UracilAdenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Uracil-DNA Glycosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.Adenine NucleotidesN-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Uracil NucleotidesNucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.ThymineBromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Uracil Mustard: Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.UridineEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP): An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency: An autosomal recessive disorder affecting DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DEHYDROGENASE and causing familial pyrimidinemia. It is characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Even a partial deficiency in the enzyme leaves individuals at risk for developing severe 5-FLUOROURACIL-associated toxicity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Thymine DNA Glycosylase: An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Orotic AcidOrotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.AminohydrolasesDNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Pentoxyl: 5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
5a Uracil; 5 Uracil dimer; 6a 2-pyridoxine; 6b 2-aminopyridine; 6 2-pyridoxine/2-aminopyridine; 7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 ... 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine stack; 16b Ethyne; 16 Ethene/ethyne; 17 Benzene/water; 18 ... Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; ...
Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Chemically, uracil is similar to thymine, differing only by a methyl group, and its production requires less energy. In terms ... including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under conditions found only in outer space, using ...
Adenine is always paired with thymine, and guanine is always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs. Uracil is ... These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). These nitrogenous bases ... Pyrimidines include thymine, cytosine, and uracil. They have a single ring structure. Purines include adenine and guanine. They ...
Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ... The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: oxidised form) to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: reduced form). This does not ... Also, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA ...
... pairs with adenine. In DNA, uracil is replaced with thymine. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... The nucleotides relevant to biology include adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U). nucleus (pl. ... pairs with adenine. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil. transcription The first step in gene expression, in which a ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z adenine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; ...
Thymine and uracil are identical excepting that T includes a methyl group that U lacks. Adenine and guanine have a fused-ring ... Five nucleobases-adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)-are called primary or canonical. They ... Hypoxanthine is produced from adenine, xanthine from guanine., and uracil results from deamination of cytosine. These are ... Similarly, the simple-ring structure of cytosine, uracil, and thymine is derived of pyrimidine, so those three bases are called ...
... uracil) replacing T (thymine). Apart from adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and uracil (U), DNA and RNA also ... Hypoxanthine is produced from adenine, xanthine from guanine. Similarly, deamination of cytosine results in uracil. In ... The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand - adenine, cytosine, guanine, ... The rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are as follows: A = adenine C = cytosine G = guanine ...
Following the stem-loop structure is a chain of uracil residues. The bonds between uracil and adenine are very weak. A protein ... This pausing of the polymerase coincides with transcription of the poly-uracil sequence. The weak Adenine-Uracil bonds lower ... Stem-loop structures that are not followed by a poly-Uracil sequence cause the RNA polymerase to pause, but it will typically ...
In RNA, the complement of adenine is uracil instead of thymine. Other notable purines are hypoxanthine (4), xanthine (5), ... Ferris, James P.; Orgel, L. E. (March 1966). "An Unusual Photochemical Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen ... They include the nucleobases adenine (2) and guanine (3). In DNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary ... five molecules of HCN condense in an exothermic reaction to make adenine, especially in the presence of ammonia. The Traube ...
In the guanine riboswitch this residue is always a cytosine (i.e. C74), in the adenine residue it is always a uracil (i.e. U74 ... Different forms of the purine riboswitch bind guanine (a form originally known as the G-box) or adenine. The specificity for ... either guanine or adenine depends completely upon Watson-Crick interactions with a single pyrimidine in the riboswitch at ...
RNA also contains adenine, guanine, and cytosine, but replaces thymine with uracil. Thus, DNA synthesis requires dATP, dGTP, ... The first letter indicates the identity of the nitrogenous base (e.g. A for adenine, G for guanine), the second letter ... Purine synthesis is regulated by the allosteric inhibition of IMP formation by the adenine or guanine nucleotides. AMP and GMP ... the effect of adenine and guanine ribonucleotides on the 5'-phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate amidotransferase of aerobacter ...
... uracil in RNA), guanine and cytosine. Adenine and guanine are purines, while thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. ... In nucleic acid, nucleobases are held together by hydrogen bonding, which only works efficiently between adenine and thymine ... Complementarity is achieved by distinct interactions between nucleobases: adenine, thymine ( ... adenine = n, and thymine = u), which makes it is possible to complement entire DNA sequences by simply rotating the text " ...
Pyrimidine is a component of the nucleobases cytosine, uracil, and thymine. The other two nucleobases, adenine and guanine, are ... Via metabolism, it becomes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD, a coenzyme which is involved in oxidation and reduction in ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase Uracil ...
The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ...
The uracil containing template is then removed from the heteroduplex by treatment with a uracil DNA glcosylase, followed by ... because the parental strand contains a GmATC which is methylated at N6 of adenine. SDM does not work well for large plasmids of ... It begins by aligning fragments from a parental top strand onto the bottom strand of a uracil containing template from a ... However it is somewhat limited due to the complexity and the need for generation of single stranded DNA and uracil containing ...
RNA contains uracil instead of thymine. It has been proved in the laboratory that a single strand of DNA of one species can ... Each nucleotide has a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous bases like adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. ...
The nucleotide bases are made up of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine or uracil). These ...
In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby ... 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits ... In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann ... As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. ...
This complex is able to selectively bind uracil and uridine in a 1:2 ratio both through the adenine part and cyclen part of the ... "The conjugate of adenine-cyclen Zn(II) complex: its synthesis and selective recognition abilities for uracil and uridine" (PDF ... In one study cyclen is covalently bonded through a propylene molecular spacer to adenine and chelated with zinc diperchlorate. ...
In RNA, adenine-uracil pairings featuring two hydrogen bonds are equal to the adenine-thymine bond of the DNA. Base stacking ... Pairings between guanine and cytosine have three hydrogen bonds and are more stable compared to adenine-uracil pairings, which ...
The larger nucleobases, adenine and guanine, are members of a class of doubly ringed chemical structures called purines; the ... In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U). Alternate hydrogen bonding patterns, such as the wobble base pair and Hoogsteen base ... adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T) and guanine (G) forms one with cytosine (C) in DNA. ... smaller nucleobases, cytosine and thymine (and uracil), are members of a class of singly ringed chemical structures called ...
... guanine-cytosine and adenine-uracil) permit the formation of short double-stranded helices, and a wide variety of non-Watson- ... in which uracil is substituted for thymine where uracil takes its place in the RNA strand: AUCGAUUGAGCUCUAGCG ... The larger nucleobases, adenine and guanine, are members of a class of double-ringed chemical structures called purines; the ... Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA ...
The relative percentages of each base are 28±7% adenine, 16±1% cytosine, 19±8% guanine and 35±4% uracil. The GC content of the ...
The Adenine Riboswitch selectively recognizes adenine, and contains a uracil ribonucleotide in position 74 of the adenine- ... The add adenine riboswitch has shown three distinct stable confirmations in the presence of adenine. When unbound to adenine, ... In this way, an abundance of adenine can instigate the process of adenine's efflux from a cell. Unlike the add adenine ... Binding of adenine to the pbuE adenine riboswitch disrupts the structure of a terminator stem that had been blocking access to ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. *Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. *Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. * ...
Unmethylated cytosines were converted to uracils using an Invitrogen MethylCode Bisulfite Conversion Kit, and the converted ... Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), one of the four adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms expressed in humans, is ... Adenine nucleotide translocase, a protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ... Jang JY, Jeon YK, Kim CW: Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells ...
Uracil-Guanine-Adenine is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and ... Looking for online definition of Uracil-Guanine-Adenine or what Uracil-Guanine-Adenine stands for? ... Uracil-Guanine-Adenine - What does Uracil-Guanine-Adenine stand for? The Free Dictionary https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com ...
In all four cases analysis of the hypochromic effect revealed that adenine and uracil residues tended to form clusters along ... Spectroscopic evidence for the uneven distribution of adenine and uracil residues in ribosomal ribonucleic acid of Drosophila ... Spectroscopic evidence for the uneven distribution of adenine and uracil residues in ribosomal ribonucleic acid of Drosophila ... Spectroscopic evidence for the uneven distribution of adenine and uracil residues in ribosomal ribonucleic acid of Drosophila ...
5a Uracil; 5 Uracil dimer; 6a 2-pyridoxine; 6b 2-aminopyridine; 6 2-pyridoxine/2-aminopyridine; 7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 ... 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine stack; 16b Ethyne; 16 Ethene/ethyne; 17 Benzene/water; 18 ... Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; ...
... pairs with adenine. In DNA, uracil is replaced with thymine. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... The nucleotides relevant to biology include adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U). nucleus (pl. ... pairs with adenine. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil. transcription The first step in gene expression, in which a ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z adenine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; ...
Adenine --, Uracil. Guanine --, Cytosine. Cytosine --, Guanine. Thymine --, Adenine. 3. Termination. mRNA production continues ... several hundred adenine residues is added to the 3 end of the transcript.. These modifications function in nuclear export and ...
Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ... The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: oxidised form) to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: reduced form). This does not ...
RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... Chemically, uracil is similar to thymine, differing only by a methyl group, and its production requires less energy.[38] In ... adenine, guanine and related organic molecules) may have been formed extraterrestrially in outer space.[55][56][57] In 2017, a ...
In contrast, the adenine 1Lb and uracil S(U) states have minima that are separated from the intersections by sizeable barriers ... The adenine 1La state can decay without a barrier to a conical intersection with the ground state. ... The decay channels of singlet excited adenine uracil monophosphate (ApU) in water are studied with CASPT2//CASSCF:MM potential ... In contrast, the adenine 1Lb and uracil S(U) states have minima that are separated from the intersections by sizeable barriers ...
Uracil * Adenine Grant support * GM-46454/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ...
Uracil and Adenine Nucleotides Are Involved in L. amazonensis Infection Control in Macrophages. Adenosine triphosphate is ...
Adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine. Contains 5 carbon-sugar: ribose Double stranded. DNA nucleotides have 4 nitrogenous bases: ... Uracil pairs with adenine (thymine does not exist in RNA). Free RNA nucleotides from the nucleoplasm locate on an opened strand ... Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine. Contains a 5 carbon-sugar: deoxyribose ... 3 hydrogen bonds Only 2 hydrogen bonds Phosphate Base Guanine and adenine bigger than thymine and cytosine. Thus the ...
... with one of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil bonded to each ribose molecule. RNA molecules are involved in ...
Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine ... and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to ... which regained adenine prototrophy (Figure 5). Inhibition of expression of ADE2, as of CAP59, was specific, with no alterations ... 108 cells with selection of transformants on minimal plates lacking uracil. pCAP59i-tel was linearized with SceI so that the ...
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil. These are the monomers that make up oligo- or polynucleotides such as RNA.. ...
Uracil. Adenine. Cytosine. 7 What are some other roles of Nucleosides and Nucleotides ...
The remaining DNA is made from Adenine and Thymine, which is 60.2%. Thymine = 60.2% divided by 2 = 30.1%. ... How many hydrogen bonds are formed between Adenine and Thymine in a DNA molecule? ...
However, the individuals with the abnormality of uracil detected in The Great Plains Laboratory invariably had normal or very ... me that these individuals might have a form of enzyme deficiency in which thymine could be processed by the enzyme but uracil ... of these compounds after noticing that a significant number of children with autism had high amounts of the compound uracil in ... finding since there is an inborn error of metabolism called dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency in which both uracil and ...
uracil. *. adenine. *. deoxyribose. *. phosphate. *what is the name is one of saturns moons*. peace. *. electro. *. star gazer ...
... synthetic complete media without uracil; SC-UAH, SC-U without histidine and adenine. ... Expression of the histidine and adenine reporters can be examined by growing transformants in the absence of histidine and ... Transformants (Ura+) were obtained in synthetic complete media without uracil (SC-U) plates. These were subsequently screened ... PJ69-4A is deleted for Gal4 and contains chromosomal copies of reporter genes for histidine biosynthesis, adenine biosynthesis ...
NADPH DIHYDRO-NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE. C21 H30 N7 O17 P3. ACFIXJIJDZMPPO-NNYOXOHSSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Diaminohydroxyphosphoribosylaminopyrimidine deaminase/ 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil reductase. A. 360. Thermotoga ... Crystal structure of a diaminohydroxyphosphoribosylaminopyrimidine deaminase/ 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil reductase ... Crystal structure of Diaminohydroxyphosphoribosylaminopyrimidine deaminase/ 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil reductase ( ...
Adenine and thymine (or uracil) can form a base pair that measures 1.08 nm across, and that contains two hydrogen bonds. Base ... adenine (purine) *cytosine (pyrimidine) *guanine (purine). The fourth base is (a pyrimidine) *uracil (in ribonucleotides) or * ... uracil adenine cytosine guanine , , , , P-ribose-P-ribose-P-ribose-P-ribose-OH 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 pUpApCpG UACG 3 GCAU 5 ... Be aware that uracil and thymine are very similar; they differ only by a methyl group. You need to know which are purines and ...
A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent involved in base pairing with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA. n a ... Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... translation, English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ...
5: Guanine (4), Thymine (2), Uracil (4). Unmentioned: Adenine. Virtually all of our genetic information is encoded in the ... Uracil is absent from DNA, but it does appear in RNA (where it replaces Thymine). 3. A country bordering India 10: Bangladesh, ... different orders Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine appear in our DNA. ...
RNA is made of four bases; adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U; instead of the thymine found in DNA). In the ... There are four common types of bases in DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). In the chemical lock-and- ... There are four common types of bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). In the chemical "lock and key" ... RNA contains a base called uracil (U). In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. Complementary RNA (cRNA)is a copy of a strand ...
  • We previously reported that the suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells, which frequently express high levels of ANT2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The decay channels of singlet excited adenine uracil monophosphate (ApU) in water are studied with CASPT2//CASSCF:MM potential energy calculations and simulation of the 2D-UV spectroscopic fingerprints with the aim of elucidating the role of the different electronic states of the stacked conformer in the excited state dynamics. (udg.edu)
  • we were studying amino acids in chemistry, and I asked my chemistry teacher whether uracil was an amino acid or not. (physicsforums.com)
  • While i'm not sure of the reason for it i would expect thymine possibly holds the DNA together in a more stable manner (as it is storage) and uracil holds some advantage in attracting the anticodons carrying amino acids to the ribosomes. (physicsforums.com)
  • In 2012 an analysis of data from the Cassini mission orbiting in the Saturn system showed that Titan's surface composition may include uracil. (definitions.net)
  • Mutation of the conserved adenine residue of a splice acceptor using an ABE results in exon skipping. (nih.gov)
  • I became interested in the role of these compounds after noticing that a significant number of children with autism had high amounts of the compound uracil in the urine tested with the Organic Acids Test in our laboratory. (greatplainslaboratory.com)