Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Biliary Dyskinesia: A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal: A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Tiapamil Hydrochloride: A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Medial Forebrain Bundle: A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)NortropanesSerotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Piribedil: A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Heterotaxy Syndrome: Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that are specific for G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. They are regulatory proteins that play a role in G-protein-coupled receptor densensitization.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A severity rating method known as the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) is the most commonly used metric for ... Apomorphine, a non-orally administered dopamine agonist, may be used to reduce off periods and dyskinesia in late PD.[74] It is ... An older scaling method known as the Hoehn and Yahr scale (originally published in 1967), and a similar scale known as the ... PD is more common in the elderly and rates rise from 1% in those over 60 years of age to 4% of the population over 80.[70] The ...
... as reflected by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) tremor and rigidity scores. However, longer-term (3-5 weeks) ... Dyskinesias with dopamine agonists are rare in younger patients, but along other side effects, more common in older patients. ... was no improvement on gait performance and no improvement on the Part III score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale ... Apomorphine, which is a dopamine agonist not orally administered, may be used to reduce off periods and dyskinesia in late PD. ...
A severity rating method known as the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) is the most commonly used metric for ... Dyskinesias due to dopamine agonists are rare in younger people who have PD but, along with other complications, become more ... An older scaling method known as the Hoehn and Yahr scale (originally published in 1967), and a similar scale known as the ... The death rate increased from an average of 1.5 to 1.8 per 100,000 during that time. PD is the second most common ...
Types of psychosis in psychiatric disorders may be established by formal rating scales. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( ... which included high rates of often irreversible Parkinsonian symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia. With the advent of atypical ... Misiak B, Krefft M, Bielawski T, Moustafa AA, Sąsiadek MM, Frydecka D (April 2017). "Toward a unified theory of childhood ... The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep. 1962;10:799-812 *^ Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA (1987). "The positive and ...
People with CFS have decreased scores on the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire, especially in the sub scales on vitality, ... and abnormal heart rate response to tilt table tests suggesting a role of the autonomic nervous system in CFS. However, these ... unifying case definition was criticized in the Institute of Medicine's 2015 report for "creating an unclear picture of the ... "the median full recovery rate was 5% (range 0-31%) and the median proportion of patients who improved during follow-up was 39.5 ...
Unified Dyskinesia Rating scale. *3 day Hauser diary of PD state (Time-On, Off, Non troublesome Dyskinesia, Troublesome ... Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale part 3 Motor subsection Off medication score at 48 weeks. ... Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale part 1,2,3 and 4 On medication scores ... Mattis Dementia Rating scale (DRS-2).. *Safety and tolerability of Exenatide as indicated by changes in Vital signs, weight, ...
Change From Baseline in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) Score at Week 12 ... Change From Baseline in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) Score at Week 24 ... Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) [1] [2] Mean (Standard Deviation) ... The UDysRS is a dyskinesia rating scale from 0-104; it evaluates involuntary movements associated with PD. A higher score ...
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is linked to a sensitization of dopamine (DA) D1 receptors located on spiny projection neurons (SPNs ... axial and orolingual dyskinesia). Furthermore, ex vivo patch clamp and intracellular recordings of SPNs revealed that ... mTORC1 signaling appears during chronic administration of L-DOPA and shows a high correlation with the severity of dyskinesia. ... mTORC1 signaling appears during chronic administration of L-DOPA and shows a high correlation with the severity of dyskinesia. ...
Dystonia and Dyskinesias. Missing data in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS). September-October 2018. Luo S, Ren X, ... A publication of the MDS Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinsons Disease and the MDS Dyskinesia Rating Scales Task Force ... MDS Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinsons Disease ... A publication of the MDS Rating Scales Program. Dystonia rating scales: Critique and recommendations (June 2013). Albanese A, ...
Sustained control of dyskinesias and dystonia *Unified Parkinsons disease rating scale (UPDRS)III ...
Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale; Mobility State Self Assessment (Subject Diary Cards); Mobility State Self-Assessment (Subject ... Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS); Mobility State Self-Assessment (Subject Diary Cards); MDS-UPDRS; Fatigue Severity ... Efficacy and Safety of Amantadine ER Tablets to Treat Parkinsons Disease Patients With Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia. Conditions ... Parkinsons Disease; Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia (LID). Interventions: Drug: Amantadine ER Tablets; Drug: Placebo Tablets for ...
II blinded Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale. III amount of stimulation - Timepoints. Primary: after 15 minutes of stimulation ... blinded Unified Parkinson s Disease Rating Scale part III score. - Secondary outcome. I blinded Speech Intelligibility Test ...
The patients were rated according to the motor portion of the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS; items 19-31) in ... rates were individually adjusted to achieve maximal improvement in motor ratings in a stable ON state without dyskinesia. The ... In this cohort, levodopa infusion (mean rate, 0.83 ± 0.76 mg/kg/hr; mean ON state plasma levodopa level, 13.94 ± 8.1 μg/ml) ... The good and bad learners did not differ with respect to age, baseline disease severity, or change in motor UPDRS ratings with ...
... development of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication and stimulation status in patients ... development of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication and stimulation status in patients ... restoration correlated with decreased plasticity and disease severity as measured by Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale ( ... Dyskinesias and Altered Plasticity. Following typically 5-10 years of l-DOPA therapy (79), PD patients may develop l-DOPA- ...
Change in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of 2.5 mg/kg/day, assessed up to 3 weeks ]. To ... Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. There are four parts, non-motor experiences of daily living, ... Change in Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinsons disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part III (motor examination) scores ... Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III motor scores. This is a 1:1 parallel, double-blind, randomized ...
and three movement disorder experts rated the observed motor symptoms using 4 items from the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) ... and dyskinesia scale. In addition, they rated the overall mobility of the patients using Treatment Response Scale (TRS), ... Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the ... was performed by three movement disorder specialists who used four items from the motor section of the Unified PD Rating Scale ...
Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the ... Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest ... Scaling limits for the threshold window: When does a monotone Boolean function flip its outcome?2017In: Annales de lI.H.P. ... A unified approach to testing mean vectors with large dimensions2018In: AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, ISSN 1863-8171, ...
... and dyskinesia will be scored using the Unified Parkinson s Disease Rating Scale and the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale. We ... The biochemical data will be correlated with the clinical rating scores of disease severity and dyskinesia. ... Biomarkers and Sensors for Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia. Dyskinesia Challenge, 2015. Study Rationale: Levodopa is the gold- ... but chronic use is associated with serious motor complications called levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Once established, LID ...
The mean baseline Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III motor score was 42.7. The main outcome measures used in ... this study were the UPDRS-III Motor Scale and the UPDRS-IV Dyskinesia Scale. ... Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Motor Scale.. ...
That studys primary endpoint will be change from baseline in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score in subjects ... Simplified Small-Scale Harvest of CHO Cells for mAb Analytics * Co-Emergence of Specialized Endothelial Cells from Embryonic ... Simplified Small-Scale Harvest of CHO Cells for mAb Analytics * Co-Emergence of Specialized Endothelial Cells from Embryonic ... including levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The study (NCT03162874) compares two dosages of foliglurax (10 mg and 30 mg) to placebo ...
That studys primary endpoint will be change from baseline in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score in subjects ... including levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The study (NCT03162874) compares two dosages of foliglurax (10 mg and 30 mg) to placebo ... now in an ongoing mid-stage study for the symptomatic treatment of OFF-time reduction in Parkinsons disease and dyskinesia, ... such as resting tremor and dyskinesia, by stimulating mGluR4, which in turn activates a compensatory neuronal system in the ...
Gocovri was approved by the FDA for treating dyskinesia in patients with Parkinsons disease. This led to an upside in shares. ... Treatment with Gocovri led to a reduction in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score by 37% compared to 12% for ... Zacks Rank stock-rating system returns are computed monthly based on the beginning of the month and end of the month Zacks Rank ... Adamas (ADMS) Dyskinesia Drug Gets FDA Approval, Stock Soars. Zacks Equity Research August 25, 2017. ...
... including motor fluctuations and dyskinesia). Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores part III (during ... were assessed and Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score part III (during on) and part IV were calculated ... We assessed dyskinesia with UPDRS part IV, which does not discriminate between monophasic and diphasic dyskinesia. This point ... VAS, Visual Analogue Scale. Several patients with Parkinsons disease complain of painful sensations that can be described in ...
Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale part III motor scores, compared to baseline, was seen at 2 years (mean score 29 · 2 vs ... The most common drug-related events were dyskinesias (33 events, 11 patients) and on-off phenomena (22 events, 11 patients). A ... A modified delivery method of administration was introduced for cohorts 2b and 3 to increase the rate of delivery from 1 to 3 ...
ADS-5102 is initially being developed by Adamas for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinsons ... as measured by change in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score over eight weeks versus placebo at the 340 mg ... There is a clear need for a medical treatment for dyskinesia that can be debilitating in some patients, and ADS-5102 is a ... ADS-5102 is initially being developed by Adamas for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with ...
Unified Parkinsons disease rating scale," in Recent Development in Parkinsons Disease, S. Fahn, C. D. Marsden, D. Calne, and ... who could walk unaided and showed no peak-dose dyskinesia during "on" time. They included 4 patients with modified Hoehn and ... The clinical status was examined using Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score "on" state [13] (Table 1). ... H. Terashi, H. Utsumi, Y. Ishimura et al., "Deficits in scaling of gait force and cycle in Parkinsonian gait identified by long ...
Initial treatment with pramipexole resulted in lower incidences of dyskinesias and wearing off compared with initial treatment ... changes in the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale and quality-of-life scales; and adverse events. ... Factors Associated With Dyskinesia in Parkinsons Disease in Mainland China. Zhou X, Guo J, Sun Q, Xu Q, Pan H, Yu R, Tan J, ... The mean improvement in the total Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale score from baseline to 48 months was greater in the ...
Dyskinesia severity was assessed, blind to treatment, by post hoc video analysis using a dyskinesia scale based on rating ... The Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, et al, eds. Recent developments in Parkinsons ... Hagell P, Widner H. Clinical rating of dyskinesias in Parkinsons disease: use and reliability of a new rating scale. Mov ... Parkinsonian motor scores were assessed using the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS part III).13 The same ...
Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score and sub-scores of parts I-III. Practically defined "off" time (pre ... Change from baseline in the diary based assessment of "on" time with troublesome dyskinesia, and "on" time without troublesome ... Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). - Premature study terminations. Efficacy will be assessed by:. - Change from ... Additional supportive evidence for efficacy will be assessed in the treatment of severe motor-fluctuations, dyskinesia and ...
Unified Dystonia Rating Scale; Movement Disorder-Childhood Rating Scale; Movement Disorder-Childhood Rating Scale 0-3 Years; ... BACKGROUND: The Dyskinesia Impairment Scale (DIS) is a new scale for measuring dystonia and choreoathetosis in dyskinetic ... and Viking Speech Scale (VSS), as well as the Dyskinesia Impairment Scale... ... the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale; Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale; ...

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