Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Esophageal Sphincter, Upper: The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the CRICOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Upper Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.Eyelid DiseasesTongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Epiphyses, SlippedCephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Hemostasis, Endoscopic: Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsTracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Denture, Complete, Upper: A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.AxisFiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Respiratory Tract DiseasesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Superficial Back Muscles: The top layer of the back muscles whose function is to move the SCAPULA. This group of muscles consists of the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor and levator scapulae.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms: A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Tracheal DiseasesDental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Blepharoplasty: Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
  • Pain and tingling in the surrounding areas such as the base of the neck, chest wall, axilla (armpit), breast, upper back and head. (umcvc.org)
  • This is the second most common form of TOS and is due to compression of the subclavian vein between the collarbone (clavicle), first rib, subclavius muscle and the costoclavicular ligament (a ligament located in the upper chest in the area of the first rib and the collarbone). (umcvc.org)
  • Well-preserved insect wings are reported in weakly consolidated lacustrine shale from the Grubstake Formation, Upper Miocene of Suntrana Creek, central Alaska. (amnh.org)
  • also included are scaphites from the uppermost Pierre Shale in this area and from the Fox Hills Formation in the Lance Creek-Red Bird area of eastern Wyoming. (amnh.org)
  • The unit name usage by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) includes Marcellus Shale and Marcellus Formation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Marcellus Formation is a black shale that may contain limestone beds and concentrations of iron pyrite ( Fe S 2 ) and siderite (Fe CO 3 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Measured total organic content of the Marcellus Formation ranges from less than 1% in eastern New York, to over 11% in the central part of the state, and the shale may contain enough carbon to support combustion . (wikipedia.org)
  • In petroleum geology , these black shales are an important source rock that filled conventional petroleum reservoirs in overlying formations, are an unconventional shale gas reservoir, and are an impermeable seal that traps underlying conventional natural gas reservoirs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unbeknown to Walcott, whose career would become increasingly devoted to the Burgess Shale biota he discovered in 1909, five of the other units he defined were subsequently found to contain soft-bodied fossils: the Langston (Spence Shale Member), Wheeler, Marjum and Weeks formations of Utah and the Pioche Formation of Nevada (e.g. (lyellcollection.org)
  • Late Ordovician strophomenide brachiopods (superfamilies Strophomenoidea and Plectambonitoidea) from the upper Changwu Formation (mid Ashgill, late Katian) of Jianglütang, Chun'an County, western Zhejiang Province, consist of ten genera and 12 species. (wiley.com)
  • The Bethany Beach borehole (Qj32-27) provides a nearly continuous record of the Oligocene to Pleistocene formations of eastern Sussex County, Delaware. (udel.edu)
  • Deposits of the formation can be found outside the current boundaries of the Cypress Swamp and record the erosion and redistribution of older Pleistocene coastal and Pliocene sedimentary units. (udel.edu)
  • The right lung comprises 10 segments: 3 in the right upper lobe (apical, anterior and medial), 2 in the right middle lobe (medial and lateral), and 5 in the right lower lobe (superior, medial, anterior, lateral, and posterior). (medscape.com)
  • The discovery of Spiclypeus adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of the Judith River Formation, and suggests faunal turnover within the formation. (plos.org)
  • It preserves a diverse, exceptionally preserved fauna that inhabited a relatively deep water environment at the offshore margin of a carbonate platform, resembling the setting of the underlying Wheeler and Marjum formations. (lyellcollection.org)
  • Doswellia sixmilensis is a new species of the doswelliid archosauromorph genus Doswellia named for an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Triassic Bluewater Creek Formation of the Chinle Group in west-central New Mexico, USA. (palass.org)
  • The published record from the two Igoda Formation outcrops up to now consists of just one foraminifera species (Spiroplectinella sp. (scielo.org.za)
  • The geologic history of the surficial geologic units of the Georgetown Quadrangle is primarily that of deposition of the Beaverdam Formation and its subsequent modification by erosion and deposition of younger stratigraphic units. (udel.edu)
  • They form a mappable geologic unit herein named the Cypress Swamp Formation. (udel.edu)
  • In this paper we imply to the types of porosity and their effect on the formation of reservoir rock-types, and the results of the rock-typing investigated on reservoir layers of the Upper Member of the Dalan Formation in a large gas field in the northern Persian Gulf. (scirp.org)
  • The peculiar tectono-sedimentary pattern entirely control the depositional processes,palaeogeographic features and the source-reservoir-seal combination of the Xujiahe Formation,as well the oil and gas accumulation regularity around the central Sichuan Palaeo-uplift. (cnki.com.cn)
  • A glaciomarine depositional model may have implications for the origin and paleogeographical setting of other upper Precambrian diamictites of similar age and stratigraphic context in East Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Scandinavia. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The upper extremity is first discretely visible as a bulge or limb bud that develops on the ventrolateral wall of the embryo on day 26 (4-mm crown-to-rump length) (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • During the fifth week, differentiating mesenchymal cells condense in a proximal-to-distal fashion to form blastemas, which eventually develop into cartilaginous models of, ultimately, the bones of the upper extremity. (medscape.com)
  • In the seventh week, the upper extremity continues outgrowth and rotates 90° so that the elbows project posteriorly and the developing hands lie on the anterior thorax. (medscape.com)
  • Which tests can be used to exclude upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT)? (medscape.com)
  • Kleinjan et al have proposed a diagnostic algorithm that uses a combination of a clinical decision probability, D-dimer testing, and ultrasonographic findings to exclude upper extremity DVT (UEDVT). (medscape.com)
  • Upper Precambrian diamictites (?650−600 m.y.) of the Middle Dalradian Port Askaig Formation in Scotland are traditionally interpreted as products of repeated ice-sheet advances over an emergent shallow marine shelf and deposition by in situ basal melt-out. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The Ismay zone within the Paradox Formation is dominantly limestone comprising equant buildups of phylloid-algal material with locally variable small-scale calcarenite subfacies. (searchanddiscovery.com)
  • It is one of the formations of the Pranhita-Godavari Basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation has produced over 50 MMBO in the Blanding sub-basin of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. (searchanddiscovery.com)
  • A series of micromarker beds in the Permian Castile Formation has been identified in cores from four drill holes located along the west edge of the Delaware Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The development of two nationally important energy-producing areas, the Williston structural basin (containing the Bakken Formation) and Powder River structural basin, provide a critical opportunity to study the water-energy nexus within a groundwater context. (usgs.gov)
  • While Docodon differs from the Portuguese docodont Haldanodon in the presence of only five upper incisors (none of which is entirely within the maxilla), an internarial bar is present in both taxa. (springer.com)
  • The sandstone-dominated intervals are composed of lower to middle shoreface deposits with minor amounts of offshore transition and upper shoreface deposits. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The optical properties of these clouds will depend very strongly on the abundance of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A ) Fluorescent micrographs of a co-culture of A549-EGFP (green) and MSC-RFP (red), showing formation of double-labeled hybrid cell with two nuclei and a fibroblastic shape (arrows). (nih.gov)
  • a region of long, narrow, high-speed winds that typically flow northeastward, eastward, and southeastward in the middle and upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. (britannica.com)
  • In situ measurements of water vapor and temperature from recent aircraft campaigns have provided evidence that the upper troposphere is frequently supersaturated with respect to ice. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Pyrite is especially abundant near the base, and the upper contacts of limestones, but framboidal microcrystals and euhedral crystals of pyrite occur throughout the organic-rich deposits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Quaternary Nanticoke deposits and Pliocene Beaverdam Formation are the primary lithostratigraphic units covering upland surfaces in the map area. (udel.edu)
  • These performance advantages combined with the very effective detergency and dispersancy characteristics helps control the formation of ash and carbon deposits that could result in poor engine performance and detonation. (exxonmobil.com)
  • The surface of the western plains is covered by Post-Tertiary deposits, flood loams, etc., except in isolated places where the remains of the older formations still rise above their surface. (abs.gov.au)
  • Prevalence of Ice-supersaturated regions in the upper troposphere: Implications. (nasa.gov)
  • This finding may have important implications for the relationship between carbon dioxide levels in the air and the formation of calcareous structures by organisms," says co-author Professor Gert-Jan Reichart. (phys.org)
  • Science of Carbon Storage in Deep Saline Formations: Process Coupling across Time and Spatial Scales summarizes state-of-the-art research, emphasizing how the coupling of physical and chemical processes as subsurface systems re-equilibrate during and after the injection of CO2. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we help to resolve this by describing a rapidly emplaced, high-energy onshore surge deposit from the terrestrial Hell Creek Formation in Montana. (pnas.org)