Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overAmerican Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.United StatesHospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100EnglandQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospitals, AnimalHospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Housekeeping, Hospital: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Personnel Administration, Hospital: Management activities concerned with hospital employees.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.BrazilMulti-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Hospitals, Group Practice: Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.Great BritainDay Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Ancillary Services, Hospital: Those support services other than room, board, and medical and nursing services that are provided to hospital patients in the course of care. They include such services as laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, and physical therapy services.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Hospitals, High-Volume: Hospitals with a much higher than average utilization by physicians and a large number of procedures.Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)LondonIndiaRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.CaliforniaDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Home Care Services, Hospital-Based: Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)ScotlandCost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Medical Records Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the creating, care, storage and retrieval of medical records. It also provides statistical information for the medical and administrative staff.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.SwitzerlandHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Centralized Hospital Services: The coordination of services in one area of a facility to improve efficiency.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Hospitals, Low-Volume: Hospitals with a much lower than average utilization by physicians and smaller number of procedures.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Hospitals, Packaged: Hospital equipment and supplies, packaged for long-term storage, sufficient to set up a general hospital in an emergency situation. They are also called Packaged Disaster Hospitals and formerly Civil Defense Emergency Hospitals.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.JapanFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.TaiwanPathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Tertiary Healthcare: Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.
The reasons for hysterectomies differed depending on whether the woman was living in an urban or rural location. Urban women ... Previously reported marginal advantages of robotic assisted surgery could not be confirmed; only differences in hospital stay ... Hospital stay is 3 to 5 days or more for the abdominal procedure and between 1 and 2 days (but possibly longer) for vaginal or ... There was no difference in the rates of other complications, recovery from surgery, or readmission rates. In the short-term, ...
This difference is due to a lack of delivery assistance services in rural communities compared to their urban counterparts who ... have better access to hospitals and neonatal clinics. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 67.44 years for females and ... Majority of the urban and a significant number of the rural schools are English-medium schools. Higher education in technical, ... Infant mortality rate in Nepal is higher in rural regions at 44 deaths per 1000 live births, whereas in urban regions the IMR ...
However, those who live in central, urban areas are more likely to go to a hospital or health center due to increased awareness ... However, other studies have shown coverage in rural communities to be as little as 29% and upwards of 79% in more urban areas. ... Differences among TBAs arose in clean delivery practices (i.e. hand-washing practices) and standardized identifiers for ... Skilled birth attendance (SBA) in the urban setting is 72.7%, compared to 32.3% in the rural setting. SBA among the poorest 20 ...
... a study found that instances of hospital-treated self-harm were much higher in city and urban districts, than in rural settings ... Gender differences[edit]. In general, the latest aggregated research has found no difference in the prevalence of self-harm ... In a study of a district general hospital in the UK, 5.4% of all the hospital's self-harm cases were aged over 65. The male to ... studies based only on hospital admissions may hide the larger group of self-harmers who do not need or seek hospital treatment ...
The percentage is higher for specialists rather than generalists, and for doctors in urban rather than rural areas. Balance ... such as having a hospital bed with extra amenities. Balance billing is prohibited in Taiwan, and extra fees have only been ... is the practice of a healthcare provider billing a patient for the difference between what the patient's health insurance ... Washington DC: The Urban Institute. p. 109. ISBN 0-87766-395-5. Porter, Michael E., Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg (2006). ...
One critic found that Ariès did not adequately differentiate between rich, poor, rural, and urban groups, and also that he ... Ariès stresses that death is in the hospital is often a "technical cession" that is predetermined by a hospital team, ... Reviewers critiqued his broad treatment of large geographic areas, not accounting for any cultural differences. ... By 1930-1950, he states that the displacement of the site of death from the home to the hospital accelerated changes in ...
She observes the plight of the urban poor, of rural workers displaced by industrialization, mill workers, and the late 19th- ... Having spent her whole life in the service of the sick, Evelyn Whitaker was familiar with sick rooms, hospitals, and death and ... Laddie and Lassie present a study in gender differences in the care of aging parents. Although these were sometimes attributed ... Gay provides details of home nursing care, quarantines, and a visit to the London Fever Hospital at Homerton. Pen and Lassie ...
... of the population in rural areas as access to improved water sources, and 14.4% of the urban population and 48.7% of the rural ... In hospitals the rate of episiotomies is not documented however it is estimated to be around 28%. Once babies are born they are ... There are no significant differences noticed between women who have given birth before and those who have not, the labor ... There is a large divide between those women who live in urban areas and those who live in rural areas in terms of postpartum ...
... urban hospitals are often not easily accessible to Canadians who live in rural poverty, magnifying the gap between rural and ... There is clearly a difference between rural and urban poverty in Canada and their respective health outcomes. When comparing ... Rural poverty refers to poverty found in rural areas, including factors of rural society, rural economy, and rural political ... rural people and rural places tend to be disadvantaged relative to their urban counterparts and poverty rates increase as rural ...
Additionally, the urban towns and the rural villages had differing rights and laws. The creation of Helvetic citizenship, which ... It may run hospitals, retirement and youth homes, provide scholarships and support the unemployed, the disabled and addicts. ... The various types of Bürgergemeinden indicate the large differences in the degree of organization, powers and responsibilities ... The wealthier villagers and urban citizens held rights to forests, common lands and other municipal properties which they did ...
In order to investigate possible differences in rural areas, researchers interviewed a random sample of inmates in both jails ... "suggesting the criminalization of mental illness may not be as evident in rural settings as urban areas." However, high rates ... There are three times more seriously mentally ill persons in jails and prisons than in hospitals in the United States. The ... Powell, T. A.; Holt, J. C.; Fondacaro, K. M. (1997). "The prevalence of mental illness among inmates in a rural state". Law and ...
However, there is evidence to suggest that differences in trauma outcomes are due to the overall quality of hospitals serving ... This is done out of concern regarding varying patient transit times among trauma centers located in more urban vs. rural ... TQIP reports allow hospitals to focus on outcomes and workflows, including care coordination, in-hospital processes, and ... aimed to identify differences in expenditures and outcomes at various hospitals. A pilot study was initiated in June 2008 to ...
Overall suicide rates for males and females in Australia differ little between rural and urban areas. However, rates for young ... Comparing sex differences in suicide rates need to consider differences across the lifespan. Since 2003, for females, suicide ... According to hospital data, females are more likely to deliberately injure themselves than males. In the 2008-2009 financial ... Youth of indigenous, rural or refugee backgrounds, as well as those in welfare, have been observed as having a higher rate of ...
... and selecting rural or under-served urban areas for the location of new campuses. Many authors note the most obvious difference ... 61% of graduating seniors at osteopathic medical schools evaluated that over half of their required in-hospital training was ... But the differences are there, subtle but deep." A study conducted during 1993-94 found significant differences in the ... There are notable differences in the specialty choices of DOs and MDs. 60% of DOs work in primary care specialties, compared to ...
50% urban in the town seat, 50% rural Yondó was an oilfield's worker camp built by the Royal Dutch Shell oil company in 1945 in ... There are also minor differences in altitude, urban area, etc. ^ Amparo Murillo Posada, Maria Teresa Arcila Estrada, Manuel ... small hospital, radio and telephone communications, etc. These were (and would be today) considered luxuries and attracted -as ...
The rural counties surrounding Changzhou are noted for the production of rice, fish, tea, silk, bamboo and fruit. During the ... OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040- ... Today the ruins of the "King's Palace" can be found near the People's No.1 Hospital. In the 1920s, Changzhou started to attract ... Changzhou has a wide range of temperature differences throughout the year. The prefecture-level city of Changzhou administers ...
In a subsequent joint statement settling their differences, Lomborg and Yohe agreed that the "failure" of Lomborg's emissions ... multipurpose dam in Africa Inspection and maintenance of diesel vehicles Low sulfur diesel for urban road vehicles Diesel ... case finding and treatment R&D in low-carbon energy technologies Bio-sand filters for household water treatment Rural water ... post-conflict situations HIV combination prevention Total sanitation campaign Improving surgical capacity at district hospital ...
Some prisoners bribed officials to serve their sentences in the national hospital in Niamey. Pretrial detainees were held with ... The gendarmerie, also under the Defense Ministry, had primary responsibility for rural security. The national forces for ... Nigerien society, although predominately Muslim, is respectful and tolerant of religious difference. Islam is the dominant ... are charged with urban law enforcement. The police are ineffective, primarily because of inadequate resources. Basic supplies ...
There was also significant variation between rural and urban areas. Rural areas reported an incidence of circumcision of 66.9% ... "Trends in Circumcision for Male Newborns in U.S. Hospitals: 1979-2010" (pdf). "Trends in In-Hospital Newborn Male Circumcision ... Another study, published in early 2009, found a difference in the neonatal male circumcision rate of 24% between states with ... In 2005, about 56 percent of male newborns were circumcised prior to release from the hospital according to statistics from the ...
Thus, the distinction between rural and urban has meant an economic and social degradation for the rural inhabitant. Periyar ... Periyar advocated for a location where neither the name nor the situation or its conditions imply differences among people. ... hospital, park, cinema, drama, reading room, library, radio station, roads, bus transport, police station, an educated judge, ... In a booklet called Village Uplift, Periyar plead for rural reform. It should be stressed in this context that rural India ...
Regional differencesEdit. Northern NigeriaEdit. In the north, archaic practices were still common. This process meant, ... Urban women sold cooked foods, usually by sending young girls out onto the streets or operating small stands. Research ... You find them as cashiers in the banks, teachers in public and private primary and secondary schools, nurses at hospitals as ... generally, less formal education; early teenage marriages, especially in rural areas; and confinement to the household, which ...
Other became permanent urban dwellers, especially when the First World War prevented international travel. From the outset they ... Accusing the AAGN of ignoring the medical needs of rural Alberta women, the leaders of the UFWA worked to improve economic and ... The federal government took two main steps in dealing with Indian peoples' health: it built hospitals on reserves, and it ... Ethnic, educational, and age differences further complicated the elaborate social fabric of the corporate ranches. The ...
Rural areas are classified by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare as those extending from large rural centres (urban ... Rural health care in Australia involves the delivery of health services by private, community and public hospitals in areas ... These differences include often significant gaps in service delivery, accessibility and lower health outcomes. Rural areas and ... National Rural Health Alliance. Farmer J, Munoz S-A, Threlkeld, G (2012). "Theory in rural health". Australian Journal of Rural ...
Ross worked as the senior medical officer at the Mosvold Hospital in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal. He is presently the Principal ... Outcomes of therapy in an urban hospital in KwaZulu-Natal". SAMJ: South African Medical Journal. 102 (12). Retrieved 2015-04-20 ... he acquired a strong appreciation of cultural differences and developed his ability to empathize with others. Upon returning to ... Ross was listed as a Lead South African Hero for his role in nurturing youngsters from rural KwaZulu-Natal into professional ...
Differences in income did exist within individual rural communities, but they were not large enough to result in the emergence ... Urban reform movements in Regina in the years just prior to the start of the First World War in 1914 depended on support from ... and hospital services; equal education; free speech and religion; collective bargaining; and the encouragement of economic co- ... The Progressive Conservatives, based in rural areas and small towns, lost many rural voters after pushing through the unpopular ...
Chuvashsko-Sorminskoye Rural Settlement or Chuvash-Sorma Rural Settlement (Russian: Чувашско-Сорминское се́льское поселе́ние; Chuvash: Чăваш Сурăм ял тăрăхĕ, Chăvash Surăm yal tărăkhĕ) is an administrative[1] and municipal division (a rural settlement) of Alikovsky District of the Chuvash Republic, Russia.[2] It is located in the eastern part of the district. Its administrative center is the locality (a selo) of Chuvashskaya Sorma.[2] Rural settlement's population: 1,758 (2006 est.).[source?] Chuvashsko-Sorminskoye Rural Settlement comprises sixteen rural localities.[2] The Cheboksary-Yadrin highway crosses the territory of the rural settlement. ...
Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), the SNNPR has an estimated total population of 14,929,548, of whom 7,425,918 were men and 7,503,630 women. 13,433,991 or 89.98% of the population are estimated to be rural inhabitants, while 1,495,557 or 10.02% are urban; this makes the SNNPR Ethiopia's most rural region. With an estimated area of 105,887.18 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 141 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 3,110,995 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.9 and rural households 4.9 people.[3] The projected population for 2017 was 19,170,007.[2] In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 10,377,028 of whom 5,161,787 were men and 5,215,241 were women. ...
Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), the SNNPR has an estimated total population of 14,929,548, of whom 7,425,918 were men and 7,503,630 women. 13,433,991 or 89.98% of the population are estimated to be rural inhabitants, while 1,495,557 or 10.02% are urban; this makes the SNNPR Ethiopia's most rural region. With an estimated area of 105,887.18 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 141 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 3,110,995 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.9 and rural households 4.9 people.[3] The projected population for 2017 was 19,170,007.[2] In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 10,377,028 of whom 5,161,787 were men and 5,215,241 were women. ...
... (Persian: دهستان انگوت غربي‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Anguti District, Germi County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 12,806, in 2,585 families.[1] The rural district has 77 villages. It's in Iran. ...
... (Persian: دهستان گتاب شمالی‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Gatab District, Babol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.[1] At the 2006 census, its population was 23,405, in 5,909 families.[2] The rural district has 30 villages. ...
The Madras presidency was divided into linguistic States, known today as Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The division marked the beginning of a new era in South Indian cinema. Cinema was celebrated regionally and exclusively in the language of the respective State. By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes.[17] One such film, Jeevitha Nouka (1951), was a musical drama which spoke about the problems in a joint family. Earlier, dozens of 'social films', notably Prema Vijayam, Vandemataram and Maala Pilla, have been released in Telugu. Touching on societal problems like the status of Untouchables and the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films increasingly focused on contemporary living: 29 of the 96 films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes.[19] Attempts made by some Congress leaders in Tamil Nadu to use stars of Tamil cinema were limited since this media remained inaccessible to the rural population, ...
... s (Chinese: 赤脚医生; pinyin: chìjiǎo yīshēng) are farmers who received minimal basic medical and paramedical training and worked in rural villages in China. Their purpose was to bring health care to rural areas where urban-trained doctors would not settle. They promoted basic hygiene, preventive healthcare, and family planning and treated common illnesses. The name comes from southern farmers, who would often work barefoot in the rice paddies. In the 1930s, the Rural Reconstruction Movement had pioneered village health workers trained in basic health as part of a coordinated system, and there had been provincial experiments after 1949, but after Mao Zedong's healthcare speech in 1965 the concept was developed and institutionalized. In his speech, Mao Zedong criticized the urban bias of the medical system of the time, and called for a system with greater focus on the well being of the ...
... is one of the 33 districts in the Western Indian state of Gujarat. It is bound by Navsari district to the north, Nashik district of Maharashtra state to the east, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli union territory and Palghar district of Maharashtra to the south. The Arabian Sea lies west of the district. The coastal Daman enclave of Daman and Diu union territory is bounded by Valsad district on the north, east, and south.[2] The district's administrative capital is Valsad. The district's largest city is Vapi.[citation needed] The district covers 3008 square kilometres and is divided into six talukas: Valsad, Vapi, Pardi, Umargam, Kaparada and Dharampur.[3] In 2011, Valsad had population of 1,705,678 of which male and female were 887,222 and 818,456 respectively. In 2001 census, Valsad had a population of 1,410,553 of which males were 734,799 and remaining 675,754 were females. Valsad District population constituted 2.82 percent of total Gujarat population. In 2001 census, this figure ...
Coordinates: 52°05′12″N 0°43′20″W / 52.0866°N 0.7222°W / 52.0866; -0.7222 Newport Pagnell was a rural district in the administrative county of Buckinghamshire, England, from 1894 to 1974. The rural district took over the responsibilities of the disbanded Newport Pagnell Rural Sanitary District. It was named after Newport Pagnell but from 1897 did not include the town as the new authority of Newport Pagnell Urban District had been created to which the town was assigned. ...
... is an urban-rural gmina (administrative district) in Lidzbark County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. Its seat is the town of Orneta, which lies approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of Lidzbark Warmiński and 44 km (27 mi) north-west of the regional capital Olsztyn. The gmina covers an area of 244.13 square kilometres (94.3 sq mi), and as of 2006 its total population was 12,701 with the population of Orneta amounting to 9,380, and the population of the rural part of the gmina at 3,321 persons. ...
Villages (Chinese: 村; pinyin: Cūn), formally village-level divisions (村级行政区; Cūn Jí Xíngzhèngqū) in China, serve as a fundamental organizational unit for its rural population (census, mail system). Basic local divisions like neighborhoods and communities are not informal, but have defined boundaries and designated heads (one per area). In 2000, China's densely populated villages (,100 persons/square km) had a population greater than 500 million and covered more than 2 million square kilometers, or more than 20% of China's total area.[1] ...
The people in the province are mainly indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population (91.07%) learnt to speak in childhood, 8.62% of the residents started speaking in Spanish (2007 Peru Census).[2] Because of the migration of a high number of rural people to the towns the Spanish language (castellano) is getting more and more influence. School children are taught bilingually by law. ...
... or Gomare is a rural village located in the North-West District of Botswana, near the Okavango Delta. The population of Gumare was 6,067 in 2001 census, but had risen to 8,532 iby the 2011 census. Gumare is served by Gumare Airport. Four separate government institutions manage Ngamiland District: District Council; District Administration; Tribal Administration; Land Board. Maun serves as the administrative center of Ngamiland. Gumare is the administrative headquarters for the Okavango Delta Subdistrict, which has its own set of administrative institutions. Okavango's administrative boundary starts at Habu, including Qangwa and Xaixai up to Gudigwa. Its political boundary starts from Etsha 1 up to Gudigwa and this is different from education and agriculture. There are twenty-seven villages in the Okavango Sub-district, although the 2011 census only enumerates six: Daonara, Ditshiping, Jao, Katamaga, Morutsha, and Xaxaba. Okavango is really only one part of the remarkable Kalahari ...
... to five percent at rural hospitals and ten percent at urban hospitals. Women who gave birth at rural hospitals were younger, ... About 15 percent of U.S. infants are born at rural hospitals. Both rural and urban hospitals showed steady increases in ... we estimate that differences due to rural or urban location rather than differences in patient or hospital characteristics may ... at rural versus urban hospitals, according to the authors. They note that more than half of babies born at rural hospitals are ...
... urban prospective payment system hospitals, rural prospective payment system hospitals and critical access hospitals to ... p, This study examined rates of potentially preventable hospital readmissions in three environments: ... Geographic Differences in Potentially Preventable Readmission Rates in Rural and Urban Hospitals. Rural Health Research Gateway ... urban prospective payment system hospitals, rural prospective payment system hospitals and critical access hospitals to ...
No rural-urban differences in LOS were observed for ADRD-related hospitalizations. However, there was a temporal decline in LOS ... Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models were used to assess rural-urban variations and temporal trends in ... Hospital-level factors were not associated with LOS. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. ... The study sample comprised 27,313 ADRD and 27,313 matched non-ADRD inpatient discharges from Nebraska hospitals from 2005 to ...
AF patients admitted to rural hospitals have a 17 percent increased risk of death during hospitalization, according to a new ... "Our research shows that urban-rural differences exist regarding the risk of hospital mortality among patients who are admitted ... Patients with atrial fibrillation at greater risk of death in rural hospitals than in urban hospitals. ... to compare the in-hospital mortality of patients admitted for AF in rural versus urban hospitals. The NIS approximates a 20 ...
Investigating urban-rural disparities in tuberculosis treatment outcome in England and Wales - Volume 136 Issue 1 - I. ABUBAKAR ... Rural and urban differences in stage at diagnosis of colorectal and lung cancers. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 84: 910-914. ... Is the distance a patient lives from hospital a risk factor for death from tuberculosis in rural South Africa? International ... Rural-urban differences in stage at diagnosis. Possible relationship to cancer screening. Cancer 1991; 67: 1454-1459. ...
At rural hospitals, emergency departments appear to have figured out how to compensate for the lack of primary care access. ... Healthcare leaders should be attentive to the role of rural hospitals in managing patient population health. ... For starters, rural hospitals usually cannot provide the array of specialized and expensive care seen in larger urban hospitals ... There can also be stark differences in patient populations. And rural hospitals do not enjoy the economy of scale and leverage ...
... suggesting differences in diet and disease exposure across rural communities. With regard to gender, rural and urban women died ... Study was carried out in six hospitals in the city of São Paulo (Brazil), three being Baby-Friendly Hospitals (BFH) and three ... Whereas urban adults had higher midlife mortality and reduced longevity compared to their rural counterparts, both rural and ... there are rural/urban differences in perceptions of asram; and 4) asram may serve as a mechanism of social control for pregnant ...
We further use chi-square test assess on differences in alcohol use between urban and rural people among significance factors ... 600 in rural area was higher than that among students in urban area (p , 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the differences in the ... Results: The prevalence of alcohol use among students in rural area was higher than that in urban area (p = 0.016). Alcohol use ... The prevalence of alcohol use among female students in rural area was higher than that among female students in urban area (p ...
... suggesting that rural-urban differences in medical care might affect risk for death (32). Prehospital and hospital care ... Rural-Urban Continuum and Metropolitan Status. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the 2013 rural-urban ... Rural and urban designations were determined using the U.S. Department of Agricultures 2013 rural-urban continuum codes (https ... Rural and urban designations were determined using the U.S. Department of Agricultures 2013 rural-urban continuum codes. ...
We therefore studied 2,235 children hospitalized for malaria in a rural (Lambaréné) and an urban (Libreville) area in Gabon ... in rural and urban areas for regions of high malaria transmission. ... African children with malaria in area of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission: features on admission to the hospital and ... f Differences in Presentation of Severe Malaria in Urban and Rural Gabon * Saadou Issifou1,*, Eric Kendjo1, Michel A. Missinou1 ...
Quality of care for myocardial infarction in rural and urban hospitals. The Journal of Rural Health, 26(1), 51-57. ... Differences in health-related quality of life in rural and urban veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 94(10), 1762-1767 ... 2013b). Urban-rural typology update updated urban-rural typology: Integration of NUTS 2010 and the latest population grid. ... Appendix A: ERS Goals for Workshop on Rural Classifications 143-144 * Appendix B: Historical Development of ERS Rural-Urban ...
In contrast, every state has ACHs and nursing homes, although distribution patterns vary (i.e., rural vs. urban).[A] [A] ... Hospitals: LTCHs: 70; Hospitals: ACHs: 483; Hospitals: Psychiatric hospitals: 67; Hospitals: Rehabilitation hospitals: 10; ... Hospitals: LTCHs: 14; Hospitals: ACHs: 177; Hospitals: Psychiatric hospitals: 38; Hospitals: Rehabilitation hospitals: 5; ... TJC-surveyed[A]: Hospitals: LTCHs: 234; Hospitals: ACHs: 4,195; Hospitals: Psychiatric hospitals: 304; Hospitals: ...
Both urban and rural hospitals had higher RSRRs than those in medium metropolitan areas. Hospitals without advanced cardiac ... Variability in RSRRs among hospitals of similar type was much larger than aggregate differences between types of hospitals. ... Overall, larger, urban, academic facilities had modestly higher RSRRs than smaller, suburban, community hospitals, although ... US hospitals.. MEASURES: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services specification of hospital-wide RSRR from July 1, 2013 ...
... the magnitude of the rural-urban differences in hospital mortality varied by payer (Figure 2). No rural-urban differences in ... The greatest rural-urban difference occurred among Medicaid patients in 2013 (adjusted probability of hospital mortality, rural ... The magnitude of the rural versus urban difference in hospital mortality in 2013 varied by primary diagnosis. Rural patients ... Rural Medicare beneficiaries use of rural and urban hospitals. J Rural Health 2001;17:53-8. ...
Lillie-Blanton M, Felt S, Redmon P, Renn S, Machlin S, Wennar E. (1992). Rural and urban hospital closures, 1985-1988: ... 1994). Racial differences in the use of drug therapy for HIV disease in an urban community. The New England Journal of Medicine ... 1994). Differences by race in the rates of procedures performed in hospitals for Medicare beneficiaries. Health Care Financing ... 1995). Race and sex differences in rates of invasive cardiac procedures in U.S. hospitals. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155: ...
Learn more about Uterine Cancer at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk ... Urban-rural differences of gynaecological malignancies in Egypt (1999-2002). BJOG. 2010;117(3):348-355. ...
... but the researchers did discover residential differences. Urban patients were more likely to have a needle biopsy than rural ... Its also only a matter of time before Medicare and Medicaid start looking at why patients at hospital A are going back for ... The surgeons also looked at education level and whether the patients were rural or urban residents, just in case there were ... "Again that finding could have a lot to do with resources at some smaller hospitals," Dr. James said. His team noticed that this ...
Published article number: 1349 - Rural/urban differences in health care utilization and place of death for persons with ... Given that rural hospitals are often located a significant distance from the patients home, families of rural residents who ... Journal of Rural Health 1994: 10: 80-88.. 23. McConnel CE, Zetzman MR. Urban-rural differences in health service utilization by ... Gikas A. Urban-rural differences in smoking prevalence in Greece. European Journal of Public Health 2007; 17(4): 402.. 11. Chow ...
Urban and rural differences in geographical accessibility to inpatient palliative and end-of-life (PEoLC) facilities and place ... Search: ((rural health[mh] OR rural hospitals[mh] OR rural populations[mh] OR rural health services[mh]) AND (advance care ... "rural health"[MeSH Terms] OR "hospitals, rural"[MeSH Terms] OR "rural population"[MeSH Terms] OR "rural health services"[MeSH ... Search: ((rural health[mh] OR rural hospitals[mh] OR rural populations.... *. Number of items displayed:. 5. 10. 15. 20. 50. ...
... and large urban facilities demonstrated losses. Hospitals in the other geographic areas and rural facilities showed gains ... Among differences measured were prior use characteristics such as hospitalization and costs, mortality and occurrence of ... rural areas, what implications the growth in clinics had for Federal policy for rural hospitals and other providers, and ... from an expert Hospital Advisory Panel, Professional Review Organizations (PROs), and interviews with hospital staff, hospital ...
Persons from such areas may be predisposed to higher risks of malaria owing to the rural-urban differences in malaria burden. ... In addition, despite clear differences in malaria burden between SP users and nonusers, no appreciable differences in birth ... these differences have been partly attributed to sensitivity differences in the tools used. However, despite the fact that ... "Geographic differences in antimalarial drug efficacy in Uganda are explained by differences in endemicity and not by known ...
Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern ... Association between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype, Prediabetes, and Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Chinese Population: A ... Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China ...
Urban and rural differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Ireland. Resuscitation [Internet]. 2015;91:42-7. Available ... Ethnic differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest among Middle Eastern Arabs and North African populations living in Qatar. ... Arabi A, Patel A, Alsuwaidi J, Singh R, Albinali H. Ethnic Differences in Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Insight ... Out-of-hospital adult cardiac arrests in a university hospital in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(9):1071-5. ...
The main difference between Medicaid and Medicare is that Medicare is a federal program that provides health coverage for ... What are some differences between salaries in rural and urban school districts?. ... Medicare provides Part A hospital coverage that also covers nursing home care and home health treatment. Part B Medicare plans ... What are the differences between a Medicaid and Medicare assistance program?. * What are the eligibility requirements for ...
  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services specification of hospital-wide RSRR from July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014 with race and Medicaid dual-eligibility added. (nih.gov)
  • Authors say that policy reforms associated with Medicaid, such as increasing reimbursement to rural health centers and expanding coverage beyond the traditional prenatal to 60-day postpartum period, are important considerations to help address these life-altering experiences for pregnant women, their families, and rural communities. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There were 173 patients with 43 having poor compliance in group practice centers(GPC) and 165 patients with 33 having poor compliance in local hospitals(LH) enrolled for the study. (ovid.com)
  • With the new telehealth systems, providers in rural care centers, who once might have been challenged to handle surges in patients or difficult cases-complex trauma cases from car accidents, for example-can flip a switch to connect their exam rooms, via high-resolution cameras and audio equipment, to highly trained emergency medicine specialists working from urban hospital hubs. (uiowa.edu)
  • For example, it can reduce the sense of isolation among providers at rural care centers, making them easier to recruit and retain. (uiowa.edu)
  • Beyond tele-emergency, telehealth companies are now offering services for outpatient clinics, prison medical clinics, school and university infirmaries, long-term care centers, pharmacies, and hospital intensive care units. (uiowa.edu)
  • When comparing medical centers, Dartmouth researchers have adjusted for differences in the patients' income and local prices as well. (healthbeatblog.com)
  • I would add that while the study of how academic medical centers (AMCs) manage chronic diseases in the 2008 Dartmouth Atlas shows that some big-city hospitals provide more aggressive and expensive care, it also reveals that other urban medical centers-such as the Cleveland Clinic, Mass General and Yale-New Haven -practice a more conservative style of medicine. (healthbeatblog.com)
  • Because the number of seriously injured children treated at a single center is relatively small, and because an individual hospital is unlikely to have sufficient patient diversity, collaborative multicenter studies are required to address the differences in treatment of pediatric injury at trauma centers in diverse settings. (redorbit.com)
  • Meat processing plants with large COVID-19 outbreaks are mostly in rural areas, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has documented . (journalistsresource.org)
  • We sought to explore sex and race differences in the utilization of rt-PA at primary stroke centers (PSCs) compared to non-PSCs across the US. (frontiersin.org)
  • By End-users, the market is further segmented as Hospitals, Clinics, and Ophthalmology centers. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The study was conducted at three health centers in the Tigray Region-two serving primarily urban women and one serving mainly rural clients-where we trained ANC providers to collect demographic and health data from the pregnant women, including outcomes of previous pregnancies, personal and family histories, blood pressure levels as well as results of urine, glucose, anemia and HIV tests. (msh.org)
  • Because most injured kids are managed at nonspecialized hospitals, the authors decided to examine the differences in radiation dose between these sites and pediatric trauma centers. (auntminnie.com)
  • The difference in dose was also evident in a subset of patients who received CT scans at both the nonpediatric hospitals and the pediatric centers -- the dose difference was also twice as high. (auntminnie.com)
  • While the variance in CT radiation levels is disturbing at first glance, the authors see it as an opportunity to reduce dose at all hospitals in the state by applying the protocols already in use at the pediatric trauma centers. (auntminnie.com)
  • Our study affords an excellent opportunity to provide feedback to individual hospitals and to propose and implement standard CT scan policies across centers," Nabaweesi and colleagues concluded. (auntminnie.com)
  • August 28, 2017 -- Children who had CT scans at nonpediatric hospitals in Arkansas received twice the radiation dose as kids who were scanned at hospitals with a dedicated pediatric trauma center using optimized scanning protocols, according to a study published online August 25 in the Journal of the American College of Radiology . (auntminnie.com)
  • This study analysed the relation betweenthe midwife-led model and maternal and neonatal health outcomes.Method:A register-based, retrospective cohort design was used, involving 2201 singleton births betweenJanuary 2016 and June 2017 at Nablus governmental hospital. (uio.no)
  • For-profit hospitals had an average RSRR 0.38 percentage points (95% CI, 0.24-0.53) higher than public hospitals. (nih.gov)
  • All Indigenous children requiring hospitalisation are admitted to one of the five public hospitals in the NT, including those who need subsequent transfer to larger institutions in other states. (mja.com.au)
  • In New Zealand, public hospitals account for between 40 to 50% of Vote: Health and form a focal point for public interest in the health system. (otago.ac.nz)
  • We are aware of several Queensland public hospitals that provide excellent antenatal screening services - testing for chromosomal abnormalities as well as providing the 18-20-week ultrasound scan for structural abnormalities. (mja.com.au)
  • Qualitative methodology was used for data collection in public hospitals in the capital cities of the Netherlands, South Africa and Argentina and two rehabilitation clinics on Bali and one on Sumatra, both Indonesian islands. (springer.com)
  • Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 27,313 ADRD and 27,313 matched non-ADRD inpatient discharges from Nebraska hospitals from 2005 to 2011. (unlv.edu)
  • Methods: Based on 2010 China General Social Survey (CGSS), this study used logistical regression models to predict the average marginal effects of not seeing a doctor from 1,333 rural residents and 1,568 urban residents. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. (ed.gov)
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed discharge data on 13,998 hospital discharges for heart failure from three states, Hawai'i, Minnesota, and Virginia. (rand.org)
  • Sensitivity analysis revealed that if each health centre had allocated one morning session a week to teledermatology and the average round trip to hospital had been 78 km instead of 26 km, the costs of the two methods of care would have been equal. (bmj.com)
  • found no statistically significant difference in results obtained by the two methods for any of the four drugs tested at the 12 Portland area hospitals, except for a single drug at a single hospital where erythromycin susceptibility was reported at 97% by active surveillance and 84% from the antibiogram (chi square p=0.01) ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This paper uses a difference-in-difference approach to examine the impact of California's hospital closures occurring from 1995-2011 on adjusted inpatient mortality for time-sensitive conditions: sepsis, stroke, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (nber.org)
  • Further study should also examine specialized treatment services to support women-21% in our study-who do not respond to treatment models such as the one tested, especially women in rural and low-resource settings, and at special services for women living with HIV. (msh.org)
  • Most studies of disease resulting in hospitalisation have relied on hospital discharge diagnosis codes, which may be influenced by changes in clinician practices and coding procedures over time. (mja.com.au)
  • This retrospective cohort study analyzed 2007-2008 hospital discharge and billing records from the Premier Perspective data base. (ajnr.org)
  • Researchers analyzed 6.8 million births from national hospital discharge data between 2007 to 2015. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The nationalization of mutual- aid coops and private hospital provoked the exodus of nearly two thirds of all medical professionals (2,000 out of 6,000 physicians left). (ascecuba.org)
  • Some systems have public ownership of hospitals, with physicians and nurses as salaried employees of the public system, as in the United Kingdom or Norway. (stanford.edu)
  • The objectives were to evaluate the prevalence, pattern and rational of psychotropic drugs prescribing by general physicians in two teaching hospitals in Bangladesh in non-psychiatric patient. (banglajol.info)
  • They have fewer hospitals, fewer physicians specializing in critical care and fewer intensive care unit beds per capita. (journalistsresource.org)
  • In the previous sections of this report, we presented data concerning consultations with physicians and use of hospital and other health services by Canadians living in urban communities and in different types of rural settings. (canada.ca)
  • More so than many private physicians and hospitals, the VA has moved toward electronic management of record-keeping and system-wide connectivity. (brookings.edu)
  • The authors sought to determine to what degree current practice by hospital physicians and accident and emergency (A&E) departments in Wales conformed to the British Thoracic Society's guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. (bmj.com)
  • 2 We set out to determine the current practice of hospital physicians and A&E departments in Wales by means of a postal questionnaire and to compare the results with the BTS guidelines. (bmj.com)
  • Background and Community Orientation of Rural Physicians Compared with Metropolitan Physicians in Missouri. (ed.gov)
  • Backgrounds of rural medical doctors were compared with those of osteopathic doctors, metropolitan medical doctors in general practice, and metropolitan doctors in specialties in order to establish factors contributing to the unbalanced distribution of physicians in society. (ed.gov)
  • Interview data were obtained from all physicians in a 20-county rural area and from a sample of physicians in a metropolitan center. (ed.gov)
  • Rural physicians were more involved in community life than metropolitan doctors, and there was very little difference between community involvement of medical doctors and osteopathic doctors. (ed.gov)
  • Conclusion: Considering the differences in the prevalence of alcohol use between rural area and urban area, university administrators aiming at students from various regions develop various approaches. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: While urban/rural difference in doctor visit rate has been eliminated, the different reasons of not seeing a doctor for urban and rural residents highlight the need of the government to pay attention to the diverse health demands and obstacles to the access to medical services during the process of design and implementation of public health policies. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Their conclusion is controversial because many large and rigorous studies have concluded that homebirth and hospital birth have essentially the same safety for mother and baby. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • Conclusion: In the older rural population, lower fracture rates at sites typically associated with osteoporosis suggest environmental factors may have a different impact on bone health in this community. (bmj.com)
  • The NIS approximates a 20 percent stratified sample of all discharges and excludes rehabilitation and long-term acute care hospitals. (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction: Long-term care hospitals (LTCH) provide acute and post acute care to clinically complex individuals who have multiple acute or chronic conditions and need care for relatively extended periods more than 25 days, on average. (gao.gov)
  • A] * Unlike LTCHs, other types of hospitals, such as acute-care hospitals (ACH), do not have length of stay requirements for Medicare payment. (gao.gov)
  • The RTRC's researchers have recently examined or are now examining new specialty tele-emer-gency services that help client hospitals diagnose and treat specific acute conditions including sepsis (blood infection), psychiatric emergencies, and stroke. (uiowa.edu)
  • Significantly fewer physician visits were made by residents of small urban or rural remote locations compared with those in urban settings, although additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this discrepancy. (rrh.org.au)
  • Many rural counties have had fewer deaths compared with large cities, but higher relative infection or death rates. (journalistsresource.org)
  • 4-6) Less than 25% of USA hospitals have facilities to perform primary PCI, and even fewer have 24-h availability. (signavitae.com)
  • In particular, CT use for head imaging has grown at hospitals that see fewer kids, as well as at community hospitals and by providers who don't have pediatric residency training. (auntminnie.com)
  • For starters, rural hospitals usually cannot provide the array of specialized and expensive care seen in larger urban hospitals, making per-patient cost comparisons difficult. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • Information on hospital organisation and the implementation of organisational structures intended to promote patient safety, as well as other patient safety initiatives, will be obtained from reviews of official documents, particularly DHB and CHE annual reports. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Regression models evaluated the relationship between clinical severity at admission and patient urban/rural residence. (rand.org)
  • That assistance allows the providers in these small hospitals to focus on giving direct care to the patient. (uiowa.edu)
  • The idea is that a neurologist at a 'tele-stroke' hub who has seen hundreds of these cases can evaluate the CT scan, look at the patient, and help the provider in the rural hospital come to the right treatment decision more quickly. (uiowa.edu)
  • WASHINGTON -Buried in the $16.3 billion Veterans Affairs bill that President Obama signed into law Thursday are provisions for greater department transparency, such as a mandated 90-day report on wait times at each VA hospital, and a six-month report that would include health statistics and measurements of patient quality at all facilities. (pressherald.com)
  • But, do helicopters really make a difference in patient care and the subsequent quality of the patient's life? (tapatalk.com)
  • Active surveillance was defined as collecting isolates and patient data from participating hospitals and performing susceptibility testing at a centralized laboratory ( 15 , 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We therefore studied 2,235 children hospitalized for malaria in a rural (Lambaréné) and an urban (Libreville) area in Gabon between January 2001 and December 2002. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hospitals without advanced cardiac surgery capability had an average RSRR 0.27 percentage points (95% CI, 0.18-0.36) higher than those with. (nih.gov)
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. (who.int)
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, with variable survival reported across countries and systems. (who.int)
  • BACKGROUND Despite evidence linking rapid defibrillation to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival, bystander use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) remains low, due in part to AED placement and accessibility. (ncmedicaljournal.com)
  • The American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee aims to double out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival rates to 15.5% by 2020 [ 1 ]. (ncmedicaljournal.com)
  • We're encouraged by CorVista's promising potential as an alternative cardiac imaging technology that could make a significant difference in the lives of the millions of people suffering from CAD in China and globally. (businesswire.com)
  • Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 12 (1). (nap.edu)
  • The Jennings Hospital Health Access Worker connects uninsured and underserved individuals and families with needed services including primary health care, insurance HIP 2.0 and preventative health services in the community. (stvincent.org)
  • The Center understands that rural health care facilities face unique workforce challenges. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Since 1991, The Center has assisted rural citizens, health professionals, educators and policymakers with design and implementation strategies to assure the availability of quality health care. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Small Rural Hospital Transition ( SRHT ) Project supports small rural hospitals nationally by providing on-site technical assistance to assist bridging the gaps between the current health care system and the newly emerging health care delivery and payment system. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Associates Program is designed to connect health care organizations and networks with highly qualified rural consultants and technical experts. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Eligible rural hospital leaders and staff can attend a HELP webinar to learn about current financial, operational and quality performance needs that impact their transition to the new health care environment. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Compared to urban residents, rural residents face more severe health care workforce shortages and travel longer distances to receive maternity care. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Find information on programs that help Pennsylvania hospitals address physician leadership, emergency preparedness, health care reform, and health IT. (haponline.org)
  • Learn how Pennsylvania hospitals are working to improve health care quality and safety through the work of the Pennsylvania Hospital Engagement Network. (haponline.org)
  • From the hospital perspective, this theme captures much of what the ubiquitous "transformation of health care" is all about. (haponline.org)
  • Instead of being paid for individual health care services, hospitals receive lump-sum payments to provide care for defined communities during defined periods of time. (haponline.org)
  • Telecommunications technology is driving a quiet revolution in health care, and nowhere is that revolution more evident than in the small hospitals of the American heartland. (uiowa.edu)
  • Why is Health Care So Expensive in Rural Louisiana? (healthbeatblog.com)
  • Jeffrey S. Upperman, MD, director of the Trauma Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has co-authored a call to action for filling a significant gap in pediatric public health care and seeks federal oversight to establish the framework for a pediatric applied trauma research network (PATRN). (redorbit.com)
  • This research roundup focuses on the state of rural health care and its capacity to respond to a pandemic. (journalistsresource.org)
  • Overall, rural health care systems are not as robust as metropolitan area systems. (journalistsresource.org)
  • According to an April report from the Chartis Center for Rural Health - part of The Chartis Group, a private consulting firm for the health care industry - 63% of U.S. rural hospitals have no ICU beds. (journalistsresource.org)
  • They're suffering because they don't have the rural health care system in place that they need. (journalistsresource.org)
  • While many researchers and health care planners have looked at urban-rural differences, few have examined the heterogeneity of rural Canada, as reflected in the ways health services are used. (canada.ca)
  • Health care based on mobile Health, remote monitors, electronic medical records, social networking sites, video conferencing, and Internet-based recordkeeping can make a positive difference for many people. (brookings.edu)
  • All complementary surgical sub-specialties and necessary allied health care professionals are available in the hospital. (scielo.org.za)
  • Effective Health service for urban poor, which is a desperate need, their unwillingness to avail the health care facility and there are some bottle necks from the supply side. (scirp.org)
  • Critical access hospitals get higher reimbursements from the federal government for care delivery, further muddying comparisons. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • Still, there is a nagging perception out there that the 1,700 or so management teams at rural hospitals across the nation don't provide the same level of care delivery value as urban hospitals. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • Quality of care for myocardial infarction in rural and urban hospitals. (nap.edu)
  • This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-11-130R entitled 'Long-Term Care Hospitals: Differences in Their Oversight Compared to Other Types of Hospitals and Nursing Homes' which was released on December 22, 2010. (gao.gov)
  • Rural/remote residents were, however, much more likely to receive home supportive care (OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.17-2.19) and home meal preparation (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.44-4.39). (rrh.org.au)
  • End-of-life care in rural general practice: how best to support commitment and meet challenges? (nih.gov)
  • SHIP provides funding to approximately 1,600 participating hospitals in 46 participating SORHs to help small rural hospitals participate in value-based payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)
  • PMG calls allow peer-to-peer education focused on preparing rural hospitals for new payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)
  • These policlinics were organized as the basic Cuban unit of health services, while the larger hospital units continued to be providers of second and third level care (Danielson 1979, 165). (ascecuba.org)
  • Department of Anesthesia (Kirkham) and Institute for Health System Solutions and Virtual Care (Pendrith, Bhatia), Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ont. (cmaj.ca)
  • One of the largest telehealth companies, South Dakota-based Avera eCare, already serves more than 10 percent of the rural hospitals designated as "critical access" care facilities because of their relative isolation. (uiowa.edu)
  • The goal of PATRN is to address the critical unsolved problems that typically cross specialty boundaries including emergency transport to the hospital, emergency room care, pediatric surgery, neurosurgery, intensive care, physical therapy and rehabilitation. (redorbit.com)
  • In testimony before the Health Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Veterans Affairs, Darrell West argues that wireless health technologies can provide quality and accessible care to rural veterans. (brookings.edu)
  • This is especially the case for rural veterans who live great distances from medical facilities and often have difficulty gaining access to quality care. (brookings.edu)
  • The substantially lower risk of death when care is provided in a dedicated trauma centre instead of a general hospital 3 comes at considerable cost. (scielo.org.za)
  • Participants and setting Women with singleton pregnancies, who had registered for antenatal care at a rural governmental clinic in the West Bank, were between 1 to 6 months after birth invited to answer a questionnaire rating satisfaction with care in 7-point Likert scales. (uio.no)
  • Background:From 2013 a midwife-led continuity model of care was implemented in the Nablus region in occu-pied Palestine, involving a governmental hospital and ten rural villages. (uio.no)
  • Data from rural women, with singleton preg-nancies and mixed risk status, who either lived in villages that offered the midwife-led continuity modeland had registered at the governmental clinic, or who lived in villages without the midwife-led modeland received regular care, were compared. (uio.no)
  • Indicators of hospital working environments will be developed from existing survey data, particularly the revised Nursing Work Index, which has been administered in national nursing surveys conducted in 2000 and 2004. (otago.ac.nz)
  • As explained in The Conversation , of the over 1,000 prisons constructed from 1970 to 2000, about 70% were built in rural communities. (journalistsresource.org)
  • In 2000 in hospitals in Ghana, we began to establish bacteriologic laboratories, which since then have participated in a biannual quality control program. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected antibiogram reports from North Carolina hospitals and assessed pneumococcal susceptibility to multiple agents from 1996 through 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • Data from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2004-2010 was utilized to assess sex differences in treatment for ischemic stroke in PSCs compared to non-PSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • To adapt recent developments in the statistical methodology for monitoring hospital performance to the New Zealand context and make these developments available to the New Zealand health sector. (otago.ac.nz)
  • We are able, using identical methodology, to concurrently ascertain all incident fractures occurring in the rural and urban communities and, thereby, test the hypothesis that fracture rates are lower in rural communities. (bmj.com)
  • 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). (cdc.gov)
  • FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). (cdc.gov)
  • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, Division of Academic General Pediatrics, Mary Ann and J. Milburn Smith Child Health Research Program, Departments of Pediatrics and Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (MMD). (jabfm.org)
  • Although the reasons for this difference are unclear at this time, these data likely are of interest to providers and policy makers who are working towards the reduction of mortality in rural regions. (elsevier.com)
  • Also, in models without laboratory data, the association between urban compared to rural residence and APR-DRG severity subclass was significant for major and extreme levels of severity (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.03-1.43 and 1.55, 95 % CI 1.26-1.92, respectively). (rand.org)
  • The VA released a summary of 2013 SAIL data in June, less than a week after The Wall Street Journal reported that VA hospitals across the country showed disparate treatment. (pressherald.com)
  • The Journal cited leaked SAIL data for Boston's VA hospital that it scored five out of five stars, while the Phoenix VA hospital received one star. (pressherald.com)