity to concentrate urine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Urea is generated from the ornithine cycle in liver, and is ultimately excreted by the kidney representing 90% of total nitrogen in urine. (frontiersin.org)
  • The urea is released into the bloodstream and carried to the kidneys where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Urea is an organic compound perhaps best recognise for its presence in urine, but it also serves important roles in the metabolism too. (proprofs.com)
  • This newly reformed urea is then recycled back to the rumen through saliva or is excreted in the urine. (cattletoday.com)
  • Alternatively, it has been proposed that urea acts indirectly by altering the solvent environment, thereby mitigating the hydrophobic effect and facilitating the exposure of residues in the hydrophobic core. (pnas.org)
  • Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks down protein. (rochester.edu)
  • When other treatment and management options fail, liver transplant is an option in case of CPS or OTC deficiency, as the urea cycle enzymes are produced in the liver. (news-medical.net)
  • Your baby's liver makes things called enzymes that turn waste nitrogen into urea. (webmd.com)
  • If your child has a urea cycle disorder, his liver can't make one of the enzymes the cycle needs. (webmd.com)
  • A liver transplant can reverse the symptoms of a urea cycle disorder. (webmd.com)
  • In humans and mammals, almost 80% of the nitrogen excreted is in the form of urea, which is produced through a series of reactions occurring in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix of liver cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus the urea cycle spans two cellular compartments of the liver cell. (news-medical.net)
  • A common blood test, the blood urea nitrogen ( BUN ) test reveals important information about how well your kidneys and liver are working. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The urea travels from your liver to your kidneys through your bloodstream. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A BUN test can reveal whether your urea nitrogen levels are higher than normal, suggesting that your kidneys or liver may not be working properly. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Urea is generated in the liver by the urea (ornithine) cycle by the action of the terminal enzyme arginase I on L-arginine. (europa.eu)
  • In mammals, the urea cycle takes place only in the liver . (bionity.com)
  • Insufficiency of the urea cycle occurs in some genetic disorders ( inborn errors of metabolism ), and in liver failure . (bionity.com)
  • Urea is a waste product which is produced in the liver, dissolved in blood (in a concentration of 2.5 - 7.5 mM), and secreted by the kidneys. (abcam.com)
  • Urea production occurs primarily in the liver (urea cycle, also referred to as the ornithine cycle) and is regulated by N-acetylglutamate. (medscape.com)
  • Liver disease may be associated with near-normal values of both BUN (due to decreased urea production) and serum creatinine (due to muscle wasting), despite a significant decline in renal function manifested by decreased GFR. (medscape.com)
  • when he loaded the frogs' liver and muscle tissues with urea, Costanzo noticed that the tissues' metabolic rates dropped, suggesting that urea could be acting as a metabolic depressant. (biologists.org)
  • Urea is formed in the liver deriving from the protein breakdown. (imop.gr)
  • In case of severe liver disease, the exactly opposite occurs, i.e. urea levels reduce in the blood. (imop.gr)
  • Low urea levels are more rare and may be due to normal gestation, malnutrition or severe liver disease. (imop.gr)
  • The nitrogen combines with other chemicals in the liver to form the waste product urea. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • If increased amounts of urea are produced by the liver or decreased amounts are removed by the kidneys then blood urea concentrations will rise. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • If significant liver damage or disease reduces the production of urea then urea concentrations may fall. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • From there it is carried to the liver where it is transformed back to urea. (cattletoday.com)
  • it is unclear which of these symptoms are attributable to elevated urea levels and which are due to other metabolic disturbances. (europa.eu)
  • And if your kidneys aren't healthy, they may not properly filter urea. (rochester.edu)
  • here are usually few symptoms of a raised urea unless the figure becomes very high indeed and the kidneys begin to fail which will. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood by your kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Normal BUN levels can vary, but generally a high level of blood urea nitrogen is a sign that your kidneys are not working correctly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Healthy kidneys filter urea and remove other waste products from your blood. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Generally, a high blood urea nitrogen level means your kidneys aren't working well. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Urea is excreted by the kidneys, so excretion of urea can reflect kidney function. (northside.com)
  • discovered that kidneys have an ability to excrete high concentrations of urea without taking away corresponding water, indicating that simple diffusion was not the only way for urea across the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • If kidneys do not function properly or the body organism uses large amounts of protein, urea levels increase in the blood. (imop.gr)
  • Healthy kidneys remove more than 90% of the urea the body produces, so blood levels can show how well your kidneys are working. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Urea and creatinine levels are used to evaluate how well the kidney is working and to monitor patients with kidneys that are diseased or those receiving kidney dialysis. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Large amounts of urea are also used for the synthesis of barbiturates. (britannica.com)
  • If you're eating a high-protein diet to lose weight or increase muscle mass, your body may be producing high amounts of urea, a byproduct of protein metabolism. (livestrong.com)
  • PCC 6803 and PC from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus crystallized in the presence of urea. (rcsb.org)
  • Unfortunately, what many producers fail to realize is that in most cases, it wasn't the presence of urea in the feed that created the problem, but was mis-handling or mismanaging the feeding program or the cattle themselves. (cattletoday.com)
  • Accelerating the energy transition by deploying Dutch innovation and exploring novel value chains, the BOF2UREA project targets emission and energy reduction for the production of urea based products, e.g. (tno.nl)
  • Urea is present in saliva in appreciable concentrations (approximately 200 mg/L) and is also present in the epidermis at high levels, where it plays a role in skin hydration. (europa.eu)
  • Addition of low concentrations of urea to T. vulcanus PC inhibits this proteins propensity to form hexamers, resulting in a crystal lattice composed of trimers. (rcsb.org)
  • Similarly, insulin secretion was impaired in normal mouse and human islets that were cultured with disease-relevant concentrations of urea and in islets from normal mice treated orally with urea for 3 weeks. (jci.org)
  • The treatment of disorders related to the urea cycle is a lifelong process aimed at managing symptoms and doesn't cure the disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • Note that reactions related to the urea cycle also causes the reduction of 2 NADH , so the urea cycle releases slightly more energy than it consumes. (bionity.com)
  • Although urea nitrogen is in nonprotein form, it can be utilized by ruminant animals (cattle, sheep), and a significant part of these animals' protein requirements can be met in this way. (britannica.com)
  • Only 15% of female carriers show symptoms especially during infection, after protein rich meals, post-partum, and with GI bleeding, all of which increases stress on the urea cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • We have isolated a novel 2.2-kb cDNA from Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish shark) kidney encoding a 380-amino acid hydrophobic protein (ShUT) with 66% identity to the rat facilitated urea transporter protein UT-A2. (nih.gov)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent for long-term management of adult and pediatric patients (including newborns) with urea cycle disorders who cannot be managed with dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. (medscape.com)
  • The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Yut protein, a new type of urea transporter homologous to eukaryotic channels and functionally interchangeable in vitro with the Helicobacter pylori UreI protein. (nature.com)
  • The quantity of urea produced by an adult human is influenced by dietary protein intake but is reported to be typically between 20 -50 g/day. (europa.eu)
  • Urea measured in mouse tissue lysates (mg of extracted protein), background signal subtracted (duplicates +/- SD). (abcam.com)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of the protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 in 8 M urea at 60°C were undertaken to investigate the molecular basis of chemical denaturation. (pnas.org)
  • Chemical denaturation, with an agent such as urea, is one of the primary ways to assess protein stability, the effects of mutations on stability, and protein unfolding ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Urea may exert its effect directly, by binding to the protein, or indirectly, by altering the solvent environment (2-20). (pnas.org)
  • In this regard, urea could bind to the protein and compete with native interactions, thereby actively participating in the unfolding process. (pnas.org)
  • The studies of barnase in urea aimed to address the basis of chemical denaturation, as we do here, but, unfortunately, their simulations were far too short (0.9-2 ns), even given the elevated temperature used (87°C), to denature the protein. (pnas.org)
  • It mainly focuses on advances made over the past 20 years on the biophysics, genetics, protein structure, molecular biology, physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology of urea transport in mammalian cell membranes. (indigo.ca)
  • Urea, also known as carbamide, is an endogenous product of protein and amino acid catabolism. (epa.gov)
  • Urea cycle disorders are a group of rare genetic diseases that affect how protein is broken down in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The urea cycle involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism , is removed from the blood and converted to urea. (bionity.com)
  • Raised urea = Dehydration and excessive protein metaboism. (proprofs.com)
  • The customer (a cow-calf operator) had purchased a feed supplement back in the fall and winter from the feed company and was now complaining that he had suffered some significant loss of performance because of the use of the product and the fact that the product included non-protein nitrogen in the form of urea. (cattletoday.com)
  • Upon reviewing the case and the letter sent to the producer by his veterinarian, it became obvious that even after all the years urea has been used as a source of nitrogen for the production of bacterial protein in the ruminant, many misunderstandings and misconceptions still exist about this commonly used feed ingredient. (cattletoday.com)
  • Urea has been used for years in the feeding industry to provide an inexpensive source of nitrogen from which rumen bacteria can form protein. (cattletoday.com)
  • Feed grade urea, at about 281 percent crude protein , is the most commonly used commercial source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN). (cattletoday.com)
  • The 281 percent protein is more accurately termed protein equivalent and will vary depending on the source of the urea. (cattletoday.com)
  • In other words, one pound of urea can be used to make 2.81 lbs. of protein by rumen bacteria (one of the many beneficial functions rumen microbes perform). (cattletoday.com)
  • For both the breakdown of urea and its incorporation into microbial protein, a readily available supply of energy is required. (cattletoday.com)
  • In CKD mouse islets as well as urea-exposed normal islets, we observed an increase in oxidative stress and protein O -GlcNAcylation. (jci.org)
  • These results suggest that insulin secretory defects associated with CKD arise from elevated circulating levels of urea that increase islet protein O -GlcNAcylation and impair glycolysis. (jci.org)
  • Urea has important uses as a fertilizer and feed supplement, as well as a starting material for the manufacture of plastics and drugs. (britannica.com)
  • The use of urea to make urea-formaldehyde resin ( q.v. ) is second in importance only to its use as a fertilizer. (britannica.com)
  • Urea phosphate is a fertilizer having NPK formula 17-44-0. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urea and nitric acid are both manufactured on a huge scale for use in the fertilizer industry - urea is itself a widely used fertilizer - and the availability of these raw materials in bulk quantities combined with the ease of urea nitrate synthesis has led to this explosive often being favored by terrorist groups. (wisegeek.com)
  • Utilized primarily as commercial synthetic fertilizer, urea has the distinction of being the first organic substance synthesized wholly from inorganic ingredients and for nailing the coffin of the ill-fated vitalism theory that attempted to explain the origin of organic chemicals. (fsu.edu)
  • Composed of 45 percent nitrogen and 55 percent inert material (carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen), urea offers a steady supply of sanitary and consistent fertilizer to large-scale farmers and gardeners that do not have a ready supply of animal waste. (fsu.edu)
  • An inexpensive, high-nitrogen fertilizer, urea is heavily used in commercial farming. (gardenguides.com)
  • Originally, urea was a soft substance used in fertilizer blends, but today, it is manufactured as granules with few pollutants released into the environment during manufacturing. (gardenguides.com)
  • What are some advantages of using urea as a lawn fertilizer? (reference.com)
  • When urea-based fertilizer is placed on dry soil, no reaction occurs. (reference.com)
  • What is urea fertilizer? (reference.com)
  • Urea fertilizer is an affordable fertilizer that contains a ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (reference.com)
  • What Are Urea Cycle Disorders? (webmd.com)
  • Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of diseases. (webmd.com)
  • The deficiency of one or more of the key enzymes catalyzing various reactions in the urea cycle can cause disorders related to the cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • A blood aminogram is routinely used in the diagnosis of urea cycle disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • The incidence of urea cycle disorders. (nih.gov)
  • A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. (nih.gov)
  • Creams and lotions containing 40 percent urea are used to treat skin disorders such as dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and dry, flaky skin. (reference.com)
  • Urea cycle disorders (UCD) are a group of rare inherited metabolism disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Urea cycle disorders are included in the category of inborn errors of metabolism . (bionity.com)
  • Because many cases of urea cycle disorders remain undiagnosed and/or infants born with the disorders die without a definitive diagnosis, the exact incidence of these cases is unknown and underestimated. (bionity.com)
  • In April 2000, research experts at the Urea Cycle Consensus Conference estimated the incidence of the disorders at 1 in 10000 births. (bionity.com)
  • Children with severe urea cycle disorders typically show symptoms after the first 24 hours of life. (bionity.com)
  • Recently, the number of adult individuals being diagnosed with urea cycle disorders has increased at an alarming rate. (bionity.com)
  • There are six disorders of the urea cycle. (bionity.com)
  • Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Gordons Urea. (drugs.com)
  • Some side effects of Gordons Urea may not be reported. (drugs.com)
  • The urea cycle is a series of five reactions catalyzed by several key enzymes. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, inherited deficiencies in the cycle enzymes other than ARG1 do not result in significant decrease in urea production (the total lack of any cycle enzyme results in death shortly after birth). (bionity.com)
  • In the urea assay protocol, urea is acted on by enzymes to form a product that reacts with a probe to generate color (ODmax=570nm). (abcam.com)
  • We show here that cyanamide is hydrated to urea in the presence of CAs, and that it also acts as a weak non-competitive inhibitor (K(I)=61+/-3 mM and 238+/-9 mM for hCA II and hCA I, respectively) towards the esterasic activity of these enzymes, as tested with 4-nitrophenyl acetate. (rcsb.org)
  • Our lab takes advantage of genetically engineered novel mouse models of urea cycle metabolic enzymes, as well as of primary cells, to study the consequences of their genetic perturbation on the carcinogenic process. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • This happens in a process called the urea cycle. (webmd.com)
  • These reactions are collectively called the urea cycle or the Krebs-Henseleit cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • Some of the market participants in the global urea formaldehyde market are BASF SE, The Dow Chemical Company, Ashland Inc., DuPont, Kronospan Ltd., Advachem SA, etc. (openpr.com)
  • In this report, the Global Urea Formaldehyde Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This document contains side effect information about urea topical. (drugs.com)
  • The combination of ammonium lactate and urea topical (for the skin) is used to treat rough or scaly skin caused by such conditions as eczema or psoriasis. (rexhealth.com)
  • Do not use salicylic acid and urea topical on a child younger than 2 years old. (cigna.com)
  • The combination of salicylic acid and urea topical (for the skin) is used to soften and remove rough, scaly skin caused by warts, calluses, keratosis, or psoriasis. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using salicylic acid and urea topical? (cigna.com)
  • It is not known whether salicylic acid and urea topical will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • How should I use salicylic acid and urea topical? (cigna.com)
  • Do not use salicylic acid and urea topical to treat any skin condition that has not been checked by your doctor. (cigna.com)
  • Do not use salicylic acid and urea topical on skin that is red, swollen, infected, or oozing. (cigna.com)
  • Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using salicylic acid and urea topical. (cigna.com)
  • Use salicylic acid and urea topical regularly to get the most benefit. (cigna.com)
  • Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, or if they get worse while using salicylic acid and urea topical. (cigna.com)
  • What should I avoid while using salicylic acid and urea topical? (cigna.com)
  • 1. A substantially homogeneous preparation for topical application, comprising, by weight of the total preparation: allantoin in an amount of from about 0.5% to about 5%, urea in an amount of from about 10% to about 50%, at least one active ingredient, an aqueous vehicle, wherein allantoin, urea, and the active ingredient are substantially solubilized in the preparation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • What is urea topical? (wellspan.org)
  • There are many brands and forms of urea topical available and not all brands are listed on this leaflet. (wellspan.org)
  • Urea topical (for the skin) is used to soften rough or dry skin caused by skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, keratosis, and others. (wellspan.org)
  • Urea topical is also used to soften damaged fingernails or toenails so they can be removed without surgery. (wellspan.org)
  • You should not use urea topical if you are allergic to it. (wellspan.org)
  • Urea topical is for use only on the skin. (wellspan.org)
  • Urea topical may work best if the skin or nail to be treated is left slightly damp before the medicine is applied. (wellspan.org)
  • When applying urea topical to the nails, avoid getting any medicine on the cuticles or surrounding skin. (wellspan.org)
  • Shake the urea topical foam well just before each use. (wellspan.org)
  • What other drugs will affect urea topical? (wellspan.org)
  • Nitrogen in the form of urea in the blood or serum, used as a indicator of kidney function. (dictionary.com)
  • Therefore assuming a blood volume of 5L (for an adult) and serum proportion of 55%, the quantity of urea present in the blood at any one time is 192.5 -577.5 mg or (assuming a bodyweight of 70 kg), 2.75 -8.25 mg/kg bw. (europa.eu)
  • Urea-formaldehyde resins are used mostly as adhesives for the bonding of plywood, particleboard, and other structured wood products. (britannica.com)
  • Resins made from urea-formaldehyde polymers began commercial use in adhesives and binders in the 1920s. (britannica.com)
  • Patents for hard, transparent thermosetting resins based on urea and formaldehyde were granted to German and British chemists in the early 1920s. (britannica.com)
  • Urea formaldehyde began to be replaced in molded articles in the 1950s by melamine-formaldehyde resin and by new thermoplastic resins such as polystyrene . (britannica.com)
  • Like phenolic and melamine resins, urea-formaldehyde polymers are now employed primarily as wood adhesives. (britannica.com)
  • Because urea-formaldehyde resins are lighter in colour than phenol-formaldehyde resins , they are traditionally reserved for interior plywood and decorative paneling, but concerns over the release of formaldehyde into the air have led to substitution even here by phenolics. (britannica.com)
  • any of a group of resins formed by the interaction of urea and formaldehyde under conditions that include heat and pH control: used chiefly in the manufacture of buttons, baking enamels, and for making fabrics wrinkle-resistant. (dictionary.com)
  • The demand for good quality and economically viable adhesives and resins is expected to fuel the market of urea formaldehyde. (openpr.com)
  • Urea , also called Carbamide , the diamide of carbonic acid . (britannica.com)
  • Also referred to as carbamide, urea is a metabolic waste product that results from breaking down proteins into amino acids and their constituents. (fsu.edu)
  • Years of investigation of the biosynthesis of urea culminated in the proposal of the ornithine cycle (sometimes known as the Krebs urea cycle, named for German-born chemist Hans Krebs) in 1932. (infoplease.com)
  • If kidney problems are the main concern, the creatinine levels in your blood will likely also be measured when your blood is tested for urea nitrogen levels. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The Urea blood test, along with the Creatinine blood test, is used to evaluate renal function. (imop.gr)
  • Structure, regulation and physiological roles of urea transporters. (nature.com)
  • Urea also plays a physiological role in renal countercurrent exchange. (europa.eu)
  • The mechanisms and physiological functions of urea transporters across biological membranes are subjects of long-standing interests. (indigo.ca)
  • Most recent physiological text books include chapters on water and electrolyte physiology but no chapter on urea. (indigo.ca)
  • Our aim in writing this book is to stimulate further research in new directions by providing novel and provocative insights into the further mechanisms and physiological significance of urea metabolism and transport in mammals. (indigo.ca)
  • Over the past few years, multiple urea transporter knockout mouse models have been generated enabling us to explore the physiological roles of the different urea transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Direct physiological evidence from a renal tubular perfusion experiment by Sands and Knepper (1987) demonstrated the existence of urea permeability in the terminal inner medullar collecting duct that was higher than the level accounted for with simple diffusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zheng, G., "Development of Air-Assisted Urea Injection Systems for Medium Duty Trucks," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0112, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-24-0112 . (sae.org)
  • Global Urea Formaldehyde Sales Market Report 2017 Analysis by. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The worldwide Urea-SCR System market 2017 is further analyzed on the basis of product pricing, Urea-SCR System production volume, data pertaining to demand and Urea-SCR System supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. (openpr.com)
  • 2017. "Concept of Vaporized Urea Dosing in Selective Catalytic Reduction. (mdpi.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about ammonium lactate and urea? (rexhealth.com)
  • You should not use this medication if you have ever had an allergic reaction to ammonium lactate or urea. (rexhealth.com)
  • Apply ammonium lactate and urea to the skin in the amount your doctor has prescribed for you. (rexhealth.com)
  • Avoid using other medications on the areas you treat with ammonium lactate and urea unless your doctor tells you to. (rexhealth.com)
  • Ammonium lactate and urea may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using ammonium lactate and urea? (rexhealth.com)
  • FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether ammonium lactate and urea will harm an unborn baby. (rexhealth.com)
  • It is not known whether ammonium lactate and urea passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (rexhealth.com)
  • How should I use ammonium lactate and urea? (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking ammonium lactate and urea? (rexhealth.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of ammonium lactate and urea? (rexhealth.com)
  • Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed α-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. (nature.com)
  • Urea appears to help wood frogs survive dehydration, because the animals' urea levels closely track seasonal changes in soil moisture. (biologists.org)
  • To maintain osmotic balance and reduce the energetic costs of making urea, it is important for these animals to minimize urea excretion to the environment. (nih.gov)
  • The cycle converts two amino groups, one from NH 4 + and one from Asp , and a carbon atom from HCO 3 - , to relatively nontoxic excretion product, urea , at the cost of four "high-energy" phosphate bonds (3 ATP hydrolyzed to 2 ADP and one AMP). (bionity.com)
  • Urea formaldehyde (UF), chemically known as urea methanol, is a chemical composition of urea and formaldehyde and is set to witness high surge in demand in next couple of years primarily due to its high tensile strength, flexural modulus and scratch resistant properties that makes it suitable for being used as adhesives in various end-use industries. (openpr.com)
  • There have been few such studies reported to date: ubiquitin in 60% methanol ( 21 ), barnase in 8 M urea ( 22 , 23 ), γ-chymotrypsin in hexane ( 24 ), and subtilisin in dimethyl formamide ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • ab83362 was used as a BUN assay (Blood urea nitrogen assay) to measure urea levels in 80 female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 10-12 months-old). (abcam.com)
  • The mechanism of action of topically applied urea is not yet known. (nih.gov)
  • It is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on topically applied urea. (wellspan.org)
  • Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. (nature.com)
  • The urea produced by the urea cycle is removed from the blood by glomerular filtration (as a small, water-soluble molecule), but is largely reabsorbed by the renal tubules. (europa.eu)
  • The addition of a water molecule, arginine is then split into one molecule of urea and one molecule of ornithine, which can now repeat the cycle. (infoplease.com)
  • Development of a urea cycle disorder (UCD) treatment plan involves a dedicated medical team of doctors from diverse disciplines such as genetics, pediatrics, metabolism and nutrition. (news-medical.net)
  • In case of respiratory failure due to urea cycle disorder, mechanical ventilation is used to aid respiration. (news-medical.net)
  • They're named after what's missing from the urea cycle. (webmd.com)
  • What is the Urea Cycle? (news-medical.net)
  • In the fifth and last step of the urea cycle, arginine is hydrolyzed to form urea and ornithine. (news-medical.net)
  • Defects in the urea cycle can cause vomiting, coma and convulsions in new born babies. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on September 30, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-the-Urea-Cycle.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. (nih.gov)
  • The urea cycle consists of five reactions - two mitochondrial and three cytosolic. (bionity.com)
  • Oxaloacetate is one of the keto acids preferred by transaminases , and so will be recycled to aspartate , maintained the flow of nitrogen into the urea cycle. (bionity.com)
  • The two NADH produced can provide energy for the formation of 5 ATP , a net production of one high energy phosphate bond for the urea cycle. (bionity.com)
  • An excellent way to memorize the Urea Cycle is to remember the phrase "Ordinarily Careless Crappers Are Also Frivolous About Urination. (bionity.com)
  • The synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate and the urea cycle are dependent on the presence of NAcGlu, which allosterically activates CPS1. (bionity.com)
  • So, Arg is not only a substrate for the urea cycle reactions but also serves as an activator for the urea cycle. (bionity.com)
  • It is believed that up to 20% of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome cases may be attributed to an undiagnosed inborn error of metabolism such as urea cycle disorder. (bionity.com)
  • Children with mild or moderate urea cycle enzyme deficiencies may not show symptoms until early childhood, or may be diagnosed subsequent to identification of the disorder in a more severely affected relative or through newborn screening. (bionity.com)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Horizon Therapeutics has partnered with Invitae for its urea cycle disorder genetic (UCD) testing program, through which individuals who may have the rare genetic condition and their family members will receive testing at no charge. (genomeweb.com)
  • Marine elasmobranch fishes retain relatively high levels of urea to balance the osmotic stress of living in seawater. (nih.gov)
  • In a search for such an agent Nalbandian and co-workers found that urea was not only effective in disrupting hydrophobic bonds, but also possessed other desirable properties for in vivo use. (springer.com)
  • The concept of an electrically evaporated urea-dosing system was investigated and it was found that urea pre-heating prior to introduction into the exhaust gas is favourable for enhancing NO x removal under steady-state and transient engine operation. (mdpi.com)
  • These simulations suggest that urea denatures proteins via both direct and indirect mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Costanzo and Lee now suggest that urea also plays a role as a cryoprotectant. (biologists.org)
  • The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of urea in the solution. (abcam.com)
  • Urea is the chief nitrogenous end product of the metabolic breakdown of proteins in all mammals and some fishes. (britannica.com)
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) testing is commonly part of the basic metabolic panel (BMP) or comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), which is commonly obtained as part of a routine medical examination. (medscape.com)
  • urea yo͝oē´ə [ key ] , organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. (infoplease.com)
  • Active Urea Transport in Lower Vertebrates and Mammals. (indigo.ca)
  • The matrix was produced by soaking cotton wool in a cold aqueous alkaline/urea solvent and was stirred for 15 minutes at 350 rpm to create a viscous gel. (hindawi.com)
  • LCs with the highest mechanical properties were obtained when the cotton wools were subjected to a 4.6% LiOH/15% urea solvent at −12.5°C using an aqueous solvent volume of 60 ml/panel. (hindawi.com)
  • Highly porous and strong cellulose aerogels were prepared by gelation of cellulose from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution, followed by drying with supercritical CO 2 . (wiley.com)
  • The composition base comprises solubilized allantoin at a level of at least 0.5% and urea at a level of at least 10% in an aqueous vehicle. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Urea is found dissolved in blood and is excreted by the renal tubules. (medscape.com)
  • I think it is most relevant here that you have a history of polycystic kidney disease and hypertension requiring medication as both of these can readily cause a raised urea. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • I am certain your kidney disease is being closely monitored, and any worrying rise in your urea would be noticed and acted on. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. (nature.com)
  • Mathematical Modeling of Urea Transport in the Kidney. (indigo.ca)
  • urea transporter (UT)-A and UT-B. The UT-A transporters are mainly expressed in kidney epithelial cells while UT-B demonstrates a broader distribution in kidney, heart, brain, testis, urinary tract, and other tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • High urea levels suggest poor kidney function. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Sands, J. M. Mammalian urea transporters. (nature.com)
  • Bagnasco, S. M. Role and regulation of urea transporters. (nature.com)
  • MacIver, B., Smith, C. P., Hill, W. G. & Zeidel, M. L. Functional characterization of mouse urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-A3 expressed in purified Xenopus laevis oocyte plasma membranes. (nature.com)
  • It will help graduate students and researchers to get an overall picture of mammalian urea transporters and may also yield benefits for pharmaceutical companies with regard to drug discovery based on the urea transporter. (indigo.ca)
  • Prof. Yang has been researching urea transporters for nearly 20 years and has published more than 70 original research articles in this field. (indigo.ca)
  • Genes and Proteins of Urea Transporters. (indigo.ca)
  • Structure of urea transporters. (indigo.ca)
  • Expression of Urea transporters and Their Regulation. (indigo.ca)
  • Biochemical Properties of Urea Transporters. (indigo.ca)
  • Small Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters. (indigo.ca)
  • Clinical Aspect of Urea Transporters. (indigo.ca)
  • This review summarizes the new insights of urea transporter functions in different organs, gleaned from studies of urea transporter knockout mice, and explores some of the potential pharmacological prospects of urea transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • This led to the discovery of the facilitative urea transporters (UTs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Dublin, Oct. 11, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/pkg663/ureaformaldehyde ) has announced the addition of the "Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) - A Global Market Watch, 2011 - 2016" report to their offering. (cnbc.com)
  • Geographical analysis for Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) shows that the highest Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.3% is anticipated from European region during the analysis period 2011-2016. (cnbc.com)
  • The Urea-Formaldehyde (UF) - A Global Market Watch, 2011 - 2016' reviews the latest trends in plastics industry with a perceptive to identify the near-future growth prospects. (cnbc.com)
  • Molecular characterization of an elasmobranch urea transporter. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first facilitated urea transporter to be identified in a marine fish. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present the 2.3 Å structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris . (nature.com)
  • These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity. (nature.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter. (nature.com)
  • Transport Characteristics of Urea Transporter-B.- Urea Transporter Knockout Mice and Their Renal Phenotypes. (indigo.ca)
  • The nitrogen combines with other elements, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, to form urea, which is a chemical waste product. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most urea foliar sprays are between 0.5 percent and 2 percent urea. (ehow.com)
  • What Is 40 Percent Urea Cream Used For? (reference.com)
  • Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. (ewg.org)
  • In the urea- formaldehyde industry, the levels of formaldehyde (50000) exposure ranged from a time weighted average (TWA) of 18 parts per million (ppm) to a peak of 5 to 10ppm at production facilities and 0.08 to 2.4ppm at application sites. (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of region urea formaldehyde finds its market scope in North America, Latin America, Middle East & Africa, Europe and Asia-Pacific. (openpr.com)
  • North America and Europe dominates the urea formaldehyde market in terms of consumption, however, Asia Pacific and Latin America are expected to be the most promising region in terms of incremental opportunities lying ahead for generating high revenue. (openpr.com)
  • Lactic acid , salicylic acid , and urea are keratolytics. (webmd.com)
  • You should not use this medication if you are allergic to salicylic acid or urea. (cigna.com)
  • Chemically, the urea phosphate compound is made of an equimolar mix of urea and phosphoric acid crystallizing together, and freely disassociating when dissolving in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substances urea and phosphoric acid do have a very high water solubility and its chemical properties do not indicate bioaccumulation and/or adsorption to soil. (europa.eu)
  • The chemical composition of urea and formaldehyde and the reaction by which they are polymerized into networks of permanently interlinked molecules are briefly described in the article aldehyde condensation polymer . (britannica.com)
  • Polyoxymethylene Urea is a reaction product of urea and formaldehyde. (ewg.org)
  • A simple field test can identify urea nitrate by exploiting its reaction with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (P-DMAC) to form a strongly colored red compound. (wisegeek.com)
  • Urea and other related compounds do not produce this reaction, reducing the chances of a false positive result. (wisegeek.com)
  • What are the conditions for the nitric acid and urea for an explosive reaction. (wisegeek.com)
  • But, I have not seen conclusive reaction of urea with an alkali. (physicsforums.com)
  • The reverse reaction, namely the hydrolysis of cyanamide is used in the preparation of urea. (physicsforums.com)
  • Urea, a small highly polar molecule (MW ≈ 60 Da), is the major end product of nitrogen metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • What are the symptoms and treatment of a high urea reading in the blood? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What is a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your blood sample is being tested only for blood urea nitrogen, you can eat and drink normally before the test. (mayoclinic.org)
  • During the blood urea nitrogen test, a member of your health care team takes a sample of blood by inserting a needle into a vein in your arm. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Results of the blood urea nitrogen test are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) in the United States and in millimoles per liter (mmol/L) internationally. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Reference ranges for urea in human blood are 70 -210 mg/L (7 -21 mg/dL). (europa.eu)
  • The clearance of urea is estimated to be 75 mL/minute, equivalent to approximately 1.5% of the total blood volume/minute. (europa.eu)
  • It can be used as a blood urea nitrogen assay kit (BUN assay kit). (abcam.com)
  • These included molecular dimensions small enough to pass through the membrane of the intact red blood cell (rbc) and the fact that urea is water soluble, metabolically inert and non-toxic. (springer.com)
  • To test whether urea protects wood frogs' cells from freezing damage, Costanzo froze and thawed frogs' red blood cells in the presence and absence of two well-known cryoprotectants, glucose and glycerol, and the putative cryoprotectant, urea. (biologists.org)
  • To evaluate urea levels all that is needed is simple sampling of a small blood specimen. (imop.gr)
  • Urea in the blood sample is measured with the use of special analyzers. (imop.gr)
  • Normal blood urea values are 10-50 mg/dl (there may be small differences from lab to lab). (imop.gr)
  • The project sets out to (1) optimise the process to produce urea from basic oxygen furnace gas at a cost level lower than that based on natural gas, (2) determine the CO 2 footprint reduction potential of the optimised process, and (3) form a lasting value chain to enable implementation of the process in a timeframe of 5 years. (tno.nl)
  • Urea nitrate is a colorless, crystalline compound of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen with the chemical formula (NH 2 ) 2 CO.HNO 3 . (wisegeek.com)
  • New Delhi, Apr 19 (PTI) Union Fertiliser Minister D V Sadananda Gowda on Monday urged urea manufacturers to set up medical oxygen plants at their premises to ramp up the supply of the gas amid surging cases of COVID-19 in the country. (yahoo.com)
  • The minister urged other urea companies to follow the suit of IFFCO and set up oxygen plants wherever possible, and stated that this is a time to fight the pandemic together and with full strength. (yahoo.com)
  • The carbonyl oxygen of urea is protonated in the process to form uronium ion. (physicsforums.com)
  • With formaldehyde it gives methylene-urea fertilizers, which release nitrogen slowly, continuously, and uniformly, a full year's supply being applied at one time. (britannica.com)
  • Urea is utilized in diesel selective catalyst reduction, in fertilizers and animal feed, plastics, flame-proofing agents, adhesives, flavoring agents and consumer goods such as liquid soaps, detergents and household cleaning products. (epa.gov)
  • In order for the soil to continue to support healthy plant life, the nitrogen must be replenished either naturally or with synthesized fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or urea. (gardenguides.com)
  • Urea is an inorganic chemical that is used not only in livestock feeds but also as a source of nitrogen in some fertilizers. (cattletoday.com)
  • Urea is non-flammable, making it a safe choice for lawns, and it contains 46 percent nitrogen, making it healthier for the environment than other fertilizers. (reference.com)
  • Urea-based fertilizers come in several forms. (reference.com)
  • Most urea fertilizers sold as of 2015 are in granular form. (reference.com)
  • Known for its moisture-binding features, urea - or uric acid - is the main ingredient of the product line. (nailsmag.com)
  • The compound is ionic in nature with the urea - bonded to the hydrogen atom from the nitric acid - forming the cation, and the nitrate (NO3-) group forming the anion. (wisegeek.com)
  • The compound is less likely to explode if it is wet, and in the presence of water, it tends to decompose non-violently into urea and nitric acid. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nitric acid and urea do not react explosively, but form a compound that is potentially explosive. (wisegeek.com)