Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.

Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein. (1/1786)

Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage.  (+info)

Synthesis of bacteriophage phi6 double-stranded ribonucleic acid. (2/1786)

Uracil was incorporated into all three bacteriophage phi6 dsRNA segments throughout the infection cycle; the rates of incorporation into each of the three segments were approx. constant for the first 15 to 20 min and then increased rapidly until 50 min after infection. The medium and small dsRNA segments were produced in greater amounts than the large dsRNA segment at all times in the infection cycle. Inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis with rifampin and chloramphenicol revealed that virus dsRNA synthesis immediately after infection was independent of either host function.  (+info)

Phase I study of eniluracil, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inactivator, and oral 5-fluorouracil with radiation therapy in patients with recurrent or advanced head and neck cancer. (3/1786)

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an effective enhancer of radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck cancers. Due to rapid, predominantly hepatic metabolism by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and suggested clinical benefit from prolonged drug exposure, 5-FU is commonly given by continuous infusion. Eniluracil is a novel DPD-inactivator designed to prolong the half-life of 5-FU and provide sustained plasma concentrations of 5-FU with oral dosing. We conducted a Phase I study of the safety and efficacy of eniluracil given with oral 5-FU in patients receiving concurrent RT for recurrent or advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Thirteen patients with recurrent, metastatic, or high-risk (defined as an expected 2-year survival rate of <10%) head and neck cancer were enrolled and treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy on an every-other-week schedule. Eniluracil at a fixed dose [20 mg twice a day (BID)] was given for 7 consecutive days (days 1-7). 5-FU and RT were given on 5 consecutive days (days 2-6). One patient was treated with once-daily RT (2.0 Gy fractions). The remaining patients received hyperfractionated RT (1.5-Gy fractions BID). The initial dose of 5-FU was 2.5 mg/m2 given BID. Dose escalation in patient cohorts was scheduled at 2.5-mg/m2 increments, with intrapatient dose escalation permitted. Lymphocyte DPD activity and serum 5-FU and uracil concentrations were monitored during two cycles. DPD activity was completely or nearly completely inactivated in all patients. Sustained, presumed therapeutic concentrations of 5-FU were observed at a dose of 5.0 mg/m2 given BID. Cumulative dose-limiting myelosuppression (both neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) was observed during the fourth and fifth cycles following administration of 5.0 mg/m2 5-FU BID. One patient died of neutropenic sepsis during cycle 4. Other late cycle toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis. Grade 3 mucositis was observed in 4 patients, but no grade 4 mucositis or grade 3 or 4 dermatitis was observed. A second patient death occurred during cycle 1 of treatment. No specific cause of death was identified. The study was subsequently discontinued. Cumulative myelosupression was the significant dose-limiting toxicity of oral 5-FU given with the DPD-inactivator eniluracil on an every-other-week schedule. Clinical radiation sensitization was not observed, based on the absence of dose-limiting mucositis and dermatitis. Alternative dosing schedules need to be examined to determine the most appropriate use of eniluracil and 5-FU as radiation enhancers.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (4/1786)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (5/1786)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow. (6/1786)

To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates.  (+info)

Uracil-induced down-regulation of the yeast uracil permease. (7/1786)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the FUR4-encoded uracil permease catalyzes the first step of the pyrimidine salvage pathway. The availability of uracil has a negative regulatory effect upon its own transport. Uracil causes a decrease in the level of uracil permease, partly by decreasing the FUR4 mRNA level in a promoter-independent fashion, probably by increasing its instability. Uracil entry also triggers more rapid degradation of the existing permease by promoting high efficiency of ubiquitination of the permease that signals its internalization. A direct binding of intracellular uracil to the permease is possibly involved in this feedback regulation, as the behavior of the permease is similar in mutant cells unable to convert intracellular uracil into UMP. We used cells impaired in the ubiquitination step to show that the addition of uracil produces rapid inhibition of uracil transport. This may be the first response prior to the removal of the permease from the plasma membrane. Similar down-regulation of uracil uptake, involving several processes, was observed under adverse conditions mainly corresponding to a decrease in the cellular content of ribosomes. These results suggest that uracil of exogenous or catabolic origin down-regulates the cognate permease to prevent buildup of excess intracellular uracil-derived nucleotides.  (+info)

Only one of the charged amino acids located in membrane-spanning regions is important for the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae uracil permease. (8/1786)

The transport of uracil into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by uracil permease, a specific co-transporter encoded by the FUR4 gene. Uracil permease is a multispan membrane protein that is delivered to the plasma membrane via the secretory pathway. Experimental results led to the proposal of a two-dimensional model of the protein's topology. According to this model, the membrane domain of Fur4p contains three charged amino acid residues (Glu-243, Lys-272 and Glu-539) that are conserved in the members of the FUR family of yeast transporters. We have previously shown that a mis-sense mutation leading to the replacement of Lys-272 by Glu severely impairs the function of uracil permease. In the present paper, the role of the three charged residues present in the membrane-spanning regions of Fur4p was further investigated by using site-directed mutagenesis. The variant permeases were correctly targeted to the plasma membrane and their stabilities were similar to that of the wild-type permease. The effect of the mutations was studied by measuring the uptake constants for uracil on whole cells and equilibrium binding parameters on plasma membrane-enriched fractions. We found no evidence for ionic interaction between either of the glutamic residues in transmembrane segments 3 and 9 and the lysine residue in transmembrane segment 4. Of the three charged residues, only Lys-272 was important for the transport activity of the transporter. Its replacement by Ala, Glu or even Arg strongly impaired both the binding and the translocation of uracil.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 359724 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiparasitic activity against Toxoplasma gondii infected in HFF cells at 0.1 uM after 48 hrs by [3H]uracil incorporation assay relative to control.
Uracil je jedna od četiri nukleobaza RNK, koja zamenjuje timin koji se nalazi u DNK. Kao i timin, uracil može da formira bazni par sa adeninom pomoću dve vodonične veze, ali mu nedostaje metil grupa koja postoji u timinu. Uracil će, za razliku od timina, lakše da se degeneriše u citozin. Uracil se vrlo retko može naći u DNK. ...
Definition of uracil in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of uracil. What does uracil mean? Information and translations of uracil in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Uracil is a pyrimidine nucleobase, a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Uracil is a planar, unsaturated compound that has the ability to absorb light. Found in RNA, uracil base pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding and is replaced by thymine in DNA. Uracil can base pair with any of the bases depending on how the molecule arranges itself on the helix, but readily pairs with adenine. Uracil can also bind with a ribose sugar to form a ribonucleoside, uridine. When a phosphate attaches to uridine, uridine 5-monophosphate is produced. Uracil also recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phophoribosyltransferase reactions. Degradation of uracil produces substrates, aspartate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Uridine can be phosphorylated with phosphoric acid groups, creating Uridine emonophosphate (UMP), Uridine diphosphate (UDP) or Uridine triphosphate (UTP). ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Interaction of electrons and protons with the RNA-base uracil. AU - Hanel, G.. AU - Gstir, B.. AU - Denifl, S.. AU - Lindinger, C.. AU - Matejcik, S.. AU - Scheier, P.. AU - Limtrakul, J.. AU - Probst, M.. AU - Coupier, B.. AU - Farizon, B.. AU - Farizon, M.. AU - Deutsch, H.. AU - Becker, K.. AU - Märk, T. D.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The determination of accurate appearance energy was analyzed for the interaction of electrons and protons with the RNA-base Uracil using rare gases. The electron energy range employed for the electron attachement studies was from about zero up to 15 eV. The slow electrons were colliding cellular RNA compound uracil. It was generally considered that the types of primary damage in DNA by ionizing radiation led to the most significant biological effect. The onset of the first resonance for the anions appeared at the relatively high electron of about 5eV for CN - and at 9eV for the O, which was followed by two resonances with the maximum at ...
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Uracil (U) is one of the four bases found in RNA. It is a pyrimidine base and it never presents in DNA instead of thymine [1] ...
16908-84-2 - Uracil labeled with tritium - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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16S rRNA (uracil1498-N3)-methyltransferaseS-adenosyl-L-methionine + uracil1498 in 16S rRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N3-methyluracil1498 in 16S rRNA ...
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አር ኤን ኤ ( RNA ) እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ ( DNA ) ከኒክሉኢክ አሲድ ( Nucleic acid ) የተሠራ ነው። እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ አራት ቤዝ (base) አለው። እነሱም አዴናዪን ( A, adenine) ፤ ዩራሲል ( U, uracil ) ( ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን በዩራሲል ፋንታ ታያሚን ( T, thymine ) ነው ያለው) ጓኒን ( G, guanine ) እና ሳይቶሲን ( C, Cytosine )። ኑክሌይክ አሲዶች ደግሞ ሶስት መሰረታዊ አካላቶች አላቸው። ቤዝ፡ ሱካሩ ( sugar group ) እና ፎስፌት ግሩፑ ( the phosphate group ) ናቸው። አር ኤን ኤን ከዲ ኤን ኤ የሚለየዉ ሌላው ነገር የአር ኤን ኤ ስኳር ሁለተኛ ካርቦን ሀይድሮክሲል ( hydroxyl group (-OH )) ሲኖረው ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን ያለው ኤች ( H ) ብቻ ነው። ይህም አር ኤን ኤን በጣም ተለካካፊ ( reactive ) አድርጎታል። ...
A requirement for carbon dioxide or bicarbonate has been demonstrated for the growth and survival of the Jensen, JA-1, and JA-2 sarcomas in vitro. When the cells were grown in the presence of C14O2, isotope was isolated in incorporated aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and proline as well as in the purines and pyrimidines. Although the relative specific activity of the purines and thymine was approximately the same, it was much lower in cytosine and slightly higher in uracil. From this information carbonate-sparing experiments were performed, and uracil partially spared this requirement, whereas the other organic bases were inactive.. ...
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10:19, 5 June 2007‎ Aschlafly (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (239 bytes) (+239)‎ . . (New page: A represents either: :Adenine, which is a purine base in DNA and RNA; A pairs with thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. :Adenosine, which is the the nucleoside c...) ...
Hydrolytic deamination of DNA cytosine residues results in U/G mispairs, pre-mutagenic lesions threatening long-term genetic stability. Hence, DNA uracil repair is ubiquitous throughout all extant life forms and base excision repair, triggered by a uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), is the mechanistic paradigm adopted, as it seems, by all bacteria and eukaryotes and a large fraction of archaea. However, members of the UDG superfamily of enzymes are absent from the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Delta H. This organism, as a hitherto unique case, initiates repair by direct strand incision next to the DNA-U residue, a reaction catalyzed by the DNA uridine endonuclease Mth212, an ExoIII homologue. To elucidate the detailed mechanism, in particular to identify the molecular partners contributing to this repair process, we reconstituted DNA uracil repair in vitro from only four purified enzymes of M. thermautotrophicus Delta H. After incision at the 5-side of a ...
RNA was isolated from subribosomal particles of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. The nucleotide composition (mole fraction) of the principal species was obtained (S-rRNA, 0.295A, 0.36U, 0.25G, 0.105C: L-rRNA, 0.326A, 0.31U, 0.228G, 0.144C). Ribosomal RNA was also isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. Optical properties of these A + U-rich species were measured. In all four cases analysis of the hypochromic effect revealed that adenine and uracil residues tended to form clusters along the polynucleotide chain. A substantial fraction of residues was located in bihelical regions of approx. 50% G-C base pairs or in regions of approx. 30-35% G-C base pairs. The possible evolutionary significance of these results was considered on the basis of comparison with properties of rRNA from bacteria (Escherichia coli) and a mammal (rabbit reticulocyte). ...
To maintain the genomic integrity, cell has evolved various DNA repair pathways. Base Excision Repair pathway (BER) is one such DNA repair pathway which is dedicated to protect DNA from small lesions such as oxidation ...
Thymine is one of the five bases that form nucleic acids, along with adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The formula of thymine is C5H6N2O2. Thymine is always paired up with adenine through two hydrogen bonds only in DNA to stabilize the nucleic acid structure. Thymine is not present in RNA. Instead, uracil takes place of thymine and binds with adenine. It is a derivative of pyrimidine and can be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon, hence the other name of thymine, 5-methyluracil. Uracil takes its place in RNA, which also binds to adenine. Thymine is a single ring planar molecule. Thymine combined with deoxyribose yields deoxythymidine while Thymine with ribose makes thymidine.. Thymine binds with deoxyribose to form the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is the same thing as thymidine. This compound can be phosphorylated with one, two, or three phosphoric acid groups creating thymidine mono-, di-, or triphosphate, respectively.. ...
Recently, the detection of natural thymine modified 5-formyluracil has attracted widespread attention. Herein, we introduce a new insight into designing reagents for both the selective biotin enrichment and fluorogenic labelling of 5-formyluracil in DNA. Biotinylated o-phenylenediamine directly tethered to n
Our ROTI®Kits for EdU mediated detection of cell proliferation provide a superior alternative to time-consuming and less sensitive bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Similar to BrdU assays, our assays utilise a uracil derivative (in this case ethynyldeoxyuridine, EdU) which is incorporated into the replicating DNA. EdU is not detected via antibodies; instead fluorescent dyes are coupled directly via click reaction. This fast and elegant approach allows for direct labelling of replicating DNA with the desired fluorescent dye. Thus, the assay is perfectly adaptable to the present facilities and to the assay situation (e.g. for double or triple detection). Furthermore, the click reaction is highly selective and therefore prevents any unspecific labelling. The protocol includes only few steps and decreases the total amount of time.. ...
Our ROTI®Kits for EdU mediated detection of cell proliferation provide a superior alternative to time-consuming and less sensitive bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Similar to BrdU assays, our assays utilise a uracil derivative (in this case ethynyldeoxyuridine, EdU) which is incorporated into the replicating DNA. EdU is not detected via antibodies; instead fluorescent dyes are coupled directly via click reaction. This fast and elegant approach allows for direct labelling of replicating DNA with the desired fluorescent dye. Thus, the assay is perfectly adaptable to the present facilities and to the assay situation (e.g. for double or triple detection). Furthermore, the click reaction is highly selective and therefore prevents any unspecific labelling. The protocol includes only few steps and decreases the total amount of time.. ...
A second extensive search used all identified key words and index terms. Some general considerations on the excited-state dynamics tadalafila como funciona of uracil derivatives are also reported. The findings of meta-analyses regarding surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon ...
The Stivers Lab is broadly interested in the biology of the RNA base uracil when it is present in DNA. Our work involves structural and biophysical studies of uracil recognition by DNA repair enzymes, the central role of uracil in adapative and innate immunity, and the function of uracil in antifolate and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy. We use a wide breadth of structural, chemical, genetic and biophysical approaches that provide a fundamental understanding of molecular function. Our long-range goal is to use this understanding to design novel small molecules that alter biological pathways within a cellular environment. One approach we are developing is the high-throughput synthesis and screening of small molecule libraries directed at important targets in cancer and HIV-1 pathogenesis.. Research Areas: biophysics, enzymes, cell biology, uracil, cancer, HIV, DNA, RNA ...
Uracil permease, UraA. The crystal structure of UraA with bound uracil at 2.8 Å resolution is available (PDB: 3QE7) (Lu et al., 2011). UraA has a novel structural fold, with 14 TMSs divided into two inverted repeats. A pair of antiparallel β-strands is located between TMS3 and TMS10 and has an important role in structural organization and substrate recognition. The structure is spatially arranged into a core domain and a gate domain. Uracil, located at the interface between the two domains, is coordinated mainly by residues from the core domain. Structural analysis suggests that alternating access of the substrate may be achieved through conformational changes of the gate domain. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of the UraA symporter in phospholipid bilayers revealed a closed state with 3 high affinity binding sites for cardolipin (Kalli et al. 2015).The crystal structure of UraA bound to uracil in an occluded state at 2.5 A resolution (Yu et al. 2017). UraA shows substantial motions ...
Uracil is a base found in RNA. It pairs with adenine and replaces thymine in DNA. Uracil, a pyrimidine, was originally discovered in 1900. ...
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When dUTP replaced dTTP during polyoma DNA replication in isolated cell nuclei, radioactivity from labeled deoxynucleoside triphosphates was almost exclusively recovered in very short Okazaki fragments and incorporation ceased after a short time. Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme u …
It is easily picked up because uracil is not a natural base in DNA. It is found normally in RNA, and it is quite possible that RNA evolved first in the earliest life on earth, and when DNA took over the role it has today of storing genetic information thymine was substituted in place of uracil so that the deamination process could be detected and repaired. In other words, if uracil was a natural base in DNA, there would be no way for the proof-reading machinery to detect that a base change occurred. Pretty ingenious of nature, dont you think ...
AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase ) er et mutator-protein som deaminerer cytosin til uracil i immunoglobulin (Ig)-genene i B-celler. AID er essensielt i vårt adaptive immunforsvar, mens feilregulert AID-aktivitet er relatert til mutasjoner og kreft. Vi har studert aktivitet, intracellulær transport og regulering av AID. For å bekjempe nye infeksjoner produserer stimulerte B celler antistoffer med økt affinitet og endrede beskyttelsesfunksjoner. Dette skjer ved at mutasjoner introduseres med høy frekvens i Ig-genene, og AID er proteinet som initierer disse prosessene ved å deaminere cytosin til uracil. Ved feil regulering av AID vil uracil som er generert i proto-oncogener være en tidlig og kritisk hendelse ved utvikling av B-celle lymfom. Ekspresjon, enzymatisk aktivitet og intracellulær lokalisering må derfor være nøye regulert for å unngå uønskede mutasjoner. AID er i hovedsak lokalisert til cytoplasma, og for at AID skal deaminere cytosin til uracil i Ig-genene må det ...
In the early 1960s, Marshall Nirenberg and National Institutes of Health colleagues focused on how DNA directs protein synthesis and the role of RNA in these processes. Their 1961 experiment, using a synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) strand that contained only uracils (U), yielded a protein that contained only phenylalanines. Identifying UUU (three uracil bases in a row) as the
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I while back (in the distant days when i was in education...Im a day out of education now!!) we were studying amino acids in chemistry, and I asked my chemistry teacher whether uracil was an amino acid or not. She didnt know but said she would find out, which she didnt, so I am asking the experts now ...
We studied the physiological response to limitation by diverse nutrients in batch and steady-state (chemostat) cultures of S. cerevisiae. We found that the global pattern of transcription in steady-state cultures in limiting phosphate or sulfate is essentially identical to that of batch cultures growing in the same medium just before the limiting nutrient is completely exhausted. The massive stress response and complete arrest of the cell cycle that occurs when nutrients are fully exhausted in batch cultures is not observed in the chemostat, indicating that the cells in the chemostat are poor, not starving. Similar comparisons using leucine or uracil auxotrophs limited on leucine or uracil again showed patterns of gene expression in steady-state closely resembling those of corresponding batch cultures just before they exhaust the nutrient. Although there is also a strong stress response in the auxotrophic batch cultures, cell cycle arrest, if it occurs at all, is much less uniform. Many of the ...
1JLR: The structural mechanism of GTP stabilized oligomerization and catalytic activation of the Toxoplasma gondii uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.
Each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose, whose carbons are numbered 1 through 5. The base - often adenine, cytosine, guanine or uracil - is attached to the 1 position. A phosphate group is attached to the 3 position of one ribose and the 5 position of the next. The phosphate groups have a negative charge each at physiological pH, making RNA a charged molecule. The bases often form hydrogen bonds between adenine and uracil and between cytosine and guanine, but other interactions are possible,[1] such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge.[2] There are also numerous modified bases and sugars found in RNA that serve many different roles. Pseudouridine (Ψ), in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C-N bond to a C-C bond, and ribothymidine (T), are found in various places (most notably in the TΨC loop of tRNA).[3] Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated guanine base whose nucleoside is called inosine. Inosine plays a key role ...
Medscape - Diabetes mellitus type 2 dosing for Nesina (alogliptin), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
CJ236 Electrocompetent Cells High efficiency cells to create uracil-containing DNA for site-directed mutagenesis Sole source of highly efficient Electrocompetent cells (1 × 109 cfu/µg) ung- and dut- mutations to generate DNA... ...
CJ236 Electrocompetent Cells High efficiency cells to create uracil-containing DNA for site-directed mutagenesis Sole source of highly efficient Electrocompetent cells (1 × 109 cfu/µg) ung- and dut- mutations to generate DNA... ...
Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA...
Biomolecules - Nucleic acids and proteins (Part B) from GTAC. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are the next group of macromolecules that we are looking at. Nucleic acids are made up of monomer units that consist of a phosphate group, a sugar unit and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Guanine(G) and Cytosine (C). In RNA, the Thymine (T) is replaced by Uracil (U). Thymine (or Uracil in RNA) always pairs with Adenine (2 hydrogen bonds) and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine (3 hydrogen bonds).. ...
Immunohistochemical staining of mirror sections in this study showed expression of both Arp2 and WAVE2 in the same adenocarcinoma of the lung cells, and the clinical data indicated that coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 was an independent risk factor for tumor recurrence. The state of coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 would determine whether strong adjuvant chemotherapy should be done especially at stage IA; coexpression was also shown to affect the overall survival rate of the 115 patients and was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. These results suggest that coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 is involved in a mechanism that augments the malignant potential of the tumor cells.. To analyze the relationship between coexpression and mild chemotherapy, which is mainly composed of oral uracil and tegafur in this study, we divided 77 cases of stage I into two cases with positive coexpression and with negative coexpression. In 45 positive coexpression cases, patients who received chemotherapy ...
So many thanks to Mary and Rosella for your suggestions. I shall be sure to write a few more poems now based on your ideas. A little teaser- the fourth poem is tenetatively titled Adenine and Uracil- A Molecular Beanstalk/ Jack and The Giant- A Tale of DNA Replication/ Fee Fi Fo Fum- The Role of DNA ...
Krokan, Hans Einar; Kavli, Bodil Merete; Akbari, Mansour; Visnes, Torkild; Pettersen, Henrik P Sahlin; Sundheim, Ottar; Hagen, Lars; Otterlei, Marit; Gilljam, Karin Margaretha; Slupphaug, Geir. (2007) Repair og uracil in DNA by UNG2 and SMUG1 - an update. DNA Repair. ...
* found in: NADP Disodium Salt Trihydrate, DNTP Set, 2-Deoxyguanosine Monohydrate, Adenosine-5-Triphosphate (ATP), Uracil, DATP 100 mm Solution pH 7.0,..
Hello! The contents of this entry were transferred to MomsterTeachers new home! Find the contents here: UPDATE: Brain Trains UPCAT Passers and Outstanding DLSU CAT, ACET, and UPCAT Passers
PURPOSE The primary aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin (LV) with the efficacy of weekly intravenous fluorouracil (FU) plus LV in prolonging disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after primary surgery for colon carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between February 1997 and March 1999, 1,608 patients with stage II and III carcinoma of the colon were randomly assigned to receive either oral UFT+LV or intravenous FU+LV. RESULTS Of the total patients, 47% had stage II colon cancer, and 53% had stage III colon cancer. Median follow-up time was 62.3 months. The estimated hazard ratio (HR) for OS of patients who received UFT+LV versus that of patients who received FU+LV was 1.014 (95% CI, 0.825 to 1.246). The estimated HR for DFS was 1.004 (95% CI, 0.847 to 1.190). Cox proportional hazards model analyses with regard to age (| 60 v | or = 60 years), stage, or number of involved nodes (none v one to three v | or = four nodes)
Herein, we describe a novel enzyme-free and label-free strategy for colorimetric assay of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) activity, which relies on a target-activated toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) circuit. The strategy employs a detection probe composed of an uracil-containing strand and a catalyst strand (CS) designed to trigger the TMSD circuit. Thus, in the presence of UDG which cleaves uracil bases and destabilizes the detection probe, CS is released to promote the TMSD reaction. This leads to the liberation of a G-quadruplex DNAzyme strand (GS) with the peroxidase mimicking activity, which is initially caged by a blocker strand. Notably, a fuel strand is supplemented to promote another cycle of TMSD reaction by recycling the CS, which activates a large number of GSs. As a consequence, a distinct colorimetric signal is generated from the oxidation of ABTS by GSs. With this strategy, we selectively determined the UDG activity down to 0.006 U/ml, and also identified its presence ...
We describe the characterization of a family 4 UDG1 (uracil DNA glycosylase) from the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus. UDG1 is found to have a marked preference for substrates containing a G:U base pair over either A:U or single-stranded uracil-containing DNA substrates. UDG1 is found to interact with the sliding clamp PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and does so by a conserved motif in the C-terminus of the protein. S. solfataricus has a heterotrimeric PCNA, and only one of the subunits, PCNA3, interacts with UDG1. We have been unable to detect any stimulation of UDG activity by PCNA, in contrast with the observed effects of PCNA on a number of DNA metabolic enzymes. However, analysis of the effects of Sulfolobus chromatin proteins on UDG1 leads us to propose a mechanistic basis for coupling UDG1 to the replication fork.. ...
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The use of enzymes as biocatalysts applied to synthesis of modified nucleoside-5-monophosphates (NMPs) is an interesting alternative to traditional multistep chemical methods which offers several advantages, such as stereo, regio and enantioselectivity, simple downstream processing, and mild reaction conditions. Herein we report the recombinant expression, production and purification of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Thermus themophilus HB8 (TtUPRT). The structure of TtUPRT has been determined by protein crystallography, and its substrate specificity and biochemical characteristics have been analysed, providing new structural insights into the substrate-binding mode. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant protein indicates that the enzyme is a homotetramer, with activity and stability across a broad range of temperatures (50-80 °C), pH (5.5-9) and ionic strength (0-500 mM NaCl). Surprisingly, TtUPRT is able to recognize several 5 and 6-substituted pyrimidines as substrates. ...
This is a special drug use surveillance on long-term use of alogliptin with a 1-year (12-month) observational period, designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term combination therapy with alogliptin and biguanides in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the routine clinical setting.. Participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and exercise therapy will be enrolled. The planned sample size is 1,000.. The usual adult dosage for oral use is 1 alogliptin tablet (25 mg) once daily. ...
Uracil Mustard: Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.
5-(Hydroxymethyl)-uracil (CAS 4433-40-3) Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on 5-(hydroxymethyl)-uracil market globally
OBJECTIVES:. I. Compare the response rate, response duration, and survival of patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with oral fluorouracil (5-FU) and eniluracil or with protracted infusion 5-FU.. II. Compare the toxicity of these treatment regimens in this patient population.. OUTLINE: This is a randomized study. Patients are stratified according to performance status (0 vs 1-2) and measurable disease (yes vs no). Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms.. ARM I: Patients receive fluorouracil IV as a continuous infusion for 28 days.. ARM II: Patients receive eniluracil/fluorouracil orally twice a day for 28 days.. Treatment continues every 35 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Patients are followed at least every 10 weeks for 1 year. ...
The replicating polymerase scans the template, ahead of the replication fork, for the presence of uracil and halts polymerisation on detecting this base.
Once a set of random fragments have been created and cloned into a suitable expression vector, one needs to screen this library for individual clones with the desired properties of minimum size and high-level soluble expression. This is usually performed by fusion to a peptide or protein tag. For example, Reich et al. [31] generated a random fragment library of p85a by performing a PCR where the standard dNTP mixture was doped with dUTP and then the product was treated with uracil-DNA glycosylase to excise the uracil bases, generating abasic sites. These are cleaved by endonuclease IV, giving a single-strand nick that is converted into a double-strand break and blunt-ended by S1 nuclease. The advantage of this method is that the size distribution is dependent solely on the proportion of dUTP included in the original PCR mixture. Transformants are screened for soluble expression by the principle of tag availability, where it is reasoned that soluble, correctly folded, monomeric protein will ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonadiabatic Dynamics of Uracil: Population Split among Different Decay Mechanisms. AU - Nachtigallova, Dana. AU - Aquino, Adelia. AU - Szymczak, Jaroslaw J.. AU - Barbatti, Mario. AU - Hobza, Pavel. AU - Lischka, Hans. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Article. SP - 5247. EP - 5255. JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry A. JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry A. SN - 1089-5639. ER - ...
uracil answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
1I5E: Structure of product-bound Bacillus caldolyticus uracil phosphoribosyltransferase confirms ordered sequential substrate binding.
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Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1. with cytotoxic medications. The Jadad size was utilized to measure the quality of scientific research. Outcomes This search determined 213 studies, including 77 clinical studies that reported around the combined use of cytotoxic drugs with Yunzhi (n?=?56) or Lingzhi (n?=?21). Majority of these clinical studies demonstrated modest methodological quality. In clinical practice, the most commonly used cytotoxic drugs with Lingzhi were cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel, whereas Tegafur/uracil (UFT)/Tegafur, 5-FU, and mitomycin were the ones used more often with Yunzhi. Only two clinical pharmacokinetic studies were available showing no significant interactions between Polysaccharide K (PSK) and Tegafur. From the pharmacodynamic interactions perspective, combination uses of Yunzhi/Lingzhi with cytotoxic drugs in clinical practice could lead to improvement in survival (n?=?31) and quality of life (n?=?17), reduction in tumor lesions (n?=?22), ...
Because alogliptin and pioglitazone is not suitable for everyone, this eMedTV article discusses important precautions and warnings to review before starting treatment with this drug. This page also explains who should not take this diabetes medication.
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Vipdomet tablets contain two active ingredients, metformin and alogliptin. These are both medicines used to help control blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
A fairly deep split in phylogenetic and UPGMA trees separates this mostly prokaryotic set of uracil phosphoribosyltransferases from a mostly eukaryotic set that includes uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, uridine kinases, and other, uncharacterized proteins ...
The incorporation of ureidosuccinic and orotic acid into the cytosine moiety of the nucleic acids of some mammalian tissues was significantly depressed by DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) relative to the effect on nucleic acid uracil and thymine. This cytosine effect was found in the case of liver, intestine, and tumor of rats bearing human tumor transplants H.S. #1 and H.Ep. #3 following single-dose intraperitoneal administration at a level of 3 mg/kg. This effect was also found in in vitro incorporation studies with rat liver as well as with tumor slices.. These results suggest that DON (or a compound derived biosynthetically from the latter) is interfering along a metabolic pathway leading from a uracil-containing metabolite to one containing the cytosine moiety. When uniformly labeled cytidylic acid-C14 was used as a precursor in vitro with tumor slices, DON had no appreciable effect on the incorporation of radiocarbon into the nucleic acid pyrimidines. When uniformly labeled uridylic ...
Degradation pathways of pyrimidine bases are common to uracil, thymine, and the halogenated analogues of uracil and involve the same enzymes (Fig. 1). Cytosine nucleotides undergo deamination to form...
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User:Catherine I. Mortensen,Catherine I. Mortensen]] 13:46, 1 March 2013 (EST): The presence of a polyuracil region is not dependent on whether or not the hairpin forms. A polymerase will transcribe through a polyuracil region but the speed at which it does this decreases because something about the chemistry of uracil (possibly due to the fact that uracil can only form 2 hydrogen bonds instead of 3 like guanine and cytosine can) slightly destabilizes the polymerase. When the hairpin forms, the polymerase becomes too unstable to hold onto the polyuracil region. Its as if the polymerase runs over a bump and loses control Id say ...
User:Catherine I. Mortensen,Catherine I. Mortensen]] 13:46, 1 March 2013 (EST): The presence of a polyuracil region is not dependent on whether or not the hairpin forms. A polymerase will transcribe through a polyuracil region but the speed at which it does this decreases because something about the chemistry of uracil (possibly due to the fact that uracil can only form 2 hydrogen bonds instead of 3 like guanine and cytosine can) slightly destabilizes the polymerase. When the hairpin forms, the polymerase becomes too unstable to hold onto the polyuracil region. Its as if the polymerase runs over a bump and loses control Id say ...
Pirimidini su na kraju degradirani do CO2, H2O, i ureje. Citozin može biti razložen u uracil koji se dalje razlaže do N-karbamoil-β-alanina. Timin se degradira do β-aminoizobutirata koji se može dalje razložiti u intermedijare koji konačno vode do ciklusa limunske kiselina.[1]. β-aminoizobutirat služi kao grubi indikator stope DNK prometa.[10]. ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
Àcid nucleic constituït per nucleòtids de ribosa, àcid fosfòric i les bases nitrogenades adenina, citosina, guanina i uracil, que es troba fonamentalment en el nucli, en els ribosomes, en els mitoribosomes i en els plastoribosomes, i que té per missió principal la síntesi de proteïnes, dacord amb la informació genètica continguda en el DNA ...
* found in: Adenosine 5-triphosphate, disodium salt, 98%, Uracil, 99%, 6-Methyl-2-thiouracil, 98%, Purine, 98%, Adenosine 5-monophosphate monohydrate, 5..
RNA vs. DNA DNA:  Double Stranded  Sugar is Deoxyribose  Contains Thymine to pair with Adenine RNA:  Single Stranded  Sugar is Ribose  Contains Uracil to pair with Adenine
In both the cases, the DNA strands work as templet. In both the cases, the cmplementary strands are formed on the DNA strands. But in the case of transcription cytosine is replaced with uracil. Thank you
Synonyms for 3RU in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for 3RU. 3 synonyms for U: uracil, atomic number 92, uranium. What are synonyms for 3RU?
There are 16 six-letter words containing A, C, I, L and R: ARCHIL CARLIN CAROLI ... RACILY RICTAL URACIL. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. See other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Words that start with thymine, Unscrambled words that start with thymine, Words starting with thymine, Words that begin with thymine, Words beginning with thymine, Words with the prefix thymine
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uracil . urea . uric acid . urine . uterus . vacuole A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells ... and uracil (in RNA); it is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine ...
5a Uracil; 5 Uracil dimer; 6a 2-pyridoxine; 6b 2-aminopyridine; 6 2-pyridoxine/2-aminopyridine; 7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 ... 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine stack; 16b Ethyne; 16 Ethene/ethyne; 17 Benzene/water; 18 ...
Enzymatic pathways of uracil anabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1): 329-38. PMID 13449076. PAEGE LM, SCHLENK F (1952). "Bacterial ... uracil + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are uridine and phosphate, whereas its two products ... are uracil and alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the ... uracil riboside phosphorylase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 40 (1): 42-9. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(52)90071-4. PMID 12997187. Pontis H ...
Vertessy BG, Toth J (2009). "Keeping uracil out of DNA". Accounts of Chemical Research. 42 (1): 97-106. doi:10.1021/ar800114w. ... Mol CD, Harris JM, McIntosh EM, Tainer JA (September 1996). "Human dUTP pyrophosphatase: uracil recognition by a beta hairpin ... Lack or inhibition of dUTPase action leads to harmful perturbations in the nucleotide pool resulting in increased uracil ... Vassylyev DG, Morikawa K (1996). "Precluding uracil from DNA". Structure. 4 (12): 1381-5. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(96)00145-1. ...
"Uracil". Genome.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2019.. *^ Russell P (2001). iGenetics. New York: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-4553 ... uracil (U), usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. In ... which RNA substitutes for uracil (U).[4] Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within ... including uracil, cytosine, and thymine, have also been formed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking those found in ...
Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... Chemically, uracil is similar to thymine, differing only by a methyl group, and its production requires less energy. In terms ... RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under conditions found only in outer space, using ...
RNA contains uracil instead of thymine. It has been proved in the laboratory that a single strand of DNA of one species can ...
Uracil is only present in RNA, replacing thymine. Pyrimidines include thymine, cytosine, and uracil. They have a single ring ... These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). These nitrogenous bases ...
The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms. For instance ... Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ...
This causes a U:G mispair which is detected by Uracil DNA glycosylase. The uracil base is flipped out into the glycosylase ... An example of base excision repair occurs when a cytosine base is deaminated and becomes a uracil base. ... ISBN 978-0-321-76243-6. Krokan, Hans E; Drabløs, Finn; Slupphaug, Geir (16 December 2002). "Uracil in DNA - occurrence, ... Research has demonstrated both mechanisms: uracil-DNA glycosylase follows the passive mechanism and Tn10 transposase follows ...
While spontaneous deamination of cytosine forms uracil, which is recognized and removed by DNA repair enzymes, deamination of 5 ... quite distinct from conventional cytosine and uracil. After seven decades, it turned out that it is also a common feature in ... cytosine deaminates to uracil under similar conditions. 5-methylcytosine is resistant to deamination by bisulfite treatment, ...
Thymine and uracil are identical excepting that T includes a methyl group that U lacks. Adenine and guanine have a fused-ring ... Similarly, the simple-ring structure of cytosine, uracil, and thymine is derived of pyrimidine, so those three bases are called ... and uracil (U)-are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units of the genetic code, with the bases A, G ... and uracil results from deamination of cytosine. These are examples of modified adenosine or guanosine. These are examples of ...
... uracil) replacing T (thymine). Apart from adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and uracil (U), DNA and RNA also ... Similarly, deamination of cytosine results in uracil. In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by ...
In DNA, uracil is replaced with thymine. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Western blotting ... translocation transcriptome Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z uracil One of the four ... DNA differs from RNA by its inclusion of thymine (T) as a nitrogenous base, whereas RNA includes uracil (U) instead. In DNA, ... In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil. transcription The first step in gene expression, in which a messenger RNA molecule ...
However, uracil is only found in RNA. Therefore, after UTP is synthesized, it is must be converted into a deoxy form to be ... In contrast to uracil, thymine bases are found mostly in DNA, not RNA. Cells do not normally contain thymine bases that are ... Other DNA and RNA nucleotide bases that are linked to the ribose sugar via a glycosidic bond are thymine, cytosine and uracil ( ... This reaction transfers a methyl group onto the uracil base of dUMP to generate dTMP. The thymidylate synthase reaction, dUMP ...
This enzyme dephosphorylates the 5'- and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides. The gene is located ... This enzyme functions in dephosphorylating nucleoside triphosphates, especially the 5′- and 2′(3′)-phosphates of uracil and ... mdN binds and dephosphorylates uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides. Mitochondria portal NT5C GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Robertson, Michael P.; Miller, Stanley L. (29 June 1995). "An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil". Nature. ... Other work demonstrated the formation of s-triazines (alternative nucleobases), pyrimidines (including cytosine and uracil), ... cytosine and uracil may require boiling temperatures. Research by the Miller group notes the formation of seven different amino ... including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting ...
Brunschweiger A, Müller CE (2006). "P2 receptors activated by uracil nucleotides--an update". Curr. Med. Chem. 13 (3): 289-312 ...
Uracil is located at the interface between the two domains. Uracil permease, UraA UraA with bound uracil at 2.8Å resolution PDB ... Uracil permeases, including UraA of E. coli (TC# 2.A.40.1.1), which facilitates Uracil uptake. Pyrimidine permeases, including ... biosynthesis operon of the thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus includes genes for uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and uracil ... "Structure and mechanism of the uracil transporter UraA". Nature. 472 (7342): 243-6. doi:10.1038/nature09885. PMID 21423164. ...
... typically with uracil) Colorectal (usually when combined with gimeracil and oteracil) Head and neck Liver (with uracil) ... oteracil or uracil. These agents achieve this by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (uracil/gimeracil) or ... It is a component of the combination drug tegafur/uracil. When metabolised, it becomes 5-FU. As a prodrug to 5-FU it is used in ... Ishikawa, T (14 May 2008). "Chemotherapy with enteric-coated tegafur/uracil for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma" (PDF). World ...
In RNA, the complement of adenine (A) is uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), so the pairs that form are adenine:uracil and ... Very rarely, thymine can appear in RNA, or uracil in DNA, but when the other three major pyrimidine bases are represented, some ... Three nucleobases found in nucleic acids, cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U), are pyrimidine derivatives: In DNA and RNA ... Pyrimidine also photolytically decomposes into uracil under ultraviolet light. As is often the case with parent heterocyclic ...
"A Novel Method of Caffeine Synthesis from Uracil" (PDF). Synthetic Communications. 33 (19): 3291-3297. doi:10.1081/SCC- ...
Following the stem-loop structure is a chain of uracil residues. The bonds between uracil and adenine are very weak. A protein ... This pausing of the polymerase coincides with transcription of the poly-uracil sequence. The weak Adenine-Uracil bonds lower ... Stem-loop structures that are not followed by a poly-Uracil sequence cause the RNA polymerase to pause, but it will typically ...
... mutant is an auxotrophic mutant for uracil. The pyrE from a distantly related genus of T. maritima rescued the uracil ...
In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby ... 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits ... In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann ... As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. ...
... is an intermediate in the catabolism of uracil. Dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+) Dihydrouracil oxidase ...
Sodium bisulfite is a chemical compound that converts unmethylated cytosines into uracil. The cytosines that haven't converted ... in uracil are methylated. After sequencing, the unmethylated cytosines appear as thymines. This technique measures single- ...
Instead of thymidine, RNA contains uridine (uracil joined to ribose). Uracil is chemically very similar to thymine, which is ...
... (INN) or uracil mustard is a chemotherapy drug which belongs to the class of alkylating agents. It is used in ... It works by damaging DNA, primarily in cancer cells that preferentially take up the uracil due to their need to make nucleic ... Chemically it is a derivative of nitrogen mustard and uracil.. ...
In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine. Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine. Uracil is a common and ... Uracil is a weak acid. The first site of ionization of uracil is not known. The negative charge is placed on the oxygen anion ... When uracil reacts with anhydrous hydrazine, a first-order kinetic reaction occurs and the uracil ring opens up. If the pH of ... The reactivity of uracil remains unchanged, even if the temperature changes. Uracils use in the body is to help carry out the ...
Ab initio Methods: We performed ab initio calculations on a number of variants of cytosine and uracil structures which we ... Uracil as an Alternative. to 5-Fluorocytosine in Addressable Protein Targeting by John A. Wendel and Steven S. Smith ... The initial nucleophilic attack of uracil by the enzyme is not favored because the resulting intemediate must develop negative ...
The uracil causes higher amounts of 5-FU to stay inside the cells and kill them. Tegafur is a type of antimetabolite. Uracil ... Excess uracil competes with 5-FU for DPD, thus inhibiting 5-FU catabolism. The tegafur is taken up by the cancer cells and ... Tegafur/uracil is a chemotherapy drug combination used in the treatment of cancer, primarily bowel cancer. It is also called ... Tegafur/uracil is marketed by companies including Merck Serono, Korea United and Jeil, Taiho, mostly in Asia, Europe, South ...
... uracil; Uracil, di(trimethylsilyl) deriv.; Uracil, bis-TMS; Uracil, diTMS; Uracil bis(trimethylsilyl) ether; Uracil, TMS; ... Uracil, 2TMS derivative. *Formula: C10H20N2O2Si2 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Learn about the potential side effects of Uracil (doxycycline). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers ... Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Uracil. ... Along with its needed effects, doxycycline (the active ingredient contained in Uracil) may cause some unwanted effects. ...
Short name: Uracil-DNA_glycosylase-like_sf Description. This entry represents various uracil-DNA glycosylases and related DNA ... Uracil-DNA glycosylases are DNA repair enzymes that excise uracil residues from DNA by cleaving the N-glycosylic bond, ... These aberrant uracil residues are genotoxic [PMID: 16860315]. The sequence of uracil-DNA glycosylase is extremely well ... Thermostable uracil-DNA glycosylase from Thermotoga maritima a member of a novel class of DNA repair enzymes.. Curr. Biol. 9 ...
Efficient site-directed mutagenesis using uracil-containing DNA.. Kunkel TA, Bebenek K, McClary J. ...
Ahn J, Vu T, Novince Z, Guerrero-Santoro J, Rapic-Otrin V, Gronenborn AM (2010) HIV-1 Vpr loads uracil DNA glycosylase-2 onto ... Krokan HE, Drabløs F, Slupphaug G (2002) Uracil in DNA: occurrence, consequences and repair. Oncogene 21:8935-8948CrossRef ... Fenard D, Houzet L, Bernard E, Tupin A, Brun S, Mougel M, Devaux C, Chazal N, Briant L (2009) Uracil DNA glycosylase 2 ... Mansky LM, Preveral S, Selig L, Benarous R, Benichou S (2000) The interaction of vpr with uracil DNA glycosylase modulates the ...
Crystal structures of Toxoplasma gondii uracil phosphoribosyltransferase reveal the atomic basis of pyrimidine discrimination ...
Uracil je jedna od četiri nukleobaza RNK, koja zamenjuje timin koji se nalazi u DNK. Kao i timin, uracil može da formira bazni ... Uracil će, za razliku od timina, lakše da se degeneriše u citozin. Uracil se vrlo retko može naći u DNK. ... uracil: Dihidrouracil • 3-Ureidopropionska kiselina • β-Alanin. timin: Dihidrotimin • β-Ureidoizobuterna kiselina • 3- ... Dobavljeno iz "https://sh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Uracil&oldid=33653562" ...
Uracil is a base found in RNA. It pairs with adenine and replaces thymine in DNA. Uracil, a pyrimidine, was originally ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Uracil&oldid=6465669" ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and uracil mustard. View detailed information regarding this ... coccidioidin skin test uracil mustard. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and uracil mustard ... Depending on the dose and length of time you have been on uracil mustard, you may have a reduced response to the skin test. It ... If you are currently being treated or have recently been treated with uracil mustard, you should let your doctor know before ...
Base excision repair initiation revealed by crystal structures and binding kinetics of human uracil-DNA glycosylase with DNA. ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase-like Uracil-DNA glycosylase-like Uracil-DNA glycosylase Uracil-DNA glycosylase Human (Homo sapiens) [ ...
A. Pałasz and D. Cież, "In search of uracil derivatives as bioactive agents. Uracils and fused uracils: synthesis, biological ... Molecular Modeling Studies of Some Uracil and New Deoxyuridine Derivatives. Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb1 and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb2 ... A. Shah, E. Nosheen, F. Zafar et al., "Photochemistry and electrochemistry of anticancer uracils," Journal of Photochemistry ... T. Lukmanov, P. Sergey, M. Edward, and L. Sergey, "Relative stability of keto-enol tautomers in 5,6-substituted uracils: ab ...
... and uracil in a molar ratio of 1:4. It was developed as an anti-cancer therapy by Taiho Pharmaceutical Co Ltd.It is approved in ... Tegafur-uracil is an anti-tumor compound containing tegafur (1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil) ... Tegafur-uracil is an anti-tumor compound containing tegafur (1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil) and uracil in a molar ratio ... Tegafur-uracil. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials Phase. Status. Purpose. Conditions. Count. 1. Completed. Treatment. Colorectal ...
1. Prepare Uracil-containing DNA (e.g. PCR amplification product). The Uracil Cleavage System enzymes are active in most ... The Uracil Cleavage System provides two enzymes, which, when added sequentially to a reaction containing a synthetic DNA ... 1 unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzes the release of 1.8 nmol of uracil in 30 minutes from double-stranded, ... UDG catalyses the excision of the uracil base, creating an abasic site with an intact phosphodiester backbone (1,2). The lyase ...
with the uracil O23. The ultimate reaction catalyzed by UDG cleavage of the glycosidic bond between the uracil base and its ... hydrogen bonds to the uracil N3. The closest interaction between the enzyme and the uracil involves two with the Asn204 of the ... Uracil-DNA Glycosylase. Rei Mitsuyama 15 and Holden Richards 15 Contents:. I. Introduction II. General Structure III. DNA ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase is lesion-specific (as the name suggests) for in DNA. For DNA to be bound by UDG, it must be in the B ...
Modifying Uracil DNA Glycosylase within Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton ... Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDGase) selectively recognises and cleaves uracil residues in DNA (which are produced by the mutagenic ... Research project: Modifying Uracil DNA Glycosylase. Currently Active: Yes. We are generating mutants of this DNA repair enzyme ...
Uracil, 6-methyl-4-propyl- , C8H12N2O2 , CID 165610 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
This patient-friendly article is about chemotherapy drug, Tegafur with uracil (Uftoral) which is a chemotherapy drug most often ... It is a combination of two drugs - tegafur and uracil and is what is known as an anti-metabolite which stops cells making and ... The uracil interacts with the tegafur and stops 5FU breaking down. This means that there is more of the active drug in your ...
... coli uracil N-glycosylase gene, which has been inserted into an E. coli host to direct the expression of the wild type form of ... AmpErase Uracil N-Glycosylase (UNG), part of the GeneAmp PCR Carry-over Prevention Kit, is a 26 kDa ultrapure, recombinant ... Uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) prior to PCR amplification. Products from PCR amplification contain uracil, and are readily ... The enzyme removes any uracil incorporated into single- or double-stranded DNA.. GeneAmp® PCR Carry-over Prevention Kit. The ...
a) A comparison of the ability of DNA polymerases to amplify DNA fragments using uracil-free (-dU) and uracil-containing ... Advancing uracil-excision based cloning towards an ideal technique for cloning PCR fragments.. Nour-Eldin HH1, Hansen BG, ... The largely unused uracil-excision molecular cloning technique has excellent features in most aspects compared to other modern ... A PCR fragment amplified with compatible uracil-containing primers by the PfuTurbo® Cx Hotstart DNA polymerase is mixed with ...
Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme u … ... Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme uracil-DNA ... Formation of Okazaki fragments in polyoma DNA synthesis caused by misincorporation of uracil Cell. 1978 Mar;13(3):573-80. doi: ... This effect was reversed completely by uracil. The short strands formed from dUTP could be chased efficiently into long strands ... contain an excision-repair system which by removal of uracil causes strand breakage and under certain circumstances may ...
Excises uracil residues from the DNA which can arise as a result of misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due ... Excises uracil residues from the DNA which can arise as a result of misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due ... Belongs to the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. UNG family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Hydrolyzes single-stranded DNA or mismatched double-stranded DNA and polynucleotides, releasing free uracil.UniRule annotation ...
Uracil, allosteric regulator and coenzyme (CAS 66-22-8), with ,98% purity. Water soluble compound. Join researchers using our ...
... catalyses the release of free Uracil from Uracil-containing DNA. UNG efficiently hydrolyzes uracil from signle-stranded or ... Uracil DNA Glycosylase, UNG.. Description. E.Coli Uracil DNA Glycosilase (UNG) catalyses the release of free Uracil from Uracil ... Uracil DNA Glycosilase although stable at 15°C for 1 week, should be stored below -18°C. Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles. ... UNG efficiently hydrolyzes uracil from signle-stranded or double-stranded DNA, but not from oligomers (6 fewer bases). ...
Phenotypic Change Caused by Transcriptional Bypass of Uracil in Nondividing Cells. By Anand Viswanathan, Ho Jin You, Paul W. ... Phenotypic Change Caused by Transcriptional Bypass of Uracil in Nondividing Cells. By Anand Viswanathan, Ho Jin You, Paul W. ... Cytosine deamination to uracil occurs frequently in cellular DNA. In vitro, RNA polymerase efficiently inserts adenine opposite ... This study demonstrates that in nondividingEscherichia coli cells, a DNA template base replaced with uracil in a stop codon in ...
Excises uracil residues from the DNA which can arise as a result of misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due ... Excises uracil residues from the DNA which can arise as a result of misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due ... Uracil-DNA glycosylaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... Belongs to the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. UNG family.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which ...
  • Uracil one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine, cytosine, and guanine. (definitions.net)
  • In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. (definitions.net)
  • Uracil is a common and naturally occurring pyrimidine derivative. (definitions.net)
  • Studies reported in 2008, based on ¹²C/¹³C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that uracil, xanthine and related molecules were formed extraterrestrially. (definitions.net)
  • The determination of accurate appearance energy was analyzed for the interaction of electrons and protons with the RNA-base Uracil using rare gases. (nyu.edu)
  • Uracil (U) is one of the four bases found in RNA . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Uracil /ˈjʊərəsɪl/ (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because cytosine can deaminate spontaneously to produce uracil through hydrolytic deamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if there were an organism that used uracil in its DNA, the deamination of cytosine (which undergoes base pairing with guanine) would lead to formation of uracil (which would base pair with adenine) during DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme would therefore recognize and cut out both types of uracil - the one incorporated naturally, and the one formed due to cytosine deamination, which would trigger unnecessary and inappropriate repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uracil in DNA can arise either through the deamination of cytosine to form mutagenic U:G mispairs, or through the incorporation of dUMP by DNA polymerase to form U:A pairs [ PMID: 17116429 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is believed that these hydrogen bonds allow UDG to distinguish between cytosine and uracil 4 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Excises uracil residues from the DNA which can arise as a result of misincorporation of dUMP residues by DNA polymerase or due to deamination of cytosine. (uniprot.org)
  • Cytosine deamination to uracil occurs frequently in cellular DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Uracil is one of the four bases found in RNA (along with adenine, cytosine and guanine). (sciencephoto.com)
  • We report an antitumor therapeutic EndoCD fusion protein developed by linking endostatin (Endo) to cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The enzymes also excised uracil (U) and uracil derivatives bearing an oxidized group at C5 [5-hydroxyuracil (hoU) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU)] in ssDNA and dsDNA but not analogous cytosine derivatives (5-hydroxycytosine and 5-formylcytosine) and other oxidized damage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Accumulation of uracil into DNA is influenced by cytosine deamination, de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, salvage thymidylate biosynthesis, dUTPase, and DNA repair initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs). (cornell.edu)
  • Uracil in DNA may result from deamination of cytosine [ 1 ] or misincorporation during replication [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Tegafur/uracil is a chemotherapy drug combination used in the treatment of cancer, primarily bowel cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an oral agent which combines uracil, a competitive inhibitor of DPD, with the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug tegafur in a 4:1 molar ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the UK, tegafur/uracil with folinic acid is approved as first line treatment by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for metastatic colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made by various manufacturers and sold under a variety of names including: Tegafur-uracil, UFT, Ftorafur, Tefudex, Ufur and Uftoral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tegafur-uracil is an anti-tumor compound containing tegafur (1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil) and uracil in a molar ratio of 1:4. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tegafur-uracil is indicated for the first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with concomitant administration of calcium folinate. (drugbank.ca)
  • The use of the combination of tegafur and uracil allows increasing the oral bioavailability, improving the pharmacokinetic behavior of the delivered 5-fluoruracil and increasing the half-life of tegafur. (drugbank.ca)
  • There is no significant long-term accumulation of either uracil, tegafur or 5-fluorouracil. (drugbank.ca)
  • The serum binding protein of tegafur is of 52% while the protein binding of uracil is negligible. (drugbank.ca)
  • The presence of uracil generates an increase in the half-life of tegafur and it is registered to be of 11 hours. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tegafur with uracil (Uftoral) which is a chemotherapy drug most often used to treat bowel cancer. (canceractive.com)
  • It is a combination of two drugs - tegafur and uracil and is what is known as an anti-metabolite which stops cells making and repairing DNA. (canceractive.com)
  • The uracil interacts with the tegafur and stops 5FU breaking down. (canceractive.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus colitis in a patient undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for lung adenocarcinoma with uracil-tegafur. (springer.com)
  • Uracil can block the degradation effect of tegafur, and thus increasing the concentration of fluorouracil which enhance the anti-cancer effects. (chemicalbook.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the inhibitory action of uracil-tegafur (UFT) and cis -diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) on lymphatic metastasis and life span prolongation in our lymphogenous metastatic model system using SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • UFUR® is a composite drug composed of 100mg tegafur and 224mg uracil (molar ratio:1:4). (knowcancer.com)
  • Tegafur/uracil has been approved for the indications of advanced gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, which are traditionally indicated for the therapy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy, in Japan and Taiwan. (knowcancer.com)
  • We hypothesize that combination of tegafur/uracil (UFUR®) and thalidomide, both of which have been shown to be active in some HCC patients, may be a highly useful regimen for the treatment of advanced HCC. (knowcancer.com)
  • The combination of tegafur/uracil (UFUR®) and thalidomide has clinical advantages for patients with HCC. (knowcancer.com)
  • Oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin compared with intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin in stage II and III carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol C-06. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PURPOSE The primary aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin (LV) with the efficacy of weekly intravenous fluorouracil (FU) plus LV in prolonging disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after primary surgery for colon carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A combination of oral uracil-tegafur plus leucovorin (UFT + LV) is a safe regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy after hepatectomy in patients with colorectal cancer: safety report of the UFT/LV study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Health-related quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer who receive oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The oral fluoropyrimidine tegafur-uracil (UFT) is an effective, well-tolerated and convenient alternative to intravenous 5-FU. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The oral fluoropyrimidine UFT (tegafur-uracil) is an effective, well-tolerated and convenient alternative to i.v. 5-FU that is widely used in the treatment of colorectal cancer [ 5 ] (Borner et al , 2002). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The oral administration of tegafur has been reported to present toxicity but the usage of the combo product tegafur/uracil have presented higher levels of 5-fluorouracil without the toxic effects or oral tegafur. (drugbank.com)
  • Crystal structure and mutational analysis of human uracil-DNA glycosylase: structural basis for specificity and catalysis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular cloning of human uracil-DNA glycosylase, a highly conserved DNA repair enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Human uracil N -glycosylase isoform 2-UNG2 consists of an N-terminal intrinsically disordered regulatory domain (UNG2 residues 1-92, 9.3 kDa) and a C-terminal structured catalytic domain (UNG2 residues 93-313, 25.1 kDa). (springer.com)
  • Mol CD, Arvai AS, Slupphaug G, Kavli B, Alseth I, Krokan HE, Tainer JA (1995) Crystal structure and mutational analysis of human uracil-DNA glycosylase: structural basis for specificity and catalysis. (springer.com)
  • Slupphaug G, Mol CD, Kavli B, Arvai AS, Krokan HE, Tainer JA (1996) A nucleotide-flipping mechanism from the structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase bound to DNA. (springer.com)
  • Nuclear human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) initiates base excision repair (BER) of genomic uracils generated through misincorporation of dUMP or through deamination of cytosines. (elsevier.com)
  • Uracil-DNA glycosylases are DNA repair enzymes that excise uracil residues from DNA by cleaving the N-glycosylic bond, initiating the base excision repair pathway. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • UDG catalyses the excision of the uracil base, creating an abasic site with an intact phosphodiester backbone (1,2). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Advancing uracil-excision based cloning towards an ideal technique for cloning PCR fragments. (nih.gov)
  • The largely unused uracil-excision molecular cloning technique has excellent features in most aspects compared to other modern cloning techniques. (nih.gov)
  • 1977), contain an excision-repair system which by removal of uracil causes strand breakage and under certain circumstances may contribute to the formation of Okazaki fragments. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously reported that the base excision repair (BER) protein, uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is induced in response to DNA damage caused by fludarabine, a nucleoside analog and pemetrexed, an inhibitor of dihidrofolate reductase (DHFR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A novel assay was developed to measure uracil excision activity of cell lysates. (cornell.edu)
  • Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) is a DNA repair enzyme involved in the base excision repair pathway (BER) for removal of uracil in DNA. (omicsonline.org)
  • The base-excision repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) plays a crucial role in the maintenance of genome integrity. (springer.com)
  • Wang LJ, Ren M, Zhang QY, Tang B, Zhang CY (2017) Excision repair-initiated enzyme-assisted bicyclic cascade signal amplification for ultrasensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase. (springer.com)
  • Chen L, Long Y, Liu B, Xiang D, Zhu H (2014) Real time monitoring uracil excision using uracil-containing molecular beacons. (springer.com)
  • The procedure consists of PCR-based incorporation of uracil into a wild-type template, bead-based capture, elution of single-strand DNA, and in vitro uracil excision enzyme based degradation of the template DNA. (dtu.dk)
  • Although the N-terminal domain has minimal effects on DNA binding and uracil excision kinetics, we report that this domain enhances the ability of hUNG2 to translocate on DNA chains as compared to the catalytic domain alone. (elsevier.com)
  • These aberrant uracil residues are genotoxic [ PMID: 16860315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Products from previous PCR amplifications are eliminated by excising uracil residues using UNG, and degrading the resulting abasic polynucleotide with heat. (thermofisher.com)
  • In all four cases analysis of the hypochromic effect revealed that adenine and uracil residues tended to form clusters along the polynucleotide chain. (biochemj.org)
  • abstract = "The determination of accurate appearance energy was analyzed for the interaction of electrons and protons with the RNA-base Uracil using rare gases. (nyu.edu)
  • Uracil-DNA glycosylase excises uracil bases from double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzes the release of 1.8 nmol of uracil in 30 minutes from double-stranded, tritiated, uracil containing-DNA at 37 °C in 1X UDG Reaction Buffer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The enzyme removes any uracil incorporated into single- or double-stranded DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • Hydrolyzes single-stranded DNA or mismatched double-stranded DNA and polynucleotides, releasing free uracil. (uniprot.org)
  • UNG efficiently hydrolyzes uracil from signle-stranded or double-stranded DNA, but not from oligomers (6 fewer bases). (prospecbio.com)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzes the release of 60 pmol of uracil per minute from double-stranded, uracil-containing DNA. (neb.sg)
  • A significant proportion of the U.S. population has low folate levels, in the range associated with elevated uracil misincorporation and chromosome breaks. (altmetric.com)
  • Uracil also recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phosphoribosyltransferase reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (FUR1). (wikigenes.org)
  • Kavli B et al (2002) hUNG2 Is the Major repair enzyme for removal of uracil from U:A matches, U:G mismatches, and U in single-stranded DNA, with hSMUG1 as a broad specificity backup. (springer.com)
  • Uracil-containing DNA still exists, for example in DNA of several phages Endopterygote development Hypermutations during the synthesis of vertebrate antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic synthesis of uracil glucuronide, labeling with 125/131I, and in vitro evaluation on adenocarcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notably, SHMT1 KO in HeLa cells is associated with unchanged levels of uracil in DNA, increased salvage thymidylate synthesis, and increased DNA repair. (cornell.edu)
  • Conversely, treatment of A549 cells with SHMT1 siRNA was associated with elevated uracil in DNA, decreased thymidylate salvage synthesis and decreased dUTPase expression. (cornell.edu)
  • Hirota, K. Uracils: Versatile starting materials in heterocyclic synthesis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thermostable uracil-DNA glycosylase from Thermotoga maritima a member of a novel class of DNA repair enzymes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Uracil Cleavage System provides two enzymes, which, when added sequentially to a reaction containing a synthetic DNA fragment containing a deoxy-uracil, generate a single nucleotide gap at the location of the uracil residue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Uracil Cleavage System enzymes are active in most molecular biology reaction buffers, so there is no need to exchange buffers prior to assembling the cleavage reaction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The principle of the UraBT is based on metabolism of 2- 13 C-uracil by the enzymes of the pyrimidine-catabolic pathway to produce 13 CO 2 (see below, Eq. A). In DPD-deficient individuals, reduced 2- 13 C-uracil catabolism would be expected to result in decreased exhaled 13 CO 2 levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lu YJ, Hu DP, Deng Q, Wang ZY, Huang BH, Fang YX, Zhang K, Wong WL (2015) Sensitive and selective detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity with a new pyridinium luminescent switch-on molecular probe. (springer.com)
  • Wu YS, Wang L, Zhu J, Jiang W (2015) A DNA machine-based fluorescence amplification strategy for sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the response rate of elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with fluorouracil-uracil and leucovorin calcium (Orzel). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Moreover, Vpr drives the repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) towards degradation. (springer.com)
  • Based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, it is believed that uracil, xanthine and related molecules can also be formed extraterrestrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies reported in 2008, based on ¹²C/¹³C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that uracil, xanthine and related molecules were formed extraterrestrially. (definitions.net)
  • The majority of Us are proposed to be processed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) and an apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease, generating single-stranded nicks and staggered double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. (pnas.org)
  • Each component protein is purified separately from E. coli strains containing recombinant Endonuclease VIII and Uracil-DNA Glycosylase genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • GPR17 encodes the uracil nucleotide/cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor with dual specificity for uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl leukotrienes. (cellsciences.com)
  • Also known as G/U mismatch-specific uracil DNA glycosylase (Uracil mismatch repair protein). (mybiosource.com)
  • The Uracil Glycosylase Inhibitor (UGI) of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PBS1 is a small protein (9.5 kDa) which inhibits E. coli uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) as well as UDG from other species. (neb.sg)
  • Uracil is also involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and the transportation of sugars containing aldehydes. (hmdb.ca)
  • UTP is the precursor form of uracil in RNA biosynthesis. (chemicalbook.com)
  • These studies examined the effects of SHMT1 ablation on uracil incorporation, salvage thymidylate biosynthesis, dUTPase, and uracil repair in HeLa and A549 cells. (cornell.edu)
  • Addition of uracil, a known inhibitor of the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosidase (Lindahl et al. (nih.gov)
  • Uracil is an inhibitor of dihydro-pyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-FU degradation. (knowcancer.com)
  • Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is a powerful DNA repair enzyme that has been shown to stabilize a glycosyl cation reaction intermediate and a related tight binding inhibitor using electrostatic interactions with the +1 and -1, but not the +2, phosphodiester group of the single-stranded DNA substrate Ap (2+)Ap (1+)Up (1-)ApA. (mysciencework.com)
  • Since UDG remains partially active following heat treatment at 95°C, it is recommended that uracil glycosylase inhibitor be added to prevent degradation of product DNA. (neb.sg)
  • Uracil glycosylase inhibitor (UGI) inhibits uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). (neb.sg)
  • Degradation of uracil produces the substrates aspartate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • C4H4N2O2 → H3NCH2CH2COO− + NH4+ + CO2 Oxidative degradation of uracil produces urea and maleic acid in the presence of H2O2 and Fe2+ or in the presence of diatomic oxygen and Fe2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ahn J, Vu T, Novince Z, Guerrero-Santoro J, Rapic-Otrin V, Gronenborn AM (2010) HIV-1 Vpr loads uracil DNA glycosylase-2 onto DCAF1, a substrate recognition subunit of a cullin 4A-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase for proteasome-dependent degradation. (springer.com)
  • These findings have convened with results that suggested that the degradation of 5-fluorouracil can be depressed by the addition of uracil. (drugbank.ca)
  • The method used to render PCR products susceptible to degradation involves substituting dUTP for dTTP in the PCR mixture, and pretreating all subsequent PCR mixtures with AmpErase® Uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) prior to PCR amplification. (thermofisher.com)
  • The uracil dose, which was four times the Ft dose (molar basis), was previously shown to be optimal at inhibiting the degradation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The human UNG gene encodes both nuclear (UNG2) and mitochondrial (UNG1) forms of uracil-D glycosylase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Ectopic restriction of DNA repair reveals that UNG2 excises AID-induced uracils predominantly or exclusively during G1 phase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We previously showed that this positive impact on reverse transcription was related to Vpr binding to the uracil DNA glycosylase 2 enzyme (UNG2), leading to enhance‑ ment of virus infectivity in established CD4‑positive cell lines via a nonenzymatic mechanism. (inserm.fr)
  • Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • One unit of UNG catalyzes the release of 1 nmol of uracil from uracil-containing DNA in 1 hour at 37°C under standard assay conditions. (lucigen.com)
  • Products from PCR amplification contain uracil, and are readily distinguishable from native thymidine-containing DNA templates. (thermofisher.com)
  • Amplicon DNA that has incorporated dUTP can then be degraded with uracil-DNA glycosylase prior to subsequent amplification reactions, thus preventing these molecules from producing false positive results by acting as template. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The name "uracil" was coined in 1885 by the German chemist Robert Behrend, who was attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. Pałasz and D. Cież, "In search of uracil derivatives as bioactive agents. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of uracil derivatives which may be useful as gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonists. (google.com)
  • The likely mechanism is the deficient methylation of dUMP to dTMP and subsequent incorporation of uracil into DNA by DNA polymerase. (altmetric.com)
  • Clinical pharmacology of combined oral uracil and ftorafur. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phase I clinical trials of the combination of oral uracil with ftorafur (Ft) were conducted in patients with solid tumors over either a 5-day (345 mg/m2/day) or a 28-day (160 mg/m2/day) period. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Genomic uracil and human disease. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Secondary roles of UDGs in DNA demethylation and transcriptional repression suggest that genomic uracil may impact gene expression. (cornell.edu)
  • 1000 ng/ml are maintained throughout the 8-hour dosing interval, whereas uracil concentrations decline rapidly following the peak concentration. (drugbank.ca)
  • Ft was measured by HPLC, whereas uracil and 5-FU were measured using GC/MS. Plasma levels were highest for Ft, followed by uracil and 5-FU at all time points. (aspetjournals.org)
  • UNG is active on both ssDNA and dsDNA that contain uracil, but has no activity on RNA or 2´-deoxyuridine- 5´-monophosphate. (lucigen.com)
  • In vivo, uracil could potentially alter transcriptional fidelity, resulting in production of mutant proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • OUTLINE: Patients receive oral fluorouracil-uracil and oral leucovorin calcium (Orzel) every 8 hours for 28 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Identification of a poxvirus gene encoding a uracil DNA glycosylase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • AmpErase® Uracil N-Glycosylase (UNG), part of the GeneAmp® PCR Carry-over Prevention Kit, is a 26 kDa ultrapure, recombinant enzyme encoded by the E. coli uracil N-glycosylase gene, which has been inserted into an E. coli host to direct the expression of the wild type form of the enzyme. (thermofisher.com)
  • This study demonstrates that in nondividing Escherichia coli cells, a DNA template base replaced with uracil in a stop codon in the firefly luciferase gene results in conversion of inactive to active luciferase. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is emerging evidence that uracil incorporation also leads to transcriptional stalling, gene activation, and necrosis. (cornell.edu)
  • Using state-of-the-art quantum dynamical methods that take the complex RNA environment into account, they found that the sterical influence of the RNA strand can obstruct the molecular motion necessary for the ultrafast relaxation of uracil and trap the nucleobase in the excited state for several picoseconds - long enough for harmful chemical reactions to occur. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • More distantly related uracil-DNA glycosylases are also found in poxviruses [ PMID: 8389453 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) is one of 11 different human DNA glycosylases that have been identified 5 . (kenyon.edu)
  • The minor groove intercalation loop (leucine-loop) in Uracil-DNA N-glycosylases (UNGs) undergoes significant conformational changes upon substrate interaction. (omicsonline.org)
  • Loss of TK1 and dUTPase, and increased uracil incorporation induced by cisplatin treatment may explain the synergistic mechanism by which the combination chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin occurs. (cornell.edu)
  • The increased contact time with the DNA chain likely contributes to the ability of hUNG2 to locate densely spaced uracils that arise during somatic hypermutation and during fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • A PCR fragment amplified with compatible uracil-containing primers by the PfuTurbo ® C x Hotstart DNA polymerase is mixed with USER™ enzyme mix (removing uracils, pink) and the linearized vector. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro, RNA polymerase efficiently inserts adenine opposite to uracil, resulting in G to A base substitutions. (sciencemag.org)
  • The NEBNext Q5U Master Mix contains Q5U Hot Start High Fidelity DNA Polymerase, which can amplify DNA containing uracils. (neb.com)
  • Treatment of 0.1 µg of uracil-containing DNA with 1 unit of UDG for 10 minutes at 37°C renders the DNA incapable of being copied by DNA polymerase. (neb.sg)
  • E.Coli Uracil DNA Glycosilase (UNG) catalyses the release of free Uracil from Uracil-containing DNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • The ultimate reaction catalyzed by UDG cleavage of the glycosidic bond between the uracil base and its corresponding deoxyribose sugar, releasing uracil from the DNA backbone. (kenyon.edu)
  • The uracil specificity region is responsible for recognition of the correct flipped-out base while the water-activating loop is vital in catalysis 3 . (kenyon.edu)
  • with the Asn204 of the uracil specificity region 3 . (kenyon.edu)
  • Uracil is a common and naturally occurring pyrimidine derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haematopoietic organs of rats were examined for the presence of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and acetylhydrolase before and after treatment with 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) (200 mg/kg) a chemotherapeutic compound with apoptotic effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Uracil is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). (hmdb.ca)
  • Uracil is a potentially toxic compound. (hmdb.ca)
  • Conclusion: U-332 can be used as a potential lead compound in the further development of novel uracil analogs as anticancer agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The slow electrons were colliding cellular RNA compound uracil. (nyu.edu)
  • Cell incorporation rates of n-glucuronides and o-glucuronides were higher compared to uracil, with o-glucuronides being more selective. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Uracil incorporation into DNA is implicated in several deleterious health outcomes including megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects (NTDs), and neurodegeneration. (cornell.edu)
  • Uracil incorporation can induce DNA strand breaks and apoptosis. (cornell.edu)
  • This indicates uracil incorporation into DNA is critical to drug-mediated apoptosis in A549, but not HeLa cells. (cornell.edu)
  • Folate deficiency causes massive incorporation of uracil into human DNA (4 million per cell) and chromosome breaks. (altmetric.com)
  • however they retained the phenotype of poor growth in normal fibroblasts suggesting that poor replication was unrelated to uracil content of input genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) compromises the replication strategies of diverse viruses from unrelated lineages. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Human cytomegalovirus UL114 encodes a uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog that is highly conserved in all characterized herpesviruses that infect mammals. (nih.gov)
  • Below are the list of possible G/U mismatch-specific uracil DNA glycosylase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • An imine-based covalent organic framework (COF) decorated in its cavities with uracil groups has shown selective recognition towards adenine in water. (rsc.org)
  • Several lines of evidence have indicated that FDG is a rat homologue of single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is making use of (a) a 3'-FAM-labeled hairpin DNA probe with two uracil deoxyribonucleotides in the self-complementary duplex region of its hairpin structure, (b) exonuclease I (Exo I) that catalyzes the release of FAM from the UDG-induced stretched ssDNA probe, and (c) graphene oxide that quenches the green FAM fluorescence of the intact hairpin DNA probe in the absence of UDG. (springer.com)
  • Removes uracil from G/U mispairs in ssDNA. (mybiosource.com)
  • In humans, uracil is involved in the metabolic disorder called ump synthase deficiency (orotic aciduria). (hmdb.ca)
  • uracil has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency. (hmdb.ca)
  • The availability of a method to accurately determine exhaled 13 C in breath offers a novel approach for the detection of DPD deficiency through the administration of 2- 13 C-uracil. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-uracil (CAS 4433-40-3) Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on 5-(hydroxymethyl)-uracil market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-uracil (CAS 4433-40-3) Market Research Report 2017 contents were worked out and placed on the website in December, 2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-uracil (CAS 4433-40-3) Market Research Report 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/771017/all/uracil. (unboundmedicine.com)