A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
The psychoanalytic concept that man instinctively seeks to avoid pain and discomfort and strives for gratification and pleasure.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)
The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/28952)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (2/28952)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (3/28952)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (4/28952)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (5/28952)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Establishment of an inducible expression system of chimeric MLL-LTG9 protein and inhibition of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 expression by MLL-LTG9 in 32Dcl3 cells. (6/28952)

The MLL (HRX/ALL-1 gene is frequently disrupted in infantile leukemias and therapy-related leukemias and fused to various translocation partner genes. We previously showed that chimeric MLL proteins localize in the nuclei in a fashion similar to that of MLL protein even if the partner gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein and indicated the importance of the N-terminal portion of MLL common to various MLL translocations. This time we established an inducible expression system for chimeric MLL-LTG9 and truncated N-terminal MLL proteins (MLL-Zf(-)) in 32Dcl3 cells. By utilizing this system, we were able to show inhibition of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 genes' expression by induced MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-). Up-regulation of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 was observed when 32Dcl3 cells were cultured with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in place of interleukin 3 and induction of MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-) was shown to suppress this upregulation. At the same time, expression of two mammalian Polycomb group genes, M33 and mel-18, which both reportedly affect Hox genes' expression, was not inhibited by MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-) induction. These results indicate that MLL has an important effect on the expression of at least some Hox genes in hematopoietic cells and suggest that inhibition of the proper expression of Hox genes by chimeric MLL proteins may dysregulate hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation, which then can lead to leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (7/28952)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Intracellular sodium modulates the expression of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in PC12W cells. (8/28952)

Although the angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor (AT2-R) is expressed abundantly in the adrenal medulla, its physiological significance has not yet been determined. To obtain fundamental knowledge of the regulation of AT2-R expression in the adrenal medulla, we investigated the effects of modulating several ion channels on AT2-R expression in PC12W cells. Experiments were performed after 24 hours of serum depletion under subconfluent conditions. After 48 hours of treatment with various agonists or antagonists, the receptor density and mRNA level of AT2-Rs were quantified by 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II binding and Northern blot analysis. Ouabain (10 to 100 nmol/L) and insulin (10 to 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently increased receptor density and mRNA level. Analysis of the binding characteristics revealed that the ouabain-dependent increase in AT2-R levels was due to an increase in binding capacity without a change in the Kd value. These increases were blocked by lowering the Na+ concentration in the medium. A low concentration of the sodium ionophore monensin (10 nmol/L), the K+-channel blocker quinidine (10 micromol/L), and the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers tolbutamide (100 micromol/L) and glybenclamide (10 micromol/L) also significantly increased receptor density, but the ATP-sensitive K+-channel agonist cromakalim (100 micromol/L) decreased receptor density significantly (P<0.01). Nifedipine (10 micromol/L) decreased basal receptor density and completely blocked the increase in receptor density caused by these agents. The increase in receptor density caused by an increase in intracellular Na+ was accompanied by an increase in mRNA level, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers did not change mRNA level. Nifedipine slightly decreased mRNA level. These results suggest that AT2-R expression is sensitively regulated by intracellular cation levels. The change in intracellular Na+ level transcriptionally regulates AT2-R expression, whereas the K+-channel blocker-dependent upregulation appears to be at least in part posttranslational.  (+info)

These investigations identify PD-1 up-regulation as a critical mediator of human interstitial lung disease through increased IL-17A production via the STAT3 signaling pathway. Key investigations have implicated aberrant STAT3 signaling and TH17 cells in murine models of pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis (9, 28, 29). Here, we report that PD-1 up-regulation on human TH17 cells creates not only an immunosuppressive microenvironment but also a profibrotic one. We demonstrate that IL-17A and TGF-β1 produced by PD-1+CD4+ T cells induce collagen-1 production from HLF, a process that can be impeded by PD-1 pathway blockade. Mechanistically, PD-1 pathway blockade or small-molecule inhibition of STAT3 results in reduced collagen production from HLF.. Immune dysfunction in CD4+ T cells secondary to PD-1 up-regulation in sarcoidosis subjects experiencing loss of pulmonary function has been noted (10). However, the observation of a profibrotic component to PD-1 up-regulation has not been previously described; ...
Regarding your promoter question: yes, but its hard. if you put it there specially to have it expressed, then obviously you have an active promoter (unless youre utterly stupid). But there are plasmids that do not have promoters at all: they are only meant to make the bacteria copy the gene, not to express it. if you have the name of your plasmid, you can usually check with the manufacturer, they will have a map that will tell you what your promoter is. if its a viral promoter then youre all set. If its not, you dont really know unless you search the literature for it. Generally speaking though, a promoter WILL express your gene - thats what a promoter does. Its just that a lot of promoters arent active all the time. For example, the lac promoter is not active if the bacterium doesnt have a CAP protein ...
CIB1 is an important regulatory molecule that is expressed in different tissue types and has various binding partners.11-14 However, the role of CIB1 in ECs has never been explored. In this study, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo complementary analyses to provide the first evidence describing the critical role of CIB1 in EC function and signaling, growth factor-induced angiogenesis, and ischemia-induced pathological and adaptive angiogenesis.. Recent evidence suggests that CIB1 contributes to important intracellular signaling mechanisms. For example, we previously demonstrated that CIB1 binds to and activates PAK1 in different cell types and that CIB1 depletion results in decreased PAK1 activation on adhesion to fibronectin.14 Furthermore, we previously observed a Cdc42-dependent upregulation of PAK1 activity in CIB1-depeletd rat embryo fibroblasts with extended adhesion to fibronectin.14 In agreement with this, we also observed significantly reduced adhesion-induced PAK1 activation in ...
In this particular case, RU486 essentially prevented gene upregulation (Cd44, Stat1, Ch25h and Il1b) or downregulation (C1qa and Hexb) by LPS ...
Every single lane received equivalent quantities of protein and detection of GAPDH served as an additional loading manage. Up-regulation of hCG was observed in
Expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human melanoma cells correlates with their metastatic potential. Moreover, UV-B irradiation of primary cutaneous melanoma cells induces IL-8 mRNA and protein production and increases both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Although IL-8 has been shown to …
actually the cause has to do with the adaptation of the eye to light. the darkness causes all the retinen in cone cells to associate with its opsin partner, leading to an increased sensitivity of the cell to intense light. When the light is turned on, it overwhelms the receptor. It takes a few minutes for the eye to adapt and to switch from rod cells to cone cells. I believe the term for this is receptor up-regulation ...
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In this study, we investigated the miRNA profile during IPC and identified the selective miRNA changes early after the IPC by comparison with normal and ISC brains. The 8 miRNAs selected in the IPC 3-hour group were categorized into 2 families of miRNAs: the miR-200 family (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, and miR-429) and the miR-182 family (miR-182, miR-183, and miR-96). Among them, miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-429 targeted PHD2 and had the best neuroprotective effect. Our data can be used for further researches into the IPC mechanism and can contribute to the development of neuroprotective miRNA therapeutics.. Several previous studies have investigated miRNAs as mediators of ischemic tissue damage. In the ischemia of cardiac myocytes, miR-199a is acutely downregulated as early as 30 minutes after ischemia, leading to rapid upregulation of its target HIF-1α,24 which suggests that the changes in miRNA in response to the ischemia seem to be very prompt. Given that the maximum ...
TF is overexpressed in many types of human cancers, and clinical studies have shown a correlation between the levels of TF expression and poor prognosis (22-25). Not only does TF expression occur in a wide spectrum of cancers, but also the level of expression in cancer cells is upregulated by 1,000-fold compared with the levels of normal cells that these cancer cells are derived from (26, 27). This drastic upregulation may, to some extent, be caused by the existence of common tumor microenvironmental stimuli, such as those responsible for TF upregulation during inflammation and hypoxia. Recently, it was shown that TF expression is under the direct control of oncogenic pathways activated by genetic mutations sustained by cancer cells (28). This is shown experimentally by the effect of several mutant oncogenes, including K-ras, EGFR, EGFRvIII, HER-2, and PML-RARa on TF transcription, translation, half-life, and encryption. The effect of these oncogenes was operative in colorectal, mammary, ...
By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here to begin the singup process ...
This gene is a member of the HERC family of ubiquitin ligases and encodes a protein with a HECT domain and five RCC1 repeats. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate expression of this gene in endothelial cells. The protein localizes to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region and functions as an interferon-induced E3 protein ligase that mediates ISGylation of protein targets. The gene lies in a cluster of HERC family genes on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Up-regulation of MMP-13 by IL-1Ra siRNA.(A) MMP-13 mRNA expression in IL-1Ra and control siRNA-transfected cells. The cells were cultured for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 2
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Conditional expression of the ErbB2 oncogene elicits reversible hyperplasia in stratified epithelia and up-regulation of TGFα expression in transgenic mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
EPA-induced translational up-regulation of reporter genes fused to BRCA1 mRNAb 5′UTR is dependent on the presence of tandem uORFsThe plasmid encoding for F-lu
Issues , ER whorl formation has been observed upon experimental up-regulation of a variety of membrane-anchored proteins such as cytochrome P450 , HMG-CoA
Function: Binds to the IL-1 type I receptor following IL-1 engagement, triggering intracellular signaling cascades leading to transcriptional up-regulation and mRNA stabilization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aqueous humor-borne factor upregulates Bcl-2 expression in corneal endothelial cells. AU - Li, Xiao Yan. AU - De Marco, Brendan M.. AU - Mayhew, Elizabeth S.. AU - Niederkorn, Jerry Y.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr. Steven Wilson (Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinics Foundation, Cleveland, OH) for generously providing Bcl-2 and Bax cDNAs; Dr. Richard H. Scheuermann (UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX) for kindly providing primers for amplification of APO-1 (Fas) and plasmid DNA with PCMV/ APO-1 inserts. This study was supported in part by NIH grant EY07641 and an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Purpose. To determine if factors present in the aqueous humor (AH) protect the corneal endothelium from apoptosis. Methods. Mouse and human corneal endothelial cells were cultured in vitro, and apoptosis was induced by nutrient deprivation. AH and supernatant from iris/ciliary body (I/CB) cell cultures were tested for ...
TGF-β induced a marked and long lasting down-regulation of β2-adrenoceptors mRNA (about 90 % within 6 hrs). Also corticosteroids (dexamethasone and budesonide) alone caused a marked and long lasting up-regulation of β2-adrenoceptors mRNA, but they were not able to prevent or oppose the TGF-β induced down-regulation. Exposure to β-adrenoceptors agonists resulted in a rapid (maximum effect within 1 h), but transient up-regulation of β2-adrenoceptors mRNA level. This effect was mimicked by forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, as β-adrenoceptors agonists-induced up-regulation of β2-adrenoceptors mRNA also in presence of CHX, but not in presence of actinomycin D, it can be concluded that a cAMP direct stimulation of the expression of the β2-adrenoceptors gene may be involved ...
We now know that colonic tumors increasingly express progastrins (PG) as they progress through hyperproliferative (Hp) / adenoma (Ad) / adenocarcinoma (AdCA) sequence. We and others have recently reported that autocrine PG up-regulates expression of stem-cell-markers DCLK1/CD44/LGR5 (Gastro, 2011; IJC, 2012). Two major isoforms of DCLK1 (DCLK1-S, DCLK1-L) have been reported in neuroprogenitor cells. The two isoforms were discovered to be similarly expressed in colonic epithelial cells. Regulatory effects of PG were examined on the two isoforms in normal/cancer cells. Specific primer sets were designed to amplify S and L transcripts using qRT-PCR. Colon cancer cells either expressed S (HCT-116) or both S and L forms (HT-29, DLD1). HEK293 cells were used as a model of non-transformed cells since they respond to PG, do not express autocrine PG, and are non-tumorogenic. PG significantly up-regulated both the transcripts in HEK293 cells. The L-isoform is transcribed by the 5 promoter of the gene ...
A protective capacity of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) against various insults inducing neurone cell death in vitro and in vivo has been well established. We have recently shown the rapid up-regulation and persistent expression of TGF-beta1 in surviving CA1 pyramidal cells after cereb …
The tyrosine kinase receptors HER2 and HER3 play an important role in breast cancer. The HER2/HER3 heterodimer is a critical oncogenic unit associated with reduced relapse-free and decreased overall survival. While signaling cascades downstream of HER2 and HER3 have been studied extensively at the level of post-translational modification, little is known about the effects of HER2/HER3 overexpression and activation on gene expression in breast cancer. We have now defined the genetic landscape induced by activation of the HER2/HER3 unit in mammary cells, and have identified interleukin (IL)8 and CXCR1 as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of HER2/HER3-overexpressing breast cancers. Three-dimensional (3D) cultures, invasion and migration assays were used to determine the effects of HER2 and HER3 co-expression and activation. Gene expression analysis was performed to identify the gene network induced by HER2/HER3 in 3D cultures. Bioinformatic analysis and neutralizing antibodies were used to
05). These data obviously showed that upresgulation of miR-451 might effectively enhance the sensitivity of A549 cells to DDP. Figure 5 Effect of miR-451 upregulation on the in. vitro sensitivity of A549 cells to DDP. A. Effects of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μg/ml) of DDP on cells (mock A549, A549/miR-NC or A549/miR-451) for 12 h assessed by MTT assay. B. Effects of 5 μg/ml DDP on cells (mock A549, A549/miR-NC or A549/miR-451) for varied time length (0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h) evaluated by MTT assays. C. Effects of 5 μg/ml DDP on colony formation of cells (mock A549, A549/miR-NC or A549/miR-451). All experiments were performed in triplicate, * P < 0.05. Upregulation of miR-451 enhances DDP-induced apoptosis of A549 cells The precise underlying mechanisms by which upregulation selleck of miR-451 enhances chemosensitivity of A549 cells to DDP were further investigated. Then, the apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric assay. As shown in Figure 6A, the apoptotic rare of ...
A major challenge in the HIV field has been to understand why the strength of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses has no relationship to viral load, and yet CD8 depletion studies indicate that these cells are critical for immune control. And a major challenge in the field of immunology in general has been the rapid translation of advances in murine models to humans. In late 2005, through a telephone conversation with Rafi Ahmed, we became aware of yet unpublished data in the mouse model of chronic infection. His laboratory had shown that in mice persistently infected with LCMV, T cells up-regulate a surface molecule termed PD-1, for programmed death-1, a negative immunoregulatory molecule that turned off CD8 T cell function. The potential parallels with HIV were immediately obvious to us-perhaps persistent exposure to HIV was having a similar impact on CD8 T cell function in humans, and perhaps similar immune regulation was rendering CD4 T cells exhausted as well.. We immediately formed a ...
CONCLUSIONS: The stimulation of occlusal trauma upregulates expressions of PN(3) mRNA and NaN mRNA, which suggests the signal occurring and conduction of chronic pain by occlusal trauma have the same molecular mechanism of sodium channel as inflammatory pain. ...
PURPOSE and BACKGROUND Cancers cells grow without the vices of responses control systems, leading to increased tumor cell success. platelets, tumor cells up-regulated down-regulated and anti-apoptotic pro-apoptotic genetics, elevated the amount of cells in the activity of DNA and reduced the accurate amount in the quiescent stage, elevated phrase of cyclins, DNA fix MAPKs and …Read More. ...
JNK-mediated transcriptional upregulation of RhoB is critical for apoptosis of HCT-116 colon cancer cells by a novel diarylsulfonylurea derivative. Kim, Dong-Myung; Won, Misun; Chung, Chung-Sook; Kim, Semi; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Jung, Sang-Hun; Jeong, ShinWu, APOPTOSIS, v.15, no.12, pp.1540 - 1548, 2010- ...
In the present study we addressed the question of whether the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids in H. pluvialisproceeds via an independent second pathway that operates outside the chloroplast, as the accumulation of the astaxanthin esters in cytosolic lipid vesicles might indicate. According to our data for PDS, we conclude that, at least for this relatively early biosynthetic step of carotenogenesis, no second cytosolic pathway exists and that higher biosynthetic activity is coupled to higher amounts of enzyme. Up-regulation on both the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon induction of SC synthesis. Because of slight variability in the extent of SC accumulation between parallels (Grünewald, 1997), we do not interpret the small difference between the maxima in PDS mRNA and protein levels as a sign for post-translational regulation events-at least the main part of up-regulation takes place at the mRNA level.. Bouvier et al. (1998) showed that pepper PDS mRNA increased under different ...
Regulation of cell migration by changes in oxygen availability is a central event during the organization of host response in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases as it may influence leukocyte recruitment and activation, angiogenesis, and metastasis formation (16). Here, we report that Hyp mediates selective up-regulation of CXCR4 in different cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, MDMs, and TAMs), endothelial cells, and cancer cells, and demonstrate that oxygen levels act as an important regulator of CXCR4 receptor expression. Our data also indicate that HIF-1 activation is involved in the Hyp-dependent up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and that the Hyp-HIF-1-CXCR4 circuit may participate in pathophysiological mechanisms under several conditions, ranging from inflammation to tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.. In contrast to standard cell culture conditions, characterized by 20% oxygen concentration, cells in the human body are exposed to much lower oxygen concentrations, ...
In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics. At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the ΔbldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in
That said, we should be careful in attributing adverse pregnancy outcomes due to preeclampsia in human pregnancy to maternal stress without clear data. The association opens the door for women to blame themselves for having too much stress in their lives and therefore being responsible for their bad outcome. A number of us have tried to find cytokine markers that would serve as markers or predictors of preeclampsia - without much success. There are may be some statistical associations - but the overlap in data point is usually very large ...
Varga ZV, Kupai K, Szucs G, Gaspar R, Paloczi J, Farago N, Zvara A, Puskas LG, Razga Z, Tiszlavicz L, Bencsik P, Gorbe A, Csonka C, Ferdinandy P, Csont T: MicroRNA-25-dependent up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) mediates hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative/nitrative stress and subsequent dysfunction in the heart., JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY 62: pp. 111-121 ...
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) can regulate the stability and/or translatability of messengerRNAs (mRNAs) throughinteractions with their 30-untranslated regions. However, individual mRNAs may be regulated simultaneously or successivelyby more than one RBP, as well as by Argonaute (AGO)-bound miRNAs; the coordination of these various influenceson an individual mRNA is therefore complex and not well studied. In this report we examine the roles of two RBPs thatbind to AU-rich elements (ARE) - AUF1 and HuR - in the stability and translation of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in ratmyoblasts transiting the G phase of the cell cycle, and their interactions with miRNAs. Knockdown (KD) of AUF1 resultedin (1) transient upregulation of the mRNA level as well as an advancement of translation onset time (TOT) from 6 to 5 hpost-serum addition, (2) loss of miRNA loading on AGO1 and AGO2 and (3) reduction in the level of AGO-1 and AGO-2bound mRNA. In contrast, KD of HuR had no effect on the mRNA level, or on the AGO-mRNA ...
Open Reading Frame 3a (ORF3a) Forms homotetrameric potassium sensitive ion channels (viroporin) and may modulate virus release. Up-regulates expression of fibrinogen subunits FGA, FGB and FGG in host lung epithelial cells. Induces apoptosis in cell culture. Downregulates the type 1 interferon receptor by inducing serine phosphorylation within the IFN alpha-receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) degradation motif and increasing IFNAR1 ubiquitination.[1][2] ...
This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. The GMI PUB contains 415 abstracts which consists of a Cumulative Knowledge * of 1039. This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation.. ...
This gene is a member of the HERC family of ubiquitin ligases and encodes a protein with a HECT domain and five RCC1 repeats. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate expression of this gene in endothelial cells. The protein localizes to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region and functions as an interferon-induced E3 protein ligase that mediates ISGylation of protein targets. The gene lies in a cluster of HERC family genes on chromosome 4. Sequence Note: This RefSeq record was created from transcript and genomic sequence data to make the sequence consistent with the reference genome assembly. The genomic coordinates used for the transcript record were based on transcript alignments ...
An alternative essential proapoptotic protein, BAK, was not upregulated by lethal UVB doses in either early or late passage cells . BAK, in contrast to BAX, is not really acknowledged to be a transcriptional target of P. We then examined anti apoptotic proteins. BCL was downregulated by UVB in both early and late passage cells at h submit irradiation . No visible distinction was observed among passage amounts. The scenario was quite different for BCL xL. As expected , BCL xL was quickly downregulated in youthful fibroblasts starting at h publish UVB. Strikingly, the basal BCL xL degree in outdated fibroblasts was instead rapidly upregulated following UVB and reached a plateau at h . BCLxL acts by antagonistically binding to pro apoptotic partners such as BAX. We for this reason quantitated the adjust in BAX BCL xL ratio among very low and high passage ranges . In youthful cells , this ratio increased fold h right after UVB however it was unchanged during the old cells . This end result displays ...
Hi Naomi Thanks for the reply. The issue isnt necessarily low expressing genes, but perhaps high expressing genes with a small (ish) fold change. DESeq seems to only report as significant differences that are high fold changes. Contrast this to limma for microarrays, where small fold changes can be reported as significant. For whatever reason, the transcriptomic community have become fixated on two-fold as some kind of standard cut-off. Now, Im not fixated on that, but the example in DESeq reports 428 significant genes with an estimated fold change at FDR 5%, however, NONE of these are in the range -2 : 2. The minimum positive logFC is 2.18 (4.5 fold up-regulation), and the maximum negative logFC is 2.49 (5.65 fold down-regulation). So what I am concerned about is finding genes, either highly or lowly expressed, that are differing by a small fold change - say two-fold. Thanks Mick ________________________________________ From: Naomi Altman [naomi at stat.psu.edu] Sent: 14 June 2010 17:42 To: ...
Here we developed the new TS:YSOG3 reporter and used it along with TS:YSOG2 to characterize PKMζ and PKCλ turnover after cLTP induction in neurons. We found that PKMζ is upregulated following cLTP and that PKMζ copies produced after stimulation localized to synapses. We additionally demonstrated that the turnover of PKMζ copies synthesized after cLTP is more rapid than the turnover of basal PKMζ, both in the neuron cell body and in dendritic spines. These results held for PKMζ fused via its C terminus to TS:YSOG2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PKCλ remains more stable at synapses than PKMζ and that its turnover is not altered after cLTP. We showed that our TS reporters not only allow identification of new copies of a given protein but also old copies as they degrade over time; this is possible because TS-tagged proteins synthesized during BILN application remain fused to irreversibly complemented YFP that stays stable after BILN washout. Moreover, fusion to TS did not affect PKMζ ...
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strong evidence that transcriptional repression plays a major role in regulating GARAPL1/MAP1LC3A levels, and this up-regulation results in an increase in the size of the autophagosome ...
Title:Novel Benzo[B]Furans with Anti-Microtubule Activity Upregulate Expression of Apoptotic Genes and Arrest Leukemia Cells in G2/M Phase. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Karolina Królewska-Golińska, Marcin J. Cieślak*, Milena Sobczak, Rafał Dolot, Ewa Radzikowska-Cieciura, Mariola Napiórkowska, Iwona Wybrańska and Barbara Nawrot. Affiliation:Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 112 Sienkiewicza Str., 90-363 Lodz, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 112 Sienkiewicza Str., 90-363 Lodz, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 112 Sienkiewicza Str., 90-363 Lodz, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 112 Sienkiewicza Str., 90-363 Lodz, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 112 Sienkiewicza Str., 90-363 Lodz, Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Warsaw, 3 Oczki Str., 02-007 Warsaw, ...
This unexpected set of observations led the investigators to explore a role for APE1 in regulation of nitric oxide synthase activity. Within the vascular endothelium, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is affected by levels of expression and also by well-characterized signaling pathways that activate eNOS. Expression of eNOS cannot be the major determinant of the hypertensive phenotype of APE1+/− mice, because eNOS levels are actually increased in the vessels of these mice in spite of their impaired ability to generate nitric oxide. The effect seems to be at the level of eNOS activation. Based on the data presented in this report it is reasonable to conclude that this is due in part to upregulation of H-Ras, which lies upstream of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt kinase pathway that potently activates eNOS.. The investigators conclude that increased Akt activation occurs via APE1-dependent upregulation of H-Ras expression, although the effect on H-Ras is modest and other ...
A MADS-box gene, designated PtAP3, was isolated from a floral bud cDNA library derived from Populus tomentosa. Analysis by multiple alignments of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences, together with phylogenetic analysis, revealed that PtAP3 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis AP3. Analysis of RNA extracts from vegetative and reproductive tissues of P. tomentosa by RT-PCR indicated that PtAP3 is expressed in roots, stems, leaves and vegetative and floral buds. Notably, the expression of PtAP3 fluctuated during floral bud development between September and February with differences between male and female buds. In the former, a gradual down-regulation during this period, interrupted by a slight up-regulation in December, was followed by a sharper up-regulation on February. In developing female floral buds, expression was stable from September to November, sharply up-regulated in December, and then gradually down-regulated until February. The functional role of PtAP3 was investigated in transgenic ...
CS1 (CD319) is a member of the SLAM family of receptors, expressed on NK cells, T cells, B cells, DCs, etc. It induces NK cell cytotoxicity and is up regulated on B cell activation. CS1 is aberrantly up regulated on B cells in multiple myeloma and a therapeutic humanized anti-CS1 mAb HuLuc63 (Elotuzumab) is in Phase III of clinical trials. Recently, a unique population of CS1high B cells, implicated as major producers of pathogenic auto antibodies was detected in high SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) patients. Regression analysis indicated direct correlation between the percentage of CS1high B cells and SLEDAI. With the available information on the pathogenic outcome of CS1 up-regulation on B cells, it is vital to study the molecular basis of CS1 expression. Here, we discuss the transcriptional regulation of mouse CS1 gene. According to our data, mouse CS1 promoter binds to Blimp1, mainly a trans-repressor and the master regulator of B cell maturation. Interestingly, mCS1 promoter also bears ...
FMRP has emerged as a central player in the regulation of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, we know very little about how FMRP expression itself may be regulated as a function of neural activity in vivo, particularly during the time course over which major changes in synaptic reorganization occur. To address this question, we have determined the role of visual experience in regulating FMRP expression in the visual cortex of DR/LE rats. The most striking finding is that experience induces a rapid but transient expression of FMRP in this system. Furthermore, this transient upregulation of FMRP is observed in both dendrites and cell bodies and requires NMDA receptor activation. Our findings suggest that FMRP plays a dynamic role in experience-induced plasticity, especially during the first 15 min of synaptic reorganization.. We used both biochemical and immunohistochemical methods to study experience-dependent FMRP regulation. Immunolocalization revealed that, 15 min after ...
Ishikawa, K., Miyamoto, M., Yoshioka, T., Kato, T., Kaji, M., Ohbuchi, T., Hirano, S., Itoh, T., Dosaka-Akita, H. and Kondo, S. (2008), Up-regulation of CD40 with juxtacrine activity in human nonsmall lung cancer cells correlates with poor prognosis. Cancer, 113: 530-541. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23618 ...
Thus we questioned whether IL-4-producing CD8 T cells would be induced in vivo in response to primary immunization with alum-precipitated protein. The approach has been to compare the polarization of transgenic naïve ovalbumin-specific CD4 (OTII) and CD8 (OTI) T cells during their response to alum-precipitated ovalbumin (alumOVA). By addressing this question we have obtained further insight into the way early Th2-features are acquired by CD4 T cells in vivo in response to alum-precipitated protein.. Although both CD4 and CD8 OVA-specific T cells proliferate (30) in response to alumOVA, the acquisition of Th2-features, such as IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA up-regulation, is exclusively confined to CD4 T cells (Fig. 2). In addition, we confirm that mRNA specific for IL-17RB is strongly induced in vivo in alumOVA-responding OTII cells, but not in OTI cells responding to the same antigen (Fig. 2).. Conclusions. These findings indicate that the induction of IL-17RB expression is a selective feature of CD4 T ...
Propranolol order uk. This of course raises the question of what is repressed, and how this prлpranolol turn leads to the up-regulation of Snail and slug, which are also repressors.
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Regulation. Further information: Regulation of alternative medicine and Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy ... Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine ranges widely from country to country, and state to state.[152] In Austria and ... Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety. Many of the claims regarding the safety and efficacy of alternative medicine are ... Use and regulation. Appeal. Practitioners of complementary medicine usually discuss and advise patients as to available ...
Legality of smoke-free regulations[edit]. Businesses affected by smoke-free regulations have filed lawsuits claiming that these ... "Better regulation, Better Benefits: Getting the Balance Right. Case Studies" (PDF). Department of Business Innovation and ... No-smoking regulations came into effect in Scotland on 26 March 2006,[110] in Wales on 2 April 2007, in Northern Ireland on 30 ... Smoking bans, or smoke-free laws, are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, ...
"Safety and regulation of chiropractic". NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.. ... Education, licensing, and regulation. Main articles: Chiropractic education and List of chiropractic schools ... is the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK.[175][176] The U.S. CCE requires a ...
Early regulation[edit]. Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about ... Androgen regulation decreases the likelihood of depression in males. In preadolescent male rats, neonatal rats treated with ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ... Androgen levels have been implicated in the regulation of human aggression and libido. Indeed, androgens are capable of ...
Practice conditions and regulations[edit]. Shortages of health professionals[edit]. See also: Health workforce, Doctor shortage ... Regulation and registration of professionals[edit]. Main article: Health professional requisites. Practicing without a license ... The number of professions subject to regulation, requisites for individuals to receive professional licensure, and nature of ...
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion. • positive regulation of ... Regulation[edit]. The activity of CaV1.2 channels is tightly regulated by the Ca2+ signals they produce. An increase in ... regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • ... regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction. • membrane depolarization during cardiac muscle cell action potential. • ...
Examples of histone modifications in transcriptional regulation Type of. modification Histone H3K4 H3K9 H3K14 H3K27 H3K79 H3K36 ... Chromatin regulation[edit]. Histones undergo posttranslational modifications that alter their interaction with DNA and nuclear ... This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... Johansen KM, Johansen J (2006). "Regulation of chromatin structure by histone H3S10 phosphorylation". Chromosome Research. 14 ( ...
Regulation[edit]. Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by both allosteric control and by phosphorylation. ... "The protein phosphatases involved in cellular regulation". European Journal of Biochemistry. 156 (1): 101-110. doi:10.1111/j. ... of the catalytic site to the surface is significant in that it makes the protein activity highly susceptible to regulation, as ...
Regulations & FDA Codes[edit]. The US Code of Food Regulations defines what the fat and moisture content of brick cheese must ...
Neural regulation[edit]. The innate immune response to infectious and sterile injury is modulated by neural circuits that ...
Regulations challenged[edit]. McDonald challenged four broad aspects of Chicago's gun registration law, which, according to the ... attempting to overturn other gun control regulations not covered by McDonald. Helmke predicted that in that regard the NRA was ... a large number of lawsuits are needed in order to determine whether any other existing State gun regulations might also be ... the cases are different in scope in terms of the specific regulations challenged and the legal argument for applying the Second ...
Labeling regulations have been modified to provide for mandatory labeling of ingredients plus voluntary labeling, termed ... Popping B, Diaz-Amigo C (2018). "European Regulations for Labeling Requirements for Food Allergens and Substances Causing ... The European Union has initiated a process to create labeling regulations for unintentional contamination but is not expected ... The EU Food Information for Consumers Regulation 1169/2011 - requires food businesses to provide allergy information on food ...
Regulation[edit]. See also: Financial regulation in Australia. Formally, there is extensive and detailed regulation of ... A change in regulations allowed building societies and credit unions to become banks without having to demutualise, and several ... A change in regulations allowed building societies and credit unions to become banks without having to demutualise, and several ... This was in an environment where little government control or regulation of banks had been established and led to the failure ...
Regulation[edit]. As of 2019[update], the European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers ... "Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims ... Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (example, search EFSA for other opinion reports on probiotics". EFSA Journal. 11 (2): 3085. ...
Regulations[edit]. Three main kinds of oxygen masks are used by pilots and crews who fly at high altitudes: continuous flow, ...
positive regulation of leukocyte migration. • platelet degranulation. • regulation of integrin activation. • cell adhesion. • ... Gene and regulation[edit]. P-selectin is located on chromosome 1q21-q24, spans , 50 kb and contains 17 exons in humans.[7] P- ... positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte migration. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • calcium-dependent cell- ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • inflammatory response. • calcium-mediated signaling using ...
Regulation[edit]. Some jurisdictions over the world restrict the publication of the results of opinion polls, especially during ... most of them have no regulation and some only prohibit it in the final days or hours until the relevant poll closes.[42] A ...
Regulation[edit]. From 1969 to 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 157 reports of health problems related ... "COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 872/2012". EUR-Lex. Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 9 October 2017 ...
Production and regulation[edit]. POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or ... "Mitochondrial-genome-encoded RNAs: differential regulation by corticotropin in bovine adrenocortical cells". Proceedings of ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ... Copper regulation[edit]. Main article: Copper in health § Homeostasis. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to ... receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or down-regulation, and ...
Regulation. Main article: Explosive material § Regulation. Various countries around the world have enacted explosives laws and ...
United States regulation[edit]. The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) began a voluntary, fee-for-service ratite ...
Government regulations[edit]. The World Health Organization (WHO), the specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is ... Canadian regulations are described by the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate which requires an eight- ... FDA Issues Regulation Prohibiting Sale of Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids and Reiterates Its Advice That ... and to assure self-regulation for protection of public health and safety.[60] In the United Kingdom, the training of herbalists ...
Canadian regulations[edit]. According to Canadian regulations, icing sugar shall be powdered sugar and may contain food color.[ ... "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-16 ...
Regulations[edit]. Homeowner associations have been criticized for having excessively restrictive rules and regulations on how ... Reasonable Rules and Regulations[edit]. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the ... The HOA board should follow legal requirements to inform homeowners about any changes made to the rules and regulations. The ... The benefits that a homeowner association (HOA) provides to homeowners vary depending on the specific regulations and practices ...
"Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than ... There have been allegations, particularly in Italy and Spain, that regulation can be sometimes lax and corrupt.[81] Major ... of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". EFSA Journal. 9 (4): 2044 [19 pp]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2044.. ... Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label, then the real origin must ...
positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • cell cycle arrest. • response to ... negative regulation of gene expression. • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • negative regulation of G1/S transition of ... positive regulation of programmed cell death. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to glucocorticoid. • ... regulation of cell cycle. • intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • cellular senescence. • positive regulation of reactive ...
Regulations, sportsmanship, and safety[edit]. Waterfowl hunting is highly regulated in most western countries. Hunters are ... There were no regulations on waterfowl hunting from when the Paleo Indians arrived in North America to the early 20th century. ... Although edible, swans are not hunted in many Western cultures due to hunting regulations, and swans were historically a royal ... We need regulations to make sure we leave ducks for years to come. ...
Regulation of GAD65 and GAD67[edit]. Despite an extensive sequence similarity between the two genes, GAD65 and GAD67 fulfill ... Both GAD65 and GAD67 are regulated via phosphorylation of a dynamic catalytic loop,[10][11] but the regulation of these ... contribution of altered regulation by Zif268". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 171 (9): 969-78. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp. ... implications for the regulation of GABA synthesis". Journal of Neurochemistry. 86 (4): 879-87. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003. ...
However there are a small number of areas of work, generally safety related, which are reserved by statute, regulations or ... In Finland, regulation affects only academic degrees. In academic education, the degree of diplomi-insinööri (dipl. ins. or DI ... Registration and regulation. Becoming an engineer is a process that varies widely around the world. In some regions, use of the ... Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, ...
"Fire Code" means Ontario Regulation 213/07 (Fire Code) made under the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997. R.R.O. 1990, ... "spray booth" means a spray booth as defined in Ontario Regulation 213/07 (Fire Code) made under the Fire Protection and ... 1. In this Regulation,. "adequate", when used in relation to a procedure, plan, material, device, object or thing, means that ... a) details of the measures to be taken for compliance with the relevant provisions of this Regulation that are listed in the ...
But without stricter regulation, urban poultry farming is risky for both humans and birds. ... Very few regulations required humane slaughter or disease reporting. Only four municipalities required owners to provide birds ... In a recent study with University of California, Davis animal scientist Joy Mench, we examined urban poultry regulations in ... Based on our survey of Colorado, we believe cities need to carefully consider their backyard chicken regulations and develop ...
OHS Regulation or Related Materials. Submit your email address to receive a copy of the OHS regulation or related materials you ... The online OHS Regulation is not the official version of the OHS Regulation, which may be purchased from Crown Publications. ... iii) the requirements of this Regulation.. (2) Unless otherwise specified by this Regulation, the installation, inspection, ... See also section 4.4 of the of the OHS Regulation.. 4.36 Glass. (1) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.] ...
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule ... Allosteric regulations are a natural example of control loops, such as feedback from downstream products or feedforward from ... Long-range allostery is especially important in cell signaling.[1] Allosteric regulation is also particularly important in the ... The sequential model of allosteric regulation holds that subunits are not connected in such a way that a conformational change ...
regulation (countable and uncountable, plural regulations). *(uncountable) The act of regulating or the condition of being ... regulation (not comparable). *In conformity with applicable rules and regulations. * 1969, Thomas Wiseman, The Quick and the ... regulation in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *regulation in The Century Dictionary, The ... It is regulation that these directives are to be destroyed on receipt.. ...
... specifies that banks must institute internal rules that regulate the amount of risk that they can take in their ... A regulation set forth by the Federal Reserve. ... DEFINITION of Regulation F. A regulation set forth by the ... BREAKING DOWN Regulation F. Regulation F covers the collection of checks as well as various other services that larger banks ... interest rate swaps and repurchase agreements fall under this regulation. Regulation F may also allow banks that are highly ...
Louis tragedy or the Tuskegee syphilis experiment have prompted regulations in biomedical research. Over the years, regulations ... The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict ... CS1 maint: Extra text (link) J. Samuel Walker and Thomas R. Wellock (September 2010). A Short History of Nuclear Regulation, ... The FDA and the Department of Health and Human Services oversee the implementation of these regulations. The issue of ...
CDC and other agencies implement public health laws passed by Congress through Federal Regulations. After a Congressional bill ... CDC has certain authorities to implement regulations related to protecting America from health and safety threats, both foreign ... becomes law, federal agencies may be responsible for putting the law into action through the development of regulations-also ... You can also find the official text of CDC regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 42-Public ...
If we looked at the FDA more like a neutral broker, a source of authoritative and up-to-date information on the food and drugs out there, I think wed be much better off. But instead, weve turned them into the Drug Nannies.. Similarly, the SEC, indeed the entire financial regulatory apparatus, revolves around writing rules, and then making sure that companies live up to them. Some of those rules, like financial statement filings, enhance transparency. But many others jealously guard the perogatives of the SEC and its minions--the safe harbor provisions for the three big regulatory agencies, for example, which lets the SEC control the definition of what a good, safe security is. From what I understand, one of the reasons that so many at the SEC opposed GLB was that merging investment banks with commercial banks meant handing over some of their regulatory power to the agencies that oversaw the commercial sector.. ...
The Division is responsible for the regulation of biocides, pesticides, detergents, chemicals as they are regulated by REACH, ... and duties under the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. ... The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is a Division of the Health & Safety Executive (HSE). ... Chemicals Regulation Division. The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is responsible for the regulation of biocides, ...
The Advertising Regulation Department protects investors by ensuring that broker-dealers communications are fair, balanced and ... What and When to File with Advertising Regulation. Find Advertising Regulation guidance on what and when to file that is ... However, any use beyond what is required by Regulation 60 may require the illustrations to be filed with NASD Regulation as ... Advertising Regulation: Expect More Than Just Hype. When deciding where and in what to invest, its important that investors ...
... of innate immunity. Key cytokines in the innate immune response include: TNF-α, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, type I ... Although cytokine regulation of inflammation and immunity is essential for defending against infection and injury, excess ... Further activation of the adaptive immune response depends on cytokine regulation of T-cell differentiation into subsets of T- ... Cytokine Regulation. News-Medical. 21 September 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cytokine-Regulation.aspx,. ...
It draws on the initiatives for Better Regulation promoted by both organisations over the last few years. ... The EU Better Regulation project is a partnership between the OECD and the European Commission. ... Better Regulation in Europe: Belgium. The EU 15 Better Regulation project is a partnership between the OECD and the European ... Better Regulation initiatives of Belgium-wide relevance. Ensure that its Better Regulation advocacy work continues to receive ...
Contact details for monitoring organisations/competent authorities in Member States dealing with the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR ... Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. ... Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. ... More recent information is available under http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/timber_regulation.htm ...
Privacy, Regulation, and the Internet (Exploring Liberty) - Duration: 25:18. Libertarianism.org 4,415 views ... Internet regulation, Internet freedom, Internet activism - Duration: 30:03. AdamVsTheManRT 10,611 views ... Terrys Floor Speech on Keeping the Internet Free From Government Regulation - Duration: 5:52. NebraskaTerry 233 views ... The Internet and International Telecommunications Regulation - the ITRs - Duration: 3:16. Internet Society 11,216 views ...
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulation No.. Title. ... The NIOSH regulations are found in the following parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are linked below. ... NIOSH is also directly responsible for several regulations. These regulations mostly outline procedures and requirements for ... Also, OSHAs regulation at 29 CFR 1910.1020(h)(2) requires that: "Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business and there is ...
... is the working copy of the official 41 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) chapters 300-304. ... This edition of the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) ... Home/Policy & Regulations/Regulations/Federal Travel Regulation ...
Correct regulation makes a huge difference to the responsiveness of a piano. The proccess of regulating an upright piano is ... Technical Info 5 upright regulation * 1. The Owners Guide to Piano RepairFocus On: Vertical Piano Regulation Information ... a regulation every 5 - 10 years should be adequate. Since apiano goes out of regulation as a result of the amount of play, a ... A job of regulation is in order.The following commonly asked questions have been answered to give you theinformation you need ...
... * Prenatal Lead Exposure Linked with Decreased ... Research, funded in part by NIEHS, has uncovered new details about the regulation of telomeres. These repeated DNA sequences ...
talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. ... Viewpoints: Laurence Fink on Regulation. In the latest Viewpoints Breakfast series, Laurence Fink, Chairman and CEO of ... talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. ...
... late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. From June 5, 2008. ... Viewpoints: Wasserstein on Government Regulation. For WSJs Viewpoints series, late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein ... speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. From June 5, 2008. ...
... the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) gives EU residents new, expanded rights over their personal data. ... Backed by fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global revenue, whichever is higher, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR ... The General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) is a global game changer. No organization storing or processing the personal data ... as well as complying with regulation in a constantly evolving threat environment and regulatory landscape. ...
Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ... Emotion regulation can also include "up-regulation," or amping up ones emotions, which can be useful when an imminent danger ... Why Emotion Regulation Is Important Unlike small children, adults are expected to be able to manage their emotions-especially ... Emotion regulation is the ability to exert control over ones own emotional state. It may involve behaviors such as rethinking ...
... * 1. Essential science for broadband regulation PREDICTABLE NETWORK SOLUTIONS © 2015 ... Any new regulation has to be efficient and effective in its ability to detect, isolate and attribute any performance issues. • ... Regulation would would need to consider all possible traffic management policies and mechanisms in all current and likely ... The utility must consider the impact of the regulation on the weaker in society, such as small businesses, the disabled, those ...
219.03 Item 402(c)(2)(viii) of Regulation S-K and Item 402(h)(2)(iii) and (iv) of Regulation S-K require amounts that are ... Is this information considered to be a "non-GAAP financial measure" for purposes of Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K? ... of Regulation S-K, based on the exclusion provided by Item 601(b)(10)(iii)(C)(4) of Regulation S-K. [Mar. 13, 2007] [same as C& ... of Regulation S-K, based on the exclusion provided by Item 601(b)(10)(iii)(C)(4) of Regulation S-K. [Mar. 13, 2007] [same as C& ...
... regulation affects welfare through two other channels. (i) Regulation calms down existing consumers, because a reduction in the ... Regulation can increase welfare, for example, through fines (even with no changes in prices). Besides the standard channel (i.e ... regulation affects welfare through two other channels. (i) Regulation calms down existing consumers, because a reduction in the ... "A Mechanism for Institutionalised Threat of Regulation: Evidence from the Swedish District Heating Market," Economics Working ...
... Guest Editors: Brenton Graveley and Mihaela Zavolan. RNA plays important roles in the many complex ... A major shift in our understanding of genome regulation has emerged recently. It is now apparent that the majority of cellular ... The 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Selection ... which may contribute to the production of protein variants or to the regulation of gene expression via nonsense-mediated ...
Shares of Mead Johnson fell after the maker of infant formula disclosed on Monday that a new regulation in Hong Kong could ... BOSTON (AP) -- Shares of Mead Johnson fell after the maker of infant formula disclosed on Monday that a new regulation in Hong ... The regulation is intended to ensure adequate supplies for local infants and young children, Mead Johnson said. ...
Because the regulation requires a larger base amount (by including the adjusted basis amount), it results in a larger amount of ... Because the regulation requires a larger base amount (by including the adjusted basis amount), it results in a larger amount of ... Thanks to this decision a part of those regulations is now invalid. What part you ask ? 1.263A-11(e)(1)(ii)(B). Here was the ... Thanks to this decision a part of those regulations is now invalid. What part you ask ? 1.263A-11(e)(1)(ii)(B). Here was the ...
  • Backed by fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global revenue, whichever is higher, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) gives EU residents new, expanded rights over their personal data. (ey.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) is a global game changer. (ey.com)
  • What is General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (adobe.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the European Union's privacy law that harmonizes and modernizes data protection requirements. (adobe.com)
  • A key part of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation is letting individuals choose and control what happens to their personal data. (adobe.com)
  • Think you know what it takes to protect your critical data under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)? (mcafee.com)
  • The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is legislation designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all European Union (EU) citizens' data privacy, and to reshape the way organizations across the region approach data privacy. (mcafee.com)
  • Disclaimer: The information provided on this General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) page is our informed interpretation of the GDPR and is for information purposes only. (mcafee.com)
  • The European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which comes into effect in May 2018, has far-reaching implications that extend far beyond the EU. (cmswire.com)
  • These regulations outline the statewide standards and licensing requirements for commercial cannabis manufacturers, became effective on December 7, 2017 and were re-adopted with some changes on June 6, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • MCSB published proposed regulations on July 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • On March 23, 2018, MCSB released proposed emergency regulations that would allow cannabis manufacturers to utilize shared-use facilities. (ca.gov)
  • The emergency regulations for shared-use facilities were approved and went into effect on April 13, 2018. (ca.gov)
  • GDPR-inspired privacy regulations are cascading into other regions and countries. (adobe.com)
  • Even if the public weren't involved in the development of the Voluntary Code of Practice, and even if search engines weren't coerced into agreeing to it under the not-so-subtle threat of direct government regulation, at least the agreement might claim a fig leaf of legitimacy if it were negotiated and published in a transparent fashion. (eff.org)
  • You can also find the official text of CDC regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations under Title 42-Public Health External . (cdc.gov)
  • The NIOSH regulations are found in the following parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are linked below. (cdc.gov)
  • All formal Federal regulations are published in the Federal Register and also in the Code of Federal Regulations , a large multivolume series. (usda.gov)
  • Regulations are codified annually in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (epa.gov)
  • View the recorded sessions from the 2019 FINRA Advertising Regulation Conference, and receive access to all conference materials. (finra.org)
  • View the online brochure for the 2019 Advertising Regulation Conference. (finra.org)
  • Recent advances, such as findings of extensive modifications of regulatory RNAs, indicate that our understanding of the role of RNAs in gene regulation is far from complete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Can We Stomach Gene Regulation? (redorbit.com)
  • A breakthrough in decoding gene regulation of Helicobacter pylori has been made by an international research team led by Jörg Vogel of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. (redorbit.com)
  • A new model for gene regulation? (redorbit.com)
  • We hope to get completely new insights into gene regulation", says Vogel. (redorbit.com)
  • The better characterization of proteins that interact with MHC class I and II promoters and the isolation of genes encoding several of these transcription factors, such as H-2RIIBP/RXR beta, NK kappa B, I-kappa B, hXBP-1 and NF-Y, allow the functional analysis of these molecules in MHC gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • The new regulations come as the banking industry has seen the overall bonus pool fall coming into 2016, according to a recent report from the Office of the New York State Comptroller. (cnbc.com)
  • The Advertising Regulation Department protects investors by ensuring that broker-dealers' communications are fair, balanced and not misleading and comply with the advertising rules of FINRA , the SEC, the MSRB and SIPC. (finra.org)
  • This year's conference also includes opportunities to network with industry peers and meet one-on-one with Advertising Regulation Department staff during office hours and throughout the event. (finra.org)
  • Facebook Inc. Chief Executive Officer Mark Zuckerberg called for new global regulations governing the internet, recommending overarching rules on hateful and violent content, election integrity, privacy and data portability. (insurancejournal.com)
  • We focus our review on four main types of alcohol regulations: price/tax restrictions, age-based availability restrictions, spatial availability restrictions, and temporal availability restrictions. (nber.org)
  • For a list of regulations CDC is currently working on, please see the Unified Agenda External of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions. (cdc.gov)
  • Identify and disseminate a shared strategic vision of what Better Regulation is seeking to achieve, both in terms of curbing regulatory inflation, but also for the broader contribution which it can make to economic and other public policy goals. (oecd.org)
  • Undertake a review, associating the ASA and the Better Regulation structures of the other Belgian governments, of whether and how any or all of the Belgium wide bodies with a role in regulatory management could be associated more closely to the Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Review and monitor Better Regulation co-operation agreements so that they can play an appropriate supporting role in streamlining the regulatory framework to promote policy coherence across Belgium. (oecd.org)
  • Although NIOSH is generally characterized as a non-regulatory agency, guidance and recommendations issued by NIOSH are often used by other agencies responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • EY data protection and privacy services help organizations stay up-to-date with leading services in data security and data privacy, as well as complying with regulation in a constantly evolving threat environment and regulatory landscape. (ey.com)
  • Having some companies specializing in the still-not-legal dietary ingredient CBD join CRN will help the trade group as it looks to "help FDA, or Congress, craft those regulations," said Andrew Shao, CRN's senior vice president of scientific and regulatory. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Industry and regulatory speakers will facilitate interactive, forward-looking discussions on current practices, policies, priorities and emerging regulations. (finra.org)
  • Kevin Moore, analyst and managing director at Wachovia Securities, said that lawmakers should minimize the investment communitys need to constantly reevaluate the regulatory environment by introducing minimal and flexible regulation. (eweek.com)
  • Once upon a time, Ralph Nader and his legions were virtually the only ones cited by news reports concerning regulatory legislation, but today we are often likely to read about doubts concerning the value of regulation expressed by economists and others all along the political spectrum. (reason.com)
  • In his discussion of the price and entry regulations applied, for example, to public utilities and transportation, he suggests one reason why public opinion might have been ripe 20 years ago for Ralph Nader and the acceleration of regulatory activity since that time in the health and safety areas. (reason.com)
  • EPA is called a regulatory agency because Congress authorizes us to write regulations that explain the technical, operational, and legal details necessary to implement laws. (epa.gov)
  • The Center on Regulation and Markets at Brookings provides independent, non-partisan research on regulatory policy, applied broadly across microeconomic fields. (brookings.edu)
  • Our research is concentrated on the regulation of processes responsible for the concerted action of cells, tissues, and organs. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Consider how best to secure more effective links between the administration and political units, for shared "buy-in" on Better Regulation processes. (oecd.org)
  • Motivational and behavioral models of developmental regulation form the framework for research on the central processes of agency over the lifespan. (springer.com)
  • The motivational theory of development over the lifespan conceptualizes processes of developmental regulation as a sequence of behavioral phases (goal selection, goal striving, and goal realization) with their own respective control strategies. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of gene transcription by neuronal activity is evident in a large number of neuronal processes ranging from neural development and refinement of neuronal connections to learning and response to injury. (springer.com)
  • CBA has become widely accepted for environmental and safety regulation, so why not finance? (cato.org)
  • CDC and other agencies implement public health laws passed by Congress through Federal Regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Congress added this section to the AWA in 2008 and APHIS published specific regulations in 2014. (usda.gov)
  • The proposed regulations and executive orders are directly related to parts of the president's agenda that have been rejected by Congress and the American people - most recently in the November presidential election. (americanthinker.com)
  • On behalf of our activist community, I urge you to contact your representative and ask him or her to support the Reset Act, H.R. 3442, introduced by Rep. Ted Budd (R-N.C.). The bill would require a review of all major federal regulations and allow Congress the option to overturn any such regulation through a majority vote in both houses. (freedomworks.org)
  • It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • For example, age-related loss of calcium regulation was shown to promote cell vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers stress that this kind of research, leading to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying cellular calcium regulation, is critical for the development of new drugs and treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, does the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary have to satisfy the public float or revenue requirements of the definition in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • Under the definition of "smaller reporting company" in Item 10(f) of Regulation S-K, must the corporate parent of a majority-owned subsidiary be required to file reports under Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act in order for the majority-owned subsidiary to qualify as a smaller reporting company? (sec.gov)
  • The technical definition of a midnight regulation is one issued between Election Day and the inauguration of a new president. (americanthinker.com)
  • When a regulation comes into force, it overrides all national laws dealing with the same subject matter and subsequent national legislation must be consistent with and made in the light of the regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While member states are prohibited from obscuring the direct effect of regulations, it is common practice to pass legislation dealing with consequential matters arising from the coming into force of a regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the regulation applies to a different, but in many cases overlapping, range of products than those regulated in the United States under equivalent legislation. (export.gov)
  • From a close-up investigation of Canadian financial regulations before and since the global financial crisis, to a profile of New Zealand's regulation and governance of its non-bank financial sector, to insight for international banks on compliance with anti-money-laundering legislation in Malaysia, the journal presents sophisticated analysis, and in-depth, expert advice. (palgrave.com)
  • anti-money laundering legislation and regulations. (palgrave.com)
  • BRS derives its authority to write regulations from provisions of the Plant Protection Act , which is a part of the larger Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 . (usda.gov)
  • As the nation's public health protection agency, CDC has certain authorities to implement regulations related to protecting America from health and safety threats, both foreign and within the United States, and increasing public health security. (cdc.gov)
  • EPA docket centers provide access to the same information as Regulations.gov for those people without access to the Internet. (epa.gov)
  • You may also submit comments to the docket centers, in addition to submitting them via Regulations.gov. (epa.gov)
  • If EPA decides to proceed with regulation development, then the agency conducts a variety of economic analyses when developing the proposed and final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • EPA rulemakings (i.e., regulations that are under development) could impact you once they become final regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Today the NAI is joining leading advertising and marketing associations in the launch of the cross-industry program for self-regulation of online behavioral advertising. (networkadvertising.org)
  • Newsnight's political editor Allegra Stratton was told Privy Council members felt proposals for self-regulation put forward by newspapers did not meet the requirements of Lord Justice Leveson's report. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In the latest Viewpoints Breakfast series, Laurence Fink, Chairman and CEO of BlackRock Inc. talk about the role of regulation coming out of the recession and in the future, with Alan Murray. (wsj.com)
  • For WSJ's 'Viewpoints' series, late Lazard Chairman and CEO Bruce Wasserstein speaks to Alan Murray about government regulation. (wsj.com)
  • Oxygen regulation can refer to: The physiological regulation of oxygen in plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is regulation that these directives are to be destroyed on receipt. (wiktionary.org)
  • [2] [3] Regulations can be distinguished from directives which, at least in principle, need to be transposed into national law . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) is responsible for the regulation of biocides, pesticides, detergents, chemicals covered by REACH, and for compliance with the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)
  • These Compliance & Disclosure Interpretations ("C&DIs") comprise the Division's interpretations of Regulation S-K. Some of these C&DIs were first published in prior Division publications and have been revised in some cases. (sec.gov)
  • The Gateway to State-by-State Resource Locators Exit , sponsored by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance , provides access to state-by-state environmental regulations, compliance assistance, and where applicable, permits and forms for a variety of topics. (epa.gov)
  • A regulation set forth by the Federal Reserve. (investopedia.com)
  • After a Congressional bill becomes law, federal agencies may be responsible for putting the law into action through the development of regulations-also known as "rules. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal regulations give the public details or specific requirements of how the law will be applied. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal rulemaking usually involves a notice-and-comment process in which regulations are published in the Federal Register External for public comment over a specified time. (cdc.gov)
  • You can provide your comments by going to the federal government's regulations website External to view CDC's rules that are open for public comment External . (cdc.gov)
  • The Unified Agenda, published in the spring and fall of each year, provides information about regulations that the federal government is considering or reviewing within the next 12 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure that the ASA keeps its institutional distinctiveness (location in the Federal Chancellery, autonomous agency, strong link with the stakeholders), which has allowed it to promote, often with great success, Better Regulation initiatives of Belgium-wide relevance. (oecd.org)
  • The links below provide additional information on the requirements and exceptions under the AWA, and complying with other applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (usda.gov)
  • Witness the moves to reform regulations on airlines and trucking and to limit the activities of the Federal Trade Commission and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (reason.com)
  • Established as a formal policy in 1986, the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology describes the Federal system for evaluating products developed using modern biotechnology. (usda.gov)
  • Comment on regulations, and access rules that have been published in the Federal Register and related documents. (epa.gov)
  • In many cases, state-level environmental agencies administer the federal regulations that EPA puts in place. (epa.gov)
  • Chairman Hensarling, Ranking Member Waters, and other members of the committee, I appreciate the opportunity to testify on the Federal Reserve's regulation and supervision of financial institutions. (federalreserve.gov)
  • At issue is whether those rules, crafted by the Environmental Protection Agency, constitute a reasonable attempt to safeguard America's freshwater supply or a massive bureaucratic power grab that will subject farmers and other landowners to onerous federal oversight and regulations. (voanews.com)
  • Opponents contend the rules were crafted so broadly that almost any spot where water collects naturally on private property would invite intrusive federal regulation. (voanews.com)
  • This report deals with the regulation of logistics infrastructures in Brazil, focusing in particular on the federal level. (rand.org)
  • Ensemble models of allosteric regulation enumerate an allosteric system's statistical ensemble as a function of its potential energy function , and then relate specific statistical measurements of allostery to specific energy terms in the energy function (such as an intermolecular salt bridge between two domains). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, our regulation of that system should support and promote the system's efficiency just as it supports its safety. (federalreserve.gov)
  • The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) developed emergency regulations to implement the mandates of the Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MAUCRSA). (ca.gov)
  • These regulations were developed to provide opportunities for small manufacturing businesses and in response to demand from cities and counties wishing to implement equity programs. (ca.gov)
  • You may be continuing to implement the changes that will align your organization with this data protection regulation. (mcafee.com)
  • The state boiler inspection program implements statutory rules and regulations established to control the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of approximately 38,000 boilers and pressure vessels in the state of Colorado. (mines.edu)
  • In conformity with applicable rules and regulations. (wiktionary.org)
  • Regulation F specifies that banks must institute internal rules that regulate the amount of risk that they can take in their business proceedings with other institutions. (investopedia.com)
  • The process of creating regulations or rules is called rulemaking. (cdc.gov)
  • We explore the role of government in setting and enforcing rules for fairness and competition in the private sector, and how the private sector manages to set the regulation agenda itself. (corpwatch.org)
  • These regulations mostly outline procedures and requirements for specific health and safety related matters involving a particular industry or set forth rules for NIOSH to follow in administering programs assigned to the Institute. (cdc.gov)
  • They included smaller rules on workplace hazards, gun sellers, nutrition labels and energy efficiency, as well as giant regulations (costing billions) on retirement advice and overtime pay. (americanthinker.com)
  • Regulation of March 26, 2013, on the Exclusion of Some Provisions of the Aviation Law Act for Certain Types of Aircraft and Determining the Conditions and Requirements Relating to the Use of Such Aircraft, [2] which sets out the rules for operation of UAS weighing less than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Regulation of April 26, 2013, on the Technical and Operational Rules on Aircraft of Special Category, Not Subject to the Supervision of the European Aviation Safety Agency, [4] which mostly applies to UAS weighing more than 25 kg. (loc.gov)
  • Obtaining a VLOS operation certificate requires the applicant to sign a declaration of knowledge of relevant regulations and basic theory (airspace, emergencies, flight rules, etc.), and pass theoretical and practical tests conducted by a CAA examiner. (loc.gov)
  • Uruguay has presented a 500 page document to defend itself against an international lawsuit challenging the country's tough tobacco packaging regulations. (corpwatch.org)
  • To understand the complexity of the vertical piano action and theprimary cause of an action going out of regulation, consider the cut-away photo ofthe action from an actual piano on the next page. (slideshare.net)
  • The dangerous sexual practice of erotic asphyxiation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Oxygen regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The description of regulations can be found in Article 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly Article 249 TEC ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kimberly Strassel has a great article in the Wall Street Journal that summarizes the actions taken by President Obama since the election designed to undermine the presidency of Donald Trump by piling thousands of new regulations and executive orders on the new president's desk, daring him to undo them. (americanthinker.com)
  • Regulations require that the horizontal distance from people and structures on the surface must be sufficient to exclude any risk to people, property, or the environment, even after any possible failure. (loc.gov)
  • Photosynthate supply and phytohormones, particularly cytokinins, interact with nitrogen supply to control the expression of photosynthesis genes, the development of leaves and the whole plant nitrogen distribution, which provides the dominant basis for sink regulation of photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • The major aim of Transcriptional Regulation by Neuronal Activity: To the Nucleus and Back is to illustrate key advances in the field - specifically how signals are transmitted to the nucleus in response to neuronal activity, what genes are activated and how this is achieved, and how these changes in gene expression alter neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Studies on the regulation of expression of retina-specific genes, in addition to their importance at the basic level, will also have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Press regulation options are being considered in the wake of the Leveson Inquiry, which was set up in July 2011 after it emerged journalists working for the now-closed News of the World had hacked into the mobile phone of murdered Surrey schoolgirl Milly Dowler. (bbc.co.uk)
  • On July 11, 2013, the EU Cosmetics Regulation entered into effect replacing the EU Cosmetics Directive which had been in place since the 1970s. (export.gov)
  • Although many U.S. exporters of cosmetic products have already taken steps to comply with this regulation, this report assists all U.S. cosmetics manufacturers understand the new requirements so they can better prepare to compete in the EU market. (export.gov)
  • Section 1 of this report provides information on the categories of products covered by the Cosmetics Regulation. (export.gov)
  • The Cosmetics Regulation requires that non-EU based exporters of cosmetic products retain a Responsible Person. (export.gov)
  • Guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits can sleep safe and sound in Europe as of today (11 March) after the last deadline specified in the Cosmetics Regulation entered into force across the European Union, forbidding the industry from using animal testing. (euractiv.com)
  • Alcohol Regulation and Crime , Christopher Carpenter, Carlos Dobkin. (nber.org)
  • Information about Regulation (EU) 649/2012 regarding the export or import of chemicals or articles containing chemicals (commonly known as the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Regulation). (hse.gov.uk)
  • Our findings suggest that as backyard chicken farming spreads, states need to develop regulations to better protect animal welfare and human health. (theconversation.com)
  • In some cases, though, a lack of appropriate emotion regulation may be a sign of a mental health condition such as borderline personality disorder or depression . (psychologytoday.com)
  • China's State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) is calling for public feedback regarding regulations for health food products containing probiotics. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Accountability is another of the simple conditions that EFF places on any industry code of practice that has a similar broad impact on Internet users as laws or regulations. (eff.org)
  • For a complete list of U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to biotechnology under the Coordinated Framework, click here . (usda.gov)
  • We provide a number of tools for you to keep track of and participate in the development of new EPA regulations, and to learn how to comply with existing regulations. (epa.gov)
  • Since the statute is not clear, the Court moved on to intent and there found that the regulation missed the point. (forbes.com)
  • A joint study by the Brookings Institution and American Enterprise Institute [http://www.aei-brookings.org/publications/abstract.php?pid=98] found that government regulations that are supposed to save lives actually end up killing more people. (realclearpolitics.com)
  • PSCs in some states pioneered regulations and policies that led to the development and practice of utility "demand-side management," which includes customer energy efficiency programs . (aceee.org)
  • Consider whether resources are adequate to the tasks carried out, and ensure that professional capacities and competences are further enhanced, in order to meet the needs of a maturing Better Regulation agenda in support of more effective public administration and economic competitiveness. (oecd.org)
  • The regulation is intended to ensure adequate supplies for local infants and young children, Mead Johnson said. (yahoo.com)
  • Co-operate on the development of a common communication strategy for shared work and achievements, as well as for overall Better Regulation strategy. (oecd.org)
  • The human lifespan provides an age-based timetable for the regulation of development. (springer.com)
  • This application proposes to study the molecular basis of retinal development using the regulation of rhodopsin gene expression as a model system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Regulation can increase welfare, for example, through fines (even with no changes in prices). (repec.org)
  • It draws on the initiatives for Better Regulation promoted by both organisations over the last few years. (oecd.org)
  • Interested private entities that fulfil the requirements within the regulation may apply to become monitoring organisations. (europa.eu)
  • They have a prominent role in establishing regulations and policies that support the establishment and implementation of utility-sector energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • Certain aspects of utility regulation and policy are especially critical for enabling and supporting utility energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • Experience has shown that without very direct and supportive regulations and policies, utilities will not develop and offer significant customer energy efficiency programs. (aceee.org)
  • Regulations are mandatory requirements that can apply to individuals, businesses, state or local governments, non-profit institutions, or others. (epa.gov)
  • The Regulation of Entry ," Working Paper Series rwp01-015, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government. (repec.org)
  • American attitudes toward government regulation of business have shifted in recent years. (reason.com)
  • MacAvoy's findings, however, are devastating to any argument that government regulation is a net benefit to society. (reason.com)
  • It is unfortunate that the book is so passionless, although its very monotony serves to accent the conclusion that government regulations fail to achieve their presumed objectives and perversely harm the economy instead. (reason.com)
  • The government is another step closer to coming up with regulations on minimum seat sizes for airline flights after the Senate passed an FAA reauthorization bill. (usatoday.com)
  • NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) - Kenya's Supreme Court on Tuesday dismissed a British American Tobacco challenge to regulations that charge the tobacco industry a fee to help compensate people affected by smoking. (ap.org)
  • Guidance and information on the UK implementation of the EC Detergents Regulation. (hse.gov.uk)