Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Advance Care Planning: Discussions with patients and/or their representatives about the goals and desired direction of the patient's care, particularly end-of-life care, in the event that the patient is or becomes incompetent to make decisions.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Advance Directive Adherence: Compliance by health personnel or proxies with the stipulations of ADVANCE DIRECTIVES (or similar directives such as RESUSCITATION ORDERS) when patients are unable to direct their own care.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Resuscitation Orders: Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Projective Techniques: Techniques to reveal personality attributes by responses to relatively unstructured or ambiguous stimuli.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Euthanasia, Active, Voluntary: Active euthanasia of a patient at the patient's request and/or with the patient's consent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)SwitzerlandPhysician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.United StatesHospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Libraries, MedicalRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.TurkeyCareer Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.BrazilProxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.JapanEducation, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.GermanyProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Great BritainBelgiumStudents, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Ethics Committees, Clinical: Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Legal Guardians: A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)NebraskaSpecialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Philosophy, MedicalMoral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.MichiganNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.LithuaniaInfertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.PolandResearch Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.IranSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
  • Kingston University named winner of the Guardian 2017 University Award for teaching excellence. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Now in its fifth year, the FUAM Graduate Art Prize, supported by the Friends of University Art & Music (FUAM) rewards the artistic excellence of the top students completing BA studies in Art and Design and Fine Art at the University in 2017. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Andreas Malikopoulos, who joined the University of Delaware's Department of Mechanical Engineering in 2017, develops and implements technologies to allow vehicles to bypass roadblocks, change speed based on traffic conditions and adjust their powertrains to optimize efficiency. (udel.edu)
  • University College Cork, which has a proud heritage in Dairy Education in Ireland and recognised as an international centre of excellence in Dairy Research, is the venue for the 2017 Spring Conference. (ucc.ie)
  • The University of Oklahoma has issued an update to the following restriction due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and as a precautionary and protective measure: all University-related events scheduled to occur during the 2020 spring semester are canceled. (ou.edu)
  • Final Nominations forwarded by School Representatives to the All-University Selection Committee are due January 27, 2020 . (nyu.edu)
  • The McGill University Procurement Card (PCard) is a University selected credit card assigned to authorized McGill Employees in order to allow purchasing of goods and services up to specified amounts for approved business purposes. (mcgill.ca)
  • In 2019, the University of Innsbruck will celebrate its 350th anniversary. (uibk.ac.at)
  • On Thursday evening May 2, 2019 the South Huntington Union Free School District will hold their Parent University and Health & Wellness Fair at Walt Whitman High School. (google.com)
  • Through faculty appointments at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and through research conducted with support from UH's Harrington Discovery Institute, physician-scientists at UH Cleveland Medical Center are advancing medical care through education and innovative research that brings the latest treatment options to patients regionally and around the world. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Celebrated historian Drew Faust, Harvard president emerita and Lincoln Professor of History, has been named a University Professor, Harvard's highest faculty honor. (harvard.edu)
  • The organizers of #CanYouHearUsNow met with university President Jeffrey Herbst, Dean of the College Suzy Nelson and Provost and Dean of Faculty Douglas A. Hicks on Tuesday to discuss their goals. (usatoday.com)
  • The mission of the Faculty of Graduate Studies is to foster excellence, creativity, and innovation in graduate education and research at the University of Calgary. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The Faculty of Law offers top-notch JD and graduate programming, including joint programs with the Haskayne School of Business and the School of Public Policy at the University of Calgary, as well the International Energy Lawyers Program, a combined JD program with the University of Houston Law Center. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The University of Calgary in Qatar (UCQ) offers innovative bachelor and masters programs in nursing and is helping build capacity for Qatar's healthcare system. (ucalgary.ca)
  • NorthShore University HealthSystem (NorthShore) is a comprehensive, fully integrated, healthcare delivery system that serves the greater North Shore and Illinois communities. (idealist.org)
  • Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have recently drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context. (wikipedia.org)
  • The University of Oxford China Centre is the largest centre in Europe dedicated to China scholarship, bringing together researchers from disparate fields in the University in order to foster interdisciplinary work. (ox.ac.uk)
  • If you fall within the prostate cancer screening guidelines (see box for details), contact your physician to schedule a DRE and stop by one of University Hospital's free PSA screenings at area Lowe's home improvement stores Saturdays in September. (issuu.com)
  • Many thanks to Isidro F. Aguillo and Robert Morse for kindly supplying the Webometrics and US News & World Report National Universities ratings data respectively. (springer.com)
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  • Cambridge University Press website has been cross-platform and cross-browser tested. (cambridge.org)
  • Cambridge University Press website is responsive, it re-organises itself depending on the screen size and orientation of the device being used to view it. (cambridge.org)
  • If you enjoyed using Cambridge University Press website, or if you had trouble with any part of it, please get in touch. (cambridge.org)
  • Staff in Accommodation & Hospitality Services (which includes Security Services) are celebrating after becoming the first department at the University to achieve the prestigious 'bronze' level status from Investors in People (IIP). (bath.ac.uk)
  • The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Established in 1905, Korea University is one of the nation's oldest and most prominent institutions of higher education . (wikipedia.org)
  • Korea University also has auxiliary educational facilities such as the Institute of Foreign Language Studies, the Institute for Continuing Education, the Institute of International Education and the Center for Teaching and Learning . (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Nuclear University (WNU) is a global partnership committed to enhancing international education and leadership in the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. (iaea.org)
  • ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY is a world-renowned center for research and graduate education in the biomedical sciences, chemistry, and physics, located in New York City. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Capella University is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Capella Education Company, headquartered in Minneapolis. (prweb.com)
  • She is a the current President of the British Universities Industrial Relations Association (BUIRA) which is is one of the largest academic associations in the United Kingdom aimed at promoting the study of employment relations across relevant academic disciplines. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Highly motivated postdoctoral candidates for HIV research at the host-pathogen interface are being sought by the Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Center for Substance Abuse Research of the Temple University School of Medicine. (temple.edu)
  • Temple University School of Medicine is an equal opportunity, equal access, affirmative action employer and strongly encourages applications from women and minorities. (temple.edu)
  • The Temple University Fault, Stress and Geothermal Research Group invites applications for a postdoctoral fellow to participate in a study to monitor and develop Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). (temple.edu)
  • The position is located at Temple University and includes extensive collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and ORMAT, a geothermal operator. (temple.edu)
  • Temple University is an equal opportunity, equal access, affirmative action employer fully committed to achieving a diverse work force. (temple.edu)
  • Please send a CV, statement of research interests, and names of three references to Dr. Ellen Unterwald, Temple University School of Medicine, Center for Substance Abuse Research, 3420 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140 or [email protected] . (temple.edu)
  • Larry Luster, a rising sophomore and Chemical Engineering major at Hampton University, who will work in Ben Roger's Lab. (brandeis.edu)
  • Claude King, a rising senior and Chemical Engineering major at Hampton University, who will work in Bruce Goode's Lab. (brandeis.edu)
  • Isaac Mukooza, a rising junior and Chemistry major at Hampton University, who will work in Bing Xu's Lab. (brandeis.edu)
  • Lanijah Flagg, a rising sophomore and Physics major at Hampton University, who will work in Seth Fraden's Lab. (brandeis.edu)
  • NOTES: 1) The University may set its own matriculation examinations either in separate subjects or in all those required for matriculation, and may refuse admission to any student failing to attain a satisfactory standard in these examinations. (mun.ca)
  • 2) The University reserves the right to refuse admission to any student. (mun.ca)
  • Consequently, possession of the minimum requirements does not guarantee that an applicant will be granted admission to a course, a programme and/or the University. (mun.ca)
  • Alternatively, focusing on business study via Mount Vernon Nazarene University tax planning courses , for example, can help you find a rewarding position in corporate consulting services. (universityofneworleans.org)
  • Request training on the University Print Services' Sharp printers from a member of the support team. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The University has implemented the use of the PCard to improve administrative procedures for the University community by streamlining the paperwork process and improving acquisition time for goods and services. (mcgill.ca)
  • Pam Anderson, Cancer Services program coordinator at University Hospital and the Breast Health Center, said she's been amazed at the difference in picture quality when it comes to the digital unit. (issuu.com)
  • Colleagues and friends of Del Davies are invited to celebrate her career at the University of Bath on Friday 14 December at 3.30pm in the Claverton Rooms. (bath.ac.uk)
  • While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, which was created in Italy and evolved from Christian Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities. (wikipedia.org)
  • University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center is the flagship academic medical center at the core of UH's 18 hospital health system that serves patients across northern Ohio. (uhhospitals.org)
  • University Hospitals Eye Institute's Center for Anterior Segment Diseases and Surgery treats patients using some of the most advanced technology and therapies available, including cataract surgery, corneal transplants and treatment for dry eye, Fuchs' dystrophy and glaucoma. (uhhospitals.org)
  • University Hospitals Eye Institute's Center for Oculoplastics and Neuro-Ophthalmology is a multidisciplinary program dedicated to diagnosing and treating a wide variety of conditions and diseases that affect the eyelids, eyebrows, face, tearing canal and orbits. (uhhospitals.org)
  • The Center for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus utilizes the combined expertise of the UH Eye Institute and University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital to provide optimum care for vision-threatening conditions in children. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Dr. Byrne is also Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery and Medical Director of University Neurosurgery at Rush University Medical Center. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Dr. Harold Fernandez is a thoracic surgeon in Bay Shore, New York and is affiliated with multiple hospitals in the area, including Long Island Jewish Medical Center and North Shore University Hospital. (google.com)
  • He is one of 25 doctors at Long Island Jewish Medical Center and one of 11 at North Shore University Hospital who specialize in Thoracic Surgery. (google.com)
  • Visit the new McGill in the Community website to discover just how many public events and attractions the University has to offer. (mcgill.ca)