Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Great BritainData Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesMagnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Therapeutic Equipoise: Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Chamaemelum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used in folk medicine as CHAMOMILE. Other plants with similar common names include MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.EuropeRisk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
J.C. Rougier, R.S.J. Sparks, and L.J. Hill (eds). Risk and Uncertainty Assessment for Natural Hazards. Cambridge University ... Rougier is a specialist in the assessment of the risk from natural hazards. ...
Others have put forth criticisms, such as Henshaw, King, and Zarnikau who in a 2011 paper, Systems Energy Assessment point out ... Smil, Vaclav (2005). Energy at the Crossroads; Global Perspectives and Uncertainties. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262693240 ... Henshaw, King, Zarnikau, 2011 Systems Energy Assessment. Sustainability, 3(10), 1908-1943; doi:10.3390/su3101908 Bonnet, Roger- ...
Palin, Richard M.; Weller, Owen M.; Waters, David J.; Dyck, Brendan (2016-07-01). "Quantifying geological uncertainty in ... metamorphic phase equilibria modelling; a Monte Carlo assessment and implications for tectonic interpretations". Geoscience ...
Rather, from the historical data you'll get an assessment of the uncertainty. Times between cases that are longer than a ... It would be nice to have no uncertainty in case duration prediction. But, it is present. The problem is looking for a single ... Facilities with long work days will have greater tardiness because the longer the day, the more uncertainty about case start ... Tactical decision making for selective expansion of operating room resources incorporating financial criteria and uncertainty ...
Environmental impact assessment. References[edit]. *^ Dillerup, R. (2006). Unternehmensführung. München: Vahlen. p. 179.. .mw- ... In addition, it is almost impossible to evaluate the uncertainty of a guess in advance. ... Environmental assessment[edit]. In the last step of the global environmental analysis, the results of the previous three steps ... Environmental Assessment. Environmental scanning[edit]. The first step is called scanning. Through environmental scanning, ...
2009). Uncertainty analysis based on probability bounds (p-box) approach in probabilistic safety assessment. Risk Analysis 29: ... 2010). Bounding uncertainty analyses. Pages 89-122 in Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risks of Pesticides, ... Hayes, K.R. (2011). Uncertainty and uncertainty analysis methods: Issues in quantitative and qualitative risk modeling with ... Uncertainty propagation for salinity risk models Power supply system safety assessment Contaminated land risk assessment ...
Parry, ML (2007). "Box TS.2. Communication of uncertainty in the Working Group II Fourth Assessment". In ML Parry; et al. ... They are large uncertainties to uncover, particularly because there is lack of information on many specific local regions, and ... The IPCC Third Assessment Report, published in 2001, concluded that the poorest countries would be hardest hit, with reductions ... The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also describes the impact of climate change on food security. Projections suggested that ...
Cooke, R.M. (2012). "Uncertainty Analysis Comes to Integrated Assessment Models for Climate Change…and Conversely". Climatic ... Risk and Uncertainty assessment in Natural Hazards. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64-99. Cooke, R.M.; ElSaadany, S.; Xinzheng ... the goal of structured expert judgment is a defensible quantification of uncertainty. Confronted with uncertainty, society at ... An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants". WASH-1400 (NUREG-75/014). doi:10.2172/7134131. ...
Weathering Uncertainty - Traditional knowledge for climate change assessment and adaptation. United Nations University. ... unu.edu/publications/policy-briefs/weathering-uncertainty-traditional-knowledge-for-climate-change-assessment-and-adaptation. ... EMAN (The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network). 2003. Improving local decision making through community based ... "A multi-country assessment of tropical resource monitoring by local communities". BioScience. 64: 236-251. doi:10.1093/biosci/ ...
"An Assessment of the Uncertainty Achieved by the CEOS TIRTL Calibrator". National Measurement Institute, Clayton. 2004-09-09. ...
Assessment[edit]. Main article: Risk assessment. Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their ... Therefore, risk itself has the uncertainty. Risk management such as COSO ERM, can help managers have a good control for their ... Qualitative risk assessment is subjective and lacks consistency. The primary justification for a formal risk assessment process ... Example of risk assessment: A NASA model showing areas at high risk from impact for the International Space Station ...
CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) "6.7.8 Discussion of Uncertainties". IPCC Third Assessment Report - Climate Change ... Group, US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park Nc, Environmental Media Assessment; Sacks, ... BC from fossil fuels is estimated by the IPCC in the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, 4AR, to contribute a global mean ... "Spatial assessment of PM10 and ozone concentrations in Europe". European Environment Agency (EEA). 2005. doi:10.2800/165 ( ...
The largest and most detailed techno-economic assessment of BECCS was carried out by cmcl innovations and the TESBiC group ( ... ISBN 978-0-521-88011-4. "Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty". The Royal Society. 2009. Retrieved ... National Research Council (U.S.). Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee (1983) Changing climate: report of the Carbon Dioxide ... Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. pp. 169-250. ...
"Organophosphorous Cumulative Risk Assessment 2006 Update" (PDF). US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. Archived (PDF) from the ... coupled with the difficulty or uncertainty of recognizing and/or diagosing chronic pesticide poisoning by the medical community ... "Pesticide News Story: Chlorpyrifos Preliminary Volatilization Assessment Suggests Bystander Risks of Concern; EPA Requests ... Comment to Address Uncertainties". 2013-02-08. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2013-03-28. Human Rights ...
Richard Sonnenblick and Max Henrion (Jan 1997), Uncertainty in the Tracking and Analysis Framework Integrated Assessment: The ... P.R. Richard (2003), Incorporating Uncertainty in Population Assessments Archived April 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., ... An integrated approach for the consideration of uncertainty in decision making supported by Life Cycle Assessment, ... Integrating Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study of Insulation, Risk Analysis 22(5):1003-1017. Igor Linkov, ...
Risk Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis for Flood Mitigation (PDF). London: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-45594-7. " ...
"Dealing with uncertainties in environmental burden of disease assessment". Environmental Health. 8 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1476- ... An uncertainty analysis is carried out so as to analyze the effects of different assumptions. When estimating the environmental ... When more than one definition has to be made about a certain element in the assessment, multiple analyses can be run, using ... The percentage can increase to up to 13% due to uncertainty, assuming no threshold. Among the investigated factors, long-term ...
Morphological analyses have begun to unravel this taxonomic uncertainty but molecular studies are needed to test and confirm ... Research initiatives such as these are very important for changes in conservation assessments.[14] ... There is a significant amount of taxonomic uncertainty within this species complex. ...
Uncertainty assessment using the NUSAP approach: a case study on the EFoNAO tool. EFSA supporting publication 2015: EN-663, 20 ... Assessment and Pedigree. NUSAP was introduced by Silvio Funtowicz and Jerome Ravetz in the 1990 book Uncertainty and quality in ... Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Measures of Uncertainty in Model based Environmental Assessment: the NUSAP System, Risk ... Numeral will usually be an ordinary number; Unit refers to the units used in Numeral Spread is an assessment of the error in ...
Monte Carlo assessment of parameter uncertainty in conceptual catchment models: the Metropolis algorithm. Journal of Hydrology, ... SWAT-CUP (SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedures) is a program designed to integrate various calibration/uncertainty ... Comparing uncertainty analysis techniques for a SWAT application to Chaohe Basin in China. In review. Journal of Hydrology. 358 ... Uncertainty in Estimation of Soil Hydraulic Parameters by Inverse Modeling: Example Lysimeter Experiments. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am ...
Empirical assessment of the uncertainty in a 3-D geological framework model. [Poster] In: EGU General Assembly 2013, Vienna, ... A statistical assessment of the uncertainty in a 3-D geological framework model. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. ... A 3D assessment of urban aquifer vulnerability using geological and buried asset models : a case study from Knowsley Industrial ... 3-D Geological Modeling of Pilot Areas in Dhaka City for Urban Hazard Assessment. Presentation at Geoinformatik 2009. ...
Rome agreed with Cardinal Hume's assessment that there was uncertainty in Leonard's case. He was later appointed a Chaplain of ...
"Uncertainties and assessments of chemistry-climate models of the stratosphere". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 3 (1): 1-27 ... He has held leadership roles in scientific assessments of both climate Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ... "Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past" (PDF). Journal ...
Probabilistic risk assessment is often used in project risk management. These tools are applications of PRA and allow planners ... Risk management tools allow uncertainty to be addressed by identifying and generating metrics, parameterizing, prioritizing, ... Risk register - A project planning and organizational risk assessment tool. It is often referred to as a Risk Log. ... ISO/IEC 31010 (Risk assessment techniques) has a detailed but non-exhaustive list of tools and techniques available for ...
"6.7.8 Discussion of Uncertainties". IPCC Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001. Archived from the original on 28 ... Group, US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park Nc, Environmental Media Assessment; Sacks, ... "IPCC Third Assessment Report, Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. IPPCC. 2001. Archived from the original on 20 June 2002. ... "Spatial assessment of PM10 and ozone concentrations in Europe". European Environment Agency (EEA). 2005. doi:10.2800/165.. Cite ...
An assessment of conventional treatments found that 41.3% concluded positive or possibly positive effect, 20% concluded no ... argued that mastery of the scientific method of problem solving was the key for physicians to manage medical uncertainty and to ...
Part of the reason for this increase is that using human studies avoids the uncertainties associated with extrapolating from ... However, using epidemiologic data in QRA introduces a whole other set of uncertainties, which are largely related to the ... The use of epidemiologic data for quantitative risk assessments (QRA) is becoming increasingly common. ... The use of epidemiologic data for quantitative risk assessments (QRA) is becoming increasingly common. Part of the reason for ...
We give an overview of the literature on uncertainty in integrated assessment models of climate change and identify some future ... the discrete uncertainty modeling, the most common way to incorporate uncertainty in complex climate-economy models: the real ... In the paper, we pay particular attention to three different and complementary approaches that model uncertainty in association ... Uncertainty plays a key role in the economics of climate change, and the discussions surrounding its implications for climate ...
Uncertainty reflects ignorance associated with population traits (e.g. average exposure levels to a contaminant), with models ... The incorporation of uncertainty and variability in the assessment of occupational hazards is an important objective. General ... Uncertainty reflects ignorance associated with population traits (e.g. average exposure levels to a contaminant), with models ... This is followed by three illustrations where: firstly, the impact of variability in an exposure assessment and sampling ...
Assessment of risk and uncertainty is crucial for natural hazard risk management, facilitating risk communication and informing ... this book provides a state-of-the-art overview of risk and uncertainty assessment in natural hazards. It presents the core ... risk assessment and management and environmental science and will be of interest to anyone involved in natural hazards policy. ... the role of expert judgement and the practice of uncertainty elicitation. The core of the book provides detailed coverage of ...
The Bayesian approach has been progressively included in the formal assessment of uncertainty [12, 13, 14, 15] and applied in ... Rothery C, Claxton K, Palmer S, Epstein D, Tarricone R, Sculpher M. Characterising uncertainty in the assessment of medical ... Structural uncertainty is the most difficult type of uncertainty to define and to grasp. Again, according to Briggs et al. [18 ... 2 From the Knightian to the Bayesian Uncertainty * 3 Taking into Account Uncertainty in the Economic Evaluation of Health ...
The public depends on competent risk assessment from the federal government and the scientific community to grapple with the ... Uncertainty. The need to confront uncertainty in risk assessment has changed little since the 1983 NRC report Risk Assessment ... Quantitative dose-response assessment, with characterization of the uncertainty in the assessment, could then be conducted ... The most important difference between parameter uncertainty and model uncertainty, especially in the context of risk assessment ...
An Introductory Guide to Uncertainty Analysis in Environmental And Health Risk Assessment ... An Introductory Guide to Uncertainty Analysis in Environmental And Health Risk Assessment (1994) by J S Hammonds, F O Hoffman, ... Monte Carlo risk assessments for hazardous waste sites that follo ...". Abstract - Add to MetaCart We propose 14 principles of ... Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis Tool for MIMS DRAFT FINAL REPORT by Steven Fine, Dan Loughlin, Kim Hanisak Cep, Alison Eyth ...
... catchment mass balance calculations rely on models and assumptions which are sources of uncertainty in acidification ... assessments. In this article, we report on an application of... ... Assessment of Uncertainty in Long-Term Mass Balances for ... Considerations of uncertainty in setting critical loads of acidity of soils: the role of weathering rete determination. ... Uncertainties in the modeled mass balances were mainly associated with the deposition scenario and assumptions about sulfate ...
Flood risk assessment and associated uncertainty H. Apel1, A. H. Thieken1, B. Merz1, and G. Blöschl2 H. Apel et al. H. Apel1, A ... How to cite: Apel, H., Thieken, A. H., Merz, B., and Blöschl, G.: Flood risk assessment and associated uncertainty, Nat. ... It is also possible to identify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty. It could be ... assessment of the flood risk combined with a thorough investigation of the uncertainties associated with the risk assessment ...
Germination and growth from spores: variability and uncertainty in the assessment of food borne hazards.. Barker GC1, Malakar ... a model for the variability of spore lag times and shown that variability has an important role in the quantitative assessment ... method for quantifying variability and hence a significant element in the development of quantitative risk assessments for ...
... Keith L. Cowing ... The following is an excerpt from EPA/600/F-95/002: 1995 Grants for Research on Reducing Uncertainty in Risk Assessment and ... Protection Agency Announces the Availability of 1995 Grants for Research on Reducing Uncertainty in Risk Assessment and ... Human health risk assessment ¯ Indoor air quality in large office buildings ¯ Air pollutants (particulate matter, tropospheric ...
High flows, Uncertainty assessment, Modularization Bayesian, Hydrological model, WASMOD National Category Natural Sciences ... The study thus provides a new approach for reducing the impact of high flows on the discharge uncertainty assessment of ... Development and comparison in uncertainty assessment based Bayesian modularization method in hydrological modeling. Li, Lu ... This study proposes a Bayesian modularization uncertainty assessment approach in which the highest streamflow observations are ...
Our aim is to explore how probability theory and fuzzy set theory can be made to work in concert, so that uncertainty of ... A fundamental question arises in how to characterize the various kinds of uncertainty and then combine within a problem such as ... Uncertainties enter into a complex problem from many sources: variability, errors, and lack of knowledge. ... a study in uncertainty assessment, article, January 1, 2002; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc926591/: ...
... ... Mengrui Yang, Min Wang, Jian Zhou, Yinqing Song, and Tongtong Wang, "Characterization and Uncertainty Assessment of a Certified ...
The model incorporates uncertainty in the sea-level rise distribution. Expected mean annual losses are calculated for 19 ... The model incorporates uncertainty in the sea-level rise distribution. Expected mean annual losses are calculated for 19 ... measures are well-known in financial economics and enable us to calculate the impact of the worst SLR paths under uncertainty. ... measures are well-known in financial economics and enable us to calculate the impact of the worst SLR paths under uncertainty. ...
Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty. Research and Teaching ... Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty. Download ... The first step is an assessment of the emerging corn grain ethanol industry in the U.S. Using life cycle assessment with ... explicit incorporation of uncertainty analysis using Bayesian updating, and 4) integration of multiple feedstocks, processes, ...
Uncertainty is an integral part of fisheries stock assessment. Successful resource management requires scientific analysis to ... The study concludes with a checklist of recommendations for confronting uncertainty in stock assessment. ... In practice, it is not always clear which features of stock assessment data make them informative or uninformative, and it is ... A failure to incorporate uncertainty into management advice increases the risk of suboptimal yields and can lead to a fishery ...
Evidence from meta-analyses of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty - Volume 41 Issue 3 - Matthew Large, Cherrie Galletly, ... Known unknowns and unknown unknowns in suicide risk assessment: ... Suicide risk assessment aims to reduce uncertainty in order to ... and uncertainty that results from lack of knowledge (epistemic uncertainty). We conclude that much of the uncertainty about ... Suicide risk assessment in the emergency department: Are there any tools in the pipeline?. The American Journal of Emergency ...
Risk assessment of short-term hydropower scheduling under price uncertainty considering correlation between adjacent intervals ... Virtually all current theories of choice under risk or uncertainty are cognitive and consequentialist. They assume that people ... Virtually all current theories of choice under risk or uncertainty are cognitive and consequentialist. They assume that people ...
... to systematically tackle multiple uncertainties associated with hydrocarbon contaminant transport in subsurface and assessment ... The fuzzy-rule-based risk assessment (FRRA) was used for interpreting the general risk level through fuzzy inference to deal ... A study case involving health risk assessment for a benzene-contaminated site was examined. The study results demonstrated the ... with the possibilistic uncertainties associated with both FLHS simulations and health-risk criteria. ...
uncertainty, scientific uncertainty, characterization of uncertainty, decision-making under uncertainty, risk assessment, risk ... regulatory toxicology, risk assessment, risk management, scientific uncertainty, uncertainty indicator, uncertainty, verbal ... Because of the prevalent uncertainty in risk assessment, deriving from several sources, uncertainty is communicated in verbal, ... Uncertainty in risk assessment: contents and modes of communication. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Uncertainty ...
Case Study in Risk Assessment: 10.4018/IJITSA.2018070101: This article describes how risk assessment is a significant aid in ... "Modeling Uncertainty with Interval Valued Fuzzy Numbers: Case Study in Risk Assessment," International Journal of Information ... "Modeling Uncertainty with Interval Valued Fuzzy Numbers: Case Study in Risk Assessment." IJITSA 11.2 (2018): 1-17. Web. 5 Dec. ... Modeling Uncertainty with Interval Valued Fuzzy Numbers: Case Study in Risk Assessment. Palash Dutta (Deptartment of ...
The different levels of uncertainties are: statistical uncertainty in parameter distributions, scenario uncertainty, e.g. ... For future risk assessment for realistic sites, e.g. for the Ketzin site, the uncertainty studies and the history matching ... Uncertainty studies and risk assessment for CO2 storage in geological formations. Other Titles: Unsicherheitsanalysen und ... a systematic and comprehensive risk assessment concept is presented to investigate various levels of uncertainties and to ...
Many uncertainties exist in development of oil fields. Developing proxy models as substitutes for reservoir simulators is a ... Article Uncertainty assessment and risk analysis of steam flooding by proxy models, a case study. ... Uncertainty assessment and risk analysis of steam flooding by .... Uncertainty assessment and risk analysis of steam flooding ... No comments were found for Uncertainty assessment and risk analysis of steam flooding by proxy models, a case study. Be the ...
... May 9, 2016 ... FDA recently issued draft guidance, entitled "Special Protocol Assessment," which, when finalized, will replace FDAs 2002 ... had cast doubt on the clinical benefit of triglyceride lowering while also fostering uncertainty as to whether a reduction in ... guidance provides a detailed overview of the policies and procedures adopted by CDER and CBER for special protocol assessment ( ...
  • Clearly he is "sort of" old, a qualitative assessment that can be quantified by assigning a value, or degree of membership, between 0 and 1-say 0.30-for his inclusion in a fuzzy set of old persons. (britannica.com)
  • We conclude that Bayesian inference is a practical method for quantifying variability and hence a significant element in the development of quantitative risk assessments for hazards associated with spore forming bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • A family of Bayesian methods, which incorporates different sources of information into a single analysis through Bayes' theorem, is widely used for uncertainty assessment. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study proposes a Bayesian modularization uncertainty assessment approach in which the highest streamflow observations are treated as suspect information that should not influence the inference of the main bulk of the model parameters. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study includes a comprehensive comparison and evaluation of uncertainty assessments by our new Bayesian modularization method and standard Bayesian methods using the Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm with the daily hydrological model WASMOD. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results reveal that the Bayesian modularization method provides the most accurate streamflow estimates measured by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and provide the best in uncertainty estimates for low, medium and entire flows compared to standard Bayesian methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study thus provides a new approach for reducing the impact of high flows on the discharge uncertainty assessment of hydrological models via Bayesian method. (diva-portal.org)
  • The first step is an assessment of the emerging corn grain ethanol industry in the U.S. Using life cycle assessment with Bayesian uncertainty propagation, the net energy balance of corn grain ethanol production is calculated and shown to be slightly positive. (mit.edu)
  • Both PLF and Bayesian MCMC methods have similar confidence intervals to reflect the uncertainty of design floods. (iwaponline.com)
  • A "bow-tie" diagram, cause-and-effect diagram, Bayesian network (a directed acyclic network) and fault trees are few examples of how network theories can be applied in risk assessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • An integrated simulation-assessment approach (ISAA) was developed in this study to systematically tackle multiple uncertainties associated with hydrocarbon contaminant transport in subsurface and assessment of carcinogenic health risk. (repec.org)
  • An Integrated Simulation-Assessment Approach for Evaluating Health Risks of Groundwater Contamination Under Multiple Uncertainties ," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA) , Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 24(13), pages 3349-3369, October. (repec.org)
  • These findings can aid different decision makers in identifying the desired strategies for regional water resources management under multiple uncertainties, and support the in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among water security, system efficiency, and credibility level. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nevertheless, the results are often prone to misinterpretation, even when the assessment is done carefully, and its multiple uncertainties are carefully presented and explained to decision makers, the press, and the public. (bmj.com)
  • In the paper, we pay particular attention to three different and complementary approaches that model uncertainty in association with integrated assessment models: the discrete uncertainty modeling, the most common way to incorporate uncertainty in complex climate-economy models: the real options analysis, a simplified way to identify and value flexibility: the continuous-time stochastic dynamic programming, which is computationally most challenging but necessary if persistent stochasticity is considered. (repec.org)
  • The fuzzy vertex analysis technique and the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) based stochastic simulation approach were combined into a fuzzy-Latin hypercube sampling (FLHS) simulation model and was used for predicting contaminant transport in subsurface under coupled fuzzy and stochastic uncertainties. (repec.org)
  • A Stochastic Optimization Approach in the Design of an Aquifer Remediation under Hydrogeologic Uncertainty ," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA) , Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 13(5), pages 335-351, October. (repec.org)
  • Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These techniques allowed to develop new approaches for certifying transient stability and estimating robustness of trajectories to parameter uncertainty and stochastic noise. (mit.edu)
  • One component of these guidelines deals with ways for both manufacturers (pharmaceutical and medical device firms) and HTA agencies evaluators (modelers, economists and public health experts) to address uncertainty. (springer.com)
  • This gives rise to the need to address uncertainty in the model prediction and uncertainty regarding the use of model prediction results in the decision-making process. (cresp.org)
  • Systematic reviews generally do not fully address uncertainty, tradeoffs among alternative outcomes, and differences among individuals in their preferences (values) for the alternative outcomes. (ahrq.gov)
  • This model can deal with the sequential decision-making problem with different goals and preferences, and reflect uncertainties presented as fuzzy sets. (deepdyve.com)
  • Proposals are encouraged without regard to specific location of any proposed hydrologic regional setting but should reflect the goal to reduce uncertainties in watershed hydrology as influenced by concerns about vulnerabilities to climate change. (bio.net)
  • We are evalkuating methods for estimating confidence intervals that reflect both uncertainties related to random error, and potential errors in exposure using Monte Carlo maximum likelihood methods. (cdc.gov)
  • The most informative fishing history is one where the data include years of high and low stock size, which is informative about h, as well as high and low harvest rates, which is informative about M. The results also indicate that confidence intervals describing the uncertainty about the stock status and other quantities of interest are likely to be too narrow in general. (washington.edu)
  • In practice, it is not always clear which features of stock assessment data make them informative or uninformative, and it is also unclear how well different statistical methods are likely to perform when evaluating uncertainty. (washington.edu)
  • In practice, however, questions of scope of duty, causation and the fact of loss may be integral parts to the assessment process. (mondaq.com)
  • Uncertainty is central to modern medicine, where its recognition drives diagnostic efforts and leads to the pursuit of evidence-based practice. (rcpsych.org)
  • 1 - 3 In medical practice, both types of uncertainty are at play. (rcpsych.org)
  • On most products, the only representation is a description of the age of the data (which means little to most users, and cannot be adequately assessed without detailed knowledge of when different technologies were adopted into practice), or at best some assessments such as CATZOC, which mostly describe what the hydrographers did, not what they know (or, more importantly, do not know) about the area. (unh.edu)
  • The goal of this workshop is to understand the state-of-the-practice across a range of federal agencies and industries and the state-of-the-science for the use of qualitative, quantitative, and probabilistic risk assessments techniques as part of the decision basis for insuring safety for processes that have critical needs in protecting worker and public safety. (cresp.org)
  • Previous article in issue: Best practice in alien species risk assessment: a comment on Leung et al. (wiley.com)
  • We address criticism that the Transport, Establishment, Abundance, Spread, Impact (TEASI) framework does not facilitate objective mapping of risk assessment methods nor defines best practice. (wiley.com)
  • In ecological risk assessments (Figure 8), through a network model we can identify the keystone species and determine how widespread the impacts will extend from the potential hazards being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. (peerj.com)
  • In this study, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and sequential Gaussian co-simulation (SGCS) algorithms were applied for assessing the prediction accuracy and uncertainty of soil salinity with apparent electrical conductivity as auxiliary variable. (mysciencework.com)
  • The inclusion of auxiliary variable contributed to prediction capability and uncertainty modeling when using densely auxiliary variable as the covariate to predict the sparse target variable. (mysciencework.com)
  • A fundamental question arises in how to characterize the various kinds of uncertainty and then combine within a problem such as the verification and validation of a computer model, reliability of a dynamic system, or a complex decision problem. (unt.edu)
  • Scientific research can reduce both kinds of uncertainty. (pnas.org)
  • E is the largest source of uncertainty among all the input parameters, similar to rain scavenging of atmospheric aerosols (Λ rain ) as was found in a previous study by Wang et al. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • It opposes not only the objective approach (viewing probabilities as degrees of truth) versus the subjective approach (viewing them as degrees of certainty), but also situations of risk (when precise probabilities are well founded) versus situations of uncertainty (broader forms of ignorance such as Knightian or deep uncertainty, incompleteness, vagueness). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Thus far the key drivers of the uncertainty in emissions projections have not been robustly disentangled. (nature.com)
  • Quantifying the uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reductions from agriculture and forestry practices is an important aspect of decision�]making for farmers, ranchers and forest landowners as the uncertainty range for each GHG estimate communicates our level of confidence that the estimate reflects the actual balance of GHG exchange between. (usda.gov)
  • We use six state-of-the-art integrated assessment models with different structural characteristics, and study the impact of five families of parameters, related to population, income, energy efficiency, fossil fuel availability, and low-carbon energy technology development. (nature.com)
  • Based on a simulation study, it is analyzed how many periods should be available for assessing credit risk - taking account of estimation uncertainty - if bootstrapping and a Wald confidence region shall achieve similar results. (iwh-halle.de)
  • As a result, communicating scientific uncertainty requires both simplifying and complicating normal scientific discourse. (pnas.org)
  • A failure to incorporate uncertainty into management advice increases the risk of suboptimal yields and can lead to a fishery collapse. (washington.edu)
  • The use of harvest control rules to incorporate uncertainty into management advice is also discussed. (washington.edu)
  • The results of radiological assessments are used, for example, in the evaluation of the radiological relevance of routine and accidental releases of radionuclides, to support decision making in remediation work and for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposals. (iaea.org)
  • At the other, it can omit vital uncertainties that are common knowledge within a field, hence go without saying, and uncertainties that a field routinely ignores, either because they appear unimportant or because its scientists have nothing to say about them. (pnas.org)