A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/28952)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (2/28952)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (3/28952)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (4/28952)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (5/28952)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Establishment of an inducible expression system of chimeric MLL-LTG9 protein and inhibition of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 expression by MLL-LTG9 in 32Dcl3 cells. (6/28952)

The MLL (HRX/ALL-1 gene is frequently disrupted in infantile leukemias and therapy-related leukemias and fused to various translocation partner genes. We previously showed that chimeric MLL proteins localize in the nuclei in a fashion similar to that of MLL protein even if the partner gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein and indicated the importance of the N-terminal portion of MLL common to various MLL translocations. This time we established an inducible expression system for chimeric MLL-LTG9 and truncated N-terminal MLL proteins (MLL-Zf(-)) in 32Dcl3 cells. By utilizing this system, we were able to show inhibition of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 genes' expression by induced MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-). Up-regulation of Hox a7, Hox b7 and Hox c9 was observed when 32Dcl3 cells were cultured with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in place of interleukin 3 and induction of MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-) was shown to suppress this upregulation. At the same time, expression of two mammalian Polycomb group genes, M33 and mel-18, which both reportedly affect Hox genes' expression, was not inhibited by MLL-LTG9 and MLL-Zf(-) induction. These results indicate that MLL has an important effect on the expression of at least some Hox genes in hematopoietic cells and suggest that inhibition of the proper expression of Hox genes by chimeric MLL proteins may dysregulate hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation, which then can lead to leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (7/28952)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Intracellular sodium modulates the expression of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in PC12W cells. (8/28952)

Although the angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor (AT2-R) is expressed abundantly in the adrenal medulla, its physiological significance has not yet been determined. To obtain fundamental knowledge of the regulation of AT2-R expression in the adrenal medulla, we investigated the effects of modulating several ion channels on AT2-R expression in PC12W cells. Experiments were performed after 24 hours of serum depletion under subconfluent conditions. After 48 hours of treatment with various agonists or antagonists, the receptor density and mRNA level of AT2-Rs were quantified by 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II binding and Northern blot analysis. Ouabain (10 to 100 nmol/L) and insulin (10 to 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently increased receptor density and mRNA level. Analysis of the binding characteristics revealed that the ouabain-dependent increase in AT2-R levels was due to an increase in binding capacity without a change in the Kd value. These increases were blocked by lowering the Na+ concentration in the medium. A low concentration of the sodium ionophore monensin (10 nmol/L), the K+-channel blocker quinidine (10 micromol/L), and the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers tolbutamide (100 micromol/L) and glybenclamide (10 micromol/L) also significantly increased receptor density, but the ATP-sensitive K+-channel agonist cromakalim (100 micromol/L) decreased receptor density significantly (P<0.01). Nifedipine (10 micromol/L) decreased basal receptor density and completely blocked the increase in receptor density caused by these agents. The increase in receptor density caused by an increase in intracellular Na+ was accompanied by an increase in mRNA level, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers did not change mRNA level. Nifedipine slightly decreased mRNA level. These results suggest that AT2-R expression is sensitively regulated by intracellular cation levels. The change in intracellular Na+ level transcriptionally regulates AT2-R expression, whereas the K+-channel blocker-dependent upregulation appears to be at least in part posttranslational.  (+info)

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

... social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. State ... Look up regulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE) New Perspectives on Regulation ( ... self-regulation) in contrast to state regulation of minimum wages etc. Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may ... Jerusalem Papers in Regulation and Governance, No. 1, 2010 Orbach, Barak, What Is Regulation? 30 Yale Journal on Regulation ...
... ( V ) = V m i n − l o a d − V m a x − l o a d {\displaystyle {\text{Load Regulation}}(V)=V_{min-load}-V_{max- ... Line regulation Linear regulator "Line and Load Regulation for Programmable DC Power Supplies and Precision DC Sources- ... Load Regulation = 100 % V m i n − l o a d − V m a x − l o a d V n o m − l o a d {\displaystyle \%{\text{Load Regulation}}=100 ... Load regulation is the capability to maintain a constant voltage (or current) level on the output channel of a power supply ...
... , also known as Regulation Crowdfunding or Reg CF is a section of the United States Code, in particular 17 U.S.C ... Regulation A "SEC.gov , Regulation Crowdfunding". www.sec.gov. Retrieved 2021-10-18. "SeedInvest". SeedInvest. Retrieved 2021- ...
... can refer to: The physiological regulation of oxygen in plants and animals. See Control of respiration. The ... sexual practice of erotic asphyxiation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Oxygen regulation. If ...
The (new) ePrivacy Regulation will repeal the (current) ePrivacy Directive. Contrary to an EU Directive, an EU Regulation is a ... The ePrivacy Regulation (ePR) is a proposal for the regulation of various privacy-related topics, mostly in relation to ... The history of the regulation goes back to January 2017 when the European Commission proposed the ePrivacy Regulation. The ... It has therefore been implemented into national laws and regulations. If the proposed ePrivacy Regulation became effective, ...
The Insolvency Regulation is an EU Regulation concerning the rules of jurisdiction for opening insolvency proceedings in the ... Unusually for a European regulation, the EC Insolvency Regulation does not seek to harmonise insolvency laws between the ... Israël, Jona (2005). European Cross-border Insolvency Regulation. ISBN 9789050954983. "Council regulation (EC) No 1346/2000 of ... European Union regulations, European Union regulations by number). ...
British Armed Forces units usually carry two Regulation Colours: the Regulation King's Colour and Regulation Regimental Colour ... The Regulation Colours are the standard colours used in the armed forces of the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...
Look up regulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Regulation may refer to: Government functions: Regulation of the polity ... Time beyond regulation is used in some sports or situations within sports to break ties, and is known as overtime. Regulation ... Voltage regulation, degree to which a device's output voltage remains nominal Categories of voltage control: Line regulation, ... by the executive branch pursuant to leave of the legislative branch Regulations, class of statutory instruments Regulation ( ...
... may refer to: Government by algorithm, use of algorithms in government Regulation of algorithms, rules ... and laws for algorithms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Algorithmic regulation. If an ...
... refers to attempts by a government to regulate wages paid to citizens. Minimum wage regulation attempts to set ... Both would agree, that if its aim is to improve the living standards of society, wage regulation defeats itself. Posner says, " ...
The CLP Regulation (for "Classification, Labelling and Packaging") is a European Union regulation from 2008, which aligns the ... European Union regulations, Occupational safety and health, 2008 in law, 2008 in the European Union, Regulation of chemicals in ... and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006. New classification, labelling and packaging regulation, European Chemicals Agency, ... was made with Commission Regulation 790/2009.[jargon] Full title: Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and ...
In Belgium, a regulation (Dutch: verordening, French: règlement) is a form of legislation passed by the Brussels Parliament in ...
Macroprudential regulation v t e (Consumer protection, Financial regulation, Systemic risk, Business cycle, All stub articles, ... Microprudential regulation or microprudential supervision is firm-level oversight or financial regulation by regulators of ... Therefore, micro-prudential regulation also reduces systemic risk. Micro-prudential regulation involves enforcing standards, e. ... The motivation for micro-prudential regulation is rooted in consumer protection: ensuring solvency of financial institutions ...
... may refer to: Population control Wildlife management Human population planning This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Population regulation. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
Distribution regulation involves a "regulation point": the point at which the equipment tries to maintain constant voltage. ... presents a number of significant challenges for voltage regulation. Conventional voltage regulation equipment works under the ... In the voltage regulation formula, Vno load is the voltage measured at the receiving end terminals when the receiving end is an ... Voltage regulation describes the ability of a system to provide near constant voltage over a wide range of load conditions. The ...
"Regulation Bill passes 2nd and 3rd Knesset readings". Ynetnews. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "What is, in fact, the Regulation ... Knesset passes settlement regulation law at the Knesset website (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short ... "Regulation Bill passes 2nd and 3rd Knesset readings". Knesset website (Hebrew). Retrieved 6 February 2017. " ... "Attorney General to Netanyahu: I will not Defend the Regulation Law before the Supreme Court (Hebrew)". Ynet. Retrieved 13 ...
... is the approach to financial regulation that aims to mitigate risk to the financial system as a ... Bank regulation European Systemic Risk Board Financial regulation Financial Stability Board Financial Stability Oversight ... Conference Macroprudential regulation and policy (BIS - BoK, 2011), a collection of the articles presented during the ... The main goal of macroprudential regulation is to reduce the risk and the macroeconomic costs of financial instability. It is ...
See the section on Rent regulation#Forms of rent regulation for more detail. "PH6.1 RENTAL REGULATION" (PDF). OECD.org - ... The Catalonia region of Spain passed a rent-regulation law in September 2020. Rent regulation covered the whole of the UK ... However, from the Housing Act 1980, it became Conservative Party policy to deregulate and dismantle rent regulation. Regulation ... Rent regulation: An introduction' (2003) 10 Swedish Economic Policy Review 3 H Lind, 'Rent Regulation: A Conceptual and ...
"The theory of regulation in times of crisis" An overview of the Regulation School A scholarly blog on the Regulation School in ... "regulation". Regulation in the sense of government action does have a part in regulation theory. Robert Boyer distinguished two ... to Regulation Theory Article on Lipietz's approach to Regulation Theory A page containing some notes on the Regulation School's ... "mode of regulation of competition" (1850-1930). It consisted of a first mode of regulation, from 1850 to the beginning of the ...
... is a type of financial regulation that requires financial firms to control risks and hold adequate ... Prudential regulation can be split into microprudential regulation that focuses on the individual firms and making sure that ... protection such as the UK with the Prudential Regulation Authority or in Australia with the Australian Prudential Regulation ... they can withstand shocks and macroprudential regulation that looks at the whole financial system and systemic risk. Some ...
The Regulation of the Rhine (German: Rheinregulierung) or Rhine Correction (Rheinkorrektion), refers to the canalisation of the ... The 1892 treaty between Austria-Hungary and Switzerland on the regulation of the Rhine put to an end the many flood disasters ...
Text of the Regulation Taking of Evidence regulation at the Judicial Atlas (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from July ... Council Regulation (EC) No. 1206/2001 of 28 May 2001 on cooperation between the courts of the Member States in the taking of ... The regulation applies to all the member states of the European Union with the exception of Denmark. The 2015 Danish European ... This regulation enables a somewhat simplified route by allowing direct contact between the courts in the member states. A ...
The Dublin Regulation (Regulation No. 604/2013; sometimes the Dublin III Regulation; previously the Dublin II Regulation and ... The Dublin III Regulation is to be replaced by an Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (AMMR), as part of the third phase ... The Dublin Regulation forms a key part of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). Together with the Eurodac Regulation, which ... The Dublin III Regulation (No. 604/2013) was approved in June 2013, replacing the Dublin II Regulation, and applies to all ...
The regulation is found under Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations, chapter 2, part 230. The legal citation is 17 C.F.R ... On March 25, 2015, the SEC issued new final regulations amending Regulation A. Montana and Massachusetts state regulators sued ... of any Regulation A+ offering. Their minimum investment is $100. Regulation A allows companies to conduct a publicity campaign ... Official site Adopting Release for the amendments to Regulation A Guidance on the Application of Regulation A (Articles needing ...
The regulation of transcription is a vital process in all living organisms. It is orchestrated by transcription factors and ... Transcription regulation at about 60% of promoters is controlled by methylation of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides (where 5 ... In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to ... A large part of gene regulation occurs through transcription factors that either recruit or inhibit the binding of the general ...
... (12 CFR 217) is a Federal Reserve regulation which sets out capital requirements for banks in the United States. ... were incorporated into Regulation D. As a result of Section 11 of the Banking Act of 1933, Regulation Q was promulgated by the ... which was then the only remaining substantive component of Regulation Q. The Regulation Q prohibition of interest-bearing ... That version of Regulation Q no longer exists; all its remaining aspects, such as the type of entities that may own or maintain ...
Regulation (EC) No 1393/2007 (current) Council regulation (EC) No 1348/2000 of 29 May 2000 Not in force, replaced by regulation ... The Service Regulation, officially the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1393/2007 on the service in the Member States of judicial ... The 2000 regulation was subsequently replaced by the 2007 regulation. Denmark informed the Commission of its acceptance of the ... The substance of this convention was replaced by Regulation 1348/2000. The regulation applied to all the member states of the ...
... refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. This regulation is vastly ... In comparison to transcriptional regulation, it results in much more immediate cellular adjustment through direct regulation of ... Regulation of this process begins with the supply of methionine by a tRNA anticodon that basepairs AUG. This base pairing comes ... An example of regulation at the level of termination is functional translational readthrough of the lactate dehydrogenase gene ...
... and "affect regulation theory" are important concepts in psychiatry and psychology and in close relation with ... Affect regulation is the actual performance one can demonstrate in a difficult situation regardless of what their mood or ... Taylor, Graeme J.; Bagby, R. Michael; Parker, James D. A. (7 October 1999). Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in ... Schore, Allan N. (6 August 2012). Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. ...
... is a field of law, often bracketed with antitrust (as in the phrase "antitrust and trade regulation law"), ... sources of information about antitrust and trade regulation law Sample of Trade Regulation Talk blog. The Florida State Bar , ... Antitrust law is often considered a subset of trade regulation law. Franchise and distribution law, consumer protection law, ... See CCH launches Trade Regulation blog. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
The Bank of England prudentially regulates and supervises financial services firms through the Prudential Regulation Authority ... We are the Prudential Regulation Authority. As part of the Bank of England, we are responsible for the prudential regulation ... Prudential regulation publications. For a more in-depth look at our key regulatory news and publications for month, read our ... 31 January 2024 - CP3/24 - The Prudential Regulation Authoritys approach to rule permissions and waivers. Closes 30 April 2024 ...
WCA Regulations. Version: January 1, 2024. [. official:586f970. ]. Notes. WCA Regulations and Guidelines. The WCA Regulations ... Original source of the WCA Regulations: www.worldcubeassociation.org/regulations. WCA Regulations in PDF format. ... The WCA Regulations are also supplemented by the WCA Guidelines. The Regulations should be considered a complete document, but ... 11d) If the WCA Regulations are not fully clear or if the incident is not covered by the WCA Regulations, then the WCA Delegate ...
Building regulation in England for the ventilation requirements to maintain indoor air quality. ... regulations as set out in Part F of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations and in a number of specific building regulations. ... The Amendment Regulations and accompanying Approved Documents F: Volumes 1 and 2 come into force on 15 June 2022. However, the ... have the meanings given in Regulation 2 of the Building Regulations 2010. ...
CLIA Regulations. Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements (42 CFR 493). Source: Government Printing Office (GPO) ... The final CLIA regulations were published in 1992, phased in through 1994, and amended in 1993, 1995, and 2003. Visit the CLIA ... The interpretive guidelines to the CLIA regulations are published in the CMS State Operations Manual (SOM). The SOM is used by ... The section of the federal regulations titled "Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements" is issued by the Centers ...
... social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. State ... Look up regulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE) New Perspectives on Regulation ( ... self-regulation) in contrast to state regulation of minimum wages etc. Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may ... Jerusalem Papers in Regulation and Governance, No. 1, 2010 Orbach, Barak, What Is Regulation? 30 Yale Journal on Regulation ...
CLIA Regulations. Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements (42 CFR 493). Source: Government Printing Office (GPO) ... The final CLIA regulations were published in 1992, phased in through 1994, and amended in 1993, 1995, and 2003. Visit the CLIA ... The interpretive guidelines to the CLIA regulations are published in the CMS State Operations Manual (SOM). The SOM is used by ... The section of the federal regulations titled "Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements" is issued by the Centers ...
Please visit this URL to review a list of supported browsers. ...
Shadow Regulation has become increasingly popular after the monumental failure of restrictive Internet laws such as ACTA, SOPA ... Shadow Regulations are voluntary agreements between companies (sometimes described as codes, principles, standards, or ... Shadow Regulation is used in many different contexts, including copyright enforcement, regulation of "hate speech," and to ... Shadow Regulation has become increasingly popular after the monumental failure of restrictive Internet laws such as ACTA, SOPA ...
More in Nursing Regulation. Nursing Regulation * About U.S. Nursing Regulatory Bodies ... Nursing Regulation. Protecting the Public and the Trust in Nursing. Nurses are the leading protector of the health and welfare ... Join our mailing list to receive the latest news, publications and events from NCSBN and the world of nursing regulation. ... The NursingAmerica Campaign is NCSBNs initiative to assist states in aligning their APRN regulation with the major elements of ...
Commission Regulation (EC) No 949/98 of 6 May 1998 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of ... Commission Regulation (EC) No 949/98 of 6 May 1998 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of ... Commission Regulation (EC) No 949/98 of 6 May 1998 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of ...
Policy & Regulation / News Briefs. OECD Reports on State of IPv6 Deployment for Policy Makers. Apr 09, 2010 ... Keeping businesses free from oppressive regulations is the best stimulus for the current economy." more ... Regulation Privacy Regional Registries Registry Services Spam Telecom UDRP VoIP Web White Space Whois Wireless Display Options: ... Video: Engineers in Washington Discuss How Pending US Regulations Could Impact the Internet. Nov 06, 2009 ...
... they are a fundamental attack on the integrity and independence of alcohol and gaming regulation in NSW, Mr Kaye said. ...
Regulations 2009. Its intention is to make sure that providers give people who use services timely and accurate information ... Care Quality Commission (Registration) Regulations 2009: Regulation 19. The intention of this regulation is to make sure that ... CQC can prosecute for a breach of this regulation or a breach of part of the regulation. This means that CQC can move directly ... The regulation in full. 19.-. *Where a service user will be responsible for paying the costs of their care or treatment (either ...
Part IV explores the implications of the analysis for a variety of issues relating to monopoly and public regulation, such as ... the aggregate social costs of monopoly and for a variety of other important issues relating to monopoly and public regulation ( ... "The Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(4), pages 807- ... "Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation," NBER Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. ...
The Environmental Information Regulations cover any recorded information that relates to or affects the environment, held by ... The Environmental Information Regulations 2004 (EIR) provide the public with access to environmental information held by public ...
The Merchant Shipping Regulations apply to all vessels under the UK flag and vessels in UK waters or operating from UK ports, ... The Merchant Shipping Regulations apply to all vessels under the UK flag and vessels in UK waters or operating from UK ports. ... to ensure that you are complying with the correct regulations. ...
... (SOR/96-433). Full Document: *HTMLFull Document: Canadian Aviation Regulations (Accessibility ... Canadian Aviation Regulations*100.01 - PART I - General Provisions * 100.01 - Short Title *101.01 - Subpart 1 - Interpretation ... Regulations are current to 2024-04-01 and last amended on 2023-06-21. Previous Versions ...
... who the tangible property regulations apply to and the important aspects of the final regulations. The procedures by which a ... Do the final tangibles property regulations apply to nonprofits?. The final tangibles regulations apply equally to all ... Do the final tangibles regulations apply to you?. The final tangibles regulations apply to anyone who pays or incurs amounts to ... What must you do to apply the final tangibles regulations to materials and supplies?. Because the final tangibles regulations ...
"Cosmetic Products Regulation"), which harmonizes and simplifies the cosmetics regulations across the EU member states. The aim ... The Regulation states that notification must be provided to the designated competent authority prior to placing a cosmetic ... EU Cosmetics Regulation Services. Interteks experts provide cosmetics companies with complete scientific and regulatory ... On the 11th July 2013, the European Union (EU) Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC was replaced by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 (the ...
Explore the latest news and expert commentary on Regulation, brought to you by the editors of Telecoms ... Regulation. Ericsson chief slams Europe for prioritising regulation over innovationEricsson chief slams Europe for prioritising ... The Telecoms.com Podcast: 6G, regulation and EricssonThe Telecoms.com Podcast: 6G, regulation and Ericsson. byPodcast ... Regulation. CMA launches in-depth probe of Vodafone/Three dealCMA launches in-depth probe of Vodafone/Three deal. byNick Wood ...
... is one of the key regulations adopted in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Learn more about the impacts of CSDR. ... London Branch is subject to regulation by the Financial Conduct Authority and limited regulation by the Prudential Regulation ... Details about the extent of our regulation by the Prudential Regulation Authority are available from us on request. The Bank of ... The Central Securities Depositories Regulation (CSDR) is one of the key regulations adopted in the aftermath of the global ...
2024 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621‑1428 , (510) 632‑1366 , (510) 568‑6040 FAX , SEND EMAIL ...
IO: Regulation, Antitrust & Privatization eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic ... I apply the framework of Kirzners (1985) perils of regulation to the general revision of copyright law in 1976, and explore ... Safner, Ryan, The Perils of Copyright Regulation (October 5, 2014). Review of Austrian Economics, Forthcoming, Available at ...
Researchers say that technique revealed findings that challenge the gene-centric view of genetic regulation. ... NewsGene expressionGene regulationGenetic engineeringGenetic Engineering and BiotechnologyGenetic phenomenaGeneticsRegenerative ... Researchers say their technique revealed findings that challenge the gene-centric view of genetic regulation. ... have developed a new method called Gromit for studying gene regulation by employing a transposon, or jumping gene. Using Gromit ...
... the Ministry of Finance has adopted amendments to the Norwegian bank lending regulation. The amendments will take effect on 1 ... The current regulation is in large part a continuation of mortgage loan regulations from 2015, 2016 and 2018, and a consumer ... The regulation currently applies to residential mortgage loans and consumer credits. From 1 January 2023, the regulation will ... The regulation sets a limit for how large a residential mortgage loan can be relative to the property value (LTV ratio) at 85 ...
Perhaps we should call this proposed foolish regulation proposal "The Ugly Aircraft Regulation Act." ... Regulations should only be added in response to an accident when everyone did everything right, but the accident still occurred ... "Regulations should only be added in response to an accident when everyone did everything right, but the accident still occurred ... In this blog space, its rarely ill-advised to oppose any new regulation and as an evergreen topic, grinding on existing ones ...
... J Neurosci Res. 2021 Mar;99(3):843-857. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24763. ...
Official fishing guide and regulations from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Fish & Wildlife ... 2024-2025 Indiana Fishing Regulations Guide. This guide provides a summary of Indiana fishing regulations. These regulations ... Fish from public waters that migrate into or from private waters are still covered by these regulations. These regulations do ... If you need complete versions of Indiana rules and regulations for fishing, they can be found in Indiana Code or in Indiana ...
Verify and authenticate customer identities while meeting OFAC compliance regulations to mitigate risk with Experians ... In order to keep your organization on track to comply with OFAC regulations, your organization must establish and maintain a ... Our solutions allow you to remain compliant with OFAC regulations and mitigate your risk of significant fines or imprisonment. ...
  • Health Emergency of International Concern and issued the Committee's advice as temporary recommendations under the International Health Regulations (2005). (who.int)
  • Organization (WHO) recognized the need to overhaul of preexisting systems and infrastructure, past and present international public health cooperation, and they revised objectives of health ministries and their external partners, the International Health Regulations (IHR). (cdc.gov)
  • 14 May 2014 - The fifth meeting of the Emergency Committee convened by the Director-General under the International Health Regulations (2005) concerning Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was held by. (who.int)
  • Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, have developed a new method called Gromit for studying gene regulation by employing a transposon, or jumping gene. (genengnews.com)
  • The process of turning genes on and off is known as gene regulation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gene regulation is an important part of normal development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gene regulation also allows cells to react quickly to changes in their environments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gene regulation can occur at any point during gene expression, but most commonly occurs at the level of transcription (when the information in a gene's DNA is passed to mRNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute provides a definition of gene regulation in their Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Khan Academy has an educational unit on gene regulation , including videos about gene regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regulations are current to 2024-04-01 and last amended on 2023-06-21. (gc.ca)
  • The current lending regulation entered into force on 1 January 2021 and shall apply until 31 December 2024. (regjeringen.no)
  • The section of the federal regulations titled "Standards and Certification: Laboratory Requirements" is issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to enact the CLIA law passed by Congress (see below). (cdc.gov)
  • Following the 17 July 2019 meeting and taking into account the advice of the Committee, the information from the affected State Party and the risk for human health, the risk of 1 See Disease Outbreak News, available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/en/ (accessed 17 February 2020). (who.int)
  • The current regulation is in large part a continuation of mortgage loan regulations from 2015, 2016 and 2018, and a consumer credit regulation from 2019. (regjeringen.no)
  • That allows EPA to evaluate the intended use and to regulate prospective manufacturers or processors of TCE before the use occurs, provided that regulation is warranted under the act (NTP, 2016). (cdc.gov)
  • On the 11th July 2013, the European Union (EU) Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC was replaced by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 (the "Cosmetic Products Regulation"), which harmonizes and simplifies the cosmetics regulations across the EU member states. (intertek.com)
  • It complements rules brought in by the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) and the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) to harmonise the timing and standards of conduct for European securities settlement. (bnymellon.com)
  • Since 2017, the regulation has included a separate LTV limit of 60 percent for loans with a secondary dwelling in Oslo as collateral. (regjeringen.no)
  • The Amendment Regulations and accompanying Approved Documents F: Volumes 1 and 2 come into force on 15 June 2022. (www.gov.uk)
  • Republished "Approved Document F: Volume 2 applies to buildings other than dwellings" with corrections which can be found in Circular 01/2022 - https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/building-regulations-in-england-circular-012022 Minor misprints have been corrected. (www.gov.uk)
  • A proposal from the Financial Supervisory Authority to amend the regulation were on public consultation from 3 October to 14 November 2022. (regjeringen.no)
  • Visit the CLIA Documents page to search and view the Federal Register Notices and former editions of the Code of Federal Regulations (published annually in October). (cdc.gov)
  • The chapter offers a review of the origins and limitations of the current model of regulation and the emergence of a law of the Circular Economy in Europe. (lu.se)
  • We are aware of the comprehensive obligations related to the REACH Regulation and we take care of all substances subject to REACH to ensure its own compliance and support our customer to comply with this central chemical regulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Total support for compliance with Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009, from R&D of cosmetic products, production, distribution, through to market support. (intertek.com)
  • The publication kicked off a sequence of compliance deadlines with important parts of the Regulation. (bnymellon.com)
  • The presence of tissue-restricted regulatory activities around genes with widespread expression patterns challenges the gene-centric view of genome regulation and suggests that most genes are modulated in a tissue-specific manner. (genengnews.com)
  • Although we know that the regulation of genes is critical for life, this complex process is not yet fully understood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The WCA Regulations are also supplemented by the WCA Guidelines . (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • The Regulations should be considered a complete document, but the Guidelines contain additional clarifications and explanations. (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • Development of the WCA Regulations and Guidelines is public on GitHub and the discussion is public on the WCA Forum . (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • The interpretive guidelines to the CLIA regulations are published in the CMS State Operations Manual (SOM). (cdc.gov)
  • Shadow Regulations are voluntary agreements between companies (sometimes described as codes, principles, standards, or guidelines) to regulate your use of the Internet, often without your knowledge. (eff.org)
  • After completing this section, you will be able to identify existing regulations and guidelines for TCE in the environment and in the workplace . (cdc.gov)
  • The federal government has developed regulations and guidelines for TCE to protect the public and workers from potential adverse health effects from exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Common examples of regulation include limits on environmental pollution , laws against child labor or other employment regulations, minimum wages laws, regulations requiring truthful labelling of the ingredients in food and drugs, and food and drug safety regulations establishing minimum standards of testing and quality for what can be sold, and zoning and development approvals regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shadow Regulation has become increasingly popular after the monumental failure of restrictive Internet laws such as ACTA , SOPA and PIPA . (eff.org)
  • Laws, regulations, administrative requirements, policies, or policy, and financing other government instruments in place are sufficient for implementation of obligations under IHR. (cdc.gov)
  • Please note that "building notice", "initial notice" and "full plans" have the meanings given in Regulation 2 of the Building Regulations 2010. (www.gov.uk)
  • This page holds current guidance covering the ventilation requirements of the building regulations as set out in Part F of Schedule 1 to the Building Regulations and in a number of specific building regulations. (www.gov.uk)
  • It is also a source of guidance to laboratories for interpreting the CLIA regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, the Ministry of Finance has adopted amendments to the Norwegian bank lending regulation. (regjeringen.no)
  • In the model, distrust creates public demand for regulation, while regulation in turn discourages social capital accumulation, leading to multiple equilibria. (repec.org)
  • The Environmental Information Regulations cover any recorded information that relates to or affects the environment, held by public authorities, including the British Council. (britishcouncil.org)
  • B usinesses complain about regulation incessantly, but many citizens, consumer advocates, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) think it absolutely necessary to protect the public interest. (econlib.org)
  • The regulations and the framework describe the capacities across an entire public health system. (cdc.gov)
  • Economists distinguish between two types of regulation: economic and social. (econlib.org)
  • Somewhat surprisingly, policymakers have gradually paid attention to what economists have recommended and changed regulation accordingly. (econlib.org)
  • You can see some examples of Shadow Regulation in the Blog section below, and in the interactive "Free Speech Weak Links" infographic linked in the sidebar. (eff.org)
  • In a cross-section of countries, government regulation is strongly negatively correlated with social capital. (repec.org)
  • Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may produce unintended reactivity effects, such as defensive practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCSBN assures that safe and competent nursing care is provided through regulation, practice and education. (ncsbn.org)
  • The Bank of England prudentially regulates and supervises financial services firms through the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA). (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Whether your boat is in private use or commercial use, it is important to be aware which Authority presides over the waterway you are on, to ensure that you are complying with the correct regulations. (rya.org.uk)
  • The Regulation states that notification must be provided to the designated competent authority prior to placing a cosmetic product on the European market and a Product Information File (PIF) for each cosmetic product must be maintained and made available upon request. (intertek.com)
  • In general terms, the CLIA regulations establish quality standards for laboratory testing performed on specimens from humans, such as blood, body fluid and tissue, for the purpose of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease, or assessment of health. (cdc.gov)
  • The SOM is used by state offices to administer various federal programs, such as clinical laboratory certification under the CLIA regulations, and enforced by CMS. (cdc.gov)
  • State-mandated regulation is government intervention in the private market in an attempt to implement policy and produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, ranging from consumer protection to faster growth or technological advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • One critical question in regulation is whether the regulator or government has sufficient information to make ex-ante regulation more efficient than ex-post liability for harm and whether industry self-regulation might be preferable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, sometimes Shadow Regulation is even initiated by government officials, who offer companies the Hobson's choice of coming up with a "voluntary" solution, or submitting to government regulation. (eff.org)
  • Regulation consists of requirements the government imposes on private firms and individuals to achieve government's purposes. (econlib.org)
  • The economics of imposing or removing regulations relating to markets is analysed in empirical legal studies, law and economics, political science, environmental science, health economics, and regulatory economics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, if markets are reasonably competitive, there is no place for price regulation. (econlib.org)
  • Still, there are pockets of economic activity- insurance is one notable example-where some kind of price regulation remains, even though the underlying markets are fundamentally competitive. (econlib.org)
  • Simon Grant, the chief executive of SciBase, which markets Nevisense, the only skin cancer detecting device currently on the US market, sought to make a case for sticking with the tougher Class III regulations. (medscape.com)
  • Regulation and Distrust ," The Quarterly Journal of Economics , President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 125(3), pages 1015-1049. (repec.org)
  • Regulation and Distrust ," Scholarly Articles 12490649, Harvard University Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • Nonprofits that pay unrelated business income tax, have taxable subsidiaries, or lose their tax exempt status need to consider the effect of these final tangibles regulations and determine if there is a change to current methods of calculating taxable income and deductions. (irs.gov)
  • Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the Regulation on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (EMIR) and MiFID, CSDR provides a framework in which financial market infrastructures (trading venues, central counterparties, trade repositories and central securities depositories) are subject to a set of common rules at the European level. (bnymellon.com)
  • Social regulation" refers to the broad category of rules governing how any business or individual carries out its activities, with a view to correcting one or more "market failures. (econlib.org)
  • Failure to meet regulations can result in fines, orders to cease doing certain things, or, in some cases, even criminal penalties. (econlib.org)
  • 1c ) The WCA Delegate is responsible for ensuring that the competition adheres to the WCA Regulations and any applicable WCA policies or requirements. (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • Building regulation in England for the ventilation requirements to maintain indoor air quality. (www.gov.uk)
  • As part of the Bank of England, we are responsible for the prudential regulation and supervision of around 1,330 banks, building societies, credit unions, insurers and major investment firms. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Before the issuance of the final tangible property regulations on Sept. 17, 2013, [ Treasury Decision 9636 ("final tangibles regulations")], your decisions were guided by decades of often conflicting case law, as well as administrative rulings on specific factual situations. (irs.gov)
  • A large body of economic research over the past several decades has focused on regulation, and a surprising degree of consensus has emerged on several propositions. (econlib.org)
  • The final tangibles regulations combine the case law and other authorities into a framework to help you determine whether certain costs are currently deductible or must be capitalized. (irs.gov)
  • As in previous years, substantial delays were observed in States Parties' notification of events to the Secretariat as well as their response to requests for event verification under Articles 6 and 10 of the Regulations. (who.int)
  • Settle in as we look at four different dimensions in which law firm ethics models, legal services regulation, and lawyer licensing and competence standards are all beginning a process of transformation. (llrx.com)
  • Title : Regulation of emergency services Personal Author(s) : Briggs, Adelbert E.;Palmer, Frank C. (cdc.gov)
  • Regulation and Distrust ," NBER Working Papers 14648, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • The regulations may prescribe or proscribe conduct ("command-and-control" regulation), calibrate incentives ("incentive" regulation), or change preferences ("preferences shaping" regulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • It seems like the right time to step back and consider the extraordinary shock-waved landscape of legal regulation change, and what it means for everyone. (llrx.com)
  • The WCA Regulations contain the full set of Regulations that apply to all official competitions sanctioned by the World Cube Association. (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • The Merchant Shipping Regulations apply to all vessels under the UK flag and vessels in UK waters or operating from UK ports, including recreational boats and boaters. (rya.org.uk)
  • The final tangibles regulations also contain several simplifying provisions that are elective and prospective in application (for example, the election to apply the de minimis safe harbor , the election to utilize the safe harbor for small taxpayers , and the election to capitalize repair and maintenance costs in accordance with books and records ). (irs.gov)
  • Do the final tangibles regulations apply to you? (irs.gov)
  • The final tangibles regulations apply to anyone who pays or incurs amounts to acquire, produce, or improve tangible real or personal property. (irs.gov)
  • These regulations apply to corporations, S corporations, partnerships, LLCs, and individuals filing a Form 1040 or 1040-SR with Schedule C, E, or F. The final tangibles regulations affect you if you incur amounts to acquire, produce or improve tangible real or personal property in carrying on your trades or businesses. (irs.gov)
  • Do the final tangibles property regulations apply to nonprofits? (irs.gov)
  • The final tangibles regulations apply equally to all businesses subject to U.S. tax law, regardless of for-profit or exempt status, organization size, legal entity, or industry. (irs.gov)
  • In some countries (in particular the Scandinavian countries) industrial relations are to a very high degree regulated by the labour market parties themselves (self-regulation) in contrast to state regulation of minimum wages etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The push for stronger regulation comes as state lawmakers consider a bill that aims to clamp down on the frenzy of agricultural well-drilling in areas where groundwater supplies are considered to be in "critical overdraft. (latimes.com)
  • Much less common are controls on market entry, or price regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • But although voluntary agreements can be done right, more often Shadow Regulation is deliberately exclusive and opaque, resulting in private parties acting as the Internet police to enforce content removal or the restriction of online behavior, while elected governments avoid responsibility. (eff.org)
  • Circular Economy regulation is rapidly adopted at different levels of governance, including municipalities, private and industry standards, national law and supranational standard-setting. (lu.se)
  • The primary purpose of the Regulation is to enhance the safety and efficiency of securities settlement across the European Union (EU). (bnymellon.com)
  • There are many examples in the final tangibles regulations to illustrate the application of these new provisions. (irs.gov)
  • CSDR was published in the EU Official Journal on August 28, 2014 (Regulation (EU) No 909/2014) and entered into force on September 17, 2014. (bnymellon.com)
  • Join our mailing list to receive the latest news, publications and events from NCSBN and the world of nursing regulation. (ncsbn.org)
  • Regulation and Distrust ," Sciences Po publications 14648, Sciences Po. (repec.org)
  • Regulation and Distrust ," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/4km7l02j139, Sciences Po. (repec.org)
  • The regulation currently applies to residential mortgage loans and consumer credits. (regjeringen.no)
  • The aim of the Regulation is to simplify procedures, streamline terminology and strengthen the regulatory framework for cosmetics with a view to ensuring a high level of protection of human health. (intertek.com)
  • The study of formal (legal or official) and informal (extra-legal or unofficial) regulation constitutes one of the central concerns of the sociology of law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Central Securities Depositories Regulation (CSDR) is one of the key regulations adopted in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. (bnymellon.com)
  • Note: Because Article and Regulation numbers are not reassigned when Regulations are deleted, there may be gaps in numbering. (worldcubeassociation.org)
  • This article briefly provides some answers, concentrating on experience with regulation in the United States. (econlib.org)
  • WHO routinely requests verification of information on such events under Article 10 of the Regulations. (who.int)
  • These Regulations may be cited as the Title. (bvsalud.org)
  • From 1 January 2023, the regulation will also cover loans with other collateral than real estate, such as car loans. (regjeringen.no)
  • and, in psychology, self-regulation theory is the study of how individuals regulate their thoughts and behaviors to reach goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • YouTube keeps deleting evidence of Syrian chemical weapon attacks""Azerbaijani faces terrorist propaganda charge in Georgia for anti-Armenian Facebook post""Medium Just Took Down A Post It Says Doxed ICE Employees"These are just a sampling of recent headlines relating to the regulation of user-generated online content, an increasingly controversial subject that has. (eff.org)
  • Researchers say their technique revealed findings that challenge the gene-centric view of genetic regulation. (genengnews.com)