That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/12422)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Activation of telomerase and its association with G1-phase of the cell cycle during UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse. (2/12422)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds hexanucleotide repeats TTAGGG to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activation is known to play a crucial role in cell-immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomerase is shown to have a correlation with cell cycle progression, which is controlled by the regulation of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdkis). Abnormal expression of these regulatory molecules may cause alterations in cell cycle with uncontrolled cell growth, a universal feature of neoplasia. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in humans and the solar UV radiation is its major cause. Here, we investigated modulation in telomerase activity and protein expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the development of UVB-induced tumors in SKH-1 hairless mice. The mice were exposed to 180 mjoules/cm2 UVB radiation, thrice weekly for 24 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 4 week intervals and the studies were performed in epidermis. Telomerase activity was barely detectable in the epidermis of non-irradiated mouse. UVB exposure resulted in a progressive increase in telomerase activity starting from the 4th week of exposure. The increased telomerase activity either persisted or further increased with the increased exposure. In papillomas and carcinomas the enzyme activity was comparable and was 45-fold higher than in the epidermis of control mice. Western blot analysis showed an upregulation in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and their regulatory subunits cdk4 and cdk2 during the course of UVB exposure and in papillomas and carcinomas. The protein expression of cdk6 and ckis viz. p16/Ink4A, p21/Waf1 and p27/Kip1 did not show any significant change in UVB exposed skin, but significant upregulation was observed both in papillomas and carcinomas. The results suggest that telomerase activation may be involved in UVB-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin and that increased telomerase activity may be associated with G1 phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (3/12422)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (4/12422)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene. (5/12422)

The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53.  (+info)

The C-terminal region of hPrp8 interacts with the conserved GU dinucleotide at the 5' splice site. (6/12422)

A U5 snRNP protein, hPrp8, forms a UV-induced crosslink with the 5' splice site (5'SS) RNA within splicing complex B assembled in trans- as well as in cis-splicing reactions. Both yeast and human Prp8 interact with the 5'SS, branch site, polypyrimidine tract, and 3'SS during splicing. To begin to define functional domains in Prp8 we have mapped the site of the 5'SS crosslink within the hPrp8 protein. Immunoprecipitation analysis limited the site of crosslink to the C-terminal 5060-kDa segment of hPrp8. In addition, size comparison of the crosslink-containing peptides generated with different proteolytic reagents with the pattern of fragments predicted from the hPrp8 sequence allowed for mapping of the crosslink to a stretch of five amino acids in the C-terminal portion of hPrp8 (positions 1894-1898). The site of the 5'SS:hPrp8 crosslink falls within a segment spanning the previously defined polypyrimidine tract recognition domain in yPrp8, suggesting that an overlapping region of Prp8 may be involved both in the 5'SS and polypyrimidine tract recognition events. In the context of other known interactions of Prp8, these results suggest that this protein may participate in formation of the catalytic center of the spliceosome.  (+info)

Photocrosslinking of 4-thio uracil-containing RNAs supports a side-by-side arrangement of domains 5 and 6 of a group II intron. (7/12422)

Previous studies suggested that domains 5 and 6 (D5 and D6) of group II introns act together in splicing and that the two helical structures probably do not interact by helix stacking. Here, we characterized the major Mg2+ ion- and salt-dependent, long-wave UV light-induced, intramolecular crosslinks formed in 4-thiouridine-containing D56 RNA from intron 5gamma (aI5gamma) of the COXI gene of yeast mtDNA. Four major crosslinks were mapped and found to result from covalent bonds between nucleotides separating D5 from D6 [called J(56)] and residues of D6 near and including the branch nucleotide. These findings are extended by results of similar experiments using 4-thioU containing D56 RNAs from a mutant allele of aI5gamma and from the group IIA intron, aI1. Trans-splicing experiments show that the crosslinked wild-type aI5gamma D56 RNAs are active for both splicing reactions, including some first-step branching. An RNA containing the 3-nt J(56) sequence and D6 of aI5gamma yields one main crosslink that is identical to the most minor of the crosslinks obtained with D56 RNA, but in this case in a cation-independent fashion. We conclude that the interaction between J(56) and D6 is influenced by charge repulsion between the D5 and D6 helix backbones and that high concentrations of cations allow the helices to approach closely under self-splicing conditions. The interaction between J(56) and D6 appears to be a significant factor establishing a side-by-side (i.e., not stacked) orientation of the helices of the two domains.  (+info)

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (8/12422)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Ultraviolet (UV) therapy, also known as phototherapy, is a medical treatment that uses ultraviolet light to treat various skin conditions. The UV light can be delivered through natural sunlight or artificial sources, such as specialized lamps or lasers.

In medical settings, controlled doses of UV light are used to target specific areas of the skin. The most common type of UV therapy is narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy, which uses a specific wavelength of UVB light to treat conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and dermatitis.

The goal of UV therapy is to reduce inflammation, slow skin cell growth, and improve the overall appearance of the skin. It is important to note that while UV therapy can be effective in treating certain skin conditions, it also carries risks such as skin aging and an increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Gamma rays are a type of ionizing radiation that is released from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. They are high-energy photons, with wavelengths shorter than 0.01 nanometers and frequencies greater than 3 x 10^19 Hz. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, similar to X-rays, but with higher energy levels and the ability to penetrate matter more deeply. They can cause damage to living tissue and are used in medical imaging and cancer treatment.

Radiation effects refer to the damages that occur in living tissues when exposed to ionizing radiation. These effects can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which the effect does not occur, and above which the severity of the effect increases with the dose. Examples include radiation-induced erythema, epilation, and organ damage. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a threshold dose, and the probability of the effect occurring increases with the dose. Examples include genetic mutations and cancer induction. The severity of the effect is not related to the dose in this case.

PUVA therapy is a type of treatment that uses both medication and light to treat certain skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The name "PUVA" stands for Psoralen + UVA, which refers to the two main components of the therapy:

1. Psoralen: This is a medication that makes the skin more sensitive to light. It can be taken orally or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream or bath.
2. UVA: This stands for Ultraviolet A, which is a type of light that is part of the natural sunlight spectrum. In PUVA therapy, the skin is exposed to a controlled dose of UVA light in a special booth or room.

When psoralen is introduced into the body, it absorbs into the skin and makes it more sensitive to UVA light. When the skin is then exposed to UVA light, it triggers a chemical reaction that slows down the growth of affected skin cells. This helps to reduce inflammation, scaling, and other symptoms associated with the skin condition being treated.

It's important to note that PUVA therapy can have side effects, including sunburn, itching, redness, and an increased risk of skin cancer over time. As such, it is typically used as a second-line treatment when other therapies have not been effective, and it is closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

... "tithonic rays"). The terms "chemical rays" and "heat rays" were eventually dropped in favor of ultraviolet and infrared ... Retrieved 26 September 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) "Ultraviolet Light, UV Rays, What is Ultraviolet, UV ... Biological effects of high-energy visible light Infrared Ultraviolet astronomy Ultraviolet catastrophe Ultraviolet index UV ... Ultraviolet rays are invisible to most humans. The lens of the human eye blocks most radiation in the wavelength range of 300- ...
R Ultra Violet Ray and Radiation Machine. U. S. v. August H. Riess (Lawndale Laboratories) 2850. Misbranding of ultraviolet ray ... Violet ray generator device. i( F.D.C. No. 45940. S. No. 20-531 R.) Seizure by the FDA. 4178. Misbranding of Master violet ray ... Violet ray treatments were said to cure everything from lower back pain to carbuncles. From an antique Master Violet Ray manual ... may have used a violet ray. The violet ray was suggested independently by two museum curators after they were given victims' ...
eds.). X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics. pp. 436-444. doi:10.1117/12.212609. S2CID 122012916. Retrieved 24 December 2016 ... eds.). X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics. pp. 565-575. doi:10.1117/12.212623. S2CID 121896732. Retrieved 24 December 2016 ... which pioneered normal incidence extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray imaging of the Sun's transition region and corona. Oluseyi ... Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II. 2011: 450. Bibcode:1994SPIE.2011..450W. doi:10.1117/12.167216. S2CID ...
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This makes it possible to focus X-rays. Attwood, D (1999). Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. Cambridge University ... See, for example, NASA X-ray Telescopes at the Wayback Machine (archived 2016-12-13) v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, ... Total external reflection is a phenomenon traditionally involving X-rays, but in principle any type of electromagnetic or other ... in X-rays, the refractive index is frequently slightly less than 1, and therefore total external reflection can happen at a ...
Attwood, David (1999). Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. Cambridge University Press Press. ISBN 9781139164429. ... He is the author of a reference book on soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation. David Attwood received his Ph.D. in ... Chao, Weilun; Harteneck, Bruce D.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik H.; Attwood, David T. (2005). "Soft X-ray microscopy at ... Attwood, D.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.-J. (1985). "Tunable Coherent X-rays". Science. 228 (4705): 1265-1272. doi:10.1126/science. ...
This experiment was designed to monitor solar X-ray and ultraviolet emissions with a set of standardized detectors so that the ... "Experiment: Solar X-Ray and Ultraviolet Monitor". NASA. 28 October 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021. This article incorporates ... observed by the Solrad 8 Satellite in X-ray and Ultraviolet Bands". Nature. 211 (5047): 393. Bibcode:1966Natur.211..393L. doi: ... satellite oriented with its spin axis perpendicular to the sun-satellite line so that the 14 solar X-ray and ultraviolet ...
"We Are Your Friends (Blu-ray+Ultraviolet)". Blockbuster. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved January 27, ... The Blu-ray was only released in region B (UK, Europe, Oceania, Middle East, Africa) on December 17, 2015. We Are Your Friends ... Dillon Francis as himself Alesso as himself DallasK as himself Them Jeans as himself Zach Firtel as DJ Sweet Baby Ray's Andy ...
The walls deflect the ultraviolet rays from sunlight. William Rudin had initially been opposed to exterior signage on 3 Times ...
... ) stacked-grid collimator". X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry II. ... Measurements are made from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to the far ultraviolet (FUV) over the wavelength range of 80 ... These sensors provide vertical intensity profiles of airglow emissions in the extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet spectral ... The Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) is an imaging spectrometer that is used to observe the earth's ionosphere ...
Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers. Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Vol. 229. 2009. p. 131. doi:10.1007/978-3- ... "X-Ray free-electron lasers" (PDF). Retrieved November 21, 2022. Hastings, J.; Pellegrini, C.; Marinelli, A. (2020). Physics of ... Nathan W. Ray; Vida-Michelle Nixon; Matthias Fuchs (2018). "Optimization of Magnetic Chicane for Maximum Electron Beam ... Pellegrini, C.; Marinelli, A.; Reiche, S. (2016). "The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers". Reviews of Modern Physics. 88 (1 ...
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"Unfriended (Blu-ray + DVD + DIGITAL HD with UltraViolet)". Amazon. Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved ... Ray Subers (April 19, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Furious 7' Beats 'Blart,' Passes $1.1 Billion Worldwide". Box Office Mojo. ( ... Unfriended was released on DVD and Blu-ray on August 11, 2015. It received a Netflix release in May 2017. Unfriended grossed $ ...
This aromatic chemical absorbs ultraviolet rays thereby preventing sunburn. However, its chemical structure and behaviour is ...
Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. 9905: 990509. arXiv:1608.05115. Bibcode:2016SPIE.9905E.. ... The MinXSS mission is to measure the solar soft X-ray spectrum from about 0.5 keV (25 Å) to 30 keV (0.4 Å) with ~0.15 keV FWHM ... "The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) » Data and HAM Radio". lasp.colorado.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. Rodgers, E. M ... The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat was the first launched National Aeronautics and Space Administration ...
ISBN 0-9726596-1-7, p. 88 Perkin, Frederick Mollwo (January 1, 1911). "Mercury vapour lamps and action of ultra violet rays". ... As with the ultraviolet output, the glass outer bulb is largely opaque at these frequencies and thus for this purpose needs to ... The ultraviolet light from mercury vapor lamps was applied to water treatment by 1910. The Hewitt lamps used a large amount of ... Such a lamp can then be used for ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. The 185 nm line will create ozone in an oxygen containing ...
Furthermore, inadequate clothing could increase exposure to ultraviolet rays; aggravate allergies and skin conditions; and ...
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She is the co-author of a book on soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation. Sakdinawat worked as a research scientist in ... Attwood, David; Sakdinawat, Anne (16 February 2017). X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications. ... She joined SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in 2012 and formed the NanoX group for x-ray optics. The research focuses on ... SLAC Researcher Receives DOE 'Early Career' Grant to Support X-ray Optics and Imaging David Attwood - UC Berkeley Attwood, ...
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Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. 7732: 773205. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7732E..05M. doi:10.1117/ ... The FIREBall spectrograph built by Tuttle was the world's first fiber fed ultraviolet spectrograph and placed upper constraints ... the world's first fiber fed ultraviolet spectrograph. Tuttle was born and raised in Santa Cruz, studied physics at the ... a balloon-borne telescope that is coupled to an ultraviolet spectrograph and designed to discover the intergalactic medium (IGM ...
Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. Vol. 7732. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). p. 773205. doi:10.1117/ ... Her research focuses on developing ultraviolet (UV) detector technology, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/VIS) ... X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XIX. 9601: 96010O. Bibcode:2015SPIE.9601E..0OH. doi:10.1117/12.2190679 ... She has worked on anti-reflective coatings for delta-doped CCDs, helping to improve their efficiency in the ultraviolet. ...
They emit in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges; they are expected also to emit gamma rays, from annihilation of positrons from ... Strong UV and X-ray emission is often detected from the accretion disc, powered by the loss of gravitational potential energy ... A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables (Archival Edition) Catalogue of Cataclysmic Binaries, Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries and ... "Detectability of gamma-ray emission from classical novae with Swift/BAT". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 485 (1): 223-231. arXiv: ...
The Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) are a pair of sensors that monitor solar irradiance in the Earth's ... The Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) became the first installation-ready instruments for GOES-R in May ... "Instruments: Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS)". GOES-R. NASA / NOAA. Retrieved 14 April 2018. "EXIS Key ... The X-Ray Sensor (XRS) component of EXIS monitors solar flares through X-ray irradiance, allowing for the prediction of a solar ...
Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. SPIE. 7732: 197-209. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7732E..0TH. doi:10.1117/12.857654. S2CID 121831705. Braga, João ... X-rays are much harder to collect and focus than electromagnetic radiation of longer wavelengths. X-ray telescopes can use X- ... Higher energy X-ray and gamma ray telescopes refrain from focusing completely and use coded aperture masks: the patterns of the ... X-ray and Gamma-ray telescopes are usually installed on high-flying balloons or Earth-orbiting satellites since the Earth's ...
The galaxy is also a highly variable source of X-ray radiation. The ultraviolet and optical emission also varies, although more ... "Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability in NGC 6814". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 456 (4): 4040 ... The cause of the lag and the smoothing of light curves is considered to be the reprocessing of the X-rays in the accretion disk ... Media related to NGC 6814 at Wikimedia Commons NGC 6814 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky ...
Porter, J. G.; Fontenla, J. M.; Simnett, G. M. (1995). "Simultaneous ultraviolet and X-ray observations of solar microflares". ... In order to heat a region of very high X-ray emission, over an area 1 in × 1 in (25 mm × 25 mm), a nanoflare of 1017 J should ... These coronal loops, which can be seen in the EUV and X-ray images (see the figure on the left), often confine very hot plasmas ... Datlowe, D.W.; Elcan, M. J.; Hudson, H. S. (1974). "OSO-7 observations of solar x-rays in the energy range 10?100 keV". Solar ...
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Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. 7732: 77320T. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7732E..0TH. doi:10.1117/ ... Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. 7732: 77320S. arXiv:1008.1362. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7732E..0SH ... UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVI. 7435: 743503. Bibcode:2009SPIE.7435E..03R. doi:10.1117/ ... UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVII. 8145: 814507. arXiv:1109.0378. Bibcode:2011SPIE.8145E..07K. ...
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  • Now researchers have found our skin may be able to "see" the sun's ultraviolet rays using a light-sensing pigment also found in our eyes. (livescience.com)
  • Helpful ozone exists naturally high above the Earth's surface and protects us from the sun's ultraviolet rays (radiation). (nih.gov)
  • The lower wavelength limit of human vision is conventionally taken as 400 nm, so ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans, although people can sometimes perceive light at shorter wavelengths than this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under some conditions, children and young adults can see ultraviolet down to wavelengths around 310 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths below 200 nm, named "vacuum ultraviolet" because it is strongly absorbed by the oxygen in air, was made in 1893 by German physicist Victor Schumann. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have found that melanocytes use a light-sensitive receptor, called rhodopsin, also found in the retinas of our eyes, to detect certain wavelengths of ultraviolet light. (livescience.com)
  • UVB rays have shorter wavelengths, and make up only a small portion of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. (livescience.com)
  • UVA rays, by contrast, have longer wavelengths and are less intense, but account for the majority of ultraviolet radiation and lead to skin darkening much more quickly. (livescience.com)
  • While Ultraviolet rays are absorbed by the earth's atmosphere, UVA and UVB rays can cause a range of health problems for humans and damage to the environment. (deniminvestor.com)
  • Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface comes in two flavors: UVA and UVB. (livescience.com)
  • A higher number means greater risk of exposure to UV rays and a higher chance of sunburn and skin damage that could ultimately lead to skin cancer. (cancer.org)
  • In the short-term, exposure to UV rays can cause sunburn, skin irritation, and eye damage such as conjunctivitis. (deniminvestor.com)
  • Beamline 13 of the Photon Factory has been in operation since 2010 as a vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments. (iucr.org)
  • The air-route of spread of pathogenic bacteria in the operating room: control by bactericidal ultraviolet radiation. (nih.gov)
  • On the nature of the lethal and mutagenic action of ultraviolet light on frozen bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Melanin, the dark pigment responsible for darkening skin, is believed to protect skin cells from damage caused by ultraviolet radiation in sunlight by absorbing the radiation. (livescience.com)
  • Causes and effects of stratospheric ozone reduction : an update , a report / prepared by the Committee on Chemistry and Physics of Ozone Depletion and the Committee on Biological Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Studies Board, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council. (who.int)
  • National Research Council (U.S..) Committee on Biological Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. (who.int)
  • The camera has solar-blind ultraviolet and visible light image fusion technology. (uavfordrone.com)
  • Due to their physical properties, vitamins A and E absorb ultraviolet (UV) light in the region of solar spectrum that is responsible for most of the deleterious biological effects of the sun. (nih.gov)
  • Catching some Sun: Probing the solar wind with cometary X-ray and far-ultraviolet emission. (atomki.hu)
  • It's important to note that people with fair skin, and light-colored eyes, and those who spend a lot of time outdoors are at a higher risk for Ultraviolet rays radiation damage. (deniminvestor.com)
  • 0037] An adhesive layer anti-blue light full anti-ultraviolet protective film, which comprises: a peeling layer 1 with a thickness of 50 μm, an anti-blue light full anti-ultraviolet adhesive layer 2 with a thickness of 10 μm, a main film layer 3 with a thickness of 150 μm, and an anti-ultraviolet film with a thickness of 5 μm. (patsnap.com)
  • 0051] A kind of adhesive layer anti-blue light full anti-ultraviolet protective film, it comprises: the peeling layer 1 that thickness is 50 μm, the anti-blue light full anti-ultraviolet adhesive layer 2 that thickness is 15 μm, the main film layer 3 that thickness is 100 μm, the anti-ultraviolet layer that thickness is 3 μm Scratch coating4. (patsnap.com)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Short-wave ultraviolet light damages DNA and sterilizes surfaces with which it comes into contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ultraviolet light (specifically, UVB) is also responsible for the formation of vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultraviolet" means "beyond violet" (from Latin ultra, "beyond"), violet being the color of the highest frequencies of visible light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultraviolet has a higher frequency (thus a shorter wavelength) than violet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • UV radiation was discovered in 1801 when the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter observed that invisible rays just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum darkened silver chloride-soaked paper more quickly than violet light itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U6 marking confirms that all polycarbonate lenses found in MCR Safety's eyewear styles block 99.9% of harmful UV radiation found in the Ultraviolet light range reaching up to 385 nanometers (nm). (mcrsafety.com)
  • Imaging nano-scale objects with light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum has advantages over visible light for several reasons including: resolution, elemental specificity, and the ability to image internal structures. (sbir.gov)
  • Human melanocyte skin cells send out signals, using calcium, when exposed to ultraviolet light, a key step in producing the protective pigment melanin. (livescience.com)
  • The other two types of ultraviolet light not only reach your beach towel, but they penetrate your skin. (webmd.com)
  • Under the surface, ultraviolet light can alter your DNA, prematurely aging your skin. (webmd.com)
  • The high electric field associated with lightning (light blue) generates a terrestrial gamma-ray flash (magenta). (scitechdaily.com)
  • Examples are gamma rays, x-rays, CAT scans and ultraviolet light. (pcmag.com)
  • People who get a lot of exposure to UV rays are at greater risk for skin cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Exposure to UV rays must be well-controlled and monitored. (rcpsg.ac.uk)
  • Long-term exposure to UV rays, however, can have more serious consequences. (deniminvestor.com)
  • BP-3 absorbs and scatters the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. (cdc.gov)
  • They require high voltages and can produce harmful ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma, and free neutron radiation. (makezine.com)
  • UPF sun protection blocks out harmful Ultraviolet A & B rays (UVA/UVB). (zappos.com)
  • Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our ultraviolet spectra cover the wavelength range 912-2100 Å. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Up there, lightning creates brief bursts of gamma rays that are the most high-energy naturally produced phenomena on the planet. (scitechdaily.com)
  • When a thunderstorm generates very high energy electrons that burst out into the upper atmosphere, they last only milliseconds but emit X- and gamma-rays that ASIM can measure. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation that comes from the sun. (deniminvestor.com)
  • The resulting electromagnetic pulse causes an elve, or expanding ring of ultraviolet emission (red and white). (scitechdaily.com)
  • Elves are expanding waves of ultraviolet emission in the ionosphere above a thunderstorm, like cosmic ripples from a pebble dropped into water. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The main types of UV rays that can affect your skin include UVA rays and UVB rays. (cancer.org)
  • To learn more about the different types of UV rays, see Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation . (cancer.org)
  • called the SES200 system hereafter, was placed at the 2 m focus position and was used for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments. (iucr.org)
  • Interpreting this as H i Lyα, in the rest frame of PG 1211+143 (z = 0.0809), this corresponds to an outflow velocity of -16,980 (outflow redshift ), matching the moderate ionization X-ray absorption system detected in our Chandra observation and reported previously by Pounds et al. (herts.ac.uk)
  • With a minimum H i column density of , and no absorption in other UV resonance lines, this Lyα absorber is consistent with arising in the same ultrafast outflow as the X-ray absorbing gas. (herts.ac.uk)
  • The Lyα feature is weak or absent in archival ultraviolet spectra of PG 1211+143, strongly suggesting that this absorption is transient, and intrinsic to PG 1211+143. (herts.ac.uk)
  • The electromagnetic spectrum of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), defined most broadly as 10-400 nanometers, can be subdivided into a number of ranges recommended by the ISO standard ISO 21348: Several solid-state and vacuum devices have been explored for use in different parts of the UV spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • He called them "(de-)oxidizing rays" (German: de-oxidierende Strahlen) to emphasize chemical reactivity and to distinguish them from "heat rays", discovered the previous year at the other end of the visible spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms "chemical rays" and "heat rays" were eventually dropped in favor of ultraviolet and infrared radiation, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soft X-ray spectroscopy has many unique characteristics, such as element specificity, chemical specificity and surface sensitivity, which make them versatile for application in a wide range of scientific fields including surface chemistry, environmental science and magnetism. (iucr.org)
  • You can singe your skin during the winter, too, since snow reflects 80 percent of the sun's rays. (healthychildren.org)
  • A new soft X-ray beamline, BL07LSU, has been constructed at SPring-8 to perform advanced soft X-ray spectroscopy for materials science. (iucr.org)
  • That means sunscreen that protects against UVA and UVB rays. (webmd.com)
  • One of the most significant environmental impacts of Ultraviolet rays radiation is its effect on the ozone layer. (deniminvestor.com)
  • When human-made air pollutants destroy helpful ozone, people may receive too much ultraviolet radiation. (nih.gov)
  • Ozone helps protect the earth from ultraviolet rays. (nih.gov)
  • That portion electromagnetic spectrum immediately below visible range extending into x-ray frequencies. (dictionary.net)
  • abstract = "We observed the quasar PG 1211+143 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2015 April as part of a joint campaign with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Jansky Very Large Array. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Some naturally occurring and synthetic food components, furocoumarins and ultraviolet radiation / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans which met in Lyon, 15-22 October 1985. (who.int)
  • Ultraviolet rays are invisible to most humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans also lack color receptor adaptations for ultraviolet rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of clouds can vary, but it's important to know that UV rays can get through to the ground, even on a cloudy day. (cancer.org)
  • Preliminary and postradiation effect of long-wave ultraviolet rays on cells of different species of Candida irradiated with short-wave ultraviolet rays]. (nih.gov)
  • In 1960, the effect of ultraviolet radiation on DNA was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • produced in white on black, or black on white, the underwater creature appears as if it is glowing, the means in which the fabric is produced giving it an 'ultraviolet' effect. (designboom.com)
  • A state-of-the-art review of the many lines of evidence - whether at the molecular or the clinical level - linking exposure to ultraviolet (‎UV)‎ radiation to a range of adverse effects on human health. (who.int)
  • Ultraviolet can be detected by suitable photodiodes and photocathodes, which can be tailored to be sensitive to different parts of the UV spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • UVB rays are typically linked with DNA damage that can cause skin cancer, although research has also linked UVA to cancer. (livescience.com)
  • Those that work as a physical barrier to UV rays will reflect the sun's rays and these sun lotions are typically recommended for people with skin conditions. (staysure.co.uk)
  • UV rays can cause skin damage during any season or at any temperature. (nih.gov)
  • Skin damage is caused by UVA and UVB rays. (webmd.com)
  • If you don't already own the DVD or Blu-Ray, then this is a suitable option to get. (readjunk.com)
  • Create an account below to get 6 C&EN articles per month, receive newsletters and more - all free. (acs.org)
  • How Do I Protect Myself from Ultraviolet (UV) Rays? (cancer.org)
  • Sunglasses help protect your eyes from ultraviolet rays. (nih.gov)
  • UV rays can bounce off surfaces like water, sand, snow, or pavement, leading to an increase in UV exposure. (cancer.org)
  • For this great price, the The Boxtrolls (Blu-ray 3D + Blu-ray + DVD + DIGITAL HD with UltraViolet) is highly respected and is a regular choice with most people. (top3d.org)
  • Despite health warnings about sun damage, many of us still subject our skin to the sun's burning rays. (webmd.com)
  • Ultraviolet radiation / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Health Organization and the International Radiation Protection Association. (who.int)
  • UV rays can have both short-term and long-term effects on human health. (deniminvestor.com)
  • In conclusion, while Ultraviolet rays radiation is an important part of the sun's energy, it can have serious consequences for both human health and the environment. (deniminvestor.com)
  • When buying sunglasses, look for those that block out 99 to 100 percent of both UVA and UVB rays. (nih.gov)
  • but both UVA and UVB rays can damage skin and cause skin cancer. (cancer.org)
  • The sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays damage skin. (legacyhealth.org)
  • In 2007, Fisher and his team found something unexpected: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays (specifically the form called UVB), causes the skin to produce the hormone endorphin, which is chemically related to morphine, heroin and other opioids-in fact, all activate the same receptors in the brain. (massgeneral.org)
  • More UV rays reach the ground at higher elevations. (cancer.org)
  • They appear after the sun's rays have already killed some cells and damaged others. (nih.gov)
  • Artificial UV rays can also damage the skin, and the risk of cancer is especially high if they are used before age 30. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) rays are an invisible form of radiation. (nih.gov)
  • Did you know the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays can also damage the eyes? (nih.gov)