STAT Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)STAT2 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mice, Inbred C57BLProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Interferon Regulatory Factor-1: An interferon regulatory factor that binds upstream TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY ELEMENTS in the GENES for INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It functions as a transcriptional activator for the INTERFERON TYPE I genes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.PhosphoproteinsBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Interferon Regulatory Factors: A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Interferon Regulatory Factor-3: An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta: A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3: A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
... and two Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins. Disrupted or dysregulated JAK-STAT functionality can ... STATs may also be tyrosine-phosphorylated directly by receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, ... Schroder K, Hertzog PJ, Ravasi T, Hume DA (February 2004). "Interferon-gamma: an overview of signals, mechanisms and functions ... STAT signalling pathway transmits information from extracellular chemical signals to the nucleus resulting in DNA transcription ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 ... "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... Specifically, STAT3 becomes activated after phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to such ligands as interferons, ... Yu Z, Zhang W, Kone BC (October 2002). "Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibits transcription of ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT1 ... "Interactions between STAT and non-STAT proteins in the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 transcription complex". Molecular ... "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... is required for recruitment and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 through the type I interferon ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor belonging to the STAT protein family. It ... Bacon CM, Petricoin EF, Ortaldo JR, Rees RC, Larner AC, Johnston JA, O'Shea JJ (Aug 1995). "Interleukin 12 induces tyrosine ... a novel gamma interferon activation site-binding protein expressed in early myeloid differentiation". Molecular and Cellular ... STAT4 Transcription Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family are intracellular transcription factors ... Interferon Response Factor) to form ISGF3 (Interferon Stimulated Gene Factor), which binds to the ISRE (Interferon-Stimulated ... which phosphorylate a specific tyrosine residue within the STAT protein promoting dimerization via their SH2 domains. The ... STAT Transcription Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Signal-transducer ...
The biological effects of IFNs are mediated through the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT ... Honda K, Taniguchi T. "Toll-like receptor signaling and IRF transcription factors". IUBMB Life. 58 (5-6): 290-5. doi:10.1080/ ... Two cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases provide downstream signaling after type I IFN binds to the IFNAR receptor, Janus kinase 1 ( ... STAT1 and STAT2 form a complex with IFN-regulatory factor 9 (IRF) forming the transcription factor complex ISGF3, which then ...
... interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5a". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (4): 555-65. doi:10.1210/mend. ... "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (24): ... permits binding to consensus gamma-interferon activation sequence (GAS) Linker domain (aa497-592): stabilizes DNA binding Src ... "Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-5A and STAT5B Differentially Regulate Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell ...
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription, or Signal Transduction And Transcription). The activated STATs dissociate ... Some examples of the molecules that use the JAK/STAT signaling pathway are colony-stimulating factor, prolactin, growth hormone ... such as interferon-gamma. JAK1 and JAK2 are involved in type II interferon (interferon-gamma) signalling, whereas JAK1 and TYK2 ... nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that transduce cytokine-mediated signals via the JAK-STAT pathway. They were initially named "just ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... and they showed its active site contains tyrosine residues. Tan's laboratory isolated sufficient amounts of human beta ... STAT activation initiates the most well-defined cell signaling pathway for all IFNs, the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT ... Lin RJ, Liao CL, Lin E, Lin YL (September 2004). "Blocking of the Alpha Interferon-Induced Jak-Stat Signaling Pathway by ...
"Interactions between STAT and non-STAT proteins in the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 transcription complex". Mol. Cell. ... to interferons in melanoma cells does not correlate with the expression or activation of signal transducer and activator of ... 1993). "In vitro activation of the transcription factor ISGF3 by interferon alpha involves a membrane-associated tyrosine ... "Interactions between STAT and non-STAT proteins in the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 transcription complex". Mol. Cell. ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... and they showed its active site contains tyrosine residues.[51][52] Tan's laboratory isolated sufficient amounts of human beta ... STAT activation initiates the most well-defined cell signaling pathway for all IFNs, the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT ... Types of interferonEdit. Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into ...
1994). "Association of transcription factor APRF and protein kinase Jak1 with the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130". ... 1993). "The protein tyrosine kinase JAK1 complements defects in interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma signal transduction". Nature. ... Spiekermann K, Biethahn S, Wilde S, Hiddemann W, Alves F (August 2001). "Constitutive activation of STAT transcription factors ... Bluyssen HA, Levy DE (1997). "Stat2 is a transcriptional activator that requires sequence-specific contacts provided by stat1 ...
"Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)-Induced Stat Inhibitor 1 (Ssi-1)/Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 ( ... Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor Growth hormone receptor, IRS2, Janus kinase 2, and TEC. SOCS JAK-STAT signaling pathway ... and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The protein encoded by this gene functions downstream of cytokine receptors, and takes part in a ... "SOCS-1/JAB/SSI-1 can bind to and suppress Tec protein-tyrosine kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (43): 27178-82. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... These two tyrosines engage various signal transducers, thus initiating a whole spectrum of biological activities driven by MET ... Liang Q, Mohan RR, Chen L, Wilson SE (1998). "Signaling by HGF and KGF in corneal epithelial cells: Ras/MAP kinase and Jak-STAT ... "Tumor suppressor activity and epigenetic inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2/SPINT2 in ...
STAT protein (i.e. signal transducer and activator of transcription, NADPH oxidase (NOX), and NF-κB pathways. One prominent ... enhanced accumulation of interferon-producing macrophages in affected colon tissues; d) increased phosphorylation of signal ... and ROS-induced activation of the pro-survival transcription factor, NF-κB. Ectopic expression and stimulation of BLT2 ... proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, and (by inducing the proteolytic cleavage and release of a ligand for the Epidermal ...
"Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-induced STAT inhibitor 1 (SSI-1)/suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( ... "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... modulates the interferon signaling pathway". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (52): 49034-42. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Prolactin signals through JAK2 are dependent on STAT5, and on the RUSH transcription factors. Janus kinase inhibitor, medical ...
... which leads to phosphorylation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT5.[16] Due ... tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • regulation of ... It also activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT signaling pathway and induce expression of transcription factors ... interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or after infection of monocytes herpes virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans (Figure ...
кДНК STAT3 была впервые клонирована в 1994 году под именем APRF (англ. acute-phase response factor)[2]. В 1996 году была открыта укороченная изоформа мРНК STAT3, которая образуется в результате альтернативного сплайсинга. В этой мРНК отсутствует фрагмент длиной около 50 нуклеотидов, соответствующая изоформа белка называется STAT3β и является негативным регулятором транскрипции[3].. Полноразмерный белок STAT3α состоит из 770 аминокислотных остатков и имеет молекулярную массу около 92 кДа. Изоформа STAT3β имеет молекулярную массу около 80 кДа[4].. STAT3 имеет типичную для всех STAT-белков ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 gene. It is a member of the STAT protein family. STAT3 is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT3 is phosphorylated by receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAK), form homo- or heterodimers, and translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. Specifically, STAT3 becomes activated after phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to such ligands as interferons, epidermal growth factor (EGF), Interleukin (IL-)5 and IL-6. Additionally, activation of STAT3 may occur ...
кДНК STAT3 была впервые клонирована в 1994 году под именем APRF (англ. acute-phase response factor)[2]. В 1996 году была открыта укороченная изоформа мРНК STAT3, которая образуется в результате альтернативного сплайсинга. В этой мРНК отсутствует фрагмент длиной около 50 нуклеотидов, соответствующая изоформа белка называется STAT3β и является негативным регулятором транскрипции[3].. Полноразмерный белок STAT3α состоит из 770 аминокислотных остатков и имеет молекулярную массу около 92 кДа. Изоформа STAT3β имеет молекулярную массу около 80 кДа[4].. STAT3 имеет типичную для всех STAT-белков ...
... has been found to be constitutively phosphorylated in cancer cells,[4] implying that the protein is always present in its active form. This constant activation is brought about either by mutations or by aberrant expressions of cell signalling, resulting in poor regulation, or complete lack of control, of the activation of transcription for genes influenced by STAT5. This leads to constant and increased expression of these genes. For example, mutations may lead to increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes, the products of which actively prevent cell death. The constant presence of these products preserve the cell in spite of it having become cancerous, causing the cell to eventually become malignant. ...
Die Regenpfeiferartigen sind eine im Aussehen vielgestaltige Gruppe, doch ähneln sie sich in einigen grundlegenden Merkmalen. Bei allen Arten sind das Gaumendach und der Stimmapparat nahezu gleich, das Brustbein trägt keine nach innen weisenden Knochenfortsätze; außerdem gibt es Ähnlichkeiten im Aufbau des Fußes, genauer: Ähnlichkeiten bei den in Unterschenkel und Fuß liegenden Sehnen.[1][2] Der Flügel zählt elf Handschwingen, Steuerfedern sind mindestens zwölf, aber bis zu sechsundzwanzig vorhanden. Die Federn am Rumpf besitzen einen Afterschaft. Die Bürzeldrüse ist durch einen langen Federschopf gekennzeichnet. Besonders wichtig sind die großen Nasendrüsen, die bei den am Meer lebenden Arten der Ausscheidung von überschüssigem Salz dienen. Sehr ausgeprägt sind sie bei den Scheidenschnäbeln.[2] Während die drei Vorderzehen normal gebaut sind, setzt die Hinterzehe weiter oben am Fuß an, ist gewöhnlich kurz und berührt oft nicht den Boden; sie kann auch fehlen. Letzteres ...
... s (IC) sind Rezeptoren auf der Membran von T-Lymphozyten, die deren Immunantwort dämpfen (antiinflammatorische IC) oder steigern (proinflammatorische IC) können. Sie modulieren also die Immunreaktion, beispielsweise um körpereigene Zellen vor dem Angriff des Immunsystems zu schützen. Zu den Rezeptoren gehören passende Liganden, die von anderen Zellen präsentiert oder freigesetzt werden. Bei vielen Tumoren sind diese Proteine im Zuge einer Immunevasion hochreguliert, und die Tumorzellen werden vom Immunsystem toleriert. Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren sind Substanzen, die dauerhaft an die Checkpoints binden, sie inhibieren, und damit die Immunantwort verstärken. Sie werden im Zuge einer Krebsimmuntherapie gegen antiinflammatorische Immun-Checkpoints zur Behandlung von Tumoren eingesetzt, wodurch die Immunreaktion gegen den Tumor verstärkt wird. ...
Aoki N., Matsuda T. (2002). A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus.. Mol. Endocrinol. 16: 58 - 69. PubMed DOI:10.1210/mend.16.1.0761 ...
Die Chargaff-Regeln wurden von 1952 bis 1968 von Erwin Chargaff aufgestellt.[1] Sie umfassen die Parität (gleiche Anzahl) von Nukleinbasen auf beiden DNA-Strängen zwischen Purinen und Pyrimidinen und die Parität zwischen Adenin und Thymin bzw. Guanin und Cytosin. Die Chargaff-Regeln besitzen eine Gültigkeit für eukaryotische Chromosomen, bakterielle Chromosomen, Genome von doppelsträngigen DNA-Viren und archaeische Chromosomen.[2] Sie gelten auch für mtDNA und DNA von Plastiden. Für einzelsträngige DNA-Viren oder RNA gelten die Chargaff-Regeln nicht.[3] Wacław Szybalski zeigte in den 1960er Jahren, dass in den Genomen von manchen Bakteriophagen deutlich mehr A und G als C und T vorkommen.[4][5][6][7]. ...
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Fox (Fox Broadcasting Company) - amerykańska sieć telewizyjna, nadająca od 9 października 1986 roku. Wchodzi w skład Fox Entertainment Group będącą częścią 21st Century Fox. ...
Der Text ist unter der Lizenz „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike" verfügbar; Informationen zu den Urhebern und zum Lizenzstatus eingebundener Mediendateien (etwa Bilder oder Videos) können im Regelfall durch Anklicken dieser abgerufen werden. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden ...
Der Text ist unter der Lizenz „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike" verfügbar; Informationen zu den Urhebern und zum Lizenzstatus eingebundener Mediendateien (etwa Bilder oder Videos) können im Regelfall durch Anklicken dieser abgerufen werden. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden ...
Der Text ist unter der Lizenz „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike" verfügbar; Informationen zu den Urhebern und zum Lizenzstatus eingebundener Mediendateien (etwa Bilder oder Videos) können im Regelfall durch Anklicken dieser abgerufen werden. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden ...
JAK/STAT: Janus Kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway BCL2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2. ERK: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP ... SHIP1 is a hematopoietic cell protein whose movement, from cytosol to plasma membrane, is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation. ... Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1. IGHG1: Immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker) ...
... interferon regulatory factor 3; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; ISGs, interferon stimulated genes. ... tyrosine kinase; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; ISGF3, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3; STING, stimulator ... interferon regulatory factor; IFNα/β, Interferon α/β; IFNAR: IFNα receptor; JAK, Janus kinase; TYK: ... Interferon Gamma Inducible Protein 16; IRF3, interferon regulatory factor 3. ...
STAT: signal transducer and activator of transcription factor. ... TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β, TKR: ... tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGFR: vascular endothelial growth receptor, PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase, JAK: janus kinase, ... TNFR associated factor, NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa B, TRIF/TRAM: ... Paclitaxel also develops resistance via these signaling pathways. PTX: Paclitaxel, TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4, G0: resting ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a member of the STAT family of transcription factors, is a critical ... Tyrosine-phosphorylated Stat1 and Stat2 plus a 48-kDa protein all contact DNA in forming interferon-stimulated-gene factor 3. ... and other cytokines and growth factors (44). STAT protein activation involves tyrosine phosphorylation by JAK family kinases, ... and these further complex with IFN regulatory factor 9 to create a transcription factor complex called ISGF-3 (10, 28). ...
Activated STAT4 promotes transcription of genes that mediate cell growth and survival. ... Members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family are important intracellular messengers of ... where the STAT dimer acts as a transcription factor. JAK-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr693 on STAT4 occurs in response to ... Seven mammalian STATs have been identified: STAT1-4, 5a, 5b, and 6. STAT proteins are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation, ...
Activated STAT3 promotes transcription of genes that mediate cell growth and differentiation. ... STAT3 activation occurs in response to many cytokines and growth factors via JAK-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr705. ... Members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family are important intracellular messengers of ... JAK-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr705 on STAT3 occurs in response to many cytokines and growth factors including interferon- ...
... cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and signal transducer and activator of transcription ... STAT) transcription factors. We recently identified two intrinsic Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, JAK binding protein (JAB; also ... Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including interleukins (ILs) and interferons. These ... cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and signal transducer and activator of transcription ...
The JAK (Janus Kinase) Protein tyrosine kinases are novel phosphotransferases absolutely required for cellular signalling ... This book is the first one written about the JAK/STAT pathway. ... Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription: The STAT ... Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) transcription factors. The basic components of the JAK/STAT pathway are ... Somatic Cell Genetic Dissection of Interferon Signal Transduction Pathways Andrew F. Wilks, Ailsa G. Harpur ...
... and two Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins. Disrupted or dysregulated JAK-STAT functionality can ... STATs may also be tyrosine-phosphorylated directly by receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, ... Schroder K, Hertzog PJ, Ravasi T, Hume DA (February 2004). "Interferon-gamma: an overview of signals, mechanisms and functions ... STAT signalling pathway transmits information from extracellular chemical signals to the nucleus resulting in DNA transcription ...
... are a family of cytoplasmic latent transcription factors that are activated… ... STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are a family of cytoplasmic latent transcription factors that are ... and growth factors.. After phosphorylation by JAK tyrosine kinases, STATs enter the nucleus to regulate transcription of many ... STAT2 associates with beta subunit of the type I IFN receptor in an interferon-dependent manner. The unique acidic domain of ...
... signal transducer and activator of transcription-1; STAT; STAT 1; STAT-1; stat1 alpha; Transcription factor ISGF-3 components ... interferons, and growth factors. After phosphorylation by JAK tyrosine kinases, STAT1 enters the nucleus to regulate ... signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kD; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa; Signal ... STAT1 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 1) is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. STAT1 can ...
STAT1 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 1) is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. STAT1 can ... interferons, and growth factors. After phosphorylation by JAK tyrosine kinases, STAT1 enters the nucleus to regulate ... signal transducer and activator of transcription 1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kD; signal transducer ... Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta; signal transducer and activator of transcription-1; ...
Stat (Signal transducer and activators of transcription) proteins are critical mediators of the biologic activity of cytokines ... Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3) complex, which is the primary transcription activator induced by the binding of the ... activation of constitutively associated JAK family kinases and subsequent recruitment/activation of Stat proteins by tyrosine ... Active Stat proteins then move to the nucleus to promote transcription of cytokine-inducible genes. Seven Stat proteins have ...
Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, activated JAKs cause the formation of the transcription factors ISGF3, a heterotrimer ... Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, ... Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. ... Our review summarizes the contribution of noncanonical JAK-STAT signaling to the innate antimicrobial immunity imparted by IFN ...
... belongs to the transcription factor STAT family. It is a signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates ... ISGF3 binds to the IFN stimulated response element (ISRE) to activate the transcription of interferon stimulated genes, which ... leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. The phosphorylated STATs dimerize and associate with ISGF3G/IRF-9 to ... form a complex termed ISGF3 transcription factor, that enters the nucleus. ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 ... "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... Specifically, STAT3 becomes activated after phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to such ligands as interferons, ... Yu Z, Zhang W, Kone BC (October 2002). "Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibits transcription of ...
STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TPP2, tripeptidyl peptidase II; USF, upstream stimulation factor. ... It has also been demonstrated that human cytomegalovirus can induce degradation of Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)1 and block IFN-γ ... It has been recently shown that adenoviral E1A can directly bind to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) ... Degradation of Transcription Factor Rfx5 during the Inhibition of Both Constitutive and Interferon γ-Inducible Major ...
Stat91 (a 91 kd protein that acts as a signal transducer and activator of transcription) is inactive in the cytoplasm of ... peptides may well provide a prototype for interactions among family members of STAT proteins to form different transcription ... untreated cells but is activated by phosphorylation on tyrosine in response to a number of polypeptide ligands, including ... Interferon activation of the transcription factor Stat91 involves dimerization through SH2-phosphotyrosyl peptide interactions. ...
... induced signalling through modulation of the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. ... interferon regulatory factor; ITAM: immune receptor tyrosine based activation motif; JAK: Janus kinase; RLU: relative light ... Here, we examined the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in response to stimulation ... It was found previously that the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is highly overexpressed in AML ...
The JAK (Janus Kinase) Protein tyrosine kinases are novel phosphotransferases absolutely. ... This book is the first one written about the JAK/STAT pathway. ... Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 binding to ... Stat3 and Stat4: members of the family of signal transducers and activators of transcription. Mammary gland factor MGF is a ... Uze G, Monneron D. IL and IL newcomers to the interferon family. Biochimie - Stem Cells - Interleukin signaling. Curr Biol. ...
... signal transducers in the cytoplasm and transcriptional activators in the nucleus. STAT proteins act as transcription factors ... Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Serine/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Tyrosine ... STAT5 recognizes the interferon-gamma activated site TTCNNNGAA (GAS sequence) in the promoter region of the beta-casein gene. ... Hypoxia activates signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) and increases its binding activity to the GAS ...
... signal transducers in the cytoplasm and transcriptional activators in the nucleus. STAT proteins act as transcription factors ... reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation level and transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription ( ... Interferons , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Peroxidase , Spleen , STAT3 Transcription ... STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction ...
... beta-induced transcription. Gene switching by metabolic enzymes- how did you get on the invitation list? ... on the interferon transcriptional induction requiring tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators ... of transcription (STAT) factors. The arginine methylation of STAT1 by protein arginine methyl-transferase as a requirement for ... Abstracts: Mitf from neural crest to melanoma: signal transduction and transcription in the melanocyte lineage. Complete lack ...
Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway exists in almost all ... including the colony-stimulating factor, interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), erythropoietin (Epo), and thrombopoietin (Tpo ... Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK - STAT) signaling pathway exists in almost all ... The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) can suppress the cytokine signal transduction through the JAK/STAT signaling ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates signaling by type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Following ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT ... or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. In response to interferon (IFN ... type I IFN binding to cell surface receptors, Jak kinases (TYK2 and JAK1) are activated, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of ...
  • Also, since BCL6 interacts with several co-repressor complexes to inhibit transcription, and its gene is frequently trans-located and hyper-mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), miR-155 acts to enhance transcription and contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As BCL6 has been shown to modulate the STAT-dependent Interleukin 4 (IL-4) responses of B cells, miR-155 acts to increase B cell functioning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is now well established that the members of the PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase) superfamily play critical roles in fundamental biological processes. (biochemj.org)
  • The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22( C1858T) allelic polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility for development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. (rupress.org)
  • This increased expression of TGF-α and EGFR mRNA and protein is primarily caused by activated gene transcription (as opposed to increased gene copy number or prolonged mRNA half life) ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The combination will be assessed as a second line treatment for patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who have been treated with a first generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and subsequently developed the T790M resistance mutation. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A tyrosine residue ( Y ) in the TAD domain is phosphorylated and interacts with the SH2 domain of another monomer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, two sites are particularly critical for the activity of STAT. These are the SH2 domain (Src homology 2, amino acids 575-680), which is linked to the DBD by the linker domain, and a conserved tyrosine close to residue 700. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cells are distinguished by several distinct characteristics, such as self-sufficiency in growth signal, resistance to growth inhibition, limitless replicative potential, evasion of apoptosis, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This collaboration allows us to explore further ways in which Tagrisso, our first in class T790M-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor, can help meet urgent unmet patient need, following its accelerated approval in the US and the recent positive CHMP opinion, recommending approval in Europe. (mynewsdesk.com)