Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Sexual activities of humans.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Illegal termination of pregnancy.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Individuals requesting induced abortions.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.
**I'm sorry for the confusion, but 'Nevada' is not a medical term.** It is a geographical location, specifically a state in the southwestern United States. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).

Seroepidemiology of infection with human papillomavirus 16, in men and women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. (1/970)

BACKGROUND: The study sought to characterize the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 antibody, as well as the behavioral risk factors for HPV-16 seropositivity. METHODS: Serologic data at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up visits were used to examine the seroprevalence, seropersistence, and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody in 1595 patients attending United States clinics treating sexually transmitted disease. Testing for antibody to HPV-16 was performed by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using viruslike particles. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was 24.5% overall and was higher in women than in men (30.2% vs. 18.7%, respectively). In those who were HPV-16 seropositive at baseline, antibody response persisted to 12 months in 72.5% of women and in 45.6% of men. The seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was 20.2/100 person-years (py) overall, 25.4/100 py in women, and 15.7/100 py in men. In multivariate analysis, the seroprevalence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, and the number of episodes of sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months, whereas the seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody was significantly associated with female sex, age >20 years, baseline negative ELISA result greater than the median value, and the number of episodes of unprotected sex with occasional partners during the preceding 3 months. CONCLUSION: Sex- and age-related differences in both the seropositivity and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody persisted after adjustment for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, and behavioral risk factors during the preceding 3 months were stronger predictors of the seroprevalence and seroincidence of HPV-16 antibody than was lifetime sexual behavior.  (+info)

Fifty ways to leave your rubber: how men in Mombasa rationalise unsafe sex. (2/970)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the reasons why men who have sex with sex workers in Kenya refuse to use condoms in order to develop potential interventions that might help to overcome these barriers. METHODS: We conducted participant observations over a period of 2 months in the bars, discos, shebeens, and guesthouses of Mombasa, Kenya, where many of the sexual transactions are initiated. RESULTS: Analysis of the participant observations revealed at least 50 reasons for not using a condom, which we grouped into six categories: condoms are not pleasurable, condoms are defective, condoms are harmful, condoms are unnecessary, condoms are too hard to use, and external forces prohibit using condoms. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the reasons men say they do not use condoms would be difficult to affect directly. Others are the result of gaps in knowledge and have not been impacted through better communication strategies. Finally, some of the reasons for not using condoms, such as men's weaknesses, and the loss of pleasure, could possibly be addressed through the introduction of female controlled devices. However, the most important conclusion of this paper is that men who pay for sex do so because it is pleasurable and many men do not find the male condom pleasurable. Therefore, messages targeted at men who have sex with sex workers may not be 100% successful if they only emphasise the benefits of condom use as disease control.  (+info)

The association between gang involvement and sexual behaviours among detained adolescent males. (3/970)

OBJECTIVE: Data were collected from 270 detained male adolescents (aged 14-18 years) to determine the association between ever having been in a gang and a range of sexual behaviours such as sexual activity, male condom use, sex with multiple partners, and drug use during sex. METHODS: Participants answered survey questions using audio computer assisted self interviewing (A-CASI) procedures, which assessed demographic, family factors, history of gang membership, and sexual behaviours. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic status, and family factors, indicated that adolescents who reported having been in a gang, relative to their peers reporting no gang involvement, were 5.7 times more likely to have had sex, 3.2 times more likely to have got a girl pregnant, and almost four times more likely to have been "high" on alcohol or other drugs during sexual intercourse, have had sex with a partner who was "high" on alcohol or other drugs, or have had sex with multiple partners concurrently. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that having been in a gang can discriminate between levels of STI associated risk behaviours among an otherwise high risk population-detained adolescent males.  (+info)

HIV, sexual risk, and ethnicity among men in England who have sex with men. (4/970)

OBJECTIVES: To examine ethnic group differences in HIV testing history and sexual HIV risk behaviours that may account for such differences, among men in England who have sex with men (MSM), in order to inform HIV prevention planning priorities. METHODS: A self completion survey in the summer of 2001 was carried out in collaboration with community based health promoters. Three recruitment methods were used: "gay pride" festivals, health promoter distributed leaflets, internet version advertised with gay service providers. The leaflet was produced with an alternative cover for targeted recruitment of black men. RESULTS: In a sample of 13,369 MSM living in England, 17.0% were from minority ethnic groups and 5.4% had tested HIV positive. Compared to the white British majority, Asian men were 0.32 times as likely to be living with diagnosed HIV infection, while black men were 2.06 times as likely to be doing so. Among men who had not tested HIV positive, Asian men were less likely to have sex with a known HIV positive partner, while black men were more likely to have insertive unprotected anal intercourse both with a partner they knew to be HIV positive and with a partner whose HIV status they did not know. CONCLUSIONS: Among MSM in England, HIV prevalence is higher among black men and lower among Asian men compared with the white British majority. Increased sexual HIV risk behaviour, especially exposure during insertive anal intercourse, accounts for some of this difference. HIV prevention programmes for MSM and African people should both prioritise black MSM.  (+info)

Trends in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men 1998-2003: implications for HIV prevention and sexual health promotion. (5/970)

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 by type and HIV status of partner. METHODS: Homosexual men (n=4264) using London gyms were surveyed annually between 1998 and 2003 (range 498-834 per year). Information was collected on HIV status, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous 3 months, and type of partner for UAI. High risk sexual behaviour was defined as UAI with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2003, the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner increased from 6.7% to 16.1% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 1.46, p <0.001). There was no significant change in the percentage of men reporting high risk sexual behaviour with a main partner alone (7.8%, 5.6%, p=0.7). These patterns were seen for HIV positive, negative and never tested men alike regardless of age. The percentage of HIV positive men reporting UAI with a casual partner who was also HIV positive increased from 6.8% to 10.3% (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.58, p <0.05). CONCLUSION: The increase in high risk sexual behaviour among London homosexual men between 1998 and 2003 was seen only with casual and not with main partners. STI/HIV prevention campaigns among London homosexual men should target high risk practices with casual partners since these appear to account entirely for the recent increase in high risk behaviour.  (+info)

HIV related behaviours and attitudes among Chinese men who have sex with men in Hong Kong: a population based study. (6/970)

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) and their HIV related behaviours and attitudes among Chinese men in Hong Kong. METHODS: A large scale, random, population based, anonymous telephone survey of 14 963 men between the ages of 18-60 was conducted. The overall response rate was approximately 57%. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 4.6% had ever engaged in MSM activity. In the 6 months preceding the survey, 2.0% had engaged in MSM behaviours (active MSM) and 0.5% reported having engaged in anal sex MSM behaviours. Among anal sex MSM, consistent condom use was 42.9% with male non-commercial sex partners and even lower with male commercial sex partners (35.7%). Approximately 11% of anal sex MSM and 4.1% of the non-anal sex MSM had contracted an STD in the last 6 months. The prevalence of HIV testing was only 20.6% among anal sex MSM and 11.9% among non-anal sex MSM. CONCLUSIONS: Active MSM in Hong Kong are at high risk of HIV infection. The belief of low vulnerability to HIV is prevalent among active MSM in Hong Kong with only 2.0% believing that their chances of HIV infection as being "very likely."  (+info)

Use of recreational Viagra among men having sex with men. (7/970)

OBJECTIVE: Given the potential for Viagra (sildenafil) use to foster greater friction during sex (owing to enlarged erection size) and prolonged sex, the recreational use of this substance warrants investigation in the context of STI risk. Thus, an exploratory study was conducted to identify bivariate correlates of recreational (non-prescription) Viagra use among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a popular sex resort for men located in the southern United States. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Behavioural measures, including Viagra use, were assessed using a 3 month recall period. RESULTS: Of 164 men asked to participate, 91% completed a self administered questionnaire. Men resided in 14 states, most of which were located in the southern United States. Their average age was 40 years. Most (93%) men self identified as white. The median annual income interval was $25,000 to $50,000. One sixth (16.7%) reported being HIV positive. 16% reported using non-prescription Viagra. Age (p=0.41), income (p=0.32), and HIV serostatus (p=0.85) were not associated with Viagra use. Of men recently using ecstasy during sex, 35% reported Viagra use compared to 13% among those not using ecstasy (p=0.01). Of men recently using cocaine during sex, 37% reported Viagra use compared to 13% among those not using cocaine (p=0.009). Use of "poppers" approached, but did not achieve, statistical significance as a correlate of Viagra use (p=0.06). Recent frequency of unprotected anal sex (p=0.79), fisting (p=0.10), rimming (p=0.64), and having five or more sex partners (p=0.09) were not associated with Viagra use. CONCLUSION: Recreational Viagra use was relatively common among men, regardless of age or HIV serostatus. Viagra use was associated with men's substance abuse behaviours rather than their sexual risk behaviours.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among South American men who have sex with men. (8/970)

OBJECTIVES: Sex among men constitutes an important route of transmission for HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in Latin America. Seeking better understanding of risk behaviours in this region, we determined the seroprevalence, potential risk factors, and geographic distribution of HIV-1 among groups of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13,847 MSM were conducted in seven countries of South America during the years 1999-2002. Volunteers were recruited in city venues and streets where anonymous questionnaires and blood samples were obtained. HIV-1 infection was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and western blot (WB) confirmatory tests. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence varied widely (overall 12.3%, range 11.0%-20.6%). The highest HIV-1 seroprevalence was noted in Bolivia (20.6%) and the lowest in Peru (11.0%). Predictors of HIV-1 infection varied among countries; however, a history of previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) was associated with a consistent increased risk (ORs=1.9-2.9, AORs=1.8-2.7). Multiple weekly sexual contacts was found to represent a secondary risk factor in Ecuador, Peru, and Argentina (ORs=1.6-2.9, AORs=1.6-3.1), whereas use of drugs such as cocaine was found to increase risk in Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay (ORs=2.5-6.5, AORs=2.6-6.1). CONCLUSION: The results of this study illustrate an elevated HIV-1 seroprevalence among MSM participants from Andean countries. A previous STD history and multiple partners predicted HIV-1 infection in the seven countries of South America. In Southern Cone countries, HIV-1 infection was also associated with use of illegal drugs such as cocaine.  (+info)

'Unsafe sex' is not a term that would be found in a formal medical dictionary or textbook, but it is commonly used to refer to sexual activities that carry a significant risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or unwanted pregnancy. These risks can be reduced through the use of various protective measures.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines 'unprotected sex' as sexual contact without the use of appropriate precautions, such as condoms, to prevent transmission of STIs. However, it is important to note that even the use of protection may not eliminate all risks associated with sexual activity. For example, some infections, like herpes or genital warts, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not provide complete protection against these viruses.

In summary, 'unsafe sex' generally refers to sexual activities that carry a high risk of STIs and/or unwanted pregnancy due to the lack of appropriate protective measures.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

Medical definitions are often provided by authoritative medical bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It's important to note that these organizations have evolved their understanding and classification of homosexuality over time.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), produced by the APA, sexual orientation is not considered a mental disorder. The manual does not provide a definition or classification for 'homosexuality, male' as a medical condition.

The current understanding in the medical community is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexual orientation. It is not considered a disorder or an illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1990.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

Prostitution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a social and legal issue. However, in the context of public health, prostitution might be defined as the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for payment, which can carry significant risks to physical and mental health, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), violence, and psychological trauma.

Prostitution is often associated with marginalization, poverty, and social inequality, and it can be a complex issue that involves questions of personal autonomy, consent, and human rights. It's important to note that the legal and cultural approaches to prostitution vary widely around the world, ranging from criminalization to decriminalization and legalization.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

A criminal abortion is an illegal abortion, which is a procedure performed with the intent to induce the termination of a pregnancy, carried out in violation of the law. In many jurisdictions, criminal abortions are defined as those performed outside of the legal parameters set forth by the relevant regulations, such as those that require the procedure to be performed by a licensed medical professional, within certain timeframes, and/or for specific reasons.

Criminal abortions may be motivated by various factors, including financial constraints, social stigma, or fear of repercussions. Engaging in criminal abortion practices can result in severe legal consequences, including fines, imprisonment, and in some cases, loss of medical license. It's important to note that the legality and accessibility of abortion vary significantly across different countries and regions, with varying restrictions and requirements.

If you require assistance or advice related to pregnancy termination, it is crucial to consult a licensed healthcare professional or a trusted reproductive health organization in your area to ensure that you receive accurate information and safe care within the legal framework of your jurisdiction.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

I cannot provide a medical definition for "equipment reuse" as it is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field. However, I can give you some general information about equipment reuse in healthcare settings.

Equipment reuse refers to the practice of using previously owned or disposable medical equipment and supplies multiple times after they have been sterilized or disinfected according to established protocols. This practice is often adopted by healthcare facilities as a way to reduce costs, conserve resources, and minimize waste.

Examples of medical equipment that may be reused include anesthesia breathing circuits, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, and electronic thermometers. It's important to note that any reprocessed or reused medical equipment must undergo strict cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers.

Reusing medical equipment can have benefits such as reducing costs and waste, but it also carries risks if not done properly. Proper training and adherence to established protocols are crucial to ensuring that reused equipment is safe for use.

Medical waste disposal is the process of safely and compliantly getting rid of healthcare-related waste, such as used needles, scalpels, bandages, cultures, stocks, swabs used to inoculate cultures, removal of human tissues, unwanted prescription drugs, body parts, identifiable body fluids, and contaminated animal carcasses. The purpose is to protect public health and the environment from potential infection or exposure to harmful agents.

The methods of disposal vary depending on the type and nature of the waste but can include incineration, autoclaving, chemical disinfection, and landfilling. It's strictly regulated by various local, state, and federal agencies to ensure that it's handled and disposed of properly.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

In medical terms, "sex" refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. These characteristics include chromosomes, hormone levels, reproductive/sexual anatomy, and secondary sexual traits. Generally, people are categorized as male or female based on their anatomical and genetic features, but there are also intersex individuals who may have physical or genetic features that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. It is important to note that while sex is a biological concept, gender is a social construct that refers to the roles, behaviors, activities, and expectations that a society considers appropriate for men and women.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Blood-borne pathogens are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease. They include viruses such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and other bacteria and parasites. These pathogens can be transmitted through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids, primarily through needlesticks or other sharps-related injuries, mucous membrane exposure, or skin exposure with open wounds or cuts. It's important for healthcare workers and others who may come into contact with blood or bodily fluids to be aware of the risks and take appropriate precautions to prevent exposure and transmission.

"Abortion applicants" is not a standard medical term. However, in general, it may refer to individuals who are seeking to have an abortion procedure performed. This could include people of any gender, although the vast majority of those seeking abortions are women or pregnant individuals. The term "abortion applicant" may be used in legal or administrative contexts to describe someone who is applying for a legal abortion, particularly in places where there are restrictions or requirements that must be met before an abortion can be performed. It is important to note that access to safe and legal abortion is a fundamental human right recognized by many international organizations and medical associations.

A syringe is a medical device used to administer or withdraw fluids, typically liquids or gases. It consists of a narrow tube, usually made of plastic or glass, connected to a handle that contains a plunger. The plunger is used to draw fluid into the tube by creating a vacuum, and then to expel the fluid when pressure is applied to the plunger. Syringes come in various sizes and are used for a wide range of medical procedures, including injections, wound care, and specimen collection. They are an essential tool in the medical field and are used daily in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings.

Sex workers are individuals who receive payment for performing sexual services or engaging in sexual activities with others. This can include various forms of sex work such as prostitution, pornography, stripping, and escort services. It is important to note that the ethical and legal considerations surrounding sex work are complex and vary greatly across different cultures, societies, and jurisdictions.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that sex workers are a marginalized population who often face stigma, discrimination, and violence. In order to protect the health and human rights of sex workers, WHO recommends that sex work be recognized as a legitimate form of work and that sex workers have access to the same protections and rights as other workers. This includes access to healthcare services, education, and legal protection against abuse and discrimination.

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

Operating Room Nursing, also known as Perioperative Nursing, is a specialized field of nursing that involves caring for patients before, during, and after surgical procedures. OR nurses are responsible for ensuring the operating room is safe, sterile, and ready for surgery. They work closely with surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other members of the surgical team to provide patient care.

Preoperative responsibilities include assessing the patient's health status, preparing the patient for surgery, obtaining informed consent, and ensuring all necessary paperwork is complete. During the operation, the OR nurse coordinates the activities of the surgical team, hands instruments to the surgeon, monitors the patient's vital signs, and assists with controlling bleeding and managing the patient's airway. Postoperative responsibilities include monitoring the patient's recovery, managing pain, caring for wounds, and coordinating the patient's transfer to a recovery area or hospital unit.

OR nurses must have a thorough understanding of surgical procedures, anatomy, physiology, and sterile techniques. They must also be able to handle high-stress situations, work well in teams, and communicate effectively with patients and healthcare professionals.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

The medical definition of 'Automobile Driving' is the act of operating a motor vehicle, typically a car, on public roads or highways. This requires a set of cognitive, physical, and sensory skills to safely control the vehicle, navigate through traffic, and respond to various situations that may arise while driving.

Cognitive skills include attention, memory, decision-making, problem-solving, and judgment. Physical abilities encompass fine motor coordination, reaction time, strength, and flexibility. Sensory functions such as vision, hearing, and touch are also essential for safe driving.

Various medical conditions or medications can impair these skills and affect a person's ability to drive safely. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals to consult with their healthcare providers about any potential risks associated with driving and follow any recommended restrictions or guidelines.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

School nursing is a specialized practice of professional nursing that advances the well-being, academic success, and life-long achievement of students. School nurses function as a liaison between home, school, and the community to advocate for children's health and ensure educational success by providing safety, health assessments, interventions, and preventative care. They collaborate with families, school personnel, and other community resources to create a healthy school environment that promotes student learning and achievement.

(Definition from National Association of School Nurses)

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

The Automobile Driver Examination is a medical definition that refers to the process of evaluating an individual's physical and mental fitness to operate a motor vehicle. The examination typically includes a series of tests designed to assess the person's vision, hearing, reaction time, cognitive abilities, and overall health status.

The purpose of the examination is to ensure that drivers are capable of operating their vehicles safely and reducing the risk of accidents on the road. In many jurisdictions, driver examinations are required for individuals seeking to obtain a new driver's license or renew an existing one, particularly for those in certain age groups or with medical conditions that may affect their ability to drive.

The examination is usually conducted by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a doctor or nurse practitioner, who has been trained to assess the driver's fitness to operate a motor vehicle. The results of the examination are then used to determine whether the individual is medically fit to drive and what, if any, restrictions or accommodations may be necessary to ensure their safety and the safety of others on the road.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

Safety management is a systematic and organized approach to managing health and safety in the workplace. It involves the development, implementation, and monitoring of policies, procedures, and practices with the aim of preventing accidents, injuries, and occupational illnesses. Safety management includes identifying hazards, assessing risks, setting objectives and targets for improving safety performance, implementing controls, and evaluating the effectiveness of those controls. The goal of safety management is to create a safe and healthy work environment that protects workers, visitors, and others who may be affected by workplace activities. It is an integral part of an organization's overall management system and requires the active involvement and commitment of managers, supervisors, and employees at all levels.

I could not find a widely accepted medical definition for "sex attractants" as it is not a standard term used in medical literature. However, the concept of sex attractants is often discussed in the context of animal behavior and can refer to chemical substances that animals produce and release to attract mates. These substances are also known as pheromones.

In humans, there is ongoing scientific debate about whether or not pheromones play a significant role in sexual attraction and mate selection. Some studies suggest that humans may have a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO), which is involved in the detection of pheromones in other animals. However, many scientists remain skeptical about the role of human sex attractants or pheromones due to limited evidence and conflicting results from various studies.

Therefore, it's essential to note that while there may be some scientific interest in the concept of human sex attractants, it is not a well-established area of study within medical research.

Unwanted pregnancy is a situation where a person becomes pregnant despite not planning or desiring to conceive at that time. This can occur due to various reasons such as lack of access to effective contraception, failure of contraceptive methods, sexual assault, or a change in circumstances that makes the pregnancy untimely or inconvenient. Unwanted pregnancies can have significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and families. It is important to address unwanted pregnancies through comprehensive sexuality education, access to affordable and effective contraception, and supportive services for those who experience unintended pregnancies.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that occur when there is a difference in the development and assignment of sex characteristics. These differences may be apparent at birth, at puberty, or later in life. DSD can affect chromosomes, gonads, genitals, or secondary sexual characteristics, and can result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

DSDs were previously referred to as "intersex" conditions, but the term "Disorders of Sex Development" is now preferred in medical settings because it is more descriptive and less stigmatizing. DSDs are not errors or abnormalities, but rather variations in human development that require sensitive and individualized care.

The diagnosis and management of DSD can be complex and may involve a team of healthcare providers, including endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, psychologists, and genetic counselors. Treatment options depend on the specific type of DSD and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support physical and emotional well-being.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

Needlestick injuries are sharp object injuries typically involving hollow-bore needles, which can result in exposure to bloodborne pathogens. They often occur during the use or disposal of contaminated needles in healthcare settings. These injuries pose a significant risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It is essential to follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of needles and other sharp objects to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Patient safety is defined as the prevention, reduction, and elimination of errors, injuries, accidents, and other adverse events that can harm patients during the delivery of healthcare. It involves the creation of a healthcare environment that is safe for patients, where risks are minimized, and patient care is consistently delivered at a high quality level. Patient safety is an essential component of healthcare quality and is achieved through evidence-based practices, continuous improvement, education, and collaboration among healthcare professionals, patients, and their families.

Substance abuse, intravenous, refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances that are introduced directly into the bloodstream through injection, for non-medical purposes. This behavior can lead to a range of short- and long-term health consequences, including addiction, dependence, and an increased risk of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. Intravenous substance abuse often involves drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, and is characterized by the repeated injection of these substances using needles and syringes. The practice can also have serious social consequences, including disrupted family relationships, lost productivity, and criminal behavior.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

'Unnecessary procedures' in a medical context refer to diagnostic or therapeutic interventions that are not indicated based on established guidelines, evidence-based medicine, or the individual patient's needs and preferences. These procedures may not provide any benefit to the patient, or the potential harm may outweigh the expected benefits. They can also include tests, treatments, or surgeries that are performed in excess of what is medically necessary, or when there are less invasive, cheaper, or safer alternatives available.

Unnecessary procedures can result from various factors, including defensive medicine (ordering extra tests or procedures to avoid potential malpractice claims), financial incentives (providers or institutions benefiting financially from performing more procedures), lack of knowledge or awareness of evidence-based guidelines, and patient pressure or anxiety. It is essential to promote evidence-based medicine and shared decision-making between healthcare providers and patients to reduce the frequency of unnecessary procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nevada" is not a medical term. It is the name of a state in the western United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, please let me know and I would be happy to help.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Needle sharing is the reuse of needles or syringes by more than one person, often in the context of injecting drugs. This behavior is considered high-risk as it can lead to the transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It's a significant public health concern due to its association with intravenous drug use.

'Infection Control' is a set of practices, procedures, and protocols designed to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings. It includes measures to minimize the risk of transmission of pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources, such as patients, healthcare workers, visitors, and the environment.

Infection control strategies may include:

* Hand hygiene (handwashing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers)
* Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, masks, gowns, and eye protection
* Respiratory etiquette, including covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Environmental cleaning and disinfection
* Isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases
* Immunization of healthcare workers
* Safe injection practices
* Surveillance and reporting of infections and outbreaks

The goal of infection control is to protect patients, healthcare workers, and visitors from acquiring and transmitting infections.

Postcoital contraception, also known as emergency contraception, refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse has already occurred. These methods are typically used in situations where regular contraception has failed or was not used, such as in cases of condom breakage or forgotten birth control pills.

There are two main types of postcoital contraception:

1. Emergency contraceptive pill (ECP): Also known as the "morning-after pill," this is a hormonal medication that can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but it is most effective when taken within 72 hours. There are two types of ECPs available: progestin-only and combined estrogen-progestin. The progestin-only pill is preferred because it has fewer side effects and is just as effective as the combined pill.
2. Copper intrauterine device (IUD): This is a small, T-shaped device made of flexible plastic and copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. The IUD can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. It is the most effective form of emergency contraception available, and it also provides ongoing protection against pregnancy for up to 10 years, depending on the type of IUD.

It's important to note that postcoital contraception should not be used as a regular method of contraception, but rather as a backup in case of emergencies. It is also not effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Regular contraceptive methods, such as condoms and hormonal birth control, are the best ways to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs.

Tisdall, Jonathan (12 April 2005). "Unsafe sex "a joke"". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 16 October ... Sex und Party: Norweger gelten als zurückhaltend - außer sie machen gerade ihr Abitur. In: Frankfurter Rundschau, 16. Mai 2018 ...
"NY Times on rise of unsafe sex". The New York Times. "Rise in unsafe sex". 26 February 2013. "Unprotected sex on rise". "The ... Rotello warned that if gay men responded to the availability of treatment by increasing unsafe sex and increasing ... Sex Panic!'s name was derived from the work of gay historian Allan Bérubé, who described historical "sex panics" as "moral ... Sex Panic! was active for two years, defending public sex and criticizing developments such as the gentrification of New York's ...
ISBN 0-8129-2844-X. Updated version of Johnson, Earvin "Magic" (1992). Unsafe Sex in the Age of AIDS. New York: Times Books. ... Since his retirement, Johnson has been an advocate for HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex, as well as an entrepreneur, ... Johnson has written a book on safe sex, run several businesses, worked for NBC as a commentator, and toured Asia, Australia, ... only a small percentage of HIV-positive American men had contracted it from heterosexual sex, and it was initially rumored that ...
Petrelis discovered he could make money as a sex worker and engaged in "lots and lots of unsafe sex.": 545 After graduating ... Romesburg, Don (September 12, 2000). "Unsafe-sex Storm Brews in San Francisco". The Advocate. Neff, Lisa (August 29, 2000). " ... one about an increase in unsafe sex practices among gay men in San Francisco, another about SFDPH statistics showing rising ... Petrelis also worried that use of the female condom for anal sex had not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ...
Explaining unsafe sex among gay and bisexual men". Journal of Sex Research. 42 (3): 238-248. doi:10.1080/00224490509552278. ... Failure rates are higher for anal sex, and until 2022, condoms were only approved by the FDA for vaginal sex. The One Male ... Among people who intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the user has sex without a condom. ... Some commercial sex workers from Nigeria reported clients sabotaging condoms in retaliation for being coerced into condom use. ...
Why are Indian eunuchs warned about unsafe sex? World Press: Pakistan's Hijras Sangama - Leading Hijra Human Rights ... Nanda, Serena (1996). "Hijras: An Alternative Sex and Gender Role in India". In Herdt, Gilbert H. (ed.). Third sex, third ... the early writings of the Manu Smriti explained the biological origin of the sexes, identifying a third sex that could result ... Many work as sex workers. The word hijra is a Hindustani word. It has traditionally been translated into English as "eunuch" or ...
Alcohol use is also associated with unsafe sex. Laws on drunkenness vary. In the United States, it is a criminal offense for a ... Beer portal Drink portal Medicine portal A Night of Serious Drinking Alcohol and sex Alcohol enema Alcohol flush reaction ...
Purnick, Joyce (December 7, 1985). "City Shuts a Bathhouse as Site of 'Unsafe Sex'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-09-13. ... Leap, William (1999). Public sex gay space. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10691-2. Moore, Patrick (2004). ...
As a result, the two end up having unsafe sex. The next morning, a regretful AJ goes to his doctor to get a prescription for ... Later, AJ heads home with Saxon to have sex only to find an out-of-it Stevie waiting at the door, wanting to have sex with both ... After sex they decide to give the relationship another chance, after AJ swears he'll be faithful. It's smooth sailing until two ... Micky decides to go on anti-retrovirals and he and Jake have sex again, finally back on an even keel. AJ and Saxon grow closer ...
He visits his parents in Indiana, where he also engages in unsafe sex with a Hispanic man. In Manhattan, he meets with Terrence ... Alex, a Hispanic man with whom Benjamin has unsafe sex in Indianapolis. Lisa, Terrence's girlfriend in Manhattan. George ... Finally, Benjamin is invited to Terrence's same-sex marriage with an investment banker in Massachusetts. Benjamin Reilly, the ... Benjamin compares Terrence's life in Manhattan to the television series Sex and the City for its overpriced cocktails and ...
"WHO , The Risks of Unsafe Sex and AIDS: The World Health Organization's Response". WHO. Archived from the original on January 7 ... Safe sex, condom and contraceptive usage and effectual STI management are essential in preventing the spread of these sexually ... "How Casual Sex Can Affect Our Mental Health". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2019-05-12. J. Sabia, Joseph (2009). The Price of ... "Hypersexuality ("Sex Addiction") , Psychology Today Canada". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2019-05-06. Gerlach, N. M.; McGlothlin ...
Mattison, A.M., Ross, M.W., Wolfson, T., & Franklin, D. (2001). Circuit party attendance, club drug use, and unsafe sex in gay ... "The Unsung History of Circuit Parties, Where Gay Men Seek Sex and Freedom". www.vice.com. Archived from the original on June 16 ... In 2017, VICE News described them as parties "where gay men seek sex and freedom." Observers within the gay and medical ... Also observers point to the risks of overdose and impaired judgment leading to more condomless sex and transmission of sexually ...
... phone sex, and use of separate sex toys); possibly safe (use of condoms); or unsafe. In 1997, specialists in this matter ... "Safe sex" is also sometimes referred to as safer sex or protected sex to indicate that some safe sex practices do not eliminate ... A range of sex acts called "non-penetrative sex" or "outercourse" can significantly reduce STI risks. Non-penetrative sex ... safe sex was practiced by using condoms also when engaging in anal or oral sex. Although the term safe sex was primarily used ...
Worth, Heather; Rawstorne, Patrick (2005). "Crystallizing the HIV epidemic: methamphetamine, unsafe sex, and gay diseases of ... A self-selected study limited to men who had sex with other men, used meth, and attended CMA, showed that, after three months ... Methamphetamine lowers a user's inhibitions, increasing the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex and sharing needles. In ...
Crossley, Michele L. (June 2004). "Making Sense of 'Barebacking': Gay Men's Narratives, Unsafe Sex and the 'Resistance Habitus ... Greteman, Adam J. (August 2013). "Fashioning a Bareback Pedagogy: Towards a Theory of Risky (Sex) Education". Sex Education. 13 ... The sex researcher Ellie Reynolds writes that HIV-positive men who purposely seek out others to infect with HIV-known as ... Once the initial shock dissipated, he felt relieved, like he had been given a free pass to have consensual bareback sex without ...
... unsafe sex, and crime. The term relates to the increase in circulating levels of adrenaline during physiological stress. Such ... and sex hormones in exercise and beta 1-blockade (author's transl)]". Klinische Wochenschrift. 60 (10): 505-512. doi:10.1007/ ...
Disinhibition (SSS-DIS): Participating in drug use, alcohol use, vandalism, and/or unsafe sex. Seen more in adolescence ... Studies include how likely students are to play drinking games, condom use during sex was measured with a sensation seeking ... and sex comparison". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 46 (1): 139-149. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.46.1.139. PMID ...
The use of drugs and alcohol may make people more likely to engage in unsafe sex. Sex clubs with no private areas potentially ... However, proponents of bathhouses point out that closing these facilities does not prevent people from engaging in unsafe sex. ... In some jurisdictions such activity is prohibited, and sex must be confined to private rooms. Some forbid sex in pools for ... In California the "Consenting Adult Sex Bill", passed in January 1976, made gay bathhouses and the sex that took place within ...
Halkitis, P. N.; Parsons, J. T. (2003-06-01). "Intentional unsafe sex (barebacking) among HIV-positive gay men who seek sexual ... Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S. (2007-03-01). "Intentional Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Sex Who have Sex with Men: ... He was known for his research on HIV risk behaviors of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), HIV-related ... Contemporary research on sex work. Parsons, Jeffrey T. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. 2005. ISBN 9780789029638. OCLC 58386753 ...
"Raw Sex as Limit Experience: A Foucauldian Analysis of Unsafe Anal Sex between Men", Social Theory & Health, 4 (4): 319-333, ... Some men are dispensing with condoms in the context of seroconcordant sex (sex between two men of the same HIV status). Early ... The topic primarily concerns anal sex between men without the use of a condom, and may be distinguished from unprotected sex ... Some Gay Men Are Returning to Unsafe Sex. They Call It Barebacking". Newsweek. 130 (13): 136. See also The Advocate (Jul 8, ...
One of the most common communities at risk is the gay community as it is commonly transmitted through unsafe sex. The main ... Nonetheless, the HIV-affected community steadily grows due to not only unsafe sex, but also due to the lack of information on ... This is a term called "barebacking" also known as intentional unsafe sex, as barebacking can be an unintentional health threat ... Halkitis, P. N.; Parsons, J. T. (2003). "Intentional unsafe sex (Barebacking) among HIV-positive gay men who seek sexual ...
... unsafe sex. He has warned about the social impact on gay and bisexual men's decision-making, especially when in the heat of ... I want to take a stand for HIV awareness." He has been a vocal advocate of safer sex and has remained critical of the ... Lockhart agreed to perform in filmed sex scenes with Kocis in six "action video scenes" and one "non-action" video scene in ... "Condomless Sex Porn Irresponsible Says Sean Paul Lockhart". Jeff4Justice Youtube. jeff4justice. Retrieved 16 October 2014.[dead ...
Chersich MF, Rees HV (January 2010). "Causal links between binge drinking patterns, unsafe sex and HIV in South Africa: its ... Sex with an unconscious victim is considered rape in most if not all jurisdictions, and some assailants have committed "rapes ... Methanol (methyl alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (also called rubbing alcohol) are both toxic, and thus unsafe for human ... casual sex. Caffeinated alcoholic drinks are particularly implicated. Often, a victim becomes incapacitated due to having ...
January 2010). "Causal links between binge drinking patterns, unsafe sex and HIV in South Africa: its time to intervene". Int J ... Sex with an unconscious victim is considered rape in most if not all jurisdictions, and some assailants have committed "rapes ...
Han, C. (2008). A Qualitative Exploration of the Relationship Between Racism and Unsafe Sex Among Asian Pacific Islander Gay ... This can be attributed to socialization that condemns same-sex male relationships more harshly than same-sex female ... Unprotected sex is used as a defense mechanism through which queer black men can deal with harsh realities. The Latino ... LGBT Asian American children are viewed as unable to carry on the family name if they are solely attracted to the same-sex and ...
Jan 2010). "Causal links between binge drinking patterns, unsafe sex and HIV in South Africa: its time to intervene". Int J STD ... Brief Interventions for alcohol abuse reduce the incidence of unsafe sex, sexual violence, unplanned pregnancy, and, likely, ... Now research has suggested that sex steroid hormone levels may play a role in this interaction. When controlling for age, it ... de Waters, E.; Braams, B.; Crone, E.; Peper, J. (2013). "Pubertal Maturation and Sex Steroids are Related to Alcohol use in ...
Thus smokers think that they personally will avoid cancer, promiscuous people practice unsafe sex, and teenagers drive ...
Singer Macy Gray's eerie portrayal of a back-alley abortionist will make you rethink ever having unsafe sex." Roger Ebert ... Juanita is at the hospital giving advice on safer sex to women when Frank comes along to ask for forgiveness, but Juanita ... Thandie Newton delivers as a troubled, selfish sex addict. She and Whoopi were matched perfectly as a mother and daughter with ...
Non consensual marital sex can lead to issues with reproductive health, unsafe sex, as well as unwanted pregnancies. Studies ... Death penalty and flogging for people convicted of having consensual sex outside marriage was removed. However, Consensual sex ... The topic of sex is a taboo subject in Pakistan, therefore women often refrain from reporting their experiences with rape. ... Many men and women in Pakistan are raised with the beliefs that "sex is a man's right in marriage". Women are instilled with ...
So I can't be involved in unsafe sex in front of a camera, because that says it's okay. It would make me look like a hypocrite ... We're an AIDS support group, promote safe sex, and are here to try and give something back to the community and help people who ...
Miriam is a regular director and producer for the BBC3 series Unsafe Sex In The City. ...
... www.kff.org/news-summary/global-study-says-young-people-are-having-more-unsafe-sex-know-less-about-contraceptive-options/ ... Global Study Says Young People Are Having More Unsafe Sex, Know Less About Contraceptive Options. Published: Sep 30, 2018 ... Global Study Says Young People Are Having More Unsafe Sex, Know Less About Contraceptive Options ...
This report describes the percentage of adults who felt unsafe walking because of crime. ... This report describes the percentage of adults who felt unsafe walking because of crime. ... QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Felt That Crime Makes It Unsafe to Walk,† by Sex and Age Group - National ... Among both sexes, adults aged ≥65 years were less likely to feel unsafe to walk than those in younger age groups. ...
I had unprotected sex on the last day of my period. I took Plan B 19 hours after that and bled within 5 days of taking it. Is ... Unprotected sex 3 days after end of period. Did not finish, but im worried. On birth control but drank that night. How high a ... I had unprotected sex on January 6th & 7th my last period was December 16th Im currently 5 days late according to my app but ... I am on birth control and took a plan b after having unprotected sex. I am supposed to get my period in 2-3 days but noticed by ...
... by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2020 - Featured Topics from the National Center for ... 18 Years Who Felt That Crime Makes It Unsafe to Walk, ... 18 Years Who Felt That Crime Makes It Unsafe to Walk, by Sex ... Among both sexes, adults aged ≥65 years were less likely to feel unsafe to walk than those in younger age groups. ... In 2020, 11.0% of adults aged ≥18 years felt that crime made it unsafe for them to walk. Percentages were lower for men (8.9%) ...
Know That Makes Sex Unsafe *Having sexual contact without protection. One partner could be infected with a Sexually Transmitted ... Not taking precautions with a new sex partner. To be safe, unless test results show otherwise, take the same precautions you ... A new sex partner might lie to you about having an STD. ... How Does Sex & Gender Influence Your Health. *. Oral Sex & ... would if you thought a sex partner was infected. Unfortunately, theres no way to know if someone is infected by how he or she ...
... 105(2). Roffman, R A et al. "Continuing unsafe sex: ... sex during the past year exclusively with partners of the same sex, N = 74) or bisexual (sex with both men and women, N = 32). ... Title : Continuing unsafe sex: assessing the need for AIDS prevention counseling. Personal Author(s) : Roffman, R A;Gillmore, M ... "Continuing unsafe sex: assessing the need for AIDS prevention counseling." vol. 105, no. 2, 1990. Export RIS Citation ...
... but sex can also carry risks. Theres the risk of catching or passing on HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. And also ... Bete rajsa, yadi yeh sex. Bete rajsa, yadi yeh sex unsafe yaani hai bina condom ke toh sanrkamn ka kahtra ho sakta hai. isliye ... In reply to lets say you have had sex by carol. DO you mean sex during period. DO you mean sex during periods? So, there are ... Bete pehli baar sex karte. Bete pehli baar sex karte samay; kya karna hai kya nahi karna hai, aur first sex ko kese theek tarah ...
... youre less likely to practice safe sex, even from a single snort, a new study finds. ... "They become more impatient when it comes to waiting for sex.". The finding of a cocaine-and-sex connection is not exactly news ... Cocaine use linked to unsafe sex, Johns Hopkins study concludes. January 3, 20213 comments ... Tags: cocaine, condom use, drug use, safe sex, sex, sexuality, sexually transmitted disease ...
... either emphasized engaging in safer sex or avoiding unsafe sex.. Among subjects with at least two sex partners at baseline, the ... Counseling about negative aspects of unsafe sex cuts HIV risky behaviors Source : AIDS 2004;18:1179-1186 (2004-06-15) ... Counseling about negative aspects of unsafe sex cuts HIV risky behaviors. * Facebook ... HomeDREAMCounseling about negative aspects of unsafe sex cuts HIV risky behaviors ...
Unsafe sex. *Drinking. *Doing drugs. *Driving dangerously. *Skipping school If you take part in risky behaviors, know that they ...
Tisdall, Jonathan (12 April 2005). "Unsafe sex "a joke"". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 16 October ... Sex und Party: Norweger gelten als zurückhaltend - außer sie machen gerade ihr Abitur. In: Frankfurter Rundschau, 16. Mai 2018 ...
Female sex workers (FSWs) have been documented to have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in many parts of the ... Unsafe Sex Substances * Methamphetamine Grants and funding * R01 MH065849/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States ... Female sex workers (FSWs) have been documented to have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in many parts of the ... Comparison of sexual and drug use behaviors between female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Subst Use Misuse. ...
This is actually the Unsafe and you can Grotesque Anal Sex Pattern Youve Usually Wished. Home / This is actually the Unsafe ... This is actually the Unsafe and you can Grotesque Anal Sex Pattern Youve Usually Wished. ... Even worse than simply dinner shit; worse than just individuals entering sex that have site visitors cones and you will putting ... The health label getting Rosebudding - anal prolapse - is basically far more unsafe and you can bizarre than the titles towards ...
This report describes the percentage of adults who felt unsafe walking because of crime. ... This report describes the percentage of adults who felt unsafe walking because of crime. ... QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Felt That Crime Makes It Unsafe to Walk,† by Sex and Age Group - National ... Among both sexes, adults aged ≥65 years were less likely to feel unsafe to walk than those in younger age groups. ...
... unplanned and unsafe sex; assault and aggressive behavior; alcohol dependence; and ... which can lead to sexual assaults and unprotected sex. In addition, 43% of SJSU students have admitted to doing something they ...
Grebe, E; Nattrass, N (April 2012). "AIDS conspiracy beliefs and unsafe sex in Cape Town". AIDS and Behavior. 16 (3): 761-73. ... found that belief in AIDS denialism was strongly related to an increased probability of engaging in unsafe sex.[113] ... In this case, HIV/AIDS denialists claim the women are having anal sex but refuse to disclose it. In haemophiliac North American ... In North America, AIDS is blamed on the health effects of unprotected anal sex and poppers on homosexual men, an argument which ...
is drinking, doing drugs, smoking, or having unsafe sex. *may hurt themselves or someone else ... Talk to your child about choices they will face about drinking, smoking, drugs, and sex. They might not seem like theyre ...
Results: Of over 1000 women who sell sex in Mysore city, 429 participated in the survey at baseline and 425 at follow-up. The ... condom use at last sex with occasional clients was 65% versus 90%, P , 0001; with repeat clients 53% versus 66%, P , 0.001; and ... of a comprehensive community-led intervention programme for reducing sexual risk among female sex workers (FSW) in Mysore, ... median age was 30 years, median duration in sex work 4 years, and the majority were street based (88%). Striking increases in ...
The median age in Uzbekistan is 23.9 years; unsafe sex among youths is common; and some young men even consider an STD an ... Appropriate pre- or post-exposure immunization could have prevented most of the cases acquired from a known infected sex or ... Among them is a dominant Catholic religion that forbids condom use and inhibits candid discussion of sex, much less ...
We have to dispel a myth that sex work is unsafe. If I wanted to go into an unsafe profession I would become a nurse or a taxi ... The sex-work industry is a complex, multi-headed beast. Experiences vary greatly in Victoria between street sex workers (all ... It has now been adopted by sex-work industries all over the world. An information service circulated among sex workers, it ... Even when sex workers had newspapers as the only advertising option we heard that kind of rhetoric, she says. She says the ...
Learn to spot the signs of sex addiction. ... sex are combined, it can lead people to develop severe ... Sex and thoughts of sex consume a sex addict, which can jeopardize a persons jobs and relationships. While there is a wide and ... Most sex addicts do not even enjoy sex. It is the brains chemical release that compels them to engage in high-risk sexual ... Similarly, sex addicts sometimes use sex to escape negative feelings of self-worth, disconnection, and depression. The same ...
Say that having unsafe sex puts you right out of the mood. Permanently. ... Your partner says: "I wont enjoy sex if we use a condom.". Say you cant enjoy sex unless its safe. ... Make it clear that you wont have sex without a condom. If someone threatens you or says theyd rather break up than wear a ... Its much smarter to talk about condoms before having sex, but that doesnt make it easy. Some people - even those who are ...
Instruct patients to avoid unsafe sex to protect themself and their partner. ... Sexually transmitted diseases frequently are associated with unsafe practices while traveling. ...
E. J. Sobo, Choosing Unsafe Sex: AIDS-Risk Denial Among Disadvantaged Women (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, ... In a marriage with plena confianza (complete trust), a woman might feel freer to initiate sex, to have oral sex, or to don some ... Choosing Unsafe Sex and "Finance, Romance, Social Support"; S. Zierler and N. Krieger, "Reframing Womens Risk: Social ... Women saw unprotected sex as the most intimate kind of sex, and thus argued that if a man was going to use a condom, he should ...
  • The bottom line is that cocaine appears to increase sexual desire, and even though users who are on cocaine report being likely to use a condom if they had one in a risky sex situation, if a condom isn't available, cocaine makes people less willing to postpone sex to get a condom," Johnson says in a university release . (studyfinds.org)
  • Among them is a dominant Catholic religion that forbids condom use and inhibits candid discussion of sex, much less homosexuality. (hivtest.org)
  • Your partner says: "I won't enjoy sex if we use a condom. (kidshealth.org)
  • Make it clear that you won't have sex without a condom. (kidshealth.org)
  • 4 , 5 However, a recent mathematical model has shown that gonorrhoea would not be eliminated by consistent condom use during penile-anal sex as transmission can occur between other anatomical sites. (bmj.com)
  • 6 This is consistent with a recent empirical study showing gonorrhoea positivity in MSM is increasing after adjusting for condom use during anal sex. (bmj.com)
  • Gonorrhoea transmission is still occurring in the setting of condom use for penile-anal sex. (bmj.com)
  • Well, the same company that created them in those are looking to also make the first condom specifically for anal sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • Going from anal to vaginal sex while using the same condom can put a woman at risk for developing all sorts of infections, including bladder infections, urinary tract infections, kidney infections, and yeast infections. (condomdepot.com)
  • To prevent the spread of gonorrhoea, always use a condom or dental dam during sex. (rivm.nl)
  • For HIV-negative men, this could include recent testing, consistent condom use, use of PrEP, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), strategic positioning (being top with an anal sex partner to reduce HIV risk), serosorting (condomless anal sex with a man believed to be HIV negative) and viral load sorting (condomless anal sex with an HIV-positive man with an undetectable viral load). (aidsmap.com)
  • For HIV-positive men, the prevention methods considered were consistent condom use, antiretroviral therapy with an undetectable viral load, strategic positioning (being bottom with a partner to reduce HIV risk), serosorting (condomless anal sex with another HIV-positive man) and PrEP-use sorting (condomless anal sex with an HIV-negative man using PrEP). (aidsmap.com)
  • She argues that this leads to a happier work environment for the sex workers, which buoys business, despite digital technology's encroachment into the commercial sex world. (theage.com.au)
  • They may supply bleach to injecting drug users at shooting galleries and condoms to commercial sex workers and their customers at the hotels or locations that they frequent. (cdc.gov)
  • However, little work has been done to characterize the prevalence of these infections along the U.S.-Mexican border, where sexual tourism and culturally sanctioned sex work among nationals is widespread. (nih.gov)
  • The health label getting Rosebudding - anal prolapse - is basically far more unsafe and you can bizarre than the titles towards the fresh Dvd packets can lead you to definitely believe. (travellightnepal.com)
  • Background Apart from penile-anal intercourse, other anal sexual practices (rimming, fingering and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex) are common among men who have sex with men (MSM). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex is a common sexual practice in MSM, and it may play an important role in gonorrhoea transmission. (bmj.com)
  • Almost half of rectal gonorrhoea cases may be eliminated if MSM stopped using partner's saliva for anal sex. (bmj.com)
  • 7 These studies suggest that sexual practices other than penile-anal sex, such as digital-anal ('fingering') and oral-anal ('rimming') sex, may play a key role in gonorrhoea transmission in MSM. (bmj.com)
  • Q: Is Anal Sex Safe? (condomdepot.com)
  • A: WebMD.com rates anal sex as riskier than both oral and vaginal because of the potential accident rate and the potential for spreading diseases or infections. (condomdepot.com)
  • It's extremely easy to both get and receive infections on both ends during anal sex, even if you're clean of STD/STIs. (condomdepot.com)
  • Women can even get pregnant from anal sex if semen happens to get in or around the vagina. (condomdepot.com)
  • It's still entirely possible to have safe anal sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • Comfort is exceedingly important during anal sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • It's recommended that you avoid using water-based lubes for anal sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • There are even lubes specially made for going 'round the back like our favorite anal sex lubes . (condomdepot.com)
  • Condoms are just as important in anal sex as in vaginal or oral sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • Even if pregnancy is not a problem, both men and women receiving and giving anal sex are extremely susceptible to infection or STDs. (condomdepot.com)
  • There are some condoms that are FDA approved for anal sex and we have them! (condomdepot.com)
  • Going from anal to oral sex is also risky. (condomdepot.com)
  • It's much smarter to talk about condoms before having sex, but that doesn't make it easy. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some people - even those who are already having sex - are embarrassed by the topic of condoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Furthermore, the changing meanings of marital sex may make it harder to convince young couples to use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy. (aphapublications.org)
  • The patient should complete the full course of antibiotics even if he/she feels better besides sexual abstinence until the doctor permits and practice of safe sex with condoms and protection. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Having sex without condoms, which used to be called 'unprotected' or 'unsafe' sex. (aidsmap.com)
  • Four risk factors (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and unsafe water, sanitation, or hygiene) were ranked next, followed by high cholesterol and indoor air pollution. (who.int)
  • When someone does not have the tools to cope with those situations in a healthy way, drugs, alcohol, and sex can seem like the best solutions. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • In addition, unhealthy diets posed a greater long-term health risk than unsafe sex, alcohol, drug, and tobacco use combined, the report said. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • There is apparently no worry on the Task Force's part about the circuit's reputation for rampant drug use and unsafe sex. (metroweekly.com)
  • They are, however, not yet approved by the FDA for non-vaginal sex. (condomdepot.com)
  • Many things some people presume are problems with some kinds of sex or genital function or appearance are just realities of anatomy they didn't know. (scarleteen.com)
  • The Harvard Crimson reports prove Elena Kagan teamed up with the Lambda 'Trans-gender Task Force' as Harvard Law Dean overseeing the administrative team that forced Blue-Cross~ Blue-Shield to provide sex-change operations as a paid benefit~ including breast enhancement or breast-removal (but not yet genital mutilation) for students or faculty who suffer from 'gender identity disorder. (prayinjesusname.org)
  • To help you think about how to keep your lovemaking safe, the information below runs through different ways of having sex and the risks they carry for sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. (lovematters.in)
  • During pregnancy, you might feel anything from erotic to sensual or far removed from wanting to have sex. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, learn exactly what it means to have pregnancy sex, from how it feels to how it actually affects the baby. (healthline.com)
  • How safe is pregnancy sex? (healthline.com)
  • Right now, revel in the knowledge that pregnancy sex isn't just safe. (healthline.com)
  • Women who have orgasms during pregnancy benefit from calming hormones and increased cardiovascular blood flow, and those benefits get passed down to baby, notes Aleece Fosnight , a physician assistant and sex counselor in urology, women's health, and sexual medicine. (healthline.com)
  • Meanwhile, infected individuals have the capability to transmit the virus to others during sex, when sharing drug needles, or during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Female sex workers (FSWs) have been documented to have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in many parts of the world. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the impact on sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STI) of a comprehensive community-led intervention programme for reducing sexual risk among female sex workers (FSW) in Mysore, India. (nih.gov)
  • There is a strong link between drug use, unsafe sex, and the spread of sexually transmitted infections. (rochester.edu)
  • What are the chances of getting pregnant after unsafe sex? (healthtap.com)
  • It is the brain's chemical release that compels them to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, such as anonymous partners, unprotected sex, and excessive masturbation. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • You also could engage in mindful sex and skip penetration altogether. (healthline.com)
  • The study population consisted of Montreal-based gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men who were recruited to the ongoing Engage prevention study between 2017 and 2018. (aidsmap.com)
  • If you experience lower sexual desire than your partner, you may not only engage less in sex but eventually turn away from all touch, including affection. (goodtherapy.org)
  • For some populations of men who engage in sex with other men or who use intravenous (IV) drugs, the current prevalence of HIV infection has already magnified the statistical probability of infection from a single high-risk exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • That not only creates an association of being high with sex, but also a more intense high since neural pathways are being affected by both behaviors. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • The reasons behind the HIV epidemic are twofold: intravenous drug use and unsafe sex. (mapinc.org)
  • The friction of sex can also tear the anus and make it easier to contract diseases or infections from all the bacteria that passes through the anus every day. (condomdepot.com)
  • The leading cause of gonorrhoea infections is unsafe sex. (rivm.nl)
  • Over half of new HIV infections in Montreal involve gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. (aidsmap.com)
  • Continuing unsafe sex: assessing the need for AIDS prevention counseling. (cdc.gov)
  • Gay and other men who have sex with men in Montreal are using a wide range of HIV prevention strategies, Canadian investigators report in AIDS and Behavior . (aidsmap.com)
  • These viruses get transmitted through infected blood, unsafe sex and sharing of needles. (indiavision.com)
  • Transmission has most often occurred during sex and when people share needles and syringes to inject controlled substances like heroin, cocaine, and 'speed. (cdc.gov)
  • Do you Suffer from Drug Addiction or Sex Addiction? (bradfordhealth.com)
  • The link between drug addiction and sexual addiction makes it clear that sexual addiction is not about morality or sex, but is driven by the same compulsion to stimulate the brain's reward system by engaging in reckless, destructive behavior. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • Like drug addicts, sex addicts become addicted to the feelings they experience when certain chemical changes occur in the brain . (bradfordhealth.com)
  • Remember, sex addicts and drug addicts are not usually bad people. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • To be safe, unless test results show otherwise, take the same precautions you would if you thought a sex partner was infected. (selfchec.org)
  • What is Safe or unsafe sex? (lovematters.in)
  • Now there's another reason: you're less likely to practice safe sex. (studyfinds.org)
  • There's a safe and unsafe way to go about them. (3quarksdaily.com)
  • Making love is a fantastic part of life, but sex can also carry risks. (lovematters.in)
  • Similarly, sex addicts sometimes use sex to escape negative feelings of self-worth, disconnection, and depression. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • Gonorrhoea has been rapidly increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia and worldwide. (bmj.com)
  • Gonorrhoea is more common in men who have sex with men (MSM) than in heterosexual men and women. (rivm.nl)
  • Participants were divided into 4 of the population in Italy) are living in Italy (62.5% in the groups according to their risk for HIV infection: 1) com- northern region, 25% in the central region, and 12.5% in mercial sex workers, 2) persons reporting unsafe sex (occa- the southern region) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • But Scarlet Alliance chief executive Janelle Fawkes, who represents sex workers, says some brothel owners have always seen private escorts as competition. (theage.com.au)
  • Even when sex workers had newspapers as the only advertising option we heard that kind of rhetoric,' she says. (theage.com.au)
  • Experiences vary greatly in Victoria between street sex workers (all illegal), brothel and escort agency workers (both legal and illegal) and private sex workers (both legal and illegal). (theage.com.au)
  • In WA and Tasmania, brothels are outlawed but sole sex workers are legal. (theage.com.au)
  • Andrew McLean, who completed a PhD on male sex workers and the internet at RMIT last year, outlines some of the benefits to sole workers. (theage.com.au)
  • It also gives (sex workers) the power to screen clients on the Internet, awarding them greater levels of perceived safety and financial security compared with that of street, brothel or agency workers,' he says. (theage.com.au)
  • Clicks: Private escort Savannah Stone says the internet works well for clients as well as sex workers. (theage.com.au)
  • There are many problems for sex workers here. (ippf.org)
  • But Lady Mermaid's Bureau, supported by SAAF, has helped me and other sex workers. (ippf.org)
  • Talk to your child about choices they will face about drinking, smoking, drugs, and sex. (kidshealth.org)
  • Certain drugs, such as ecstasy, are known for their effect on sex. (bradfordhealth.com)
  • If [the Winter Party Festival] was simply a party where people came together and did drugs and had unsafe encounters, it wouldn't be doing the community any justice. (metroweekly.com)
  • Unsafe sex was the next highest risk, with much of this disease burden concentrated in the African Region. (who.int)
  • The sex-work industry is a complex, multi-headed beast. (theage.com.au)
  • Added to that, there are characteristics specific to each of the heterosexual, gay and transgender sex work communities. (theage.com.au)
  • And then there are the state and territory variations - Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales, the Northern Territory and the ACT have legal sex work industries but they differ greatly in what they allow. (theage.com.au)
  • Abortion should be legal and also sex work because it is a job. (ippf.org)
  • And to prevent women from having unsafe abortions the government should provide people with jobs and factories to work in. (ippf.org)
  • So that they don't have to do sex work because it affects these girls, and some of them are like me. (ippf.org)
  • Then it's unsafe for the person giving oral sex. (lovematters.in)
  • The infection can also be transmitted via the hands, sex toys and oral sex. (rivm.nl)
  • The clitoris is what most like to have stimulated in some way during oral or digital (with hands and fingers) sex, during masturbation , and during intercourse , and not just the tip or shaft. (scarleteen.com)
  • Of over 1000 women who sell sex in Mysore city, 429 participated in the survey at baseline and 425 at follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • About 1 in 3 American women report having a low sex drive , and about 40 percent of women will have some type of sexual dysfunction between ages 18 and 60, says Dr. Paul Gittens, a board certified urologist who works with men and women at the Centers for Sexual Medicine in Philadelphia and New York. (greatist.com)
  • Not taking precautions with a new sex partner. (selfchec.org)
  • This raises a question that must be asked by Senators: 'Does Elena Kagan believe Obamacare is a Constitutional right~ and does that include sex-change operations? (prayinjesusname.org)
  • A recent study finds just a single snort of cocaine could lead a person to have unprotected sex. (studyfinds.org)
  • Viruses can be transmitted in numerous ways, such as through contact with an infected person, swallowing, inhalation, or unsafe sex. (nativeremedies.com)
  • Based on response to the survey question, "Does crime make it unsafe for you to walk? (cdc.gov)
  • Am 30yrs in my high chance of getting preg had my first unprotected sex around 1:45am and took plan B (Lydia) around 7:45pm. (healthtap.com)
  • Every evening I travel 10 kilometres to Natete, a Kampala city suburb where I am a sex worker. (ippf.org)
  • Choosing sexual partners of the same HIV status, or restricting condomless sex to partners of the same HIV status. (aidsmap.com)
  • This component of the strategy is carried out through the CDC funded Counseling and Testing Site (CTS) Program, voluntary counseling and testing which occurs in other settings, and the voluntary referral for counseling and testing of the sex and needle-sharing partners of infected individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2020, 11.0% of adults aged ≥18 years felt that crime made it unsafe for them to walk. (cdc.gov)
  • So I have been a sex worker for six years. (ippf.org)
  • Tell them you won't have sex with someone who doesn't respect you or themselves enough to use protection. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the third trimester, a growing belly can start making sex more awkward. (healthline.com)
  • Wouldn't you want sex to start out affectionate? (goodtherapy.org)
  • I became a sex worker after a friend advised me that this job can provide me with some income. (ippf.org)
  • Before we all were born, until about the sixth week of our lives as an embryo , our sexual organs were slightly developed, but completely the same no matter our sex or gender . (scarleteen.com)
  • Others may find their pelvic floor muscles too tight (as genitalia can also become more sensitive), making penetrative sex downright uncomfortable. (healthline.com)
  • Breaking: Elena Kagan demanded sex-change operation benefit for Harvard students. (prayinjesusname.org)
  • The Pray In Jesus Name Project has contracted with part of a team of private investigative journalists to research Supreme Court nominee Elena Kagan~ and that team has now released a breaking news report about how Kagan's administration forced Blue-Cross~ Blue-Shield to pay for sex-change operations as a benefit for students as Dean of Harvard Law. (prayinjesusname.org)
  • The partial sex-change operations must be fully covered by insurance premiums~ as Kagan's administrators demanded they be funded as an 'equal right. (prayinjesusname.org)
  • Prior to the modification~ Harvard subscribed to a standard plan from Blue Cross that specifically excluded 'services and supplies that are related to sex change surgery or to the reversal of a sex change~'' reported the Harvard Crimson. (prayinjesusname.org)
  • and Blue-Cross~ Blue-Shield~ who had previously excluded sex-change operations. (prayinjesusname.org)