The status of health in urban populations.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Lebanon" is a geographical name and not a medical condition or term. It is the name of a country located in the Middle East, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!
(Disclaimer: This is a playful and fictitious response, as there isn't a medical definition for 'New York City'.)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The status of health in rural populations.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
The practice of nursing in the work environment.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
All organized methods of funding.
Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Health care provided to individuals.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.

Why do dyspeptic patients over the age of 50 consult their general practitioner? A qualitative investigation of health beliefs relating to dyspepsia. (1/2788)

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of late-diagnosed gastric cancer is poor, yet less than half of dyspeptic patients consult their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To construct an explanatory model of the decision to consult with dyspepsia in older patients. METHOD: A total of 75 patients over the age of 50 years who had consulted with dyspepsia at one of two inner city general practices were invited to an in-depth interview. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and analysed using the computer software NUD.IST, according to the principles of grounded theory. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 interviews were conducted. The perceived threat of cancer and the need for reassurance were key influences on the decision to consult. Cues such as a change in symptoms were important in prompting a re-evaluation of the likely cause. Personal vulnerability to serious illness was often mentioned in the context of family or friends' experience, but tempered by an individual's life expectations. CONCLUSION: Most patients who had delayed consultation put their symptoms down to 'old age' or 'spicy food'. However, a significant minority were fatalistic, suspecting the worst but fearing medical interventions.  (+info)

Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults. (2/2788)

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (3/2788)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (4/2788)

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

Prevention of stroke in urban China: a community-based intervention trial. (5/2788)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke has been the second leading cause of death in large cities in China since the 1980s. Meanwhile, the prevalences of hypertension and smoking have steadily increased over the last 2 decades. Therefore, a community-based intervention trial was initiated in 7 Chinese cities in 1987. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at reducing multiple risk factors for stroke. The primary study objective was to reduce the incidence of stroke by 25% over 3.5 years of intervention. METHODS: In May 1987 in each of 7 the cities, 2 geographically separated communities with a registered population of about 10 000 each were selected as either intervention or control communities. In each community, a cohort containing about 2700 subjects (>/=35 years old) free of stroke was sampled, and a survey was administered to obtain baseline data and screen the eligible subjects for intervention. In each city, a program of treatment for hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes was instituted in the intervention cohort (n approximately 2700) and health education was provided to the full intervention community (n approximately 10 000). A follow-up survey was conducted in 1990. Comparisons of intervention and control cohorts in each city were pooled to yield a single summary. RESULTS: A total of 18 786 subjects were recruited to the intervention cohort and 18 876 to the control cohort from 7 cities. After 3.5 years, 174 new stroke cases had occurred in the intervention cohort and 253 in the control cohort. The 3.5-year cumulative incidence of total stroke was significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort (0.93% versus 1.34%; RR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.84). The incidence rates of nonfatal and fatal stroke, as well as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, were significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort. The prevalence of hypertension increased by 4.3% in the intervention cohort and by 7.8% in the control cohort. The average systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased more in the control cohort than in the intervention cohort. Among hypertensive individuals in the intervention cohort, awareness of hypertension increased by 6.7% and the percentage of hypertensives who regularly took antihypertensive medication increased 13.2%. All of these indices became worse in the control cohort. The prevalence of heart diseases and diabetes increased significantly in the both cohorts (P<0.01). The prevalence of consumption of alcohol increased slightly, and that of smoking remained constant in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based intervention for stroke reduction is feasible and effective in the cities of China. The reduction, due to the intervention, in the incidence of stroke in the intervention cohort was statistically significant after 3.5 years of intervention. The sharp reduction in the incidence of stroke may be due to the interventions having blunted the expected increase in hypertension that accompanies aging as well as to better and earlier treatment of hypertension, particularly borderline hypertension. Applied health education to all the residents of the community may have prevented some normotensive individuals from developing hypertension and improved overall health awareness and knowledge.  (+info)

The relationship between census-derived socio-economic variables and general practice consultation rates in three town centre practices. (6/2788)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between socio-economic factors and consultation rates is important in determining resource allocation to general practices. AIM: To determine the relationship between general practice surgery consultation rates and census-derived socio-economic variables for patients receiving the same primary and secondary care. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was taken of computerized records in three general practices in Mansfield, North Nottinghamshire, with 29,142 patients spread over 15 electoral wards (Jarman score range from -23 to +25.5). Linear regression analysis of surgery consultation rates at ward and enumeration district levels was performed against Jarman and Townsend deprivation scores and census socio-economic variables. RESULTS: Both the Townsend score (r2 = 59%) and the Jarman score (r2 = 39%) were associated with surgery consultation rates at ward level. The Townsend score had a stronger association than the Jarman score because all four of its component variables were individually associated with increased consultations compared with four out of eight Jarman components. CONCLUSIONS: Even in practices not eligible for deprivation payments there were appreciable differences in consultation rates between areas with different socio-economic characteristics. The results suggest that the variables used to determine deprivation payments should be reconsidered, and they support suggestions that payments should be introduced at a lower level of deprivation and administered on an enumeration district basis.  (+info)

General practitioners' knowledge and experience of the abuse of older people in the community: report of an exploratory research study in the inner-London borough of Tower Hamlets. (7/2788)

A pioneering study aimed to quantify general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of cases of elder abuse in the community. The research found that elder abuse is a problem encountered by GPs, and that a large majority of responders would welcome training in the identification and management of the problem.  (+info)

Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study. (8/2788)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of unmodified cows' milk and iron supplemented formula milk on psychomotor development in infants from inner city areas when used as the main milk source. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised intervention trial. SETTING: Birmingham health centre. SUBJECTS: 100 infants, mean age 7.8 months (range 5.7 to 8.6 months), whose mothers had already elected to use unmodified cows' milk as their infant's milk source. INTERVENTION: Changing to an iron supplemented formula milk from enrolment to 18 months of age, or continuing with unmodified cows' milk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Developmental assessments using Griffiths scales at enrolment and at 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: 85 participants completed the trial. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the two groups at enrolment, but by 18 months of age 33% of the unmodified cows' milk group, but only 2% of the iron supplemented group, were anaemic (P<0.001). The experimental groups had Griffiths general quotient scores that were not significantly different at enrolment, but the scores in both groups declined during the study. By 24 months the decrease in the mean scores in the unmodified cows' milk group was 14.7 whereas the decrease in the mean scores in the iron supplemented group was 9.3 (P<0.02, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 10.4). Mean subquotient scores were considerably lower in the unmodified cows' milk group at 24 months; significantly so for personal and social scores (P<0.02, 1.2 to 16.8 [corrected]). CONCLUSION: Replacing unmodified cows' milk with an iron supplemented formula milk up to 18 months of age in infants from inner city areas prevents iron deficiency anaemia and reduces the decline in psychomotor development seen in such infants from the second half of the first year.  (+info)

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "urbanization" is a term that is more commonly used in the context of sociology and urban planning. It refers to the process through which rural areas become urbanized, or turned into cities, as a result of growth in population and infrastructure development.

However, if you are asking about the health implications of urbanization, then there is a field of study called "urban health" that focuses on how the urban environment impacts the physical and mental health of its inhabitants. Factors such as air pollution, noise pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate housing, and limited access to healthy food options can all contribute to negative health outcomes in urban areas.

A Health Systems Plan is a strategic document that outlines the vision, goals, and strategies for improving the overall health system within a specific geographic area or population. It is developed through a collaborative process involving various stakeholders, including government agencies, healthcare providers, community organizations, and other relevant parties. The plan aims to address the health needs of the population, improve access to quality healthcare services, and promote health equity.

The Health Systems Plan typically includes an analysis of the current state of the health system, identification of priority health issues, and a description of the proposed interventions and resources required to achieve the desired outcomes. It may also include strategies for monitoring and evaluating progress towards the goals outlined in the plan. The ultimate goal of a Health Systems Plan is to ensure that the health system is efficient, effective, equitable, and responsive to the needs of the population it serves.

A dissertation is a long formal piece of writing that is based on original research, usually presenting the author's findings and conclusions. In academic terms, a dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification, typically representing completion of a research project undertaken over a number of years.

Dissertations in the field of medicine are often required as part of a medical degree program, such as an MD or PhD. These dissertations typically involve conducting original research in a specific area of medicine, analyzing data, and presenting findings in a clear and concise manner. The dissertation process includes identifying a research question or hypothesis, designing and implementing a study to test the question or hypothesis, analyzing the resulting data, and writing up the findings in a clear and coherent way.

The format of medical dissertations typically includes an abstract, introduction, methods section, results section, discussion section, and conclusion. The dissertation may also include appendices, figures, tables, and references. The length of a medical dissertation can vary widely depending on the field of study and the requirements of the academic institution, but they are often several hundred pages long.

The defense of a dissertation is a formal presentation and examination of the research that the student has conducted, in front of a panel of experts in the field. The defense typically includes a brief presentation of the research findings, followed by questions from the examiners. Successful completion of the dissertation and defense is usually required to earn a medical degree.

Sociobiology is not a medical term, but rather a branch of biology that focuses on the study of social behaviors in various species, including humans, from a biological and evolutionary perspective. It seeks to explain the biological basis of social behavior and how it has evolved over time through natural selection.

The term "sociobiology" was first coined by the entomologist E.O. Wilson in his 1975 book "Sociobiology: The New Synthesis." In this work, Wilson proposed that many social behaviors, such as altruism and aggression, have a genetic basis and can be studied using the same principles of natural selection that apply to other biological traits.

While sociobiology is not a medical field per se, its findings can have implications for our understanding of human behavior and health. For example, research in sociobiology has explored how social hierarchies and relationships may affect stress levels and overall health outcomes in various species, including humans. However, it's important to note that the application of sociobiological principles to human behavior is a subject of ongoing debate and controversy.

Medical indigence is a term used to describe a person's inability to pay for necessary medical care due to financial constraints. This can occur when an individual lacks sufficient health insurance coverage, has limited financial resources, or both. In many cases, medical indigence can lead to delayed or avoided medical treatment, which can result in more severe health conditions and higher healthcare costs in the long run.

In some jurisdictions, laws have been enacted to provide relief for medically indigent individuals by requiring hospitals or healthcare providers to provide care regardless of a patient's ability to pay. These programs are often funded through a combination of government funding, hospital funds, and charitable donations. The goal of these programs is to ensure that all individuals have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their financial situation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poverty Areas" is not a standard medical term or classification. However, in a broader social determinants of health context, poverty is recognized as a significant factor that can impact an individual's health outcomes and access to healthcare.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines poverty as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," which includes but is not limited to lack of income and economic opportunities. The WHO also acknowledges that poverty is a major cause of ill-health and premature death around the world.

If you are referring to a specific term or concept that goes by a different name, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Sciences" is a broad term that refers to academic disciplines that study human society and social relationships. It includes fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. These subjects are considered part of the liberal arts and humanities, not medical sciences.

However, aspects of social sciences can intersect with medical studies in areas like medical anthropology, health psychology, sociology of health and illness, and psychiatry. For instance, medical anthropologists might study how cultural factors influence healthcare practices, while health psychologists examine the role of behavior and mental processes in health and illness.

If you're looking for a definition related to medical sciences, perhaps there was some confusion with the term. Could you please clarify or provide more context?

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

Consumer participation in the context of healthcare refers to the active involvement and engagement of patients, families, caregivers, and communities in their own healthcare decision-making processes and in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services. It emphasizes the importance of patient-centered care, where the unique needs, preferences, values, and experiences of individuals are respected and integrated into their healthcare.

Consumer participation can take many forms, including:

1. Patient-provider communication: Consumers engage in open and honest communication with their healthcare providers to make informed decisions about their health.
2. Shared decision-making: Consumers work together with their healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of different treatment options and make evidence-based decisions that align with their values, preferences, and goals.
3. Patient education: Consumers receive accurate, timely, and understandable information about their health conditions, treatments, and self-management strategies.
4. Patient advocacy: Consumers advocate for their own health needs and rights, as well as those of other patients and communities.
5. Community engagement: Consumers participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services that affect their communities.
6. Research partnerships: Consumers collaborate with researchers to design, conduct, and disseminate research that is relevant and meaningful to their lives.

Consumer participation aims to improve healthcare quality, safety, and outcomes by empowering individuals to take an active role in their own health and well-being, and by ensuring that healthcare systems are responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lebanon" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the Lebanese Republic. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, please provide them, and I would be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York City" is not a medical term or concept. It's a city located in the state of New York, United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Translational medical research, also known as "translational research," refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical interventions that improve human health and well-being. This type of research aims to "translate" findings from laboratory, animal, or cellular studies into practical applications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases.

Translational medical research typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together researchers from various fields such as biology, chemistry, engineering, genetics, and medicine to work collaboratively on solving complex health problems. The process often includes several stages, including:

1. Identifying basic scientific discoveries that have the potential to be translated into clinical applications.
2. Developing and optimizing new diagnostic tools, drugs, or therapies based on these discoveries.
3. Conducting preclinical studies in the laboratory or with animal models to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions.
4. Designing and implementing clinical trials to test the effectiveness and safety of the new interventions in human patients.
5. Disseminating research findings to the scientific community, healthcare providers, and the public to facilitate the adoption of new practices or treatments.

Translational medical research is essential for bridging the gap between basic scientific discoveries and clinical applications, ultimately improving patient care and outcomes.

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. It encompasses a wide range of skills including reading, writing, numeracy, listening, speaking, and critical thinking abilities, as well as the ability to apply these skills to everyday health situations.

Health literacy is not just about an individual's ability to read and understand health information, but also about how healthcare systems communicate and provide information to patients. It involves the interaction between patients and healthcare providers, as well as the complexity of health systems and services.

Limited health literacy can have a significant impact on a person's health outcomes, including increased rates of hospitalization, poorer disease management, and higher healthcare costs. Therefore, improving health literacy is an important public health goal that can help reduce health disparities and improve overall population health.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Regional health planning is a process that involves the systematic assessment, analysis, and prioritization of healthcare needs for a defined geographic population in a specific region. It aims to develop and implement strategies, programs, and services to address those needs in a coordinated and efficient manner. This collaborative approach often involves various stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, working together to improve the overall health and well-being of the population in that region.

The medical definition of 'Regional Health Planning' can be outlined as follows:

1. Systematic assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the healthcare needs, resources, and infrastructure within a specific region, taking into account demographic, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors that influence health outcomes.
2. Analysis: The examination of data and information gathered during the assessment to identify gaps, priorities, and opportunities for improvement in healthcare services and delivery.
3. Prioritization: The process of ranking healthcare needs and issues based on their urgency, impact, and feasibility of intervention, to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently.
4. Strategy development: The creation of evidence-based, data-driven plans and interventions aimed at addressing the prioritized health needs and improving the overall health of the regional population.
5. Collaboration: The active engagement and partnership of various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional health initiatives.
6. Coordination: The alignment and integration of healthcare services, programs, and policies across different levels and sectors to ensure seamless care and avoid duplication of efforts.
7. Continuous improvement: The ongoing monitoring and evaluation of regional health programs and interventions to assess their effectiveness, make adjustments as needed, and incorporate new evidence and best practices into future planning efforts.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

Public health nursing is a specialty practice area of nursing that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues in communities and populations. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions aimed at promoting health, preventing disease, and addressing environmental factors that impact the health of populations. Public health nurses often work in community-based settings such as public health departments, schools, and non-profit organizations to provide care and education to individuals and families, promote health equity, and advocate for policies that improve the overall health of communities.

"Health occupations" is a broad term that refers to careers or professions involved in the delivery, management, and improvement of health services. These occupations encompass a wide range of roles, including but not limited to:

1. Healthcare providers: This group includes medical doctors (MDs), doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs), nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, dentists, dental hygienists, optometrists, pharmacists, and other professionals who provide direct patient care.
2. Allied health professionals: These are healthcare workers who provide diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, and support services. Examples include respiratory therapists, radiologic technologists, dietitians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and medical laboratory scientists.
3. Public health professionals: This group focuses on preventing diseases and promoting community health. They work in various settings, such as government agencies, non-profit organizations, and academic institutions, addressing public health issues like infectious disease control, environmental health, health education, and policy development.
4. Health administrators and managers: These professionals oversee the operations of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and managed care organizations. They ensure that resources are used efficiently, that services meet quality standards, and that regulatory requirements are met.
5. Health educators: These individuals work in various settings to promote health awareness and teach individuals and communities about healthy behaviors and practices.
6. Health information specialists: Professionals in this field manage and analyze health data, maintain medical records, and ensure the security and privacy of patient information.

Overall, health occupations play a crucial role in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

An Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient's medical history that is stored and maintained electronically rather than on paper. It contains comprehensive information about a patient's health status, including their medical history, medications, allergies, test results, immunization records, and other relevant health information. EHRs can be shared among authorized healthcare providers, which enables better coordination of care, improved patient safety, and more efficient delivery of healthcare services.

EHRs are designed to provide real-time, patient-centered records that make it easier for healthcare providers to access up-to-date and accurate information about their patients. They can also help reduce errors, prevent duplicative tests and procedures, and improve communication among healthcare providers. EHRs may include features such as clinical decision support tools, which can alert healthcare providers to potential drug interactions or other health risks based on a patient's medical history.

EHRs are subject to various regulations and standards to ensure the privacy and security of patients' health information. In the United States, for example, EHRs must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, which sets national standards for the protection of personal health information.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Public Health Informatics (PHI) is the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It involves the development and implementation of information systems to support public health functions including surveillance, prevention, preparedness, and response. PHI also includes the analysis of public health data to improve decision-making, as well as the training and education of public health professionals in the use of these technologies. The ultimate goal of PHI is to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness, and overall quality of public health services.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

"State Health Plans" is a general term that refers to the healthcare coverage programs offered or managed by individual states in the United States. These plans can be divided into two main categories: Medicaid and state-based marketplaces.

1. **Medicaid**: This is a joint federal-state program that provides healthcare coverage to low-income individuals, families, and qualifying groups, such as pregnant women, children, elderly people, and people with disabilities. Each state administers its own Medicaid program within broad federal guidelines, and therefore, the benefits, eligibility criteria, and enrollment processes can vary from state to state.

2. **State-based Marketplaces (SBMs)**: These are online platforms where individuals and small businesses can compare and purchase health insurance plans that meet the standards set by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). SBMs operate in accordance with federal regulations, but individual states have the flexibility to design their own marketplace structure, manage their own enrollment process, and determine which insurers can participate.

It is important to note that state health plans are subject to change based on federal and state laws, regulations, and funding allocations. Therefore, it is always recommended to check the most recent and specific information from the relevant state agency or department.

Health plan implementation is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of healthcare management and administration. It refers to the process of putting into action the plans, strategies, and policies of a health insurance or healthcare benefit program. This includes activities such as:

1. Designing and structuring health benefits and coverage options
2. Developing provider networks and reimbursement rates
3. Establishing procedures for claims processing and utilization management
4. Implementing care management programs to improve health outcomes and reduce costs
5. Communicating the plan details to members and providers
6. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards

The goal of health plan implementation is to create a well-functioning healthcare benefit program that meets the needs of its members while managing costs and ensuring quality care.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Healthcare Quality Indicators (QIs) are measurable elements that can be used to assess the quality of healthcare services and outcomes. They are often based on evidence-based practices and guidelines, and are designed to help healthcare providers monitor and improve the quality of care they deliver to their patients. QIs may focus on various aspects of healthcare, such as patient safety, clinical effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, and efficiency. Examples of QIs include measures such as rates of hospital-acquired infections, adherence to recommended treatments for specific conditions, and patient satisfaction scores. By tracking these indicators over time, healthcare organizations can identify areas where they need to improve, make changes to their processes and practices, and ultimately provide better care to their patients.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Health Care Coalitions (HCCs) are multi-disciplinary, multi-agency partnerships that are organized at the local or regional level to enhance emergency preparedness and response capabilities for the healthcare system. The primary goal of HCCs is to facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration among healthcare organizations and other key stakeholders, such as emergency management agencies, public health departments, and community organizations.

HCCs typically focus on preparing for and responding to emergencies that can impact the healthcare system, including natural disasters, mass casualty incidents, infectious disease outbreaks, and cyber attacks. They may develop plans and procedures for addressing these threats, provide training and education to members, and conduct exercises to test their capabilities.

The membership of HCCs can vary but typically includes hospitals, long-term care facilities, home health agencies, emergency medical services providers, public health departments, mental/behavioral health organizations, and other stakeholders involved in healthcare delivery and emergency response. By working together, these organizations can help ensure that the healthcare system is better prepared to meet the needs of their communities during emergencies.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Personal Health Records (PHRs) are defined as:

"An electronic application through which individuals can access, manage and share their health information, and that of others for whom they are authorized, in a private, secure, and confidential environment." (Institute of Medicine, 2011)

PHRs typically contain personal health information such as medical history, medication lists, allergies, test results, and other relevant health data. They can be managed and controlled by the individual and may be connected to or separate from electronic health records maintained by healthcare providers. PHRs allow individuals to have more active roles in managing their own health and communicating with their healthcare team.

"Men's Health" is not strictly defined in the medical field, but it generally refers to the branch of healthcare that focuses on the specific health concerns and needs of men. This can include issues related to reproductive health, sexual health, hormonal health, chronic conditions that disproportionately affect men (like heart disease and prostate cancer), mental health, and lifestyle factors that impact male health (such as diet, exercise, and stress management). It also promotes health education, prevention, and early detection of diseases and conditions that are common in men.

Health planning guidelines are a set of recommendations and principles that provide direction for the development, implementation, and evaluation of health services and public health programs. These guidelines serve as a framework to ensure that health planning is evidence-based, equitable, efficient, and effective in addressing the priority health needs of a population. They typically cover various aspects such as:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying and prioritizing the health needs of a population through data collection, analysis, and consultation with stakeholders.
2. Resource allocation: Determining how to distribute resources fairly and efficiently to address priority health issues and ensure equitable access to healthcare services.
3. Service delivery: Establishing standards for the provision of high-quality, patient-centered care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.
4. Monitoring and evaluation: Developing systems to track progress towards health goals, measure outcomes, and make data-driven decisions for continuous quality improvement.
5. Stakeholder engagement: Encouraging collaboration and partnership among various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, policymakers, community organizations, and the public, to ensure that health planning efforts are inclusive, participatory, and responsive to local needs and preferences.
6. Ethical considerations: Ensuring that health planning processes and decisions respect human rights, promote social justice, and protect vulnerable populations from discrimination and marginalization.
7. Flexibility and adaptability: Recognizing the need for regular review and revision of health planning guidelines to accommodate changing circumstances, emerging evidence, and new priorities.

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a type of managed care organization (MCO) that provides comprehensive health care services to its members, typically for a fixed monthly premium. HMOs are characterized by a prepaid payment model and a focus on preventive care and early intervention to manage the health of their enrolled population.

In an HMO, members must choose a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as their first point of contact for medical care and coordinates all aspects of their healthcare needs within the HMO network. Specialist care is generally only covered if it is referred by the PCP, and members are typically required to obtain medical services from providers that are part of the HMO's network. This helps to keep costs down and ensures that care is coordinated and managed effectively.

HMOs may also offer additional benefits such as dental, vision, and mental health services, depending on the specific plan. However, members may face higher out-of-pocket costs if they choose to receive care outside of the HMO network. Overall, HMOs are designed to provide comprehensive healthcare coverage at a more affordable cost than traditional fee-for-service insurance plans.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Health Planning Support refers to the various activities and resources provided to assist healthcare organizations, governments, and other stakeholders in the development and implementation of health planning initiatives. These services can include:

1. Data Analysis: This involves the collection, interpretation, and presentation of health data to inform decision-making and policy development.
2. Technical Assistance: This includes providing expertise and guidance on health planning processes, such as needs assessment, priority setting, and resource allocation.
3. Research and Evaluation: This involves conducting research to evaluate the effectiveness of health programs and interventions, and providing evidence to inform future planning efforts.
4. Stakeholder Engagement: This includes facilitating collaboration and communication among different stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, patients, policymakers, and community organizations, to ensure that all voices are heard in the planning process.
5. Capacity Building: This involves providing training and education to build the skills and knowledge of health planners and other stakeholders, enabling them to effectively participate in and lead health planning initiatives.

Overall, Health Planning Support is designed to help healthcare organizations and governments make informed decisions about how to allocate resources and plan for the future, with the goal of improving health outcomes and reducing health disparities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

"Public health in the context of schools refers to the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of populations in school settings. It involves the implementation of evidence-based policies, programs, and practices to prevent disease and injury, promote healthy behaviors, and ensure that students are able to learn and thrive in a safe and healthy environment. This can include efforts to address issues such as infectious disease outbreaks, chronic disease prevention, mental health promotion, environmental health concerns, and injury prevention. Public health in schools is a multidisciplinary field that draws on expertise from fields such as medicine, nursing, nutrition, psychology, social work, education, and public health."

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

Allied health personnel refers to a group of healthcare professionals who are licensed or regulated to provide specific services within the healthcare system. They work in collaboration with physicians and other healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive medical care. Allied health personnel include various disciplines such as:

1. Occupational therapists
2. Physical therapists
3. Speech-language pathologists
4. Audiologists
5. Respiratory therapists
6. Dietitians and nutritionists
7. Social workers
8. Diagnostic medical sonographers
9. Radiologic technologists
10. Clinical laboratory scientists
11. Genetic counselors
12. Rehabilitation counselors
13. Therapeutic recreation specialists

These professionals play a crucial role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions and are essential members of the healthcare team.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

Comprehensive health care is a type of medical care that aims to meet the majority of an individual's physical, emotional, and social needs, through a coordinated and integrated system of preventative, acute, and long-term care services. It is designed to provide a continuum of care that is accessible, efficient, and effective in addressing the whole person's health status, including all aspects of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of both physical and mental health conditions.

Comprehensive health care may include a wide range of services such as preventative screenings, routine check-ups, immunizations, acute care for illnesses or injuries, chronic disease management, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, and end-of-life care. It is typically delivered through a network of healthcare providers, including primary care physicians, specialists, hospitals, clinics, and community-based organizations, who work together to provide coordinated and patient-centered care.

The goal of comprehensive health care is to improve health outcomes, enhance quality of life, and reduce health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and nutrition, that can impact an individual's overall health status. It recognizes that healthcare is just one component of a larger system of factors that influence a person's health and well-being, and seeks to create a more holistic approach to medical care that addresses the full range of factors that contribute to good health.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Health Fairs" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, health fairs are community events organized to promote health awareness and education. They are often hosted by hospitals, clinics, or other healthcare organizations and feature various screenings, educational booths, and activities aimed at promoting overall wellness. Healthcare professionals may also be present to provide information, answer questions, and offer advice on a range of health-related topics.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

"Marketing of Health Services" refers to the application of marketing principles and strategies to promote, sell, and deliver health care services to individuals, families, or communities. This can include activities such as advertising, public relations, promotions, and sales to increase awareness and demand for health services, as well as researching and analyzing consumer needs and preferences to tailor health services to better meet those needs. The ultimate goal of marketing in health services is to improve access to and utilization of high-quality health care while maintaining ethical standards and ensuring patient satisfaction.

A needs assessment in a medical context is the process of identifying and evaluating the health needs of an individual, population, or community. It is used to determine the resources, services, and interventions required to address specific health issues and improve overall health outcomes. This process often involves collecting and analyzing data on various factors such as demographics, prevalence of diseases, access to healthcare, and social determinants of health. The goal of a needs assessment is to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently to meet the most pressing health needs and priorities.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a definition and overview of it in the context of public health and healthcare.

The USPHS is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is responsible for promoting and protecting the health of the nation, particularly focusing on preventing and controlling infectious diseases and other health threats. The USPHS is composed of eight uniformed service components: the Surgeon General's Office, the Commissioned Corps, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Indian Health Service (IHS), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

The Commissioned Corps of the USPHS is a group of uniformed healthcare professionals who are appointed by the President and commissioned as officers. They serve in various capacities within the federal government, including research, clinical care, health policy, and emergency response. The Surgeon General serves as the head of the USPHS and is responsible for providing advice to the President and HHS Secretary on matters related to public health.

The USPHS plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as natural disasters, infectious disease outbreaks, and bioterrorism attacks. They also work to address health disparities and promote health equity by providing healthcare services to underserved populations, including American Indians and Alaska Natives through the IHS. Additionally, the USPHS supports research and surveillance efforts aimed at understanding and addressing various public health issues, such as tobacco use, substance abuse, and mental health.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Insurance coverage, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the financial protection provided by an insurance policy that covers all or a portion of the cost of medical services, treatments, and prescription drugs. The coverage is typically offered by health insurance companies, employers, or government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.

The specific services and treatments covered by insurance, as well as the out-of-pocket costs borne by the insured individual, are determined by the terms of the insurance policy. These terms may include deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and coverage limits or exclusions. The goal of insurance coverage is to help individuals manage the financial risks associated with healthcare expenses and ensure access to necessary medical services.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

A Prepaid Health Plan (PHP), also known as a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) or Point of Service (POS) plan, is a type of health insurance in which the insured pays a fixed, prepaid fee for access to specific healthcare services. These plans typically have a network of healthcare providers with whom they have contracts to provide services at reduced rates. The insured must choose a primary care physician (PCP) from within the network who will coordinate their care and refer them to specialists as needed, also within the network. Prepaid health plans may not cover services received outside of the designated network, except in emergency situations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

Health Planning Councils are regional organizations that are responsible for developing, implementing, and evaluating healthcare plans and services within a specific geographic area. The primary goal of these councils is to improve the overall health of the population they serve by identifying healthcare needs, setting priorities, and coordinating resources to address those needs.

Health Planning Councils typically consist of a diverse group of stakeholders, including healthcare providers, consumers, advocates, and other community members. They may be responsible for a variety of tasks, such as:

1. Conducting needs assessments to identify the health needs and priorities of the population they serve.
2. Developing strategic plans to address those needs and priorities.
3. Allocating resources to support the implementation of healthcare services and programs.
4. Monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare services and programs.
5. Advocating for policies and practices that promote health equity and improve access to care.

Health Planning Councils may operate at the state, regional, or local level, depending on the specific structure and organization of the healthcare system in which they are located. They play a critical role in ensuring that healthcare resources are used efficiently and effectively to improve the health outcomes of the populations they serve.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

A "health transition" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and patient care, it often refers to the process of shifting an individual's care from one setting or provider to another. This can occur when a patient is discharged from the hospital to home care, moves from pediatric to adult healthcare services, or transitions between different specialists or levels of care.

The goal of a health transition is to ensure that the patient receives continuous and coordinated care, with clear communication between providers and a smooth handoff of responsibility for the patient's care. A successful health transition can help to improve outcomes, reduce the risk of readmissions, and enhance patient satisfaction.

Occupational health nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on the prevention and management of work-related illnesses, injuries, and disabilities. It involves the assessment, evaluation, and control of hazards and risks in the workplace to promote and protect the health and well-being of workers. Occupational health nurses provide comprehensive healthcare services, including health promotion, disease prevention, education, counseling, and rehabilitation, to help workers maintain their optimal health and productivity. They work closely with employers, employees, and other healthcare professionals to develop and implement effective occupational health programs that meet the specific needs of the workplace and its workers. Occupational health nursing is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the interdependence between work, health, and well-being.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Objectives" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general management and business concept. Organizational objectives are the goals or targets that an organization aims to achieve through its operations and functions. These can include financial objectives like profitability and growth, as well as non-financial objectives related to areas like quality, innovation, social responsibility, and employee satisfaction.

In a healthcare setting, organizational objectives might include improving patient outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, reducing costs, implementing new treatments or technologies, enhancing community health, and maintaining ethical standards.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

A public health professional is a trained and educated individual who works to improve the health and well-being of communities and populations through education, research, policy development, and advocacy. A public health professional in the field of education may work in various settings such as universities, colleges, public health departments, non-profit organizations, or government agencies.

Their responsibilities typically include:

1. Developing and implementing educational programs to promote healthy behaviors and prevent disease and injury.
2. Conducting research to identify the health needs and concerns of communities and developing strategies to address them.
3. Advocating for policies and practices that support public health and promote health equity.
4. Collaborating with other professionals, such as healthcare providers, community leaders, and policymakers, to develop and implement effective public health interventions.
5. Evaluating the impact of public health programs and using data to inform decision-making and improve outcomes.

To become a public health professional in education, one typically needs to have at least a master's degree in public health or a related field, such as health education, health promotion, or health services administration. Some positions may require a doctoral degree or additional certifications. Relevant work experience, such as internships or volunteer work, is also valuable for gaining practical skills and making professional connections.

Health Insurance Reimbursement refers to the process of receiving payment from a health insurance company for medical expenses that you have already paid out of pocket. Here is a brief medical definition of each term:

1. Insurance: A contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured.
2. Health: Refers to the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
3. Reimbursement: The act of refunding or compensating a person for expenses incurred, especially those that have been previously paid by the individual and are now being paid back by an insurance company.

In the context of health insurance, reimbursement typically occurs when you receive medical care, pay the provider, and then submit a claim to your insurance company for reimbursement. The insurance company will review the claim, determine whether the services are covered under your policy, and calculate the amount they will reimburse you based on your plan's benefits and any applicable co-pays, deductibles, or coinsurance amounts. Once this process is complete, the insurance company will issue a payment to you to cover a portion or all of the costs you incurred for the medical services.

Universal coverage is a term used in healthcare policy to describe a system in which all residents of a particular country or region have access to necessary healthcare services, regardless of their ability to pay. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as mandatory health insurance, government provision of care, or a mix of public and private financing.

The goal of universal coverage is to ensure that everyone has access to essential medical services, including preventive care, doctor visits, hospitalizations, and prescription medications, without facing financial hardship due to medical expenses. Universal coverage can help reduce disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, improve overall population health, and provide economic benefits by reducing the burden of uncompensated care on healthcare providers and taxpayers.

It's important to note that universal coverage does not necessarily mean that all healthcare services are provided for free or at no cost to the individual. Rather, it means that everyone has access to a basic level of care, and that out-of-pocket costs are kept affordable through various mechanisms such as cost-sharing, subsidies, or risk pooling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interinstitutional Relations" is not a commonly used medical term. Instead, it is more frequently used in the context of social sciences, particularly in relation to organizations and their interactions with each other. In this context, interinstitutional relations refers to the relationships, cooperative arrangements, and communication between different organizations or institutions.

However, if you are looking for a term related to medical institutions or healthcare organizations, you might be interested in "Interprofessional Relations" or "Interdisciplinary Collaboration." These terms describe the interactions, coordination, and cooperation among various healthcare professionals and disciplines to provide comprehensive and high-quality patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that have an impact on their health and quality of life. These factors include but are not limited to:

* Economic stability (e.g., poverty, employment, food security)
* Education access and quality
* Health care access and quality
* Neighborhood and built environment (e.g., housing, transportation, parks and recreation)
* Social and community context (e.g., discrimination, incarceration, social support)

SDOH are responsible for a significant portion of health inequities and can have a greater impact on health than genetic factors or individual behaviors. Addressing SDOH is critical to improving overall health and reducing disparities in health outcomes.

Maternal-Child Health (MCH) Centers are healthcare facilities specifically designed to provide comprehensive care for women, mothers, and children. These centers offer a wide range of services that focus on improving the health outcomes of mothers, infants, young children, and adolescents. The primary goal is to promote and maintain the overall well-being of these populations by addressing their unique healthcare needs through various stages of life.

MCH Centers typically provide services such as:

1. Prenatal care: Regular check-ups and screenings for pregnant women to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, ensuring a healthy pregnancy and timely identification of potential complications.
2. Family planning and reproductive health: Counseling, education, and access to various contraceptive methods to help individuals and couples plan their families and prevent unintended pregnancies.
3. Immunizations and well-child visits: Vaccinations and routine healthcare check-ups for infants, children, and adolescents to ensure they receive proper immunization protection and timely identification of developmental or health issues.
4. Nutrition counseling: Guidance on healthy eating habits and appropriate nutrition for pregnant women, new mothers, and young children to support optimal growth and development.
5. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and support groups for mothers and children dealing with emotional, behavioral, or mental health concerns.
6. Parent education and support: Classes, workshops, and support groups focused on child development, parenting skills, and family dynamics to promote positive parent-child relationships and strengthen families.
7. Chronic disease management: Specialized care for mothers and children with existing medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease, to help manage their symptoms and improve overall health outcomes.
8. Referral services: Connections to specialized healthcare providers, community resources, and social support services when necessary to ensure comprehensive care and address any complex needs.

MCH Centers may be standalone facilities or integrated into larger healthcare systems, such as hospitals or community clinics. They play a crucial role in promoting health equity by providing accessible, high-quality healthcare services tailored to the unique needs of mothers and children from diverse backgrounds and communities.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Holistic health is a concept in medicine that considers the whole person, including their physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual well-being, in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. It emphasizes the importance of these different aspects of an individual's life in maintaining optimal health and preventing disease.

The goal of holistic health is to achieve a state of balance and harmony within the body, mind, and spirit, and to empower individuals to take responsibility for their own health and well-being. Holistic healthcare practitioners may use a variety of treatments, including conventional medical therapies, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, lifestyle modifications, and self-care techniques, to help patients achieve this balance and improve their overall quality of life.

It's important to note that while the concept of holistic health is gaining popularity, it is not a substitute for conventional medical care and should be used in conjunction with, not instead of, evidence-based medical treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Case Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term that is used in various fields including business, management, and social sciences to describe the analysis of a specific organization or a particular aspect of its functioning. An organizational case study typically involves an in-depth examination of an organization, including its structure, culture, processes, and outcomes, with the aim of understanding its performance, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.

In healthcare, case studies are often used to examine specific clinical scenarios or patient cases. However, "Organizational Case Studies" in a medical context might refer to the study of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals or clinics, to analyze their management practices, quality of care, financial performance, and other factors that can impact patient outcomes and overall organizational success.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

A Public Sector, in the context of healthcare, refers to the portion of a country's health system that is managed and funded by the government. This sector provides medical services through state-owned hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as through publicly financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The public sector aims to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. It is often funded through taxes and is accountable to the public for its performance.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

"Medically uninsured" is not a term that has an official medical definition. However, it generally refers to individuals who do not have health insurance coverage. This can include those who cannot afford it, those who are not offered coverage through their employer, and those who are ineligible for government-sponsored programs like Medicaid or Medicare. Being medically uninsured can lead to financial strain if an individual experiences a medical emergency or needs ongoing care, as they will be responsible for paying for these services out of pocket.

An ethnic group is a category of people who identify with each other based on shared ancestry, language, culture, history, and/or physical characteristics. The concept of an ethnic group is often used in the social sciences to describe a population that shares a common identity and a sense of belonging to a larger community.

Ethnic groups can be distinguished from racial groups, which are categories of people who are defined by their physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. While race is a social construct based on physical differences, ethnicity is a cultural construct based on shared traditions, beliefs, and practices.

It's important to note that the concept of ethnic groups can be complex and fluid, as individuals may identify with multiple ethnic groups or switch their identification over time. Additionally, the boundaries between different ethnic groups can be blurred and contested, and the ways in which people define and categorize themselves and others can vary across cultures and historical periods.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients' medical records and other health information. It sets limits on who can look at and receive your protected health information (PHI), such as doctors, hospitals and healthcare clearinghouses. It also gives patients more control over their health information by setting rules for how it can be used or disclosed. Additionally, HIPAA establishes penalties for violations of the privacy rule.

HIPAA is enforced by the Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights (OCR). It applies to covered entities, such as healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, that handle protected health information. Business associates of these covered entities, such as claims processing companies, also must comply with HIPAA regulations.

HIPAA is composed of several rules, including the Privacy Rule, Security Rule, Breach Notification Rule, and Enforcement Rule. These rules establish national standards for the protection of certain health information. The Privacy Rule establishes guidelines for how protected health information can be used and disclosed, while the Security Rule sets forth requirements for protecting electronic PHI. The Breach Notification Rule requires covered entities to notify affected individuals, the Secretary of HHS, and in some cases the media, following a breach of unsecured PHI. The Enforcement Rule provides for investigations and penalties for violations of the HIPAA rules.

In summary, HIPAA is a US law that establishes national standards to protect individuals' medical records and personal health information by setting guidelines for how it can be used and disclosed, as well as requirements for protecting electronic PHI. It applies to healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Personal health services refer to healthcare services that are tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and goals. These services can include preventive care, such as vaccinations and screenings, as well as medical treatments for acute and chronic conditions. Personal health services may be provided by a variety of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.

The goal of personal health services is to promote the overall health and well-being of the individual, taking into account their physical, mental, emotional, and social needs. This approach recognizes that each person is unique and requires a customized plan of care to achieve their optimal health outcomes. Personal health services may be delivered in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and long-term care facilities.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Health facility administration refers to the management and oversight of medical and healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and other types of healthcare organizations. This involves ensuring that the facility is run efficiently and effectively, with a focus on providing high-quality patient care and maintaining compliance with relevant laws and regulations.

Health facility administration typically includes a wide range of responsibilities, such as:

* Developing and implementing policies and procedures
* Managing budgets and finances
* Overseeing staff recruitment, training, and performance evaluation
* Ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and standards
* Coordinating with other healthcare professionals and organizations to provide comprehensive care
* Planning and coordinating facility operations and resources
* Developing and implementing quality improvement initiatives

Health facility administrators must have a strong understanding of medical and healthcare practices and procedures, as well as business and management principles. They must be able to communicate effectively with staff, patients, and other stakeholders, and be skilled in problem-solving, decision-making, and leadership. Many health facility administrators have a background in healthcare or business administration, and may hold degrees such as a Master of Health Administration (MHA) or a Master of Business Administration (MBA).

Organizational decision-making is a management process in which a group or team within an organization makes a judgment or choice among several options or alternatives to achieve specific goals or objectives. This process involves collecting and analyzing information, evaluating alternatives, selecting the best option, and implementing and monitoring the decision. It often requires collaboration, communication, and consensus-building among team members with diverse perspectives and expertise. Effective organizational decision-making can lead to better outcomes, improved performance, and increased innovation, while poor decision-making can result in missed opportunities, wasted resources, and decreased competitiveness.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Medical Informatics, also known as Healthcare Informatics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the systematic processing and analysis of data, information, and knowledge in healthcare and biomedicine. It involves the development and application of theories, methods, and tools to create, acquire, store, retrieve, share, use, and reuse health-related data and knowledge for clinical, educational, research, and administrative purposes. Medical Informatics encompasses various areas such as bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, and translational bioinformatics. It aims to improve healthcare delivery, patient outcomes, and biomedical research through the effective use of information technology and data management strategies.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Public Health Dentistry is defined as the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting oral health through organized community efforts. It involves the planning, organization, implementation, and evaluation of services designed to improve the oral health of populations, rather than individuals. This field of dentistry focuses on the importance of addressing social determinants of health, advocating for policies that benefit oral health, and conducting research to inform public health practice and policy. Public Health Dentists work in a variety of settings including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, and non-profit organizations to promote oral health and reduce oral health disparities.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Local Government" is not a medical term. It refers to a level of government that is responsible for administering public services within a specific geographic area, typically smaller than a state or province. Local governments may include entities such as counties, municipalities, cities, towns, and villages. They are usually responsible for providing services such as police and fire protection, emergency medical services, waste management, local road maintenance, and public education. It is not directly related to the practice of medicine or healthcare.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Minority Health is a term used to describe the health status and disparities that affect racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minority populations. According to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), minority health refers to "the study of differences in health status or events and access to health care across racial and ethnic groups."

Minority health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among minorities and other population groups. These disparities are often related to social, economic, and environmental factors, such as poverty, lack of access to quality healthcare, discrimination, and limited educational opportunities.

Minority Health is an important field of study because it helps to identify and address the health needs and challenges faced by marginalized populations. By understanding and addressing these disparities, healthcare providers can develop more effective strategies to improve the health outcomes of minority populations and reduce health inequities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "information dissemination" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine. It refers to the process of spreading or distributing information to a specific audience or the public.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, information dissemination often relates to sharing clinical guidelines, research findings, public health messages, or patient education materials with healthcare professionals, patients, or the general public. This can occur through various channels, such as scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals, newsletters, websites, social media platforms, and other communication methods.

The goal of information dissemination in medicine is to ensure that accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information reaches the intended audience, ultimately improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and decision-making processes.

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Community-institutional relations in a medical context generally refers to the interactions and relationships between healthcare institutions, such as hospitals or clinics, and the communities they serve. This can include initiatives and programs aimed at promoting community health, addressing social determinants of health, and building trust and engagement with community members. It may also involve collaborations and partnerships with other organizations, such as community-based organizations, public health agencies, and local government entities, to address shared health concerns and improve overall community wellbeing. Effective community-institutional relations can help to ensure that healthcare institutions are responsive to the needs of their communities and contribute to positive health outcomes.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Personal Financing is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it refers to the management of an individual's financial resources, such as income, assets, liabilities, and debts, to meet their personal needs and goals. This can include budgeting, saving, investing, planning for retirement, and managing debt.

In the context of healthcare, personal financing may refer to the ability of individuals to pay for their own medical care expenses, including health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and out-of-pocket costs. This can be a significant concern for many people, particularly those with chronic medical conditions or disabilities who may face ongoing healthcare expenses.

Personal financing for healthcare may involve various strategies, such as setting aside savings, using health savings accounts (HSAs) or flexible spending accounts (FSAs), purchasing health insurance policies with lower premiums but higher out-of-pocket costs, or negotiating payment plans with healthcare providers. Ultimately, personal financing for healthcare involves making informed decisions about how to allocate financial resources to meet both immediate and long-term medical needs while also balancing other financial goals and responsibilities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

Employer health costs refer to the financial expenses incurred by employers for providing healthcare benefits to their employees. These costs can include premiums for group health insurance plans, payments towards self-insured health plans, and other out-of-pocket expenses related to employee healthcare. Employer health costs also encompass expenses related to workplace wellness programs, occupational health services, and any other initiatives aimed at improving the health and well-being of employees. These costs are a significant component of overall employee compensation packages and can have substantial impacts on both employer profitability and employee access to quality healthcare services.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Maternal welfare is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a general sense, it refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses various factors such as access to quality healthcare services, nutrition, emotional support, and a safe and healthy environment.

Maternal welfare is an essential component of maternal health, which aims to ensure that women have a positive and safe pregnancy and childbirth experience, free from complications and harm. It involves addressing issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity, prenatal care, family planning, and reproductive rights.

Promoting maternal welfare requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and families working together to ensure that women have access to the resources and support they need to maintain their health and well-being during pregnancy and beyond.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "leadership" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Leadership is a concept that relates to the ability of an individual or an organization's management to set and achieve challenging goals, take swift and decisive action, outperform the competition, and inspire others to perform at their best.

In healthcare settings, leadership refers to the skills, behaviors, and attitudes of those in positions of authority within a healthcare organization. Effective healthcare leaders are able to create a positive organizational culture, communicate a clear vision, motivate and engage staff, manage resources effectively, and ensure high-quality patient care. They must also be able to adapt to changing circumstances, make informed decisions based on data and evidence, and work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals and stakeholders.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Health Planning Organizations (HPOs) are entities that are responsible for planning, coordinating, and evaluating health services within a specific geographic area. The primary goal of HPOs is to ensure the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective healthcare services that meet the needs of the population they serve.

HPOs may be involved in various activities, including:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the population, including any disparities or inequities in access to care.
2. Resource allocation: Deciding how to allocate resources to address identified needs and priorities.
3. Service planning: Developing plans for the delivery of healthcare services that are evidence-based, efficient, and effective.
4. Quality improvement: Monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare services and implementing strategies to improve them.
5. Coordination: Coordinating the delivery of healthcare services across different providers and settings to ensure continuity of care.
6. Advocacy: Advocating for policies and practices that promote health equity, access to care, and improved health outcomes.

HPOs can take various forms, including local health departments, regional health authorities, hospital networks, and other types of collaborative entities. They may be public or private, non-profit or for-profit, and their governance structures and funding mechanisms can vary widely.

Overall, the role of HPOs is to ensure that healthcare services are designed and delivered in a way that meets the needs of the population, improves health outcomes, and promotes health equity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "prejudice" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Prejudice is a psychological or sociological concept that refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes about a person or group that are not based on reason or actual experience. It often involves stereotypes and can lead to discrimination or unfair treatment. While prejudice itself is not a medical condition, it can certainly have impacts on mental and physical health, both for those who experience it and for those who hold such biases.

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

Cost control in a medical context refers to the strategies and practices employed by healthcare organizations to manage and reduce the costs associated with providing patient care while maintaining quality and safety. The goal is to optimize resource allocation, increase efficiency, and contain expenses without compromising the standard of care. This may involve measures such as:

1. Utilization management: Reviewing and monitoring the use of medical services, tests, and treatments to ensure they are necessary, appropriate, and evidence-based.
2. Case management: Coordinating patient care across various healthcare providers and settings to improve outcomes, reduce unnecessary duplication of services, and control costs.
3. Negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors to secure favorable pricing for medical equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
4. Implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines and pathways to standardize care processes and reduce unwarranted variations in practice that can drive up costs.
5. Using technology such as electronic health records (EHRs) and telemedicine to streamline operations, improve communication, and reduce errors.
6. Investing in preventive care and wellness programs to keep patients healthy and reduce the need for costly interventions and hospitalizations.
7. Continuously monitoring and analyzing cost data to identify trends, opportunities for improvement, and areas of potential waste or inefficiency.

Community networks, in the context of public health and medical care, typically refer to local or regional networks of healthcare providers, organizations, and resources that work together to provide integrated and coordinated care to a defined population. These networks can include hospitals, clinics, primary care providers, specialists, mental health services, home health agencies, and other community-based organizations.

The goal of community networks is to improve the overall health outcomes of the population they serve by ensuring that individuals have access to high-quality, coordinated care that meets their unique needs. Community networks can also help to reduce healthcare costs by preventing unnecessary hospitalizations and emergency department visits through better management of chronic conditions and prevention efforts.

Effective community networks require strong partnerships, clear communication, and a shared commitment to improving the health of the community. They may be organized around geographic boundaries, such as a city or county, or around specific populations, such as individuals with chronic illnesses or low-income communities.

The Journal of Urban Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal which serves as a vehicle for publishing ... articles relevant to urban health including the broader determinants of health and health inequities. It was established in ... "Journal of Urban Health". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2017. Official website ... Public health journals, Academic journals associated with learned and professional societies of the United States). ...
Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015". Journal of Urban ... The Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC) is a non-government organization in India that works towards improved the health, ... Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. Guidelines for developing city level urban health projects, New ... In 2004, prior to its renaming from USAID-EHP to the Urban Health Resource Centre, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ...
In Peri-Urban Areas Health Board v Munarin, an important case in South African law, the issue concerned the liability of the ... South African agency law Peri-Urban Areas Health Board v Munarin 1965 (3) SA 367 (A). 373E-H. v t e (Articles with short ...
... section, World Health Organization. Retrieved July 3, 2014. "Urban health". Global Health Observatory ... "Public health and environment". Global Health Observatory section, World Health Organization. Retrieved July 3, 2014. "Health ... Health Regulations Monitoring framework Urban health Women and health Noncommunicable diseases Substance use and mental health ... Global Health Observatory section, World Health Organization. Retrieved July 3, 2014. "Health systems". Global Health ...
The laboratory's name is its third during its history, following the Health and Safety Laboratory from 1953 to 1977 and the ... NUSTL Urban Op-Ex. YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-08. "Donovan Saves National Urban Security Technology ... National Urban Security Technology Laboratory Strategic Plan 2009-2013 DHS , National Urban Security Technology Laboratory " ... NATIONAL URBAN SECURITY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY of the S.1605, Title III of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 181 et ...
... urban planning, agricultural applications, and others. Public health is another focus area that has made increasing use of GIS ... Public health is concerned about the health of the population as a whole, but must use data on the health of individuals to ... In general, public health differs from personal health in that it is (1) focused on the health of populations rather than of ... National Center for Health Statistics GIS and Public Health at Esri Consortium for Public Health Informatics[permanent dead ...
Health Communications. pp. 51, 71. ISBN 1-55874-362-6. Rothstein, Mikael, in Lewis, James R. and Daren Kemp. Handbook of New ... King, Serge Kahili (1990). Urban Shaman. Simon & Schuster. pp. 52-81. ISBN 0-671-68307-1. Serge King's Biodata, Aloha ... ISBN 978-0-9845107-0-2. King, Serge Kahili (1983). Kahuna Healing: Holistic Health and Healing Practices of Polynesia. ...
UTC comprises ten clusters of facilities and services, namely: common governmental services; health services; security services ... By having UTC it is a recognition for the city/town as an urban area. The Mini UTC Sentul is located at Kompleks Perniagaan dan ... "Urban Transformation Centre Miri opens to the public today". The Borneo Post. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016. "One-stop ... The Urban Transformation Centre (UTC) (Malay: Pusat Transformasi Bandar) is a public amenities centre located at some state ...
Urban Institute. Maratt, Jennifer K.; Kerr, Eve A.; Klamerus, Mandi L.; Lohman, Shannon E.; Froehlich, Whit; Bhatia, R. Sacha; ... Emanuel and health economist Victor R. Fuchs defined unnecessary health care as "overutilization", health care provided with a ... Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is health care provided with a higher volume or cost than ... Walshe K, Shortell SM (2004). "When things go wrong: how health care organizations deal with major failures". Health Aff ( ...
Access to urban gardens can improve health through nutritious, edible plantings, as well by getting people outside and ... Garden Organic horticulture Rooftop farming Roof garden Sprouting Urban agriculture Urban forest Urban forestry Urban green ... Health Educator. pp. 41-48. Robinson, Muriel. "Urban Horticulture- Purpose and Prospects". The Robinson Garden at Earlscliffe, ... Urban horticulture is the science and study of the growing plants in an urban environment. It focuses on the functional use of ...
"Heritage Toronto Honours Cecil Street with Commemorative Plaque". Urban Toronto. Retrieved 4 November 2017. "History". Baycrest ... Baycrest Health Sciences is a research and teaching hospital for the elderly in the North York district of Toronto, Ontario, ... Slova Greenberg, president of the Ezras Noshem Society, identified the need to provide health care for elderly Jewish people in ... Baycrest Health Sciences. Retrieved 29 September 2018. Mitanis, Marcus. " ...
Organizing Health Insurance Marketplaces to Promote Health Reform Goals". Urban Institute. Lohr, Kathy (October 5, 2013). " ... Health care reform Health care reform in the United States Health system Health Advocate Health insurance Health Insurance ... Health insurance marketplaces, CGI Group, Health insurance, Universal health care, Health education, Public health). ... Access Health CT District of Columbia - DC Health Link Idaho - Your Health Idaho Kentucky - kynect Maryland - Maryland Health ...
... health care, according to a 2012 report by the Urban Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation that used 2010 data from ... The Military Health System (MHS) is a form of nationalized health care operated within the United States Department of Defense ... However, The Military Health System, The Defense Health Agency, and Tricare all advertise that they meet the "minimum essential ... Military Health System official website TRICARE / TRICARE Management Activity (TMA) Force Health Protection and Readiness (FHP& ...
In 2012, an Urban Institute evaluation found that participants in two New York City mental health courts were significantly ... In England, UK, two pilot mental health courts was launched in 2009 in response to a review of people with mental health ... The probate part of the mental health court would handle the civil commitment. The criminal docket of the mental health court ... "The Role of Mental Health Courts in System Reform". Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. Archived from the original on 2012-03 ...
"Ritual and Public Health in the Early Medieval City." In Body and City: Histories of Urban Public Health. Edited by Sally ... Global health Health care Health equity Health policy Health system Health law Effects of climate change on human health ... Health education, Primary care, Health sciences, Health law, Global health, Health standards, Public health education). ... community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, health education, health politics, ...
"Health News" (PDF). NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. June 2013. p. 11. Retrieved 31 December 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date ... and year (link) "£40m modernisation announced for Institute of Neurological Sciences". Urban Realm. Retrieved 21 November 2015 ... 842m 'Death Star' hospital opens doors to first patients", National Health Executive, 27 April 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015 ...
J Urban Health. 84 (4): 552-62. doi:10.1007/s11524-007-9198-y. PMC 2219559. PMID 17562183. "Word Drug report, 2006, Chapter 2.3 ... This means that users will not have to rely on more polluted substances with greater health risks. Together with an approach ... In a letter to the parliament, the Dutch health and justice ministers said that, "In order to tackle the nuisance and ... Although drug use, as opposed to trafficking, is seen primarily as a public health issue, responsibility for drug policy is ...
"Operation Doorstep , Urban Arts Space". Urban Arts Space. Tonguette, Peter. "Explosive statement: Artist alters photos from ' ... CEO, Robert Falcone (2023-03-02). "Robert Falcone , Health Services". The Global Directory. Retrieved 2023-05-19. "Robert ... Falcone established Grant Medical Center Trauma Program (Urban Trauma and Teaching Hospital) in 1986 and ran it till 2006. ...
July 2007). "Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) a decade later: a brief update on science and politics". J Urban Health. 84 (4): ... Public health, Health policy, Global health, World Health Organization). ... In urban regions of Ecuador as many as 45% of male inmates were serving time for drug charges; this prison demographic rises to ... If the use threatens the immediate health or the security of others (such as a child of an addict) the same could apply to ...
Urban Institute (Report). Retrieved March 23, 2014. Perrone, Christopher (January 2, 2014). The Oregon Health Insurance ... Oregon portal Health care in the United States Health care reform in the United States Oregon Health Plan Providence Portland ... From in-person interviews and physical health exams after about two years of coverage, researchers examined patient health ... "the point of health insurance." John McDonough of the Harvard School of Public Health, writing for The Boston Globe remarked, " ...
UHIs have the potential to directly influence the health and welfare of urban residents. As UHIs are characterized by increased ... Urban climatology Urban reforestation Tropical night Urban dust dome Phelan, Patrick E.; Kaloush, Kamil; Miner, Mark; Golden, ... This traps urban air near the surface, and keeping surface air warm from the still-warm urban surfaces, resulting in warmer ... Urban areas usually experience the urban heat island (UHI) effect, that is, they are significantly warmer than surrounding ...
William Gorham, former Assistant Secretary for Health, Education and Welfare, was selected as its first president and served ... "Annual Report 2020" (PDF). Urban Institute. Retrieved 8 March 2022. "About the Urban Institute". Urban Institute. "Urban ... to be the Urban Institute's Third President". Urban Institute - Journey and Data "Board of Trustees". Urban Institute. ... Many Urban Institute policy centers are recognized as the leading policy institutes in their fields. Urban Institute's staff of ...
J Urban Health. 98 (5): 609-621. doi:10.1007/s11524-021-00515-4. PMC 8566613. PMID 33929640.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: ... An October 2021 paper in the Journal of Urban Health, studying the longitudinal effects of ShotSpotter over a 17 year period, ... Policy solutions may represent a more cost-effective measure to reduce urban firearm violence." The NYU School of Law Policing ...
"Lucknow Report". Urban Health Initiative. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014. "Lucknow: The ... "Rich Urban Heritage of Lucknow". Town and Country Planning Organisation. Government of India. Archived from the original on 3 ... "Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Lucknow City" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention. Retrieved ... "World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2015. ...
J Urban Health. 87 (6): 969-93. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9509-6. PMC 3005092. PMID 21174189. Shaheen, Susan; Guzman, Stacey; ... creating an overall negative health effect (fewer people cycling for their own health, and the remaining cyclists being more ... In built-up cities around the world, urban planning uses cycling infrastructure like bikeways to reduce traffic congestion and ... on her health and political optimism. Willard used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action. In 1985, Georgena ...
Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 451-. ISBN 978-1-4377-1679-5. Laszlo Urban; Vinod Patel; Roy J. Vaz (23 February 2015). ... Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 695-. ISBN 978-0-323-32641-4. Hugh C. Hemmings; Talmage D. Egan (2013). Pharmacology and ...
"TRIM3". Trim.urban.org. Retrieved February 12, 2014. "Strategic Plan and Priorities". HHS.gov. September 30, 2011. Archived ... Health policy matters include public health, health services and systems, health insurance, health care financing, health care ... The Division of Health Care Delivery Systems is responsible for functions related to health services, health organizations and ... incentives for private health insurance and health care, matters concerning the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ...
"Baltimore Dialogues , Urban Health Institute". urbanhealth.strongbaltimore.net. Retrieved 2018-01-18. "William J. Goode Book ... Her work has been funded by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the National Science Foundation, the Annie E. ...
". "Urban population growth". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. "Current world population ... Developed environments Urban climatology Urban culture Urban decay Urban exploration Urban planning Urban renewal Urbanization ... there are 7 major urban areas, 13 large urban areas, 22 medium urban areas and 136 small urban areas. Urban areas are ... Type III urban area (31 provincial cities and 12 towns). Type IV urban area (35 towns and 35 townships). Type V urban area (586 ...
Urban Institute. "JAMA Health Forum". 2020. doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2020.0724. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ... JAMA Health Forum points to Tennessee Tutoring Corps Program (TTC), as a potential model for preventing learning loss and ... Researchers at the Urban Institute recommend that states and districts can address language and disability barriers through ... Research conducted by the Urban Institute noted six unique obstacles for students in addition to poverty: linguistic isolation ...
Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015". Journal of Urban ... The Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC) is a non-government organization in India that works towards improved the health, ... Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. Guidelines for developing city level urban health projects, New ... In 2004, prior to its renaming from USAID-EHP to the Urban Health Resource Centre, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ...
Drexel University, Urban Health Collaborative, 3600 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, 267.359.6273, © All Rights Reserved ... Drexel Team Evaluates Urban Play Space Installations. January 27, 2023. An interdisciplinary team of Drexel researchers ... space installations to better understand factors that increase installation use and to help inform the design of future urban ...
Health and health care. Families. Tags Health insurance. Medicaid and the Childrens Health Insurance Program State Childrens ... This Commonwealth Fund brief synthesizes two Urban Institute reports on the public health insurance landscape for pregnant and ... Health Insurance Program. Maternal, child, and reproductive health. Sexual and reproductive health. ... 440,000 women uninsured during the first year postpartum would likely be newly eligible for Medicaid or the Childrens Health ...
... a project aiming to reduce non-communicable diseases and health inequalities linked to urban development. ... mental ill-health and respiratory illness) and health inequalities linked to urban planning and development. ... New tool to value health of urban developments. The study from Bath economists forms part of TRUUD - a project aiming to reduce ... A new tool to value the health effects of urban development proposals has been revealed by researchers at the universities of ...
In partnership with the Big Cities Health Coalition (BCHC), the Drexel Urban Health Collaborative created a new data brief and ... Director of the Drexel Urban Health Collaborative, along with researchers from The Center for Public Health Law Research at ... Drexel University, Urban Health Collaborative, 3600 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, 267.359.6273, © All Rights Reserved ... Stephen Dickinson, PhD, a project manager with the Urban Health Collaborative, was recently awarded pilot funding from the ...
Urban populations tend to have greater access to social and health services, higher literacy rates, longer life expectancies, ... Urbanization trends present both opportunities for better health outcomes, as well as risks. ... over half the worlds population lives in urban areas, a proportion which is only expected to increase. ... Health Services, Development of Institutional Capacities and Advocacy for Urban Health (SHEDA) is needed to strengthen ...
Providing information and raise awareness about social isolation and its negative effect on mental health. ... The City of Edmontons initiative on Urban Isolation and Mental Health will work to positively affect mental health and ... Understanding Mental Health Mental Health is an important part of how we think and feel about ourselves and people the around ... Recognizing the signs and symptoms of mental health concerns is essential to helping individuals who are suffering. ...
... shows for the first time how ill-health is linked to poverty in cities, and not just among the poorest urban populations. ... ... A new report published today by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN- ... The report notes that unless urgent action is taken to address urban health inequities, countries will not achieve the health- ... The report, "Hidden Cities: unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings", will enable city leaders and urban ...
... its mental and spiritual impact on health of residents living in urbanized area. It is well... ... the goal of mental and spiritual health on urban residents. Aside from psychological health benefits, the effect of ... design for health.net). These individual and community health benefits can also contribute to the health of the broader ... Given that urban green spaces are now widely recognized as major contributors both to the quality of the environment, and to ...
This grant will support the Urban Institutes Reproductive Health Access Monitoring and Analysis project, which will examine ... This will provide data and tools for advocates, health care providers, and policymakers to ensure that women are able to access ... The research will establish a baseline of womens access to reproductive health care in 2016 and 2017, and monitor changes in ... changes in womens access to health care and resulting impacts on reproductive health. ...
Find the most relevant statistics and facts on rural and urban health in the United States ... Find the most relevant statistics and facts on rural and urban health in the United States ... Basic Statistic Total rural health funding by the National Institutes for Health 2014-2024 Total rural health funding by the ... The most important key figures provide you with a compact summary of the topic of Rural and urban health in the U.S. and take ...
The Second Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP-II), supported by ADB and the Governments of the United Kingdom and Sweden ... The Government of Bangladesh with the assistance of ADB implemented the Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) from March ... supported Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) is one of the largest public-private partnerships (PPP) in the delivery of ... Urban Primary Health Care Services Delivery Project: Primary Health Care Center and Comprehensive Reproductive Health Care ...
Massages are surprisingly advantageous to your overall health and beauty. Lets face it, this ... This way, you will be able to get the justice that you deserve and work on your overall health. Its also worth considering ... If youve been considering opting for a massage to release some stress and pain, and youre interested in health and wellness, ... Lana Carson is executive editor of Urban Tulsa. Her writing has been published in the Los Angeles Review of Books and The ...
Changes in Health Insurance Coverage 2013-2016: Medicaid Expansion States Lead the Way Laura Skopec. , John Holahan. , Caroline ... The primary health insurance coverage reforms of the Affordable Care Act began to take effect on January 1, 2014. Between 2013 ... the share of Americans ages 64 and younger without health insurance fell from 17.0 percent to 10.0 percent, meaning 18.5 ... million more Americans with health insurance coverage. These gains in coverage were broadly distributed across all demographic ...
Megan Urban, BCS-S, CCC-SLP, MA is a Speech Pathologist who sees patients at Duke University Hospital. ... Duke Health Provider Duke Health providers are part of Dukes physician network, which comprises doctors and providers at ... Duke Health Provider Duke Health providers are part of Dukes physician network, which comprises doctors and providers at ... Duke Health contracts with most major health insurance carriers and transplant networks, including the ones listed below. ...
... is continuing its growing involvement in combating some of Americas most pressing public health issues. ... RTCs Urban Trails Work a Key Moment in Public Health Shift. RTCs Urban Trails Work a Key Moment in Public Health Shift. ... In urban areas, social and environmental determinants of health--like high crime rates, lack of access to play area and parks, ... Encouraging Trail Use Equity Health and Active Living RTC in Action Urban Pathways ...
Living near parks can boost health and well being. But low-income communities and those of color often have less access than ... How to transform urban neighborhoods? Ask the kids who revamped their schoolyard : Shots - Health News Living near parks can ... a public health researcher at the University of Arizona who studies the intersection of health, climate and the environment. ... both of which also affect health, he notes. Lim says the unequal access to parks just adds to the health disparities ...
Explore Health Careers & Majors Backback to Main menu *Pre-Health Pathways ... The purpose of the Urban Health Opportunities Program is to enhance the healthcare workforce serving medically underserved ... populations in urban Nebraska by identifying and preparing qualified students to enter and succeed in health professions ... Questions? Set an appointment with the Health Careers Resource Center by email at [email protected] or by phone at ...
Why Public Health Researchers Are Looking to Urban Trees A global study finds they can help cool cities and reduce air ... Other studies have shown the surprising health benefits of urban trees. For example, the death of trees has been linked to a ... In fact, while urban trees make our lives easier, life for an urban tree is no walk in the park (so to speak). Besides a lack ... For all its comforts and conveniences, urban living can be hard on your lungs. Around three million people around the world die ...
2018). Several mental health disorders tend to be more prevalent in the urban populations and are correlated with ambient air ... The health data (ED visits) that support the findings of this study are available from Health Canada but restrictions apply to ... Health data. Health conditions, recorded as diagnosed ED visits data from five hospitals in Edmonton (Canada), were collected ... Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, ...
... addressing health needs and health inequities in urban populations is vital. Urban Public Health is a multidisciplinary field ... Overall, the Urban Public Health Unit is part of the evolving discipline of Sustainability Science, which seeks to provide data ... The Urban Public Health Unit conducts inter- and transdisciplinary research to contribute directly to promoting sustainable ... Current projects aim to integrate public health into urban planning, civil engineering and architectural design by, for example ...
The exact reasons behind these rural-urban health disparities are unclear and are still being explored. Researchers said a ... the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the National Cancer ... However, Black men living in rural areas had the highest risk of all - a 34% higher risk of heart failure compared to urban- ... The study showed white women living in rural areas had a 22% increased risk of heart failure compared to white women in urban ...
... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ...
How did rural and urban counties compare on measures of health outcomes and drivers prior to the COVID-19 pandemic? ... Health Factor Rankings and Subrankings. The distribution of rural and urban counties for the overall health factors rankings ... The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the health care infrastructure and highlighted rural-urban disparities in health and ... See table below.) Health Outcomes represent a communitys current health through length and quality of life metrics. Health ...
Complex Urban Systems for Sustainability and Health (CUSSH). Posted on 22/10/2018. (07/07/2021) by Siki kigongo ... Complex Urban Systems for Sustainability and Health (CUSSH) is a four-year program that will run from 2018 - 2021. It aims to ... Towards Inclusive Urban Health Systems and Infrastructure: A Comparative Assessment of Access to Healthcare, Shelter, and Vital ... Develop and apply models of impact on population health, health inequalities, and socioeconomic and environmental components of ...
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National Council of Urban Indian Health (NCUIH) The National Council of Urban Indian Health presented testimony on behalf of ... Health, Indian Health Service Indian Law, Tribal Law Politics and Policy The Trust Responsibility Ho-Chunk Inc. ... The Heroes Act is the House Democratic plan to improve public health and support the American people through the coronavirus ... today said the passage of the CARES Act is a good step forward in the federal governments ongoing effort to build up health ...
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recently focused more on the issue of health disparities in rural America and has outlined ways in which these disparities can be addressed. (statista.com)
  • Thanks to the support of The Kresge Foundation , UPI is working to reduce health disparities by providing access to trails and promoting community-based activities in these low-income areas. (railstotrails.org)
  • Lots of research has found that access to parks is unequal in America, and disparities fall along racial and economic lines, says Chris Lim , a public health researcher at the University of Arizona who studies the intersection of health, climate and the environment. (npr.org)
  • The exact reasons behind these rural-urban health disparities are unclear and are still being explored. (nih.gov)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the health care infrastructure and highlighted rural-urban disparities in health and health care access across the country. (richmondfed.org)
  • With her ground-breaking book, Korfmacher examines ways to collaborate across systems and sectors to address environmental health disparities. (wab.org)
  • In recognition of the Nebraska Urban Indian Health Coalition, we shine a spotlight on 35 years of helping elevate the health status and eliminating disparities of urban Indians and other underserved populations in Nebraska and Iowa through education, collaboration, advocacy, and health service delivery. (ncuih.org)
  • In this context, it is also crucial to recognize that striking disparities often occur in progress towards providing these services to the population, particularly in the divide between urban and rural populations, even when taking the different starting points into consideration. (who.int)
  • Urban populations tend to have greater access to social and health services, higher literacy rates, longer life expectancies, and more varied opportunities for economic development than their rural counterparts. (paho.org)
  • Nonetheless, deficiencies in strategic urban planning can lead to social inequities, urban poverty, violent crime, inadequate access to basic services, unmet needs of diverse populations, lack of social cohesion, environmental hazards, and poor conditions that affect safety, mental health and human security. (paho.org)
  • The health consequences of evolving standards of urban life present enormous challenges, as well as opportunities for visionary changes, for urban populations of the Americas. (paho.org)
  • Kobe, Japan, 17 November 2010 - A new report published today by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) shows for the first time how ill-health is linked to poverty in cities, and not just among the poorest urban populations. (scoop.co.nz)
  • The report, "Hidden Cities: unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings", will enable city leaders and urban planners to identify deprived populations and target measures to improve their health. (scoop.co.nz)
  • This new analysis uncovers gaps in health and healthcare access across urban populations, and shows city leaders where their efforts should focus. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Success in reaching MDG targets will depend in large part on achievements among urban populations. (scoop.co.nz)
  • There are large inequities within cities, not only between the richest and the poorest but also across entire urban populations. (scoop.co.nz)
  • How do death rates differ between rural and urban populations? (statista.com)
  • 2018 ). Several mental health disorders tend to be more prevalent in the urban populations and are correlated with ambient air pollution concentration levels. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the Urban Health Opportunities Program is to enhance the healthcare workforce serving medically underserved populations in urban Nebraska by identifying and preparing qualified students to enter and succeed in health professions training. (unomaha.edu)
  • As the world becomes increasingly urbanised and more people live in cities and peri-urban areas, addressing health needs and health inequities in urban populations is vital. (swisstph.ch)
  • Almost 69% were Black adults recruited from community health centers that care for medically underserved populations. (nih.gov)
  • A temporal description of urban heat islands would identify populations that are susceptible to heat stress, particularly at night, when most people are asleep and unable to regulate internal body temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in practice, the urban advantage may be a myth, as local systems, already strained by growing populations, are not well equipped to handle a large influx of people with complex needs. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • NUIHC's mission is to elevate the health status of urban Indians and other underserved populations through their culturally and linguistically appropriate health care services, substance abuse and behavioral health treatment programs, and community outreach services. (ncuih.org)
  • These urban populations - over one third of the world's urban population - are also more vulnerable to disasters and at higher risk of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, injury and early death than rural populations. (who.int)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed people's lives and it is shaping a new way to engage communities to find solutions to common problems that affect populations widely, including participatory approaches to urban governance. (who.int)
  • Social determinants must be addressed in order to achieve many disease-specific targets, including the health-related Millennium Development Goals, and to control and eliminate epidemics endangering entire populations. (who.int)
  • This Commonwealth Fund brief synthesizes two Urban Institute reports on the public health insurance landscape for pregnant and postpartum women and the potential of a postpartum coverage extension to close coverage gaps. (urban.org)
  • A new tool to value the health effects of urban development proposals has been revealed by researchers at the universities of Bath and Bristol and published in the journal Frontiers in Public Health . (bath.ac.uk)
  • By integrating environmental economics with public health systematic reviews and urban design analysis, researchers were able to value the potential health effects that may result from development proposals and provide evidence to assess the health costs of urban planning decisions. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health describes our approach to evaluating the West Philly Promise Neighborhood, a US Department of Education-funded place-based initiative providing cradle-to-career supports for children living or going to school in West Philadelphia. (drexel.edu)
  • Updated data and five new metrics are available on the Big Cities Health Inventory, an open source platform providing public health data for 35 of the largest U.S. cities. (drexel.edu)
  • Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC) is continuing its growing involvement in combating some of America's most pressing public health issues. (railstotrails.org)
  • With convenient access to trails widely regarded as one of the most effective and cost-efficient ways to combat obesity and inactivity, these urban pathways are now thought of as not only recreation and transportation infrastructure, but also public health assets. (railstotrails.org)
  • Pack is one of the driving forces behind RTC's groundbreaking Urban Pathways Initiative (UPI), which has attracted a great deal of attention in both the urban planning and public health communities for connecting the development of rail-trails in large cities with improving social and economic conditions in underserved neighborhoods and communities of color. (railstotrails.org)
  • Public health experts seem to have found a partial solution. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • The Conservancy and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group presented the findings of their global survey this week at the American Public Health Association meeting in Denver, Colorado. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • While we know that trees can provide an important carbon sink and cooling system, the link between trees and public health is fairly new, says McDonald. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • As a conservation scientist presenting data at a public health meeting, he understands the challenges of bringing two worlds together. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • In most cities, the parks department is separate from public health department, and they don't think of their agendas as overlapping," he says. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • But some cities are leading the charge: in Toronto, the public health department is already focused on climate change and heat waves, and the department is working closely with urban forestry officials to plant more trees. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Urban Public Health is a multidisciplinary field aiming to create healthier, more sustainable, and equitable urban environments. (swisstph.ch)
  • The Urban Public Health Unit conducts inter- and transdisciplinary research to contribute directly to promoting sustainable development in urban contexts, both in Switzerland and internationally. (swisstph.ch)
  • Current projects aim to integrate public health into urban planning, civil engineering and architectural design by, for example, using health impact assessment as a central approach. (swisstph.ch)
  • Whenever possible and appropriate, the UPH Unit aims to promote collaboration between public health professionals, epidemiologists, urban planners, architects, engineers, policy-makers and, last but not least, community members throughout the project implementation cycle. (swisstph.ch)
  • Overall, the Urban Public Health Unit is part of the evolving discipline of Sustainability Science, which seeks to provide data and evidence-based support for projects and policies, thereby contributing to positive social change. (swisstph.ch)
  • The development and operation of natural resource extraction projects (e.g. minerals, metals, oil and gas) affects public health, ecosystems and societies in producer regions. (swisstph.ch)
  • High-resolution data sets such as those used here can inform preparation for extreme heat events and public health interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • I think that it's a matter of public health to design a city right. (mynorthwest.com)
  • The Heroes Act is the House Democratic plan to improve public health and support the American people through the coronavirus pandemic. (indianz.com)
  • Chair Grijalva: National Park Service Must Close Grand Canyon National Park Immediately, Interior Department Must Act to Prioritize Public Health. (indianz.com)
  • While the primary focus of the COP21 conference is on mitigating the impacts of global climate change, increasing attention is being paid to immediate co-benefits for public health that come hand-in-hand with reducing carbon emissions. (scientificamerican.com)
  • According to a report released this summer by the Lancet Commission, a shift to a low carbon electricity and transportation would have huge positive impact on cleaning up the air and improving public health. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Melissa C. Lott is an engineer and researcher who works at the intersection of energy and public health. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Conclusion: The study recommends the rigorous improvement of public health programs in rural regions of province 4 and 5, concentrating on Dalit and Janajati older males from hill and terai ecological zones. (doaj.org)
  • News and stories about our work and the public health challenges that matter, from our experts around the United States. (jsi.com)
  • News and stories about our work and the public health challenges that matter, from our experts around the globe. (jsi.com)
  • Rapid urbanization, with its attendant food and nutrition insecurity, inadequate sanitation and waste disposal, spread of infectious diseases, and overall unhealthy lifestyles, is one of the most challenging global public health issues of the 21st century. (jsi.com)
  • Stop by our exhibitor booth to meet JSI staff, ask questions, and learn more about our high-impact public health initiatives. (jsi.com)
  • The inclusion of Sustainable Development Goal 11 in the post-2015 agenda-to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable-is both a challenge and an opportunity for public health, said a panel of experts at last month's International Conference on Urban Health in Dhaka. (aphrc.org)
  • The current public health system in Bangladesh has a number of "policy blank spots," said Dr Rahman, which he argued is the result of policy makers viewing urban health as a "poverty problem. (aphrc.org)
  • Public health practitioners can use HIAs to support Safe Routes to Schools-related programs, plans, or policies. (saferoutespartnership.org)
  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol. (academicjournals.org)
  • The SPH Portal provides a comprehensive one-stop platform for partners and donors to identify gaps in a country's health security capacities, assess opportunities to target their financial and technical resources for the maximum public health benefit, and explore mechanisms for collaboration with countries. (who.int)
  • Crowded urban areas in developing and industrialized countries are uniquely vulnerable to public health crises and face daunting challenges in surveillance, response, and public communication. (cdc.gov)
  • The accelerating global trend toward megacities is a new paradigm of human existence and poses profound public health challenges. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) Coordination Department, in collaboration with Lyonbiopole (Lyon, France), held a consultation, Cities and Public Health Crises ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • also, they improved their perceptions about public health basic concepts beyond practical field, in which the urban tribes were questioned. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the sociological and public health impact, this teaching-learning experience gave to dental students a opportunity to vivenciate it on a practical field, contemplating the proposals of the applied sociology subject. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Secretariat also hosted the Priority Public Health Conditions Knowledge Network, which coordinated analyses of social determinants of major public health conditions. (who.int)
  • Urbanization trends present both opportunities for better health outcomes, as well as risks. (paho.org)
  • These inequities in health status and outcomes pose a great threat to the Region as they erode progress made on other margins in health. (paho.org)
  • Inequities between the rich and poor exist not only for health outcomes but also for health determinants. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Using a population health model that incorporates the wide range of factors that influence health outcomes, the team produces annual health rankings of counties within each state along with resources for stakeholders to address the health-related needs in their communities. (richmondfed.org)
  • Health Outcomes represent a community's current health through length and quality of life metrics. (richmondfed.org)
  • Health Factors represent the determinants of health and is designed to highlight opportunities for communities to address in order to improve future health outcomes. (richmondfed.org)
  • The County Health Rankings team publishes the county-level data used in the ranking calculations along with supplementary measures of health factors and outcomes that were not included in the rankings calculations but provide additional information on community characteristics that drive health. (richmondfed.org)
  • For the Fifth District overall, urban counties tend to rank higher than their rural counterparts on the health outcomes. (richmondfed.org)
  • This urban disadvantage in maternal health outcomes is largely due to the dearth of skilled birth attendants , such as doctors and midwives , in poor urban areas. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • The research will involve recent systems science methodological developments enabled by computational advances, which have spurred a body of research on the effects of multiple scales and dimensions on health behaviors and outcomes using sophisticated computer modeling to assist in analyzing the data. (dentistryiq.com)
  • All this can lead to negative health outcomes. (lu.se)
  • Join JSI at the International Conference on Urban Health in Kampala, Uganda from November 26-30, 2018 to learn how we are identifying, implementing, and evaluating initiatives that promote policy, systems, and environmental changes to help people in towns and cities lead healthier lives. (jsi.com)
  • There should soon be some for Africa, and the next International Conference on Urban Health will be held in Kampala in November. (bmj.com)
  • The Urban Health Resource Centre (UHRC) is a non-government organization in India that works towards improved the health, nutrition, well-being and social organization among poor urban communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WHO Kobe Centre hosted the Urban Settings Knowledge Network. (who.int)
  • Funding for rural health by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has also increased in recent years and is expected to reach 762 million U.S. dollars by the year 2022. (statista.com)
  • In 2018, around 10.6 percent of those living in a metropolitan statistical area did not have health insurance compared to 14 percent of those outside metropolitan statistical areas. (statista.com)
  • The Third Urban Primary Health Care Services Delivery Project (UPHCSDP), supported by ADB and the Government of Sweden, commenced in 2012 and was completed in 2018. (adb.org)
  • Complex Urban Systems for Sustainability and Health (CUSSH) is a four-year program that will run from 2018 - 2021. (aphrc.org)
  • That's because the Republican repeal plan would swiftly trigger a "near 'death spiral'" in the individual health insurance market that would accelerate during 2018, Urban finds, as insurers withdraw from the market or raise premiums significantly and relatively healthy people drop their coverage. (cbpp.org)
  • Ohio State head coach Urban Meyer and wide receiver Terry McLaurin, left, celebrate early Sunday, Dec. 2, 2018, after defeating Northwestern 45-24 in the Big Ten championship NCAA college football game in Indianapolis. (wect.com)
  • In anticipation of the Richmond Fed's Rural America Week, culminating in the Investing in Rural America Conference on October 8, this Regional Matters post examines the 2020 RWJF's County Health Rankings data to understand how health drivers in Fifth District rural and urban counties compared prior to the pandemic and how the impacts of COVID-19 may shift the landscape. (richmondfed.org)
  • The 2020 County Health Rankings use data largely from 2016-2019, with some exceptions. (richmondfed.org)
  • We analyzed the 2020 County Health Rankings for the counties and county-equivalents in Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. (richmondfed.org)
  • Health 2020 core indicators were agreed by the WHO European Region Member States for monitoring progress towards the Health 2020 targets. (who.int)
  • The joint monitoring framework (JMF) is used for reporting on indicators under three monitoring frameworks: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Health 2020 and the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. (who.int)
  • During 2020, death rates for drug overdose causes were higher in urban areas than in rural areas for those aged 15-24 years (17.2 compared with 13.3), 45-64 years (43.4 compared with 33.5), and ≥65 years (10.0 compared with 6.2). (cdc.gov)
  • From 2000 to 2020, the rate increased in both urban and rural counties: from 7.1 to 12.7 in urban counties and from 7.0 to 15.8 in rural counties. (cdc.gov)
  • Use participatory methods to undertake continuous engagements with stakeholders in selected partner cities in order to test processes to help implement the transformative changes needed to meet sustainability and health objectives. (aphrc.org)
  • To develop a programme of public engagement and capacity building to ensure co-creation and use of research evidence by decision-makers and other stakeholders to help ensure environmental and health objectives receive appropriate attention in policy. (aphrc.org)
  • The SPH Portal also furnishes stakeholders with documents, data, and resources encompassing critical areas essential for advancing global health security and emergency preparedness. (who.int)
  • In order to create a both dense and healthy city, with low environmental health impact, the scientific community and stakeholders need to work closely together in the planning of high-density areas (housing and infrastructure). (lu.se)
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (aphrc.org)
  • Sponsored by: Division of Strengthening of Health Services, World Health Organization and the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)/Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC). (who.int)
  • Unprecedented increased mosquito bites were observed in urban and peri-urban areas of Lusaka District and there was a perceived increase in malaria which necessitated a study in 2009 to determine the mosquito biting and malaria situation within urban and peri-urban settings. (academicjournals.org)
  • In urban areas, social and environmental determinants of health--like high crime rates, lack of access to play area and parks, busy streets, and inadequate sidewalks, trails and bike paths--contribute to this inactivity. (railstotrails.org)
  • It's time to take stock and to figure out creative ways to address the social determinants of health. (aphrc.org)
  • The essential value of health equity and social justice is reaffirmed in the Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2012. (who.int)
  • In his address to the Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly,1 the late Director-General, Dr Lee Jong-wook, announced the creation of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (who.int)
  • The social determinants of health are defined as the structural determinants and conditions of daily life responsible for a major part of health inequities between and within countries. (who.int)
  • Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (who.int)
  • 4 Civil Society Report to the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (who.int)
  • Determinants of Health at its Ninth Meeting, Beijing, October 2007. (who.int)
  • The research will establish a baseline of women's access to reproductive health care in 2016 and 2017, and monitor changes in access in the years ahead. (hewlett.org)
  • Between 2013 and 2016, the most recent year of American Community Survey data available, the share of Americans ages 64 and younger without health insurance fell from 17.0 percent to 10.0 percent, meaning 18.5 million more Americans with health insurance coverage. (urban.org)
  • The National Council of Urban Indian Health presented testimony on behalf of urban Indian organizations at two hearings on Capitol Hill. (indianz.com)
  • Slum communities in UHRC program cities participate in health education and promotion sessions facilitated by UHRC field workers on topics such as maternal and child health, nutrition, hygiene, and environmental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 31, please join Save the Children, the Maternal Health Task Force, and the Wilson Center's Maternal Health Initiative and Urban Sustainability Laboratory for a discussion on the issues and lessons learned in responding to the needs of displaced persons in urban areas, with an emphasis on maternal and newborn health. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • In contrast to traditional refugee camps, which have mainly been in rural areas, cities and other urban settings can offer refugees greater economic opportunities, a degree of anonymity, and better access to services-at least in theory, said Mary Nell, executive director of the Maternal Health Task Force, at the Wilson Center on May 31 . (wilsoncenter.org)
  • Unfortunately, she conceded, complex solutions like this are expensive-APHRC's Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health multi-sectoral project costs more than USD $20 billion. (aphrc.org)
  • All too often policy makers and planners fail to understand that with the urbanization of poverty, many slum dwellers suffer from an additional urban penalty: they have a higher rate of child mortality , die younger and suffer from more diseases than their more affluent neighbours," said Joan Clos, Executive Director of UN-HABITAT. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Poor urban dwellers, including many refugees and IDPs, live in areas of the city that lack public services so they struggle to maintain their health due to high transportation costs, inadequate toilet and sanitation facilities, contaminated drinking and domestic water, overcrowding, and spread of communicable diseases. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • In addition to the challenges faced by all poor urban dwellers, refugees and IDPs have to overcome hurdles unique to their status . (wilsoncenter.org)
  • In response to the challenge, the WHO Regional Office has established a Regional Healthy City Network web site to support city planners in their efforts to strengthen intersectoral collaboration, assess health and social inequity and encourage increased access for city dwellers to quality health, environmental, social and cultural services. (who.int)
  • On November 2, 2021, Representative Don Bacon (R-NE-02) rose to the floor to honor the 35th anniversary of the Nebraska Urban Indian Health Coalition (NUIHC) in recognition of National Native American Heritage Month. (ncuih.org)
  • In 2008 more than 50% of the population lived in urban areas. (paho.org)
  • the remainder lived in urban areas. (nih.gov)
  • The City of Edmonton's initiative on Urban Isolation and Mental Health will work to positively affect mental health and wellbeing by connecting residents within their communities. (edmonton.ca)
  • Using system dynamics modeling, the investigators seek to advance research that began in 2010 when the NIDCR and the OBSSR awarded Dr. Northridge a two-year, $431,914 grant to examine the oral health of medically and dentally underserved Hispanic and African-American older adult participants in a New York City oral health outreach initiative sponsored by the Eldersmile Program of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. (dentistryiq.com)
  • These ATSDR partners help our National Brownfields/Land Reuse Health Initiative reach out to more communities to integrate health in redevelopment. (cdc.gov)
  • Although child survival rates in urban areas are mostly higher than in rural areas, these averages obscure substantial inequities between different population groups. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Rural and urban health in the U.S. (statista.com)
  • The health care challenges faced by those in rural areas of the United States can be vastly different from those faced by their urban counterparts. (statista.com)
  • Rural Americans exhibit higher rates of health risk factors such as smoking and being overweight and are more likely to die from certain diseases, like cancer and heart disease, than their urban counterparts. (statista.com)
  • Those living in rural areas tend to be older and poorer and access to health care is a continuing problem. (statista.com)
  • Over the past couple decades there has always been a significant difference in overall death rates among those who live in rural areas compared to those who live in urban areas in the United States, and this difference has grown even more intense over the past few years. (statista.com)
  • Heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in both rural and urban areas , however rates of both diseases are higher in rural areas than urban areas. (statista.com)
  • Those living in rural areas in the United States often do not have access to the same quality health care as those in urban areas and are also more likely to not have health insurance coverage. (statista.com)
  • Adults living in rural areas of the United States have a 19% higher risk of developing heart failure compared to their urban counterparts, and Black men living in rural areas have an especially higher risk - 34%, according to a large observational study supported by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • We did not expect to find a difference of this magnitude in heart failure among rural communities compared to urban communities, especially among rural-dwelling Black men," said Véronique L. Roger, M.D., M.P.H., the study's corresponding author and a senior investigator with the Epidemiology and Community Health Branch in NHLBI's Division of Intramural Research. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, the risk of heart failure was about 19% higher in rural residents than their urban counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • However, Black men living in rural areas had the highest risk of all - a 34% higher risk of heart failure compared to urban-dwelling Black men. (nih.gov)
  • The study showed white women living in rural areas had a 22% increased risk of heart failure compared to white women in urban areas, and Black women had an 18% higher risk compared to Black women in urban areas. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to the pandemic, many rural communities had been disproportionately impacted by health care workforce shortages along with social and economic barriers to health relative to urban communities. (richmondfed.org)
  • Rural hospitals, which often serve as important economic drivers and anchor institutions, have been closing or reducing services in areas that already faced barriers to health and health care access. (richmondfed.org)
  • Recognizing health-related differences that predated the pandemic could help rural and urban communities develop strategies to leverage community assets to support community and economic health. (richmondfed.org)
  • How Do Rural and Urban Counties Rank in the Fifth District? (richmondfed.org)
  • Using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 2013 Rural-Urban Continuum Codes with the County Health Rankings, we categorize each county as urban (Metro codes 1-2) or rural (Metro/Non-Metro codes 3-9). (richmondfed.org)
  • Using this categorization, 215 counties are classified as rural, and 143 are urban. (richmondfed.org)
  • Infant mortality is lower in urban areas than rural areas, according to WHO . (wilsoncenter.org)
  • However, no studies investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension by urban-rural stratification. (doaj.org)
  • The prevalence of hypertension was 35.6% in urban and 34.1% in rural regions. (doaj.org)
  • This project will survey physicians trained in "1-2" Rural Training Track (RTT) family medicine residencies to understand the characteristics, experiences, and attitudes that influenced their rural or urban practice choices. (ruralhealthresearch.org)
  • The Rural Health Research Gateway is a project of the University of North Dakota Center for Rural Health and funded by HRSA's Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. (ruralhealthresearch.org)
  • In 2019, the overall death rate among those in urban areas in the U.S. was around 693 per 100,000 population. (statista.com)
  • By 2019, the number of uninsured would more than double, rising by 29.8 million, Urban estimates, and the number of people enrolled in coverage in the individual market would drop from 19.3 million to 1.6 million. (cbpp.org)
  • An Urban Institute analysis using the latest data from the CMS forecasts a decrease in national healthcare spending through 2019. (ajmc.com)
  • The report finds that projected national health spending for the period between 2014 and 2019 fell by about $2.6 trillion since the 2010 (ACA) baseline, reflecting large declines in Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, and other healthcare spending projections. (ajmc.com)
  • On the whole, cumulative 2014 to 2019 national health spending in the 2015 forecast is $49 billion higher than in the 2014 forecast. (ajmc.com)
  • The 2015 forecasts for Medicare, private health insurance, out-of-pocket spending, and other health spending are also slightly higher for 2014 to 2019 than in the 2014 forecast, but Medicaid spending for 2014 to 2019 is now projected to be $123 billion lower than in the 2014 forecast. (ajmc.com)
  • Despite the modest increase in projected national health spending since the 2014 forecast, however, the 2015 forecast still reflects a decline of $2.6 trillion from 2014 to 2019 compared with the 2010 ACA baseline forecast," the study states. (ajmc.com)
  • Declines in projected 2014 to 2019 spending on Medicare ($455 billion), Medicaid ($1050 billion), private health insurance ($664 billion), and other health spending ($456 billion) since the 2010 ACA baseline forecast continue to be quite large, the authors say. (ajmc.com)
  • This grant will support the Urban Institute's Reproductive Health Access Monitoring and Analysis project, which will examine changes in women's access to health care and resulting impacts on reproductive health. (hewlett.org)
  • This will provide data and tools for advocates, health care providers, and policymakers to ensure that women are able to access the reproductive health care they need. (hewlett.org)
  • In Egypt, the displaced population is often afraid to register with local authorities and obtain the ID card necessary to use health services, said Sarah Ashraf, advisor for reproductive health in emergencies at Save the Children. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • Currently, over half the world's population lives in urban areas, a proportion which is only expected to increase. (paho.org)
  • In 2008, the United Nations reported more than half of the population was living in urban areas, with the proportion expected to rise to 70% by 2050. (paho.org)
  • Previous studies described urban heat islands as isolated, static, monolithic areas of cities. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 60 percent of the world's refugees and 80 percent of internally displaced persons (IDPs) now live in urban areas. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • The percentage of the world's population living in urban areas will increase from 50% in 2008 to 70% (4.9 billion) in 2025. (cdc.gov)
  • Unplanned urban growth puts millions of people living in urban slums and disadvantaged areas in a particularly vulnerable situation, often with poor health coverage and limited access to social services. (who.int)
  • On the other hand, densifying a city have often shown to lead to unwanted health costs by exposing a larger proportion of the population to air pollution and noise, and by reducing urban green areas. (lu.se)
  • Improving urban health : guidelines for rapid appraisal to assess community health needs, a focus on health improvements for low-income urban areas / prepared by Hugh Annett and Susan Rifkin. (who.int)
  • By adjusting scenarios, planners could have a tool for measuring the likely health impacts of increasing or decreasing the amount and quality of green spaces. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We still have some health impacts such as mental health and chronic pain, where the evidence is incomplete where further research will help create a full picture for planners and policymakers. (bath.ac.uk)
  • That's one of the great things about this Urban Pathways work--that a simple thing like providing a safe place to walk and ride can produce such a variety of positive impacts," Pack says. (railstotrails.org)
  • By shifting to clean energy technologies, we could dramatically reduce these negative health impacts and quickly save billions of dollars . (scientificamerican.com)
  • More research is needed on the health impacts of walkability to support its importance in the urban planning process. (saferoutespartnership.org)
  • Infant mortality, in fact, increases in urban slums, which are often the cost-effective neighborhoods where refugees live, said Kayden. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • A challenge to urban planners is how much to concentrate on megacities like Dhaka, Nairobi, and Lagos with huge slums and how much on preventing such slums in smaller cities. (bmj.com)
  • Density can be good, but clearly the density of slums is bad for health. (bmj.com)
  • Thinking about health in terms of cities makes sense because more than half the world's population now lives in cities and it's expected to be 70% by 2050. (bmj.com)
  • UHRC provides targeted trainings and workshops to community groups on topics such as (a) acquiring knowledge, (b) building negotiations skills and, (c) interfacing with diverse government agencies to improve slum living environments and access to health, nutrition and social entitlements. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Bath researcher Eleanor Eaton from the Department of Economics , and lead author of the paper explained: "It is possible to value the potential health effects of our urban environments and weigh these against the traditional financial costs and benefits of city development. (bath.ac.uk)
  • At the 2012 National Health Promotion Summit being held in Washington, D.C., this week, RTC's Director of Trail Development Kelly Pack will be one of the key presenters in an examination of how we create built environments that encourage healthier lifestyles. (railstotrails.org)
  • The UPH Unit conducts translational research specifically focused on the health challenges and opportunities associated with urban and peri-urban environments. (swisstph.ch)
  • To best integrate displaced people, humanitarian workers need to establish a right to the city , defined by the International Rescue Committee as "an urban dweller's ability to safely and fairly access public and social services, opportunities for self-sustainability, education, employment, healthcare, and safe and welcoming environments in which to reside. (wilsoncenter.org)
  • The "risk pool" - those covered in states' individual health insurance markets - would worsen right away because healthier people would be likelier to drop their plans. (cbpp.org)
  • Consequently, insurers in the individual market stand to lose nearly $10 billion in premium revenue in that year alone as they would have to continue to accept people with pre-existing health conditions, charge them the same as healthier people, and cover the "essential health benefits. (cbpp.org)
  • At Urban Farm U , we believe growing your own food creates a happier, healthier life. (urbanfarm.org)
  • that is, systematic increases in urban piped water access correspond to increases in urban wealth. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Publish a systematic review of potential solutions for healthy sustainable urban development which addresses the role of technological innovation, city governance, financing mechanisms, infrastructure and behaviour change. (aphrc.org)
  • This is a systematic review of 40 health impact assessments (HIAs) of walkability. (saferoutespartnership.org)
  • Through workshops and training sessions, women's groups are encouraged to begin promoting healthy practices and health seeking behaviors in their communities, such as going to the hospital when a woman goes into labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new paper from UHC researchers explores whether greenspace in Philadelphia has an equigenic effect - that is, the ability to promote health equity through the neighborhood environment. (drexel.edu)
  • Our work focuses on multidisciplinary, gender-sensitive development approaches to improve quality, access, and equity within health systems worldwide. (jsi.com)
  • The impact of urbanization on population health, health equity and the environment are key concerns for national and municipal authorities 21 October 2012 - Urban health challenges across the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region are acute and increasingly complex. (who.int)
  • health equity and social justice in the provision of basic services have now become guiding principles for sustainable development initiatives. (who.int)
  • Finally, policymakers and government officials have to tailor campaigns differently for robust implementation of the essential health-care package and multisectoral action plans to prevent and control hypertension. (doaj.org)
  • The SPH Portal is an interactive digital platform that facilitates the sharing and exchange of information regarding multisectoral health security investments, activities, and capacities at national, regional, and global levels. (who.int)
  • communities in urban settings through innovation and multisectoral change. (who.int)
  • Our strategic direction to make Edmonton a healthy, urban, climate resilient city that supports a prosperous region. (edmonton.ca)
  • An interdisciplinary team of Drexel researchers performed an evaluation of play space installations to better understand factors that increase installation use and to help inform the design of future urban play spaces. (drexel.edu)
  • For instance, green spaces provide a range of health benefits, especially for adults in reducing diabetes and risk of weight gain. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It is well known that natural open spaces and well-designed greenspaces provide a locus for recreation, social interaction and community action and are highlighted as having a particularly positive influence on health and well-being. (bartleby.com)
  • Given that urban green spaces are now widely recognized as major contributors both to the quality of the environment, and to human health and well-being, an important question is whether this will move them closer to, or further from, the goal of mental and spiritual health on urban residents. (bartleby.com)
  • That's striking when you consider that living near parks and other outdoor green spaces has a host of physical and mental health benefits , including lower levels of stress and depression, a greater sense of community, improvements in physical activity, a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity and decreased risk of dying prematurely from any cause. (npr.org)
  • The issue to be investigated rises from a reflection on the relations between urban spaces, the bodily practices and mental health. (bvsalud.org)
  • The theoretical proposition is the educational field, to analyze and interpret issues concerning the body techniques in interface with the urban spaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • The method utilized to perform the investigation has a philosophical inspiration on the opportunity the author was involved with the question of the insertion of the subject in the urban spaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • Averages hide large pockets of disadvantage and poor health, concealing the reality of people's lives," said WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Even a "delayed" repeal would have immediate, harmful, and costly consequences for people's access to coverage and for states' individual health insurance markets. (cbpp.org)
  • The Sustainable Development Goals include both health (Goal 3) and sustainable cities (Goal 11), but the health goal, with its emphasis on universal health coverage and disease, is dominated by the medical model, while the cities' goal belongs to urban planners and doesn't mention health. (bmj.com)
  • This study attempts to assess the short-, medium-, and long-term mental health impact of the World Trade Center attack on Asian Americans. (cdc.gov)
  • Develop and apply models of impact on population health, health inequalities, and socioeconomic and environmental components of alternative urban development pathways. (aphrc.org)
  • The medical model of improving global health concentrates on health systems, the health workforce, and essential medicines, whereas the "health for all" model concentrates on urban planning, transportation, housing, and socioeconomic factors. (bmj.com)
  • Extending pregnancy-related Medicaid/CHIP coverage for 12 months postpartum could increase the number of Americans with insurance during the postpartum period while expanding access to needed health care. (urban.org)
  • To better understand the causes of poor health, the report focuses on several factors including population dynamics, urban governance, the natural and built environment, the social and economic environment, and access to services and health emergency management. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Access to health services is a crucial factor influencing health conditions. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Though access has improved globally over the last two decades, substantial inequities persist between the richest and the poorest urban residents in Africa, the America and Asia. (scoop.co.nz)
  • The rise of digital health , or telehealth, also offers hope in solving this problem by offering easier access to health services and education. (statista.com)
  • Researchers said a multitude of factors may be at play, including structural racism, inequities in access to health care, and a dearth of grocery stores that provide affordable and healthy foods, among others. (nih.gov)
  • JSI technical advisor Iqbal Hussein explains that the first step to meeting the immunization needs of the urban poor is revealing the obstacles to vaccine access. (jsi.com)
  • BRAC was able to break down a set of barriers to care, allowing mothers to access resources which they might not have otherwise sought out, by integrating community-health workers into social networks. (aphrc.org)
  • It has important policy implications in improving treatment access to this sizeable but understudied subgroup affected by the attack, which has a history of being the lowest mental health service users compared to other races. (cdc.gov)
  • Country Capacity refers to the combination of strengths, attributes, and resources available within a country to effectively manage and reduce health emergency risks while enhancing resilience. (who.int)
  • The pandemic represents a unique opportunity to generate innovative solutions to promote long-term urban resilience to health risks and crises. (who.int)
  • Farnham A, Loss G, Lyatuu I, Cossa H, Kulinkina A.V, Winkler M.S. A roadmap for using DHIS2 data to track progress in key health indicators in the Global South: experience from sub-Saharan Africa. (swisstph.ch)
  • The study from Bath economists forms part of TRUUD - a project aiming to reduce non-communicable diseases and health inequalities linked to urban development. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The work forms a core part of 'Tackling Root causes upstream of Unhealthy Urban Development' TRUUD - a major transdisciplinary research project which aims to reduce non-communicable disease (such as cancers, diabetes, obesity, mental ill-health and respiratory illness) and health inequalities linked to urban planning and development. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Tackling Root causes upstream of Unhealthy Urban Development (TRUUD) is a research project, based at the University of Bristol, looking at how urban centres can be planned to reduce health inequalities. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Using geospatial information on forest cover paired with air pollution data and population forecasts for 245 cities, researchers found that trees have the biggest health payoffs in densely populated, polluted cities like Delhi, Karachi and Dhaka. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • To provide a basis for planning a more health-promoting densely populated city, we study these connections and develop proposals for measures. (lu.se)
  • advocate for a common goal and shared responsibility in equitable urban population health and well-being, with local and national governments, academia, the private sector, NGOs, and civil society. (paho.org)
  • The Geneva Charter for Wellbeing underlines the urgency of creating sustainable "well-being societies", committed to achieving equitable health now and for future generations without breaching ecological limits. (who.int)
  • Their findings support the hypothesis that urban greenspace may reduce racialized or poverty-based inequities in mortality. (drexel.edu)
  • How the underserved group overcame barriers like lower education levels and higher poverty rates to successfully take advantage of dental services and achieve better oral health than the U.S. national average is an intriguing question," Dr. Northridge remarked. (dentistryiq.com)
  • Dr. Northridge found that edentulism (the condition of lacking teeth) - a key measure of oral health - was 27.3% among adults 65 and over nationally, compared with 19.5% for adults 65 and over participating in the Eldersmile program, which provides oral health education, screening, and treatment referrals, as well as hypertension and diabetes screenings and referrals at more than 50 senior centers in the Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood neighborhoods. (dentistryiq.com)
  • Mental Health is an important part of how we think and feel about ourselves and people the around us. (edmonton.ca)
  • Recognizing the signs and symptoms of mental health concerns is essential to helping individuals who are suffering. (edmonton.ca)
  • In this paper, I consider an effect of green roofs - its mental and spiritual impact on health of residents living in urbanized area. (bartleby.com)
  • Many doctors now prescribe just 30 minutes of walking or biking a day as a proactive step toward better physical and mental health. (railstotrails.org)
  • They seem to be as good as the other solutions posed, with the additional benefit that they also have other pluses-for example, reducing the chances of flooding, improving mental health and so on. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • There is an established link between substance use disorder and mental health problems such as depression. (springer.com)
  • Emergency department (ED) presentations for substance abuse may be affirmations of mental health conditions. (springer.com)
  • It is not known exactly which components of air pollution might contribute to the development of mental health problems, but there are a few potential mechanisms explaining causality. (springer.com)
  • mental health. (bvsalud.org)
  • It also examines Asians� mental health service use patterns and the facilitating factors and barriers to help seeking. (cdc.gov)
  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) supported Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) is one of the largest public-private partnerships (PPP) in the delivery of primary health care (PHC) in South Asia. (adb.org)
  • The Government of Bangladesh with the assistance of ADB implemented the Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) from March 1998 to June 2005. (adb.org)
  • The Second Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP-II), supported by ADB and the Governments of the United Kingdom and Sweden, commenced in July 2005 and was completed in December 2012. (adb.org)
  • The primary health insurance coverage reforms of the Affordable Care Act began to take effect on January 1, 2014. (urban.org)
  • To leave no one behind, the project works in primary health care facilities and schools not connected to a functional water supply system in in four target countries and beyond. (swisstph.ch)
  • It has also reinforced the critical role that a healthy workforce and robust health care infrastructure play in a community's economic growth and stability. (richmondfed.org)
  • Chair Raúl M. Grijalva (D-Ariz.) today said the passage of the CARES Act is a good step forward in the federal government's ongoing effort to build up health care capacity in historically underserved and at-risk communities, including Native American tribes. (indianz.com)
  • The brief, "The Widespread Slowdown in Health Spending Growth: Implications for Future Spending Projections and the Cost of the Affordable Care Act," is an update of the Urban Institute's 2015 analysis, and suggests that the nation continues to be on track to spend much less on healthcare over the next several years than was projected by CMS in late 2010. (ajmc.com)
  • The report, by senior research associate Stacey McMorrow, PhD, and Institute fellow John Holahan, PhD, is part of the Urban Institute's continuing project to track and monitor the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). (ajmc.com)
  • Health care accounts for only a small amount, perhaps 10%, of health. (bmj.com)
  • Dr. Metcalf, assistant professor of geography at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, will develop a portfolio of systems science models depicting the dynamic relationships among factors at the individual, interpersonal, and community scales that are involved in shaping participants' utilization of oral health-care services. (dentistryiq.com)
  • The County Health Rankings & Roadmaps program is a partnership between the RWJF and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. (richmondfed.org)
  • African Population & Health Research Center. (aphrc.org)
  • We provide a broad range of services to the public and private health sectors to strengthen health systems around the United States. (jsi.com)
  • In partnership with the Big Cities Health Coalition (BCHC), the Drexel Urban Health Collaborative created a new data brief and infographic using twelve years of gun death data from 35 big U.S. cities, showing a surge in gun deaths at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. (drexel.edu)
  • Stephen Dickinson, PhD, a project manager with the Urban Health Collaborative, was recently awarded pilot funding from the Drexel University Medical Cannabis Research Center to create a database of marijuana dispensaries in the United States in order to better understand the relationship of these businesses to the neighborhoods where they are located. (drexel.edu)
  • Groups and cluster-team members are also coached on negotiation skills and provided trainings on how to effectively negotiate with healthcare providers and other civic authorities through dialogue and formal applications to obtain health services and environmental services such as road paving, drain installation, sanitation/water infrastructure, garbage removal, and other entitlements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The project counts the cost of poor health, works with communities to communicate the issues they face and maps out the decision-making process in creating urban centres and includes two active case-studies in Bristol and Manchester. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Another key interest of the unit is to investigate the health co-benefits of promoting sustainable cities and communities through mixed-methods intervention studies, big data analysis and modelling. (swisstph.ch)
  • Low-income and marginalized urban communities often suffer disproportionate exposure to environmental hazards, leaving residents vulnerable to associated health problems. (wab.org)
  • Discussions will contribute to catalyze actions to accelerate progress towards the achievement of the targets of SDG3 and SDG11, inspiring and promoting good governance, health and wellbeing for all and sustainable cities and communities. (who.int)
  • The valuation tool evaluates a range of factors including how buildings, transport, natural environment (including air pollution and green space), socio-economics and community infrastructure in new developments might improve or worsen health for its future residents. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Researchers from NHLBI and Vanderbilt University Medical Center analyzed data from The Southern Community Cohort Study , a long-term health study of adults in the southeastern United States. (nih.gov)
  • You can get them from a brief exposure to nature in an urban setting, so a walk through a community garden. (mynorthwest.com)
  • And the community interested in urban health is growing, and both China and India now have plans for healthy cities. (bmj.com)
  • NUIHC has been serving the urban Indian community of the greater Omaha metropolitan area, Lincoln-Lancaster metropolitan area, and Sioux City, Iowa since 1986. (ncuih.org)
  • Dr. Kunzel, associate professor of clinical dental community health and clinical sociomedical sciences at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, will oversee the participant interviews. (dentistryiq.com)
  • The African Mayors Dialogue aims at empowering local government leaders providing them with a platform for exchange and contribution to the global governance agenda and facilitating an enabling space for presenting their cities' contexts and opportunities on Urban Governance for Health and Wellbeing. (who.int)