BooksMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Book SelectionEditorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Myotonic Disorders: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition.Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion: An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Trinucleotide Repeats: Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.DNA Repeat Expansion: An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Tropolone: A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).PhenylenediaminesToluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Roseobacter: A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Pfiesteria piscicida: A dinoflagellate with a life cycle that includes numerous flagellated, amoeboid, and encysted stages. Both the flagellated and amoeboid forms produce toxins which cause open wounds on fish. Pfiesteria piscicida feeds on tissue sloughed from these wounds, as well as on bacteria and algae. It is found in Atlantic estuaries of the United States.ColoradoPediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Umbellularia: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., is known for aromatic leaves used in SPICES having a similar flavor to LAURUS.Rhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
  • iii) juvenile and (iv) congenital types: (i) mild DM1: mildly symptomatic patients may have premature cataracts and baldness as the sole clinical features. (nature.com)
  • The effective management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to pose a challenge to physicians. (jaoa.org)
  • The term 'prediabetes' implies a state of glucose dysregulation destined to worsen, with various health agencies stressing that those affected are at high-risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2012). Specific recommendations include aerobic training 30 minutes per day and a minimum of 150 minutes per week at an intensity of 40 to 60% VO 2 reserve, with an RPE ranging from 11 to 13 (ACSM, 2018). (acefitness.org)
  • Using a low-energy diet as a tool, it has been possible to elucidate the sequence of pathophysiological changes that lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Interventions in people classified through screening as having pre-diabetes have some efficacy in preventing or delaying onset of type 2 diabetes in trial populations. (bmj.com)
  • It's also possible that the limited treatment options for type 2 diabetes affected the rate of complications. (hon.ch)
  • Incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have recently become treatment options for type 2 diabetes management, and unlike many other therapies, they do not induce weight gain ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As is commonly seen in G protein-coupled receptors, the CB 2 receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains, a glycosylated N-terminus , and an intracellular C-terminus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminus of CB 2 receptors appears to play a critical role in the regulation of ligand-induced receptor desensitization and downregulation following repeated agonist application, perhaps causing the receptor to become less responsive to particular ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human CB 1 and the CB 2 receptors possess approximately 44% amino acid similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CB 2 receptors, lipophilic groups interact with the F5.46 residue, allowing them to form a hydrogen bond with the S3.31 residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the CB 1 receptors, CB 2 receptors inhibit the activity of adenylyl cyclase through their Gi/Go α subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like noladin, the synthetic ligand CP-55,940 has also been shown to preferentially inhibit adenylyl cyclase in CB 2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin II binds to two receptors: AT1 and type-2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2). (rcsb.org)
  • Cortical type 2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors might serve as potential therapeutic targets for cerebral ischemia suggests a new study published in the March issue of The American Journal of Pathology . (medindia.net)
  • Unlike agents which activate CB1 receptors, selective CB2R receptor agonists do not have psychoactive side effects. (medindia.net)
  • Patients who develop type 1 diabetes have to take multiple daily injections of insulin for the rest of their lives, and the condition affects around 300,000 people in the UK , including 20,000 children under the age of 15. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is accepted that children who develop type 1 diabetes inherit a genetic susceptibility to the disease, but studies of identical twins have shown that when one twin has the disease, the other twin will only have approximately a 40 per cent chance of developing diabetes - suggesting that factors additional to inheritance are also involved. (eurekalert.org)
  • BOSTON , July 25, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Though existing research has shown gastric bypass surgery resolves type 2 diabetes , the reason has remained unclear. (biospace.com)
  • Soon after an evaluation showed that it could be an appropriate treatment option for Karen, she underwent Roux‑en‑Y gastric bypass surgery, and the health improvements that she experienced were immediate and dramatic. (nih.gov)
  • Through her own research on the Internet, she learned of a study, called "The Triabetes Study: A Trial to Compare Surgical and Medical Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes," that was being conducted in nearby Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by a group led by Dr. Anita Courcoulas, a bariatric surgeon. (nih.gov)
  • If you're taking a few treatments for type 2 diabetes together then you still need to be careful about your blood sugar going too low. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • It is closely related to the cannabinoid receptor type 1 , which is largely responsible for the efficacy of endocannabinoid-mediated presynaptic-inhibition, the psychoactive properties of tetrahydrocannabinol , the active agent in cannabis , and other phytocannabinoids (plant cannabinoids). (wikipedia.org)
  • CB 2 was cloned in 1993 by a research group from Cambridge looking for a second cannabinoid receptor that could explain the pharmacological properties of tetrahydrocannabinol . (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor was identified among cDNAs based on its similarity in amino-acid sequence to the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) receptor, discovered in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell cultures composed of rat cortical neurons and glia exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), TC decreased neuronal injury and mitochondrial depolarization, specifically through type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) pathways. (medindia.net)
  • We have been using the Omnipod Insulin Pump now for 2 years. (flipboard.com)
  • Toronto (January 10,2013) -As part of the 2012 Alberta provincial election, Alison Redford and the Progressive Conservative Party proclaimed their support for an Insulin Pump Program for Albertans living with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (jdrf.ca)
  • We hypothesized that ozone induces rapid effects on the cardiovascular system and proceeded to investigate this in a murine model of Type II diabetes. (epa.gov)
  • The causative agent was further typed as an O104:H4 enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain because it encoded EAEC markers ( aatA , aggA , aggR , and aap ) and carried the EAEC pAA virulence plasmid ( 4 , 7 , 10 - 13 ). (asm.org)
  • [2] Multiple research studies have attempted to identify a causative organism, but aphthous stomatitis appears to be non-contagious, non-infectious, and not sexually transmissible. (wikipedia.org)