The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Disorder characterized by a wide range of structural changes in PERITONEUM, resulting from fibrogenic or inflammatory processes. Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication in patients receiving PERITONEAL DIALYSIS and contributes to its gradual decrease in efficiency.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.

Tranexamic acid increases peritoneal ultrafiltration volume in patients on CAPD. (1/859)

OBJECTIVE: The preservation of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity is crucial to maintaining long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antiplasmin agent tranexamic acid (TNA) increases UF volume in CAPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on CAPD, 5 with UF loss and 10 without UF loss, were recruited for the study. The effect of TNA was evaluated with respect to changes in UF volume, peritoneal permeability, peritoneal clearance, bradykinin (BK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) concentration. SETTING: Dialysis unit of the Saiseikai Central Hospital. RESULTS: In patients with UF loss, 2 weeks of treatment with oral TNA produced a significant increase in UF volume in all subjects (5/5).TNA also produced a significant increase in peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine (Cr). However, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) revealed that TNA had no effect on dialysate/plasma (D/P) Cr, Kt/V, or the protein catabolic rate (PCR).TNA also had no effect on net glucose reabsorption. In contrast, significant decreases in BK and blood tPA concentrations in response to TNA treatment were noted. BK concentration in drainage fluid was also reduced. In the case of patients without UF loss,TNA produced an increase in UF volume in 70% (7/10). However, no differences were found in blood and drainage BK and tPA concentrations between theTNA treatment and nontreatment periods in these patients. A comparison of basal BK and tPA concentration showed that there were no differences in these parameters between patients with UF loss and those without loss of UF. Furthermore,TNA given intraperitoneally to a patient also produced a marked increase in UF volume. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests thatTNA enhances UF volume in patients both with and without UF loss. SinceTNA did not affect peritoneal permeability and glucose reabsorption, the mechanism by which TNA exerts an enhancing action on UF is largely unknown. We speculate that it may be associated with suppression of the BK and/or tPA system, at least in patients with UF loss.  (+info)

Evidence of splanchnic-brain signaling in inhibition of ingestive behavior by middle molecules. (2/859)

Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are common symptoms of uremic intoxication. Fractions in the middle molecule weight range, isolated from normal urine and uremic plasma ultrafiltrate, inhibit ingestive behavior in the rat. To investigate their site of action and specificity, male rats were injected intraperitoneally, intravenously, or intracerebroventricularly with concentrated fractions of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine (molecular weight range: 1.0 to 5.0 kD) and tested for ingestive and sexual behavior. An intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of urine fraction (10:1) or 2.0 ml of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate fraction (25:1) inhibited carbohydrate intake by 76.3 and 45.9%, respectively, but an intravenous injection had no effect. However, intravenous injection of higher doses inhibited carbohydrate ingestion. An intracerebroventricular injection of 5 or 10 microl of urine (20:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 13.4 and 41.6%, respectively. An injection of 5 or 10 microl of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate (125:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 22.6 and 49.5%, respectively. Injections of the corresponding fraction from normal plasma ultrafiltrate had no effect. Injection of urine or uremic plasma ultrafiltrate middle molecule fractions did not affect the display of sexual behavior. These results suggest that middle molecule fractions from uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine act in the splanchnic region and/or brain to inhibit food intake and that the effect is specific for ingestive behavior.  (+info)

Nitrite determination in human plasma and synovial fluid using reactions of nitric oxide with 3, 5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate (DBNBS). (3/859)

DBNBS (3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite ions in acid solution to give a radical with a characteristic electron spin resonance spectrum, attributable to a 'DBNBS-NO' product, and comprising a triplet with alphaN=0.96 mT. This is identical with the spectrum obtained when NO, introduced from the gas phase, reacts with DBNBS. Under certain conditions, an additional signal is observed, attributable to oxidation of DBNBS to the radical cation, DBNBS*+ (a triplet with alphaN=1.32 mT). Conditions are described for the determination of nitrite, which avoid this DBNBS oxidation. The height of the low-field signal from the DBNBS-NO product is directly proportional to the nitrite concentration up to about 0.08 mM nitrite. The method has been applied to the measurement of nitrite concentrations in whole blood, plasma and synovial fluid taken from rheumatoid arthritis patients. In order to avoid the oxidation of DBNBS when analysing biological samples of this type, it is necessary to treat the specimen by ultrafiltration as soon as possible after collection and before addition of DBNBS.  (+info)

Resonance in the renal vasculature evoked by activation of the sympathetic nerves. (4/859)

We examined the ability of different frequencies in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to induce oscillations in renal blood flow (RBF). In anesthetized rabbits the renal nerves were stimulated using modulated sine patterns (base frequency 5 Hz, 5-ms duration pulses) that varied in amplitude between 0 and 10 V at a frequency between 0.04 and 1.0 Hz. The strengths of the induced oscillations in RBF were calculated using spectral analysis. Although faster rhythms in simulated SNA >0.6 Hz contributed to the level of vascular tone, 95% of the power in the frequency response curve was below this frequency, indicating a low-pass filtering/integrating characteristic of the vasculature. Frequencies <0.6 Hz were associated with increasing ability to induce oscillations in RBF. The ability of an SNA rhythm at 0.6 Hz to induce a rhythm in RBF was 21 times less than that at 0.25 Hz. At 0.16 Hz there was a distinct peak in the frequency response curve, indicating the vasculature was more sensitive in this frequency band to sympathetic stimulation. Blockade of endogenous nitric oxide by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg) did not alter resting RBF levels nor was the low-pass filtering/integrating characteristic of the vasculature to nerve stimulation changed (i.e., the curve was not shifted left or right); however, there was a selective increase in the sensitivity to stimulation at 0.16 Hz, i.e., larger oscillations in RBF were evoked. These results indicate an ability of SNA to induce resonant oscillations in the renal vasculature and that there may be active and passive modulators of these responses. Naturally occurring oscillations in SNA <0.6 Hz are likely to contribute to the dynamic control of RBF, ensuring it responds rapidly and with high gain to the stimuli of daily life, while filtering out the faster oscillations ensures stable glomerular filtration.  (+info)

Erythroid accelerating factor detected in serum from rats with drug induced hemolysis. (5/859)

We have previously observed that an erythroid enhancing activity presents in rat serum in the early stage of drug induced hemolytic anemia. The further studies on biological and physicochemical aspects of this erythroid accelerating factor (EAF) is described in this paper. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of acetylphenylhydrazine (APH) and serum was obtained from the rats on day 1 after APH injection. It was first fractionated by ultrafiltration on Amicon Diaflo membranes to give a series of fractions lying in the following ranges of molecular weight: 10-30 kDa, 30-50 kDa, 50-100 kDa, and >100 kDa. Among those fractions, largest increase in the number of colony forming unit erythroid CFU-E) colonies was shown in the fraction of >100 kDa that was subsequently fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. EAF activity for CFU-E proliferation was detected in a FPLC fraction corresponding to a molecular weight of about 160 kDa. An addition of EAF significantly increased with dose dependent manner in the number of CFU-E colonies from rat bone marrow mononuclear cells. EAF alone had no burst promoting activity and exhibited no distinct activity to proliferate burst forming unit-erythroid even when interleukin-3 (IL-3) and high concentration (2 U/ml) of erythropoietin (Epo) were added together to the culture. The stimulating effect of EAF on CFU-E was markedly dependent on the presence of adherent cells in the culture. Partially purified protein was relatively heat-unstable (60% at 75 degrees C, 30 minutes) and sensitive to treatment with trypsin and alpha-galactosidase. These results suggest that EAF is a novel factor, possible glycoprotein to reinforce Epo function and is different from various cytokines previously documented because of differences of approximate molecular weight.  (+info)

Endothelin mediates renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration during pregnancy in chronically instrumented conscious rats. (6/859)

Profound vasodilation of the kidneys and other nonreproductive organs transpires during early pregnancy. Because nitric oxide (NO) was found to mediate renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious pregnant rats, and endogenous endothelin (ET) was suggested to be vasodilatory in the renal circulation of nonpregnant rats, we tested whether endothelin mediates the NO-dependent changes in the renal circulation during pregnancy. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured in conscious pregnant and virgin rats before and during infusion of 30 micrograms/min RES-701-1 (a selective ETB receptor subtype antagonist). Baseline GFR and ERPF were significantly increased by 35% in gravid rats relative to virgin controls. During infusion of RES-701-1, the pregnant rats responded more robustly, showing a greater decline in both GFR and ERPF such that renal function converged in the two groups of rats. ERPF also converged in pregnant and virgin rats during infusion of SB-209760, a nonselective ETA/B receptor subtype antagonist. Combined infusion of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME, an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor] and RES-701-1 reduced GFR and ERPF to levels comparable to those reached with either agent given alone, suggesting inhibition of a common vasodilatory pathway. RES-701-1 and SB-209670 significantly lowered the cGMP content of small renal arteries from gravid and virgin rats in vitro, strengthening the link between the renal endothelial ETB receptor subtype and NO. Importantly, we showed that RES-701-1 is not a direct inhibitor of NOS. We conclude that endothelin mediates the NO-dependent changes in the renal circulation of conscious rats during pregnancy.  (+info)

Complementary effects of bifidogenic growth stimulators and ammonium sulfate in natural rubber serum powder on Bifidobacterium bifidum. (7/859)

Natural rubber serum powder, rich in crude protein and carbohydrates, had a strong growth-stimulating activity for Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, which was unable to grow in a fully synthetic medium, B12 assay medium. Natural rubber serum powder was fractionated by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cutoff 1000). The active ultrafiltrate was further concentrated and desalted with an adsorptive microconcentrator, which adsorbs virtually all amino acids and peptides. Through this purification step, it was found that the adsorbed fraction obtained did not stimulate growth independently but acted complementarily with a small amount of ammonium sulfate. The adsorbed fraction was subsequently analyzed on reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, and the activities of the eluates were measured on B12 assay medium with ammonium sulfate. Consequently, it was proved that several peptidic ingredients in the adsorbed fraction increased the growth of B. bifidum.  (+info)

Caspases induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria by activating cytosolic factors. (8/859)

We investigated the ability of caspases (cysteine proteases with aspartic acid specificity) to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. When Jurkat cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by Fas receptor ligation, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria, an event that was prevented by the caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk (zVal-Ala-Asp-CH2F). Purified caspase-8 triggered rapid cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria in vitro. The effect was indirect, as the presence of cytosol was required, suggesting that caspase-8 cleaves and activates a cytosolic substrate, which in turn is able to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The cytochrome c releasing activity was not blocked by caspase inhibition, but was antagonized by Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleaved Bid, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, which gains cytochrome c releasing activity in response to caspase cleavage. However, caspase-6 and caspase-7 did not cleave Bid, although they initiated cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the presence of cytosol. Thus, effector caspases may cleave and activate another cytosolic substrate (other than Bid), which then promotes cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Mitochondria significantly amplified the caspase-8 initiated DEVD-specific cleavage activity. Our data suggest that cytochrome c release, initiated by the action of caspases on a cytosolic substrates, may act to amplify a caspase cascade during apoptosis.  (+info)

Ultrafiltration is a medical process that separates fluids and dissolved solutes based on their size and charge. It's a type of membrane filtration that uses a semipermeable membrane with pores small enough to allow the passage of water and low molecular weight solutes, while retaining larger molecules and cells.

In clinical practice, ultrafiltration is often used in patients with acute or chronic kidney failure to remove excess fluid from the bloodstream, a process known as renal replacement therapy or dialysis. During this procedure, the patient's blood is passed through a hollow fiber membrane, and pressure differences across the membrane cause water and small solutes to move through the pores, while larger molecules such as proteins and cells are retained.

Ultrafiltration can also be used in other medical contexts, such as plasma exchange or therapeutic apheresis, where specific components of the blood are removed for therapeutic purposes.

Dialysis solutions are fluids that are used during the process of dialysis, which is a treatment for patients with kidney failure. The main function of these solutions is to help remove waste products and excess fluid from the bloodstream, as the kidneys are no longer able to do so effectively.

The dialysis solution typically contains a mixture of water, electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate), and a small amount of glucose. The composition of the solution may vary depending on the individual patient's needs, but it is carefully controlled to match the patient's blood as closely as possible.

During dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The used dialysis solution, which contains these waste products and excess fluids, is then discarded. Fresh dialysis solution is continuously introduced into the dialyzer to replace the used solution, creating a continuous flow of fluid that helps remove waste products and maintain the proper balance of electrolytes in the patient's blood.

Overall, dialysis solutions play a critical role in helping patients with kidney failure maintain their health and quality of life.

The peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. It is composed of a mesothelial cell monolayer supported by a thin, loose connective tissue. The peritoneum has two layers: the parietal peritoneum, which lines the abdominal wall, and the visceral peritoneum, which covers the organs.

The potential space between these two layers is called the peritoneal cavity, which contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the smooth movement of the organs within the cavity. The peritoneum plays an important role in the absorption and secretion of fluids and electrolytes, as well as providing a surface for the circulation of immune cells.

In addition, it also provides a route for the spread of infection or malignant cells throughout the abdominal cavity, known as peritonitis. The peritoneum is highly vascularized and innervated, making it sensitive to pain and distention.

Hemofiltration is a type of renal replacement therapy used for treating acute or chronic renal failure. It is a convective process that utilizes a semipermeable membrane to remove waste solutes and water from the blood. In this process, blood is passed through a filter, called a hemofilter, which contains hollow fibers with tiny pores. The pressure gradient across the membrane causes fluid and solutes to move from the blood into the filtrate compartment, based on their size and charge.

The filtrate, which contains waste products and water, is then discarded, while a replacement solution is infused back into the patient's bloodstream to maintain adequate fluid volume and electrolyte balance. Hemofiltration can be performed continuously (continuous hemofiltration) or intermittently (intermittent hemofiltration), depending on the clinical situation and the patient's needs.

Hemofiltration is particularly useful in critically ill patients with fluid overload, electrolyte imbalances, or acute kidney injury, as it can effectively remove large volumes of water and solutes, including inflammatory mediators and toxins, from the blood. It is also used in the management of drug overdoses and poisonings, where rapid removal of toxic substances is required.

Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a type of renal replacement therapy used for patients with severe kidney failure. It combines elements of hemodialysis and hemofiltration to provide more efficient removal of waste products, toxins, and excess fluid from the blood.

During HDF, the patient's blood is passed through a semi-permeable membrane in a dialyzer or artificial kidney. The membrane allows for the passage of smaller molecules such as urea, creatinine, and electrolytes, while retaining larger molecules like proteins. A combination of diffusion (due to the concentration gradient) and convection (due to the application of a transmembrane pressure) leads to the removal of waste products and toxins from the blood.

In addition to this, a substitution fluid is infused into the extracorporeal circuit to replace the volume of fluid removed during convection. This substitution fluid can be tailored to match the patient's electrolyte and acid-base status, allowing for better control over their biochemical parameters.

HDF has been shown to provide better clearance of middle and large molecular weight uremic toxins compared to conventional hemodialysis, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes such as reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk. However, more research is needed to confirm these benefits and establish the optimal dosing and prescription for HDF.

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with severe kidney dysfunction or end-stage renal disease. It is a process that utilizes the peritoneum, a membranous sac lining the abdominal cavity, as a natural semipermeable membrane for filtering waste products, excess fluids, and electrolytes from the bloodstream.

In peritoneal dialysis, a sterile dialysate solution is infused into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The dialysate contains various substances such as glucose or other osmotic agents, electrolytes, and buffer solutions that facilitate the diffusion of waste products and fluids from the blood vessels surrounding the peritoneum into the dialysate.

There are two primary types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). CAPD is performed manually, several times a day, while APD is carried out using a cycler machine overnight.

Peritoneal dialysis offers certain advantages over hemodialysis, such as better preservation of residual renal function, fewer dietary restrictions, and greater flexibility in scheduling treatments. However, it also has potential complications, including peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), catheter-related infections, fluid imbalances, and membrane failure over time.

Peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory (CAPD), is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is a form of peritoneal dialysis that is performed continuously, without the need for machines or hospitalization. CAPD uses the patient's own peritoneum, a thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream.

In CAPD, a sterile dialysis solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity through a permanent catheter implanted in the patient's abdomen. The solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for a dwell time of several hours, during which diffusion occurs across the peritoneal membrane, allowing waste products and excess fluids to move from the bloodstream into the dialysis solution.

After the dwell time, the used dialysis solution is drained from the peritoneal cavity and discarded, and a fresh batch of dialysis solution is introduced. This process is typically repeated four to five times a day, with each exchange taking about 30 minutes to complete. Patients can perform CAPD exchanges while going about their daily activities, making it a convenient and flexible treatment option for many patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Overall, CAPD is a highly effective form of dialysis that offers several advantages over other types of renal replacement therapy, including improved quality of life, better preservation of residual kidney function, and lower costs. However, it does require careful attention to sterile technique and regular monitoring to ensure proper functioning of the peritoneal membrane and adequate clearance of waste products and fluids.

Hemodialysis solutions are sterile, pyrogen-free fluids used in the process of hemodialysis, a renal replacement therapy for patients with kidney failure. These solutions are formulated to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood by means of diffusion and osmosis across a semipermeable membrane.

The primary components of hemodialysis solutions include:

1. Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium ions are present in concentrations that aim to restore normal levels in the body or to correct for abnormalities in patients' serum electrolyte levels.
2. Buffer: Bicarbonate or acetate is added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the dialysate and prevent acidification of the blood during hemodialysis.
3. Glucose: A small amount of glucose may be included in the solution to provide energy for the patient.
4. Water: Ultrapure water is used to prepare the solution, free from microbial contaminants and endotoxins.

Hemodialysis solutions are available in different concentrations and formulations to address individual patient needs and specific clinical situations. The composition of these solutions must be carefully controlled to ensure their effectiveness and safety during hemodialysis treatments.

Dialysis is a medical treatment that is used to remove waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This life-sustaining procedure uses a specialized machine, called a dialyzer or artificial kidney, to filter the blood outside of the body and return clean, chemically balanced blood back into the body.

There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

1. Hemodialysis: In this method, a patient's blood is passed through an external filter (dialyzer) that removes waste products, toxins, and excess fluids. The cleaned blood is then returned to the body with the help of a specialized machine. Hemodialysis typically requires access to a large vein, often created by a surgical procedure called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Hemodialysis sessions usually last for about 3-5 hours and are performed three times a week in a clinical setting, such as a dialysis center or hospital.
2. Peritoneal Dialysis: This method uses the lining of the patient's own abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to clean the blood. A sterile dialysate solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The solution absorbs waste products and excess fluids from the blood vessels lining the peritoneum through a process called diffusion. After a dwell time, usually several hours, the used dialysate is drained out and replaced with fresh dialysate. This process is known as an exchange and is typically repeated multiple times throughout the day or night, depending on the specific type of peritoneal dialysis (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis).

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on various factors, such as a patient's overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences. Dialysis is a life-saving treatment for people with end-stage kidney disease or severe kidney dysfunction, allowing them to maintain their quality of life and extend their lifespan until a kidney transplant becomes available or their kidney function improves.

Glucans are polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are made up of long chains of glucose molecules. They can be found in the cell walls of certain plants, fungi, and bacteria. In medicine, beta-glucans derived from yeast or mushrooms have been studied for their potential immune-enhancing effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role and effectiveness in human health.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Micropore filters are medical devices used to filter or sterilize fluids and gases. They are made of materials like cellulose, mixed cellulose ester, or polyvinylidene fluoride with precise pore sizes, typically ranging from 0.1 to 10 micrometers in diameter. These filters are used to remove bacteria, fungi, and other particles from solutions in laboratory and medical settings, such as during the preparation of injectable drugs, tissue culture media, or sterile fluids for medical procedures. They come in various forms, including syringe filters, vacuum filters, and bottle-top filters, and are often used with the assistance of a vacuum or positive pressure to force the fluid through the filter material.

Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to a disturbance in the balance of water and electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) in the body. This imbalance can occur when there is an excess or deficiency of water or electrolytes in the body, leading to altered concentrations in the blood and other bodily fluids.

Such imbalances can result from various medical conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, severe dehydration, burns, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and certain medications. Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, seizures, confusion, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and correcting the electrolyte and fluid levels through appropriate medical interventions.

Filtration in the medical context refers to a process used in various medical treatments and procedures, where a substance is passed through a filter with the purpose of removing impurities or unwanted components. The filter can be made up of different materials such as paper, cloth, or synthetic membranes, and it works by trapping particles or molecules based on their size, shape, or charge.

For example, filtration is commonly used in kidney dialysis to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood. In this case, the patient's blood is pumped through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood based on size differences between these substances and the blood cells. The clean blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Filtration is also used in other medical applications such as water purification, air filtration, and tissue engineering. In each case, the goal is to remove unwanted components or impurities from a substance, making it safer or more effective for use in medical treatments and procedures.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

A kidney glomerulus is a functional unit in the nephron of the kidney. It is a tuft of capillaries enclosed within a structure called Bowman's capsule, which filters waste and excess fluids from the blood. The glomerulus receives blood from an afferent arteriole and drains into an efferent arteriole.

The process of filtration in the glomerulus is called ultrafiltration, where the pressure within the glomerular capillaries drives plasma fluid and small molecules (such as ions, glucose, amino acids, and waste products) through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's space. Larger molecules, like proteins and blood cells, are retained in the blood due to their larger size. The filtrate then continues down the nephron for further processing, eventually forming urine.

Anuria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of urine output, typically defined as less than 100 milliliters in 24 hours. This occurs when the kidneys are unable to produce urine due to a complete or nearly complete failure of both kidneys' function. Anuria can be caused by various underlying medical conditions such as severe dehydration, kidney damage, obstruction in the urinary tract, or certain medications that affect kidney function. It is considered a serious medical emergency and requires immediate evaluation and treatment to prevent further complications, including potential permanent kidney damage or even death.

Peritonitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The peritoneum has an important role in protecting the abdominal organs and providing a smooth surface for them to move against each other.

Peritonitis can occur as a result of bacterial or fungal infection, chemical irritation, or trauma to the abdomen. The most common cause of peritonitis is a rupture or perforation of an organ in the abdominal cavity, such as the appendix, stomach, or intestines, which allows bacteria from the gut to enter the peritoneal cavity.

Symptoms of peritonitis may include abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and decreased bowel movements. In severe cases, peritonitis can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by widespread inflammation throughout the body.

Treatment for peritonitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical intervention to repair any damage to the abdominal organs and remove any infected fluid or tissue from the peritoneal cavity. In some cases, a temporary or permanent drain may be placed in the abdomen to help remove excess fluid and promote healing.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Peritoneal fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by the formation of excessive scar tissue (fibrosis) in the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This fibrotic process can lead to thickening and shrinkage of the peritoneum, resulting in impaired function of the affected organs and various complications.

Peritoneal fibrosis often occurs as a result of long-term exposure to dialysis solutions used during peritoneal dialysis, a type of renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage kidney disease. The inflammatory response triggered by the dialysate can cause progressive fibrosis and thickening of the peritoneum, ultimately leading to reduced efficiency of the dialysis process and potential complications such as fluid leakage, hernias, or bowel obstruction.

In addition to peritoneal dialysis-induced fibrosis, other causes of peritoneal fibrosis include previous abdominal surgeries, intra-abdominal infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications. The diagnosis of peritoneal fibrosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan), and direct examination of the peritoneum during diagnostic laparoscopy. Treatment options may include modifying the underlying cause, optimizing dialysis techniques, using anti-fibrotic medications, or considering alternative renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or transplantation.

The lymphatic system is a complex network of organs, tissues, vessels, and cells that work together to defend the body against infectious diseases and also play a crucial role in the immune system. It is made up of:

1. Lymphoid Organs: These include the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, and Peyer's patches (in the intestines). They produce and mature immune cells.

2. Lymphatic Vessels: These are thin tubes that carry clear fluid called lymph towards the heart.

3. Lymph: This is a clear-to-white fluid that contains white blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, which help fight infections.

4. Other tissues and cells: These include bone marrow where immune cells are produced, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) which are types of white blood cells that help protect the body from infection and disease.

The primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport lymph throughout the body, collecting waste products, bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances from the tissues, and filtering them out through the lymph nodes. The lymphatic system also helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food in the digestive tract.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

Plasma volume refers to the total amount of plasma present in an individual's circulatory system. Plasma is the fluid component of blood, in which cells and chemical components are suspended. It is composed mainly of water, along with various dissolved substances such as nutrients, waste products, hormones, gases, and proteins.

Plasma volume is a crucial factor in maintaining proper blood flow, regulating body temperature, and facilitating the transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other essential components throughout the body. The average plasma volume for an adult human is approximately 3 liters, but it can vary depending on factors like age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Changes in plasma volume can have significant effects on an individual's cardiovascular function and fluid balance. For example, dehydration or blood loss can lead to a decrease in plasma volume, while conditions such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis may result in increased plasma volume due to fluid retention. Accurate measurement of plasma volume is essential for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Peritoneal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the organs within it. The peritoneum has several functions, including providing protection and support to the abdominal organs, producing and absorbing fluids, and serving as a site for the immune system's response to infections and other foreign substances.

Peritoneal diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious peritoneal diseases are caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections that spread to the peritoneum from other parts of the body or through contaminated food, water, or medical devices. Non-infectious peritoneal diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by infections but rather by other factors such as autoimmune disorders, cancer, or chemical irritants.

Some examples of peritoneal diseases include:

1. Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum due to bacterial or fungal infections, often caused by a ruptured appendix, perforated ulcer, or other abdominal injuries or conditions.
2. Tuberculous peritonitis: A form of peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB).
3. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Infection of the peritoneum in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease.
4. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum, often caused by exposure to asbestos.
5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation and scarring of the peritoneum.
6. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: The spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body to the peritoneum, often seen in patients with advanced ovarian or colorectal cancer.
7. Cirrhotic ascites: Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity due to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
8. Meigs' syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion.

"Fractional precipitation" is not a recognized medical term. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences, fractional precipitation refers to a process used to separate or purify substances based on their different solubilities in various solvents. This technique involves changing the conditions such as temperature, pH, or solvent composition to cause some components of a mixture to precipitate (form a solid) while others remain in solution.

The precipitated fraction can then be separated from the remaining liquid, and further purification steps can be taken if necessary. While not a medical term per se, fractional precipitation may be used in the production or isolation of pharmaceutical compounds or in diagnostic tests that involve chemical separations.

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

The peritoneal cavity is the potential space within the abdominal and pelvic regions, bounded by the parietal peritoneum lining the inner aspect of the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the visceral peritoneum covering the abdominal and pelvic organs. It contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the gliding of organs against each other during normal physiological activities such as digestion and movement. This cavity can become pathologically involved in various conditions, including inflammation, infection, hemorrhage, or neoplasia, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, distention, or tenderness.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. The glomeruli are the tiny fibers in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. A lower GFR number means that the kidneys aren't working properly and may indicate kidney disease.

The GFR is typically calculated using a formula that takes into account the patient's serum creatinine level, age, sex, and race. The most commonly used formula is the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. A normal GFR is usually above 90 mL/min/1.73m2, but this can vary depending on the individual's age and other factors.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. In medical terms, hydrostatic pressure is often discussed in relation to body fluids and tissues. For example, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) is the force that drives the fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Additionally, abnormal increases in hydrostatic pressure can contribute to the development of edema (swelling) in the tissues.

Cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is a term used to describe the interplay between heart and kidney dysfunction, where acute or chronic damage in one organ can lead to dysfunction in the other. It is typically classified into five subtypes based on the primary organ dysfunction and the temporal relationship between cardiac and renal dysfunction.

The medical definition of CRS is:

A complex pathophysiological disorder involving heart and kidney interactions, where acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ can lead to dysfunction in the other. It is characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from subtle biochemical changes to overt cardiac or renal failure. The syndrome encompasses five subtypes based on the primary organ dysfunction and the temporal relationship between heart and kidney involvement:

1. CRS Type 1 (Acute Cardio-Renal Syndrome): Acute worsening of heart function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI)
2. CRS Type 2 (Chronic Cardio-Renal Syndrome): Chronic abnormalities in cardiac function causing progressive and chronic kidney disease (CKD)
3. CRS Type 3 (Acute Reno-Cardiac Syndrome): Sudden worsening of renal function leading to acute cardiac injury or dysfunction
4. CRS Type 4 (Chronic Reno-Cardiac Syndrome): Chronic kidney disease contributing to decreased cardiac function, heart failure, and/or cardiovascular morbidity and mortality
5. CRS Type 5 (Secondary Cardio-Renal Syndrome): Systemic conditions causing simultaneous dysfunction in both the heart and kidneys

The pathophysiology of CRS involves complex interactions between neurohormonal, inflammatory, and hemodynamic factors that can lead to a vicious cycle of worsening organ function. Early recognition and management of CRS are crucial for improving patient outcomes.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Diuretics are a type of medication that increase the production of urine and help the body eliminate excess fluid and salt. They work by interfering with the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules, which in turn causes more water to be excreted from the body. Diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. There are several types of diuretics, including loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics, each with its own mechanism of action and potential side effects. It is important to use diuretics under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have an impact on electrolyte balance in the body.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Blood volume determination is a medical procedure that involves measuring the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system. This measurement is typically expressed in milliliters (mL) or liters (L) and provides important information about the person's overall cardiovascular health and fluid status.

There are several methods for determining blood volume, including:

1. Direct measurement: This involves withdrawing a known volume of blood from the body, labeling the red blood cells with a radioactive or dye marker, reinfusing the cells back into the body, and then measuring the amount of marked cells that appear in subsequent blood samples over time.
2. Indirect measurement: This method uses formulas based on the person's height, weight, sex, and other factors to estimate their blood volume. One common indirect method is the "hemodynamic" calculation, which takes into account the individual's heart rate, stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat), and the concentration of hemoglobin in their red blood cells.
3. Bioimpedance analysis: This non-invasive technique uses electrical signals to measure the body's fluid volumes, including blood volume. By analyzing changes in the body's electrical conductivity in response to a small current, bioimpedance analysis can provide an estimate of blood volume.

Accurate determination of blood volume is important for assessing various medical conditions, such as heart failure, shock, anemia, and dehydration. It can also help guide treatment decisions, including the need for fluid replacement or blood transfusions.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

A Glucose Solution, Hypertonic is a medical solution that contains a higher concentration of glucose (sugar) than is found in normal body fluids. This results in an osmotic gradient that draws water from the surrounding tissues and increases the osmolarity of the body fluids. It is often used in medical settings to treat certain conditions such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting. However, it's important to note that hypertonic glucose solutions should be used with caution because high concentrations of glucose can lead to complications like hyperglycemia and dehydration if not properly managed.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

... membranes are defined by the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane used. Ultrafiltration is applied ... Blood dialysis also utilizes ultrafiltration.[citation needed] Ultrafiltration can be used for the removal of particulates and ... Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces such as pressure or concentration gradients lead to a ... Ultrafiltration modules have also been improved to allow for more membrane for a given area without increasing its risk of ...
Slow Continuous Ultrafiltration (SCUF) is an artificial method which approximately mimics the ultrafiltration function of the ... Ultrafiltration (industrial) Ultrafiltration Aquapheresis Koushanpour, Esmail (1986). Renal Physiology. New York: Springer- ... In renal physiology, ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the glomerular capsule ( ... This process is called ultrafiltration; the resulting fluid, virtually free of large proteins and blood cells, is referred to ...
The Jeyranbatan Ultrafiltration Water Treatment Plants Complex is a water filtration plant in Baku, Azerbaijan. The plant, ... The capacity of the ultrafiltration (UF) plant is 6.6 cubic meters of water per second (570,000 cubic meters per day). The ... Azersu Open Joint Stock Company Ilham Aliyev attended the opening of Jeyranbatan ultra-filtration water purification facility ... complex Ceranbatan Surface Water Ultrafiltration (UF) Plant, Baku BHOS teachers visited Jeyranbatan ultra-filtration water ...
Native S-layer proteins have already been used three decades ago in the development of biosensors and ultrafiltration membranes ... Sára M, Sleytr, UB (1987). "Production and characteristics of ultrafiltration membranes with uniform pores from two-dimensional ... Schuster B, Sleytr UB (2021). "S-Layer Ultrafiltration Membranes". Membranes. 11 (4): 275. doi:10.3390/membranes11040275. PMC ...
Ultrafiltration removes particles higher than 0.005-2 µm and operates within a range of 70-700kPa. Ultrafiltration is used for ... Some ultrafiltration membranes have also been used to remove dissolved compounds with high molecular weight, such as proteins ... The first use of membranes on a large scale was with microfiltration and ultrafiltration technologies. Since the 1980s, these ... Depending on the pore size, they can be classified as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and ...
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 20, 490-4. Thomas, A. W., & Kelly, M. W. (1926). Ultrafiltration of ...
Denton, K. M.; Luff, S. E.; Shweta, A.; Anderson, W. P. (2004). "Differential Neural Control of Glomerular Ultrafiltration". ...
Nawaz H, Shi J, Mittal GS, Kakuda Y (2006). "Extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds and concentration by ultrafiltration". ... Concentration can be made by ultrafiltration. Purification can be achieved by preparative chromatography. Phosphomolybdic acid ...
Purification is achieved by ultrafiltration/diafiltration. Since its introduction in 2004 the vaccine has had a dramatic impact ...
Specifically, ultrafiltration allows the smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, ... Ultrafiltration makes cheese manufacturing more efficient. Ultrafiltered milk is also sold directly to consumers under brands ...
Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook, CRC Press, Florida, p. 352-407. Tian, J, Ernst, M, Cui, F, & Jekel, M 2013 'KMnO4 ... in Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook' 2nd edn., CRC Press, Florida, p.1-9. Perry, RH & Green, DW, 2007. Perry's ... The main of which are described in general below: Ultrafiltration membranes have pore sizes ranging from 0.1 μm to 0.01 μm and ... Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes in Drinking Water (M53) (Awwa Manual) (Manual of Water Supply Practices). 1st ed ...
Ultrafiltration Costanzo MR, Guglin ME, Saltzberg MT, et al. (Feb 2007). "Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics for ... Using a form of ultrafiltration, the filter separates the excess salt and water from the blood and the blood is returned to the ... Dec 2005). "Ultrafiltration versus usual care for hospitalized patients with heart failure: the Relief for Acutely Fluid- ... Feb 1993). "Isolated ultrafiltration in moderate congestive heart failure". J Am Coll Cardiol. 21 (2): 424-31. doi:10.1016/0735 ...
The renal cortex is the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs. Erythropoietin is produced in the renal cortex. Kidney ... Brenner, Barry M.; Troy, Julia L.; Daugharty, Terrance M. (1971-08-01). "The Dynamics of Glomerular Ultrafiltration in the Rat ...
Particles can be controlled by filtration and ultrafiltration. Sources can include bacterial fragments, the sloughing of the ... The common types of filtration are multi-media, automatic backwashable filters and ultrafiltration for suspended solids removal ... and ultrafiltration to achieve the required particle level. Some semiconductor Fabs require hot UPW for some of their processes ... ultrafiltration (found in some pharmaceutical, but mostly semiconductor industries), ozonation, and optimization of piping ...
Upon arrival in Oxford, Higham became involved in testing and improving the ultrafiltration method for dating archaeological ... Higham, TFG; Jacobi, RM; Bronk Ramsey, C (2006). "AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Ancient Bone Using Ultrafiltration". Radiocarbon. ... Jacobi, RM; Higham, TFG (2008). "The 'Red Lady' ages gracefully: new ultrafiltration AMS determinations from Paviland". Journal ... improved reliability using ultrafiltration". Journal of Quaternary Science. 21 (5): 557-573. Bibcode:2006JQS....21..557J. doi: ...
Ultra filtration is an alternative to the centrifugation. Cell disruption: If the desired product is intra cellular the cell ...
Lee H.L., Reis J.F.G., and Lightfoot E.N. (1974). Single-phase chromatography: Solute retardation by ultrafiltration and ...
Blatt, W.F.; Robinson, S.M.; Bixler, Harris J. (Oct 1968). "Membrane ultrafiltration: The diafiltration technique and its ... Shao, Jiahui; Zydney, Andrew L. (2004). "Optimization of Ultrafiltration/Diafiltration Processes for Partially Bound Impurities ...
Ultrafiltration concentrates a protein solution using selective permeable membranes. The function of the membrane is to let the ...
3. Design of pilot scale nanfiltration and ultrafiltration units. 4. Design of pilot unit for ceramic membrane filtration. 5. ... Membrane separations (analysis, design and development of ultrafiltration / reverse osmosis systems), Application of ...
Proteins can also be separated by size in a tangential flow filtration or an ultrafiltration. Single proteins can be isolated ... ISBN 978-1-59259-027-8. Raja, Ghosh (11 June 2003). Protein Bioseparation Using Ultrafiltration: Theory, Applications And New ...
Ultrafiltration removes particles of roughly 3 nm or larger. Nanofiltration removes particles of 1 nm or larger. RO is in the ... solids before ultrafiltration processing. The retentate can then be used to make whey powders, including whey protein isolate. ...
In such case filtration or ultrafiltration may be required. Although flocculation may be used, using alum salts or the addition ... either general membrane treatments like ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis or treatments to remove specific contaminants, such ...
The sample is therefore concentrated by ultrafiltration or dialysis. Most of the charged impurities are usually anions such as ...
Wardani, Anita Kusuma; Hakim, Ahmad Nurul; Khoiruddin, null; Wenten, I. Gede (June 2017). "Combined ultrafiltration- ...
Sources: Knops, F. N. M.; Franklin, B. (2000). "Ultrafiltration for 90 MLD Cryptosporidium- and Giardia- free Drinking Water, A ... Treatment facilities included ultrafiltration, modification of plumbosolvency, disinfection and chlorination. The works were ...
In general, ultrafiltration devices filter the patient's anticoagulated whole blood. The filter process removes unwanted excess ... Presently, the only whole blood ultrafiltration device in clinical use is the Hemobag. These devices do not totally remove ... Eichert I, Isgro F, Kiessling AH, Saggau W (June 2001). "Cell saver, ultrafiltration and direct transfusion: comparative study ... Colli A, Balduzzi S, Ruyra X (2012). "The Hemobag: the modern ultrafiltration system for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary by ...
... and twenty percent is produced through the ultrafiltration of plasma. Intraocular pressure affects the rate of ultrafiltration ...
Michael William Pritchard, Entrepreneur and Inventor, lifesaver Ultra-filtration Bottle. For services to Innovation and ...
In general, ultrafiltration devices filter the patient's anticoagulated whole blood. Direct transfusion is a blood salvaging ...
Ultrafiltration membranes are defined by the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane used. Ultrafiltration is applied ... Blood dialysis also utilizes ultrafiltration.[citation needed] Ultrafiltration can be used for the removal of particulates and ... Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces such as pressure or concentration gradients lead to a ... Ultrafiltration modules have also been improved to allow for more membrane for a given area without increasing its risk of ...
Ultrafiltration is an extremely appealing strategy for patients with A... ... Ultrafiltration is an extremely appealing strategy for patients with AHF and concomitant overt fluidoverload not fully ... Extracorporeal ultrafiltration for acute heart failure: Patient selection and perspectives. *Milazzo V ... Here, we aimed to provide an overview on the currentmedical evidence supporting the use of ultrafiltration in AHF, with a ...
... a subsidiary of BASF SE and technology leader in ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, has secured the biggest project in companys ... history and will supply high-capacity ultrafiltration technology for a desalination plant in Jamnagar (India). ... inge GmbH, a subsidiary of BASF SE and technology leader in ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, has secured the biggest project in ... inge® ultrafiltration technology helps in promoting the sustainable use of the valuable resource water. ...
Browse a full range of Ultrafiltration Filters and Devices products from leading suppliers. Shop now at Fisher Scientific for ... Ultrafiltration Filters and Devices. Ultrafiltration Filters and Devices. Syringe filters suitable for centrifugal ...
Multiple product lines of ultrafiltration systems available to meet your needs and budget. ... Ultrafiltration Systems. The GWT Series Custom Built Solar Powered Ultrafiltration Systems combine proven solar voltaic ... The new GWT Series Ultrafiltration System is a (POE) Point of Entry Residential/Light Commercial Ultrafiltration system ... The GWT backwashable ultrafiltration system is available with two different control valve options. The system is offered with ...
DuPonts next generation of multi-capillary PES In-Out Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, DuPont™ Multibore™ PRO, reduces the ... "This next generation of multi-capillary PES In-Out Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes will bring the benefits of high productivity ... today announced the commercial launch of the next generation of multi-capillary PES In-Out Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes- ... ultrafiltration (UF), electrodeionization (EDI), nanofiltration (NF), membrane bioreactor systems (MBR), membrane aerated ...
EP-0025349-B1 chemical patent summary.
... May 6th, 2020 Conn Hastings ... Our Aquadex ultrafiltration therapy can quickly and effectively help stabilize patients until a dialysis machine becomes ... This is why we want every hospital across the nation who is treating COVID-19 patients to know about ultrafiltration therapy ... John Erb: Aquadex is a portable ultrafiltration system that removes excess fluid from the body. A physician prescribes the ...
OEM-Manufacturer of Standardized Residential and Municipal Ultrafiltration Systems. *Sembcorp Industries LtdSingapore. Operates ... Air Flotation, Filter Press, Aerators, Decanter, Activated Carbon Filter, Ultra Filtration, Membrane Modules, Ozone Generator. ... Fractional Electrodeionization FEDI, Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes, Flat Sheet Submerged UF Membranes, Ceramic Filters ... Membrane Flatsheet, Spiral Wound Elements, Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, and Sea Water Desalination. ...
Ultrafiltration Membrane Market Report Summaries Detailed Information By Top Key players PCI Membranes, Membranium, Veolia ... Ultrafiltration Membrane Market Size, Share & Industry Analysis, By Membrane Material (Polymers, Ceramic & others), By ...
... ultrafiltration (UF), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes to reduce membrane fouling and markedly improve membrane lifetime for ...
... and pilot program allow potential customers to make the correct ultrafiltration ivestment. ... Jars of Water Before and After Going Through a PRAB Ultrafiltration Unit ...
APAC ultrafiltration market projected to grow at highest CAGR from 2018 to 2023. The ultrafiltration market in the APAC region ... Ultrafiltration Market worth 2,140.1 million USD by 2023 - Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets Ultrafiltration Market ... Ultrafiltration is widely used in various industries such as food & beverage, pharmaceutical, chemical & petrochemical, and ... Some of the key players in the ultrafiltration market are DowDuPont Inc. (US), Hyflux Ltd. (Singapore), Inge GmbH (Germany), ...
ultrafiltration membrane wire. 305 are fixedly connected with the bottom end of the ultrafiltration membrane wire. 305, the top ... The existing ultrafiltration membrane component needs to be taken out to clean ultrafiltration membrane filaments after being ... CN211946502U - Ultrafiltration membrane component for water purification equipment - Google Patents. Ultrafiltration membrane ... The industrial application of the ultrafiltration membrane is very wide, and the ultrafiltration membrane becomes one of novel ...
Ultrafiltration. This Learning Center offers guidance and information to help you address the many complex manufacturing ... Effect of Channel-Induced Shear on Biologics During Ultrafiltration/Diafiltration (UF/DF) ... Youll learn about the decisions involved in each phase of ultrafiltration implementation: ... helping them to ensure successful and robust ultrafiltration processes. ...
Kwik Change filter cartridges Learn More about Water Ultrafiltration Mem ... Home / Water Filtration Systems / Ultrafiltration Systems / Watts WQCFU-T-13KIT 3 Stage Kwik-Change Ultrafiltration System ... NOTE: Ultra Filtration does not remove fluoride from Water. Disclaimer: Watts® is a registered trademark of Watts Water ... NOTE: Ultra Filtration does not remove fluoride from Water. Disclaimer: Watts® is a registered trademark of Watts Water ...
... Type. ... Ultrafiltration (UF) and/or nanofiltration (NF) can be used to refine hydrolysates and also to fractionate them in order to ... Impact of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate on its bioactive properties. Journal Of ... fish protein hydrolysate, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane separation, fractionation process, bioactive peptide. ...
... disc-type ultrafiltration membrane. Fouling characterization and control for harvesting microalgae Arthrospira (Spirulina) ...
Polymem uses a specific innovative Kynar® PVDF for the production of its Neophil® ultrafiltration membranes.. About TERGYS : ... Arkema and Polymem have had a long and successful relationship on water ultrafiltration thanks to Neophyl ® membranes ... Arkema to supply Kynar FSF PVDF materials for development of advanced hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes under partnership ... advanced hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes based upon Arkemas Kynar® FSF® PVDF. These fibers are well known for their ...
Does the ultrafiltration undersink water filter system require a wall plug? The ultrafiltration water system does not require ... What Is Ultrafiltration Membrane And How Does It Work? * Ultrafiltration(UF) is a physical filtration process that uses home ... Ultrafiltration Under Sink Water Filter System Waterdrop TSU-W. WD-TSU-W, 0.01μm Ultrafiltration Membrane, 3-Stage Filtration, ... What does this ultra-filtration undersink filtration system remove? This 0.01-micron ultrafiltration membrane can reduce ...
Wound spiral ULTRAFILTRATION membranePolymer: PESMolecular weight cut-off: 10.000 DaSpacer (mm): 0.86Dimensions: Diam. 45mm x ...
Brio 2.5" x 11" S-Type Ultrafiltration Replacement Membrane w/ 1,200 ml capacity ... Brio 2.5" x 11" U-Type Ultrafiltration Replacement Membrane w/ 1,200 ml capacity ... Brio 2.5" x 14" S-Type Ultrafiltration Replacement Membrane w/ 1,400 ml capacity ... Brio 2.5" x 14" U-Type Ultrafiltration Replacement Membrane w/ 1,400 ml capacity ...
... system DULCOCLEAN UF reliably and safely uses membrane technology to remove turbidity, particles and ...
Ultrafiltration systems have also proven to be highly effective in the food and beverage industry, natural drinking water... ...
Hospital Supply Corporation (HSC) has emerged as one of the most progressive national companies with an international focus.. (92 21) 34303170, 34303171, 34303172 , 03002034472. [email protected]. www.hsc.com.pk. 46-E/2 Block VI, P.E.C.H.S, main Shahrah-e-Faisal, Karachi. ...
Ultrafiltration systems are ideal for Ground water and surface water treatment, as well as Seawater desalination pretreatment ... Suspended substances, turbidity and micro-organisms can be removed outstandingly with the help of micro- or ultrafiltration. ... Culligan ULF Series ultrafiltration systems (flow ratio from 3 till 54 m³/hour) ... The membrane technology for removal of suspended and colloidal particles from water is ultrafiltration. ...
Tubular ultrafiltration membrane is made of tube-like membrane with porous walls, which is generally for critical wastewater or ... PVDF Tubular Ultrafiltration Membrane. General Information Tubular ultrafiltration membrane is made of tube-like membrane with ... Tubular ultrafiltration membranes are pressurized modules, which are designed and manufactured for the filtration in industrial ...
H2O Guard 0.1 Micron Ultrafiltration Cartridge. Add to Quote. * U1000 Undersink Water Filter with Replaceable Cartridges. ...
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Shop water filtration systems using ultrafiltration membrane to reduce bacteria and other impurities in water. ...

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