A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A widely used industrial solvent.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.
LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Cytochromes of the b group that are found bound to cytoplasmic side of ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. They serve as electron carrier proteins for a variety of membrane-bound OXYGENASES. They are reduced by the enzyme CYTOCHROME-B(5) REDUCTASE.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (1/2752)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast. (2/2752)

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved and widely distributed eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. One 14-3-3 protein, AFT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, was found to be able to activate transcription in yeast. When fused to the DNA-binding domain of a bacterial protein LexA, AFT1 can activate transcription of reporter genes that contain LexA operator sequences in their promoters. Although the in vivo function of AFT1 is not completely known, its similarity to previously identified proteins found in transcription complexes of Arabidopsis and maize suggests that AFT1 and some other 14-3-3 proteins may activate gene expression in other systems as well.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in neurons and pituitary cells implicated in reproductive functions in rainbow trout: a double immunohistochemical study. (3/2752)

In order to identify the nature of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-expressing neurons and pituitary cells that potentially mediate the negative effects of stress on reproductive performance, double immunohistochemical stainings were performed in the brain and pituitary of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To avoid possible cross-reactions during the double staining studies, combinations of primary antibodies raised in different species were used, and we report here the generation of an antibody raised in guinea pig against the rainbow trout glucocorticoid receptor (rtGR). The results obtained in vitellogenic females showed that GnRH-positive neurons in the caudal telencephalon/anterior preoptic region consistently exhibited rtGR immunoreactivity. Similarly, in the anterior ventral preoptic region, a group of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, known for inhibiting gonadotropin (GTH)-2 secretion during vitellogenesis, was consistently shown to strongly express GR. Finally, we show that a large majority of the GTH-1 (FSH-like) and GTH-2 (LH-like) cells of the pituitary exhibit rtGR immunoreactivity. These results indicate that cortisol may affect the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive process of the rainbow trout at multiple sites.  (+info)

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (4/2752)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (5/2752)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (6/2752)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

In oculo transplants of myometrium from postpartum guinea pigs fail to support sympathetic reinnervation. (7/2752)

Sympathetic nerves to the enlarged fetus-containing region of the uterus undergo degenerative changes during late pregnancy and show slow regrowth after parturition. It is not known whether this unusual response of sympathetic nerves to smooth muscle hypertrophy is due to the sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes, or whether the nerves respond to changes in the neurotrophic capacity of the target. We have investigated this question using in oculo transplantation. Small pieces of myometrium from the uterine horn of virgin guinea pigs, or from the region previously occupied by the placenta and fetus in postpartum guinea pigs, were transplanted into the anterior eye chamber. After 3 wk in oculo, the pattern of reinnervation of the transplants was assessed on whole mount stretch preparations stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The histology of the transplants was examined in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections. Myometrial transplants from virgin donors and uterine artery transplants from both virgin and postpartum donors became organotypically reinnervated by sympathetic fibres from the host iris. In contrast, sympathetic nerves did not reinnervate myometrial transplants from postpartum donors, although they approached the transplants and became distributed in the surrounding connective tissue. All transplanted tissues showed a normal histological appearance. Both the myometrium and uterine artery from postpartum donors retained a hypertrophic appearance after 3 wk in oculo. We interpret these results to indicate that the degeneration of sympathetic nerves in late pregnancy, as well as their slow regrowth to the uterus after delivery, may be due to changes in uterine smooth muscle rather than a particular sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes.  (+info)

Improved methods using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect tumour cells. (8/2752)

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is increasingly used to detect small numbers of circulating tumour cells, though the clinical benefit remains controversial. The largest single contributing factor to the controversy of its value is the different approaches to sample processing. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and reproducibility of RT-PCR for the detection of tumour cells after four commonly used different methods of sample processing. Using RT-PCR, one tumour cell spiked in 2 ml of whole blood was detected after analysis of separated mononuclear cell RNA, whole blood total or poly-A+ RNA. No false positives were identified with any method. However, the reproducibility of tumour cell detection was reduced after isolation of the mononuclear cell fraction. Only analysis of poly-A+ RNA had a sensitivity of 100% in all the cell spiking experiments. In patient blood samples, analysis of poly-A+ RNA increased the number of blood samples positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA compared with those positive after analysis of total RNA. This may reflect high levels of cDNA reducing the efficiency of the PCR. Isolation of poly-A+ RNA increases the sensitivity and reproducibility of tumour cell detection in peripheral blood.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutation of regulatory serines of rat tyrosine hydroxylase to glutamate. T2 - Effects on enzyme stability and activity. AU - Royo, Montserrat. AU - Fitzpatrick, Paul F.. AU - Daubner, S. Colette. PY - 2005/2/15. Y1 - 2005/2/15. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase is phosphorylated at four serine residues in its amino-terminus by multiple kinases. Phosphorylation of serine 40 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase results in alleviation of dopamine inhibition [J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 12639]. The other serines are at positions 8, 19, and 31. The effect of phosphorylation at these serines has been investigated using mutated forms of tyrosine hydroxylase containing glutamates at the positions of the serines. The S8E, S19E, and S31E tyrosine hydroxylase variants have similar steady-state kinetic parameters and similar binding affinity for catecholamines to wild-type enzyme. The S8E, S19E, S31E, and S40E variants differ in stability at elevated temperatures. The S40E variant is the least stable, ...
Recently we have shown that in vitro binding of the proximal part of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to the nuclear matrix is correlated with its transcriptional activity. The strongest binding potential was predicted by computing for the first intron sequence (Lenartowski & Goc, 2002, Neurosci Lett.; 330 : 151-154). In this study a 16 kb fragment of the bovine genomic DNA containing the tyrosine hydroxylase gene was investigated for its affinity to the nuclear matrix. Only a 950 bp fragment encoding the distal part of the first intron, second exon and a few nucleotides of the second intron bound to the nuclear matrix. The binding was independent of the tissue-specific tyrosine hydroxylase gene activation. The fragment was subcloned and sequenced. Computer search pointed to one potential intronic matrix attachment region with two AP1-like sites embedded in the sequence. We conclude that even if the position of the matrix binding region is conserved among the tyrosine hydroxylase genes in ...
du Bois, XF, Hsu, CW, Li, Yulin, Deng, C, Tan, YY and Huang, XF 2007 , Altered dopamine receptor and dopamine transporter binding and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression following perinatal NMDA receptor blockade , Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 33, no. 7 , pp. 1224-1231 , doi: 10.1007/s11064-007-9571-y. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the temporal lobe in complex partial seizures. AU - Zhu, Zhen‐qing ‐q. AU - Armstrong, Dawna L.. AU - Grossman, Robert G.. AU - Hamilton, Winifred J.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - The anterior mesial portion of the temporal lobe removed from 16 patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of complex partial seizures was found to contain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons. The distribution of these neurons was correlated with the underlying neuropathological features. Ammons horn sclerosis was present in 8 patients; a ganglioglioma, in 7 patients; and an infarction in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery, in 1 patient. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons were found in Ammons horn of 6 of the 8 patients with Ammons horn sclerosis, and in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of all 8 patients with the same pathology. None of these neurons were found in Ammons horn of the 7 patients with a ...
How is tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive abbreviated? THI stands for tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive. THI is defined as tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive rarely.
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Abstract: Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured under optimal and suboptimal assay conditions in hippocampal extracts from young (2 month), mature (12 month), and old (24 month) Fischer 344 male rats 72 h after the infusion of 200 µg of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle into the lateral ventricle. The lesion resulted in a 45-55% decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under optimal conditions (pH 6.1, 3.0 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin) and an ∼35% decrease in the relative concentration of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase. When measured under suboptimal conditions (pH 6.6, 0.7 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin), tyrosine hydroxylase activity in 2- and 12-month-old lesioned animals was twice that measured in vehicle-treated animals. However, in the old lesioned animals, tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under suboptimal conditions was not different from that measured in age-matched vehicle-treated animals. Isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase were ...
in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (1993), 329(2), 230-56. The distribution of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, two key enzymes in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, was investigated by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female ... [more ▼]. The distribution of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, two key enzymes in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, was investigated by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female Japanese quail. Cells or fibers showing dopamine beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were considered to be noradrenergic or adrenergic, while all structures showing only tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were tentatively considered to be dopaminergic. The major dopaminergic and noradrenergic cell groups that have been identified in the brain of mammals could be observed in the Japanese quail, with the exception of a tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic group. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A carboxyl terminal leucine zipper is required for tyrosine hydroxylase tetramer formation. AU - Vrana, Kent E.. AU - Walker, Stephen J.. AU - Rucker, Paul. AU - Liu, Xuan. PY - 1994/12. Y1 - 1994/12. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters and hormones (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Rat tyrosine hydroxylase exists, in its native form, as a tetramer composed of identical 498 amino acid subunits. There is currently no information describing the molecular interactions by which the four monomeric tyrosine hydroxylase subunits assemble into an active tetramer. Mutational analysis was performed on bacterially expressed enzyme to assess the role of a putative C-terminal leucine zipper in the assembly of subunits into the tetrameric holoenzyme. Deletion of the C- terminal 19 amino acids, or mutation of a leucine residue (to an alanine), converts the enzyme from a tetrameric to a dimeric form ...
Rabbit anti Rat tyrosine hydroxylase (pSer31) antibody recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), also known as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, when
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is secreted from various brain regions such as the substantia nigra, where levels of this molecule are disproportionately higher than those of choline acetyltransferase. It is thus possible that AChE may have alternative, non-cholinergic functions, one of which could be in development. Indeed, several recent studies have already demonstrated a neurotrophic action of AChE independent of hydrolysis of acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system the dominant forms of AChE differ from the tetramers (G4) that prevail in maturity, in that they are lower molecular weight monomers (G1) and dimers (G2). Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the neurotrophic role of AChE by comparing the effects of mouse recombinant G1 and G4 AChE on the survival and development of mid-brain tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which also hydrolyses acetylcholine, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), an established trophic factor for midbrain
article{8142ccbf-8001-4621-8b57-e36a503fe896, abstract = {Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdown is a powerful tool for targeted gene silencing and an emerging novel therapeutic strategy. Recent publications, however, reported unexpected toxicity after utilizing viral-mediated shRNA knockdown in vivo. Thus, it is currently unclear whether shRNA-mediated knockdown strategy can be used as a safe and efficient tool for gene silencing. In this study, we have generated rAAV vectors expressing shRNAs targeting the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA (shTH) for testing the efficacy of in vivo TH knockdown in the nigral dopaminergic neurons. At high titers, not only the shTH vectors but also the scrambled and green fluorescence protein (GFP)-only controls caused cell death. In a dose-response study, we identified a dose window leading to >60% decrease in TH(+) neurons without any change in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) expression. Moreover, using the safe and efficient dose, we ...
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Neuroblastoma - Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are neuromodulatory lipids interacting with cannabinoid receptors, whose availability is regulated by the balance ...
Results Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe2+) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH+ cells, murine TH+ neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH+ neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH+ neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH+ cells, reversed this effect.. ...
in Experimental Cell Research (2001), 265(1), 114-24. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors ... [more ▼]. Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors which participate in the adaptive response of the cells to hypoxia. Among these transcription factors, AP-1 is rapidly activated by hypoxia and triggers bFGF, VEGF, and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, the mechanisms of AP-1 activation by hypoxia are not well understood. In this report, we studied the events leading to AP-1 activation in hypoxia. We found that c-jun protein accumulates in hypoxic HepG2 cells. This overexpression is concomitant with c-jun phosphorylation and JNK activation. Moreover, we showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased myocardial tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity following periods of ischemia. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Buchl, S. J.. AU - Pelletier, Y.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17944394486&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17944394486&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:17944394486. VL - 44. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
Looking for tyrosine hydroxylase? Find out information about tyrosine hydroxylase. A specialized enzyme located only in catecholamine-containing nerve cells, where it serves as the primary regulatory or rate-limiting step in catecholamine... Explanation of tyrosine hydroxylase
Neuroblastomas (NB) are pediatric malignancies with heterogenous phenotypes, ranging from spontaneously regressing to highly aggressive, incurable tumors. Although NB is considered a genetic disease, its etiology and heterogeneity cannot be explained solely by genetic aberrations. NB arises due to defects in sympathetic neuron (SN) differentiation occurring during fetal development. Strikingly, the two factors promoting de-differentiation of NB cells, hypoxia and glucocorticoids, are elevated in the fetus during maternal stress, suggesting a role for prenatal stress in NB tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis we used mice expressing MYCN oncogene under tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-MYCN mice), which spontaneously develop NBs. To mimic stress, pregnant mothers carrying hemizygous TH-MYCN offspring were implanted with pellets containing either the main rodent glucocorticoid, corticosterone, or placebo at the time of neuroblast proliferation (embryonic days 10-20). Tumor frequency was compared ...
Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. Exposure of the cells for 5 hr to 8-Br cAMP produces, 48 hr later, a dose-related increase in the TH activity; 8-Br cGMP fails to modify TH. The increase in TH activity caused by 8-Br cAMP is due to an increase of the Vmax and is preceded by an activation of cytosol cAPK associated with a decrease of the total cytosol cAPK. A sustained increase in nuclear phosphorylation begins 8 to 12 hr after 8-Br cAMP application. The delayed increase in TH activity induced by 8-Br cAMP is blocked by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, colchicine and vinblastine. The reduction of the TH induction by colchicine and vinblastine ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Turnover rate of tyrosine hydroxylase during trans synaptic induction. AU - Chuang, D.. AU - Zsilla, G.. AU - Costa, E.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - The tyrosine hydroxylase of adrenal medulla was induced by exposing the rats to 40 for 4 hr. The synthesis rate of normal and induced tyrosine hydroxylase was measured by radiochemical and immunoprecipitation methods. Incorporation of 3H into the enzyme was normal 6 hr after the beginning of the stress but was greater than normal at 10 hr and reached a maximum increase of 65% at 16 hr. Beginning 20 hr after stress application the rate of 3H incorporation declined and approached normal values between 30 and 50 hr. The thyrosine hydroxylase activity was not yet increased 10 hr after the beginning of the stress; however, it was increased at 16 hr and a maximal increment was reached at 24 hr. This new steady state was maintained for the following 24 hr. The enzyme activity then declined, with a half life of about 3 days. The radioactivity ...
A total of 74 surface and subsurface water samples at depths shallower than 200 m were collected in the eastern East China Sea (ECS), and spatial and seasonal variations in ,sup,226,/sup,Ra, ,sup,228,/sup,Ra, and ,sup,228,/sup,Th activities were examined by low-background γ-spectrometry. The ,sup,228,/sup,Ra and ,sup,228,/sup,Th activities (as well as ,sup,228,/sup,Ra/,sup,226,/sup,Ra and ,sup,228,/sup,Th/,sup,228,/sup,Ra activity ratios) on the surface exhibited notable seasonal and lateral variations (,sup,228,/sup,Ra/,sup,226,/sup,Ra = 0.2-3.4; ,sup,228,/sup,Th/,sup,228,/sup,Ra = 0.1-0.4). From the ,sup,228,/sup,Ra activity (0.2-6 mBq/L) and salinity (27.2-34.5), fractions of the Kuroshio, shelf, and Yangtze River waters on the surface of the ECS were estimated to be 50-95%, 3-50%, and 2-8% in July, and 95-100%, 1-5%, and 0-1% in April, respectively, exhibiting a lower fraction of shelf water in winter-spring and on the Japan side of the ECS. While the surface waters had high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction and oxidation of the active site iron in tyrosine hydroxylase. T2 - Kinetics and specificity. AU - Frantom, Patrick A.. AU - Seravalli, Javier. AU - Ragsdale, Stephen W.. AU - Fitzpatrick, Paul F.. PY - 2006/2/21. Y1 - 2006/2/21. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) is a pterin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form dihydroxyphenylalanine. The oxidation state of the active site iron atom plays a central role in the regulation of the enzyme. The kinetics of reduction of ferric TyrH by several reductants were determined by anaerobic stopped-flow spectroscopy. Anaerobic rapid freeze-quench EPR confirmed that the change in the near-UV absorbance of TyrH upon adding reductant corresponded to iron reduction. Tetrahydrobiopterin reduces wild-type TyrH following a simple second-order mechanism with a rate constant of 2.8 ± 0.1 mM-1 s-1. 6-Methyltetrahydropterin reduces the ferric enzyme with a second-order rate constant of 6.1 ± 0.1 mM -1 s-1 and ...
The present study was designed to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process by estimating changes in PKCalpha and PKCgamma immunoreactivity, and whether pharmacological inhibition of PKC would attenuate morphine withdrawal-induced c-Fos expression and changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity levels in the PVN and nucleus tractus solitarius/ ventrolateral medulla (NTS/VLM ...
Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few research have got examined CA connectivity to and anatomically discovered sensory circuitry that controls behavior physiologically. with CellSens software program. Pictures had been combined jointly in Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems). Section limitations, landmarks, nuclei as described by Nissl spot and main TH-ir fibers tracts had been tracked in GNU Picture Manipulation Plan (GIMP) using a Bamboo sheets pad tablet (Wacom, Vancouver, California). The final images were compiled and labeled in Adobe Illustrator then. The atlas (Fig. 2) was meant to present main TH-ir cell groupings and fibers tracts in (OConnell et al., 2011) as well as in a very similar placement in zebrafish and Western european eel, in a area horizontal to the nMLF (Kaslin and Panula, 2001; Roberts et al., 1989). TH-ir neurons of the periventricular posterior tuberculum The most noticeable ...
LEGENDplex™ Rat Th9 Panel (3-plex) with V-bottom Plate - The LEGENDplex™ Rat Th Cytokine Panel is a bead-based multiplex assay panel, using fluorescence-encoded beads suitable for use on various flow cytometers.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase羊多克隆抗体(ab113)可与小鼠, 大鼠样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被20篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody in 0.01M HEPES with 50% glycerol, 0.15M NaCl, 100µg/ml BSA and no preservative; pH 7.5.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Mouse Monoclonal IgG1 Anitbody. For Western Blot (WB) and Immunofluorescence (IF)/Immunocytochemistry (ICC). For Human, Rat, and Mouse.
FOR BULK ORDER REQUESTS PLEASE CONTACT US Description :Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody Species : Tag : Expression System: Sequence : Specificity :Recognizes the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) protein Cited Applications :WB, IF, IHC Cross Reactivity :All mammals Host / Isotype / Clone# :Rabbit, IgG Immunogen :SDS-denatured rat ty
Ladasten s mechanism of action is associated with increased release of dopamine from presynaptic terminals reuptake blockade and its gain biosynthesis caused by expression of tyrosine-hydroxylase gene as well as its modulatory effect on the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex-hlorionoformny eliminating reduction benzodiazepine reception, when developing stress. Ladasten enhances GABA-ergic mediation, reducing the expression of the gene controlling the synthesis of GABA-transporter carrying the
Ladasten s mechanism of action is associated with increased release of dopamine from presynaptic terminals reuptake blockade and its gain biosynthesis caused by expression of tyrosine-hydroxylase gene as well as its modulatory effect on the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex-hlorionoformny eliminating reduction benzodiazepine reception, when developing stress. Ladasten enhances GABA-ergic mediation, reducing the expression of the gene controlling the synthesis of GABA-transporter carrying the
Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody, C-term (tyrosine hydroxylase) for WB. Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase pAb (GTX89578) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Localization of gad1b/2- or vglut2-expressing cells and TH-ir neurons in the telencephalon of the juvenile brain. A: Lateral overview of a juvenile brain staine
Invitrogen Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-80120. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunocytochemistry (ICC/IF) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P)) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (500 µg/mL).
In flip, ICER overexpression abrogated the transcriptional action of your TH promoter, strongly suggesting ICERs involvement in Tat mediated inhibition of gene
Great for use in IHC staining! We are the original manufacturer of our Tyrosine Hydroxylase rabbit polyclonal antibody. It is affinity purified from pooled serum, and excellent for use in WB, IHC, and ICC.
An emerging area of research has documented a novel role for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Prohormones, secreted by cells within the sympathoadrenal system, are processed by plasmin to bioactive peptides that feed back to inhibit secretagogue-stimulated release. Catecholaminergic cells of the sympathoadrenal system are prototypic prohormone-secreting cells. Processing of prohormones by plasmin is enhanced in the presence of catecholaminergic cells, and the enhancement requires binding of plasmin(ogen) to cellular receptors. Consequently, modulation of the local cellular fibrinolytic system of catecholaminergic cells results in substantial changes in catecholamine release. However, mechanisms for enhancing prohormone processing and cell-surface molecules mediating the enhancement on catecholaminergic cells have not been investigated. Here we show that plasminogen activation was enhanced >6.5-fold on catecholaminergic cells. Carboxypeptidase B ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrahypothalamic CRH and its receptors change tyrosine hydroxylase expression after neonatal dexamethasone treatment. AU - Sukhareva, E. V.. AU - Lanshakov, D.. AU - Kalinina, T.. AU - Bulygina, V.. AU - Dygalo, N.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. U2 - 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.09.438. DO - 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.09.438. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 29. SP - S301-S302. JO - European Neuropsychopharmacology. JF - European Neuropsychopharmacology. SN - 0924-977X. T2 - 32nd Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP). Y2 - 7 September 2019 through 10 September 2019. ER - ...
purpose. Intrauterine infection has been linked to preterm delivery and neurologic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fetal inflammation induced by exposure to endotoxin on the structure and neurochemistry of the retina and optic nerve.. methods. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was administered to fetal sheep at ∼0.65 of the ∼147-day gestation period via repeated bolus doses (1 μg/kg per day) over 5 days, with fetal retinas and optic nerves assessed 10 days after the first LPS exposure.. results. In the retina, the total number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR), dopaminergic amacrine cells was reduced (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed compared with control fetuses. There was no difference in the number of ChAT-, substance P-, or NADPH-d-positive amacrine cells. The total number of myelinated axons in the optic nerve was not different (P , 0.05) between groups; however, the myelin sheath was thinner (P , 0.05) in LPS-exposed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mouse neuroblastoma clone N1E 115. AU - Richelson, E.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - Mouse neuroblastoma (clone NIE 115) cells in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated for 12 days. From early log phase to late stationary phase, the specific activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3a) increased by more than 30 fold. The increase in tyrosine hydroxylase per cell and per dish was 12 and 2700 fold, respectively. When cell division was stopped by removing serum or by adding 0.1 mM 5 fluorodeoxyuridine and 0.1 mM uridine, the enzyme activity was also found to increase. These results show that tyrosine hydroxylase is regulated in neuroblastoma clone N1E 115.. AB - Mouse neuroblastoma (clone NIE 115) cells in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated for 12 days. From early log phase to late stationary phase, the specific activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3a) increased by more than 30 fold. The increase in tyrosine hydroxylase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen. AU - Nordquist, R.E.. AU - Zeinstra, E.C.. AU - Rodenburg, T.B.. AU - van der Staay, F.J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a ...
article{9fbb1b35-100c-4956-9da0-cee45e196e94, abstract = {,p,Release properties of intrahippocampal transplants of noradrenergic neurons were monitored by microdialysis in awake and halothane-anaesthetized rats. Fetal locus coeruleus neurons were implanted as a cell suspension into hippocampi deprived of their innate noradrenalin (NA) innervation by intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Dialysis probes of the loop type were implanted into the dorsal hippocampus 1 - 2 days before each experiment, i.e. 7 - 11 months after grafting. Age-matched intact and lesion-only animals served as controls. Microscopic analysis showed a graft-derived tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive, presumably noradrenergic, fibre network throughout the dorsal hippocampal formation, surrounding the probe site. The innervation density varied from sub- to supranormal. The grafts restored baseline NA release in the graft-reinnervated hippocampus to near-normal levels both in awake and halothane-anaesthetized animals. ...
Purpose.: Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H1-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are functional. Methods.: Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fluorescent protein under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and loaded with the calcium indicator Fura-2. Results.: Under control conditions, there were spontaneous oscillations in the levels of free intracellular calcium in dopaminergic cells. These oscillations were abolished in nominally calcium-free extracellular medium and in 1 μM tetrodotoxin, findings suggesting that the oscillations were mediated by calcium entry across the plasma membrane in response to sodium-dependent action potentials. Histamine increased the mean free intracellular calcium in the dopaminergic cells by increasing the frequency and/or amplitude of ...
Direct synaptic contact between substance P (SP)-immunoreactive terminals and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive neurons was more often observed in the substantia nigra pars lateralis (SNL) than in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and was rarely observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). Substance P terminals also formed synapses with cell bodies and dendrites of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive, dopaminergic neurons in the SNC and SNR. Multiple SP terminals were often observed with symmetrical and, less frequently, asymmetrical synapses on individual TH-containing dendrites. Evidence of SP-containing terminals contacting both GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra suggests a direct excitatory control on nigral neurons.;Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-containing terminals formed symmetrical synaptic contacts, with TH-immunoreactive neurons in the SNC and SNR. Neurons that contained GAD also received a GABAergic input in the SNR and SNL. The proportion
This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive
The dopamine biosynthetic machinery of intact synaptosomes of rat striatum showed a 5-fold increase in development from 3-day-old neonates to adults, and it was fully developed between 2-3 weeks after birth. Concurring with this development was the appearance 2 weeks after birth of a regulatory mechanism(s) through which amphetamine in vivo induced an inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis. The inhibition was not appreciably reversed when haloperidol, in addition to amphetamine, was administered. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of age, sex, and reproductive status to the quantity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the median eminence and superior cervical ganglion of the rat. AU - Porter, J. C.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the median eminence (ME) and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat was quantified by means of an immunoblot procedure, using highly purified rat TH as the standard. Antibodies against rat TH were produced in the rabbit. The assay was linear from 0-100 ng TH and had a correlation coefficient of 0.990 ± 0.0014 (mean ± SE: n = 22). The interassay coefficient of variation was 8.65% (n = 17). In young female rats (12-16 weeks old) with regular 4-day estrous cycles, the quantity of TH in the ME on various days of the cycle was as follows: estrus, 42 ± 2.9 ng; diestrous day, 1, 61 ± 2.8 ng; diestrous day 2, 75 ± 4.2 ng; and proestrus, 84 ± 3.3 ng. In ovariectomized rats (15-16 weeks old), the ME contained 24 ± 1.6 ng TH. In prepubertal rats ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Novel model of dexamethasone-induced hypertension. T2 - Use in investigating the role of tyrosine hydroxylase. AU - Soto-Piña, Alexandra E.. AU - Franklin, Cynthia. AU - Rani, C. S.Sheela. AU - Gottlieb, Helmut. AU - Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen. AU - Strong, Randy. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Department of Veteran Affairs (to R.S.), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Technolog?a (to A.E.S.-P.), and a predoctoral award from the American Heart Association (to A.E.S.-P.). dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.116.234005.. PY - 2016/9. Y1 - 2016/9. N2 - Our objective was to study hypertension induced by chronic administration of synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), under nonstressful conditions and examine the role of catecholamine biosynthesis. To achieve this, we did the following: 1) used radiotelemetry to record mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in freely moving rats, and 2) administered different doses of DEX in drinking water. To evaluate the ...
Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. A hallmark ofParkinsons disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.
Host defense against tumors is largely mediated by T cell-dependent killing of transformed cells. While NKT and CD8+ T cells are mainly committed to becoming effector cytotoxic cells, effector CD4+ T helper (Th) cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses through the secretion of cytokines and cellular contacts. By affecting the tumor immunological network, different subsets of Th and T regulatory (Treg) cells may have contrasting roles that range from anti-tumor to tumor-promoting effects, as well as improving or reducing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. The main goal of cancer immunotherapy is to increase the priming and anti-tumor activity of cytotoxic cells. Optimal Th activity can, therefore, maximize cancer immunotherapies by different mechanisms, for example by modulating the expression of effector molecules and co-inhibitory receptors on CD8+ cells or promoting their tumor-invasive capacity, while deficient or deregulated Th activity may have the opposite result. Th1 polarized cells, for
Insect fecundity is a quantitative phenotype strongly affected by genotypes and the environment. However, the interaction between genotypes and the environment factors in modulating the insect fecundity remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the density-dependent population dy...
Tyrosine hydroxylase and NeuN cell counting in the substantia nigra. Three weeks following delivery of AAV1/2 to the substantia nigra there is significant reduc
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, PA1-18315, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Guinea Pig, Mouse, Rat; Applications: Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry
The School aims to provide practical and theoretical training on the application of a large spectrum of techniques to neuroscience. The course will have sessions with tutorial lectures and sessions with hands-on practicals.
Dopamine plays key roles in many basic functions in the central nervous system. In order to study developmental and functional roles of dopaminergic cells in the zebrafish, we have examined a transgenic line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter. TH-driven GFP was expressed in cells located in the inner nuclear layer. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies for GFP and TH showed that 29 ± 2% of GFP-labeled cells also expressed TH. Loose-patch voltage-clamp recording from GFPlabeled cells revealed that these dopaminergic neurons are spontaneously active in darkness. This transgenic line provides a useful tool to target retinal dopaminergic cells in vivo and in situ. The vertebrate retina is profoundly influenced by circadian rhythmicity, yet little is known about the mechanisms of the zebrafish retinal circadian clock. To further the study of the zebrafish retinal clock, we have constructed a recombinant BAC in which ...
TH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine and is responsible for converting L-tyrosine to L-dopa. Synthesis of catecholamines is regulated by the interaction of TH with its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and the substrates L-tyrosine and molecular oxygen. In humans four TH mRNA splice variants (hTH1-hTH4) have been isolated while subprimate species rely on a single form of TH. It is known that the hTH1-hTH4 variants are identical in their catalytic domain but differ in their N-terminal regulatory domains. Importantly, LNC1 reacts with the catalytic domain of TH and thus with all four isoforms of human TH. The role of TH in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters suggests a connection between the enzyme and a number of neuropathogenic diseases characterized by irregular catecholamine levels, such as Parkinsons disease, schizophrenia, and dystonia, as well as a variety of cardiovascular ...
The Acid Fast Bacteria (AFB) Stain Kit is intended for use in the histological visualization of Acid Fast Bacteria and Tubercle Bacilli. This kit…https://lnkd.in/eFnwEaH https://lnkd.in/e- ...
Ywhaq - Ywhaq (untagged ORF) - Rat tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide (Ywhaq), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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TYK2 - TYK2 (untagged)-Kinase deficient mutant (K930M) of Human tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931.. *^ Dai K, Kobayashi R, Beach D (1996). "Physical interaction of ... 7 (3): 331-42. doi:10.1101/gad.7.3.331. PMID 8449399.. *. Zuo L, Weger J, Yang Q, et al. (1996). "Germline mutations in the ... 3 (4): 261-2. doi:10.1007/BF00713052. PMID 7606365.. *. Wölfel T, Hauer M, Schneider J, et al. (1995). "A p16INK4a-insensitive ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 3 (7): 661-9. doi:10.1038/76615. PMID 10862698.. *. Di Cunto F, Imarisio S, Hirsch E, Broccoli V, Bulfone A, Migheli A, Atzori ... Citron-K or its fly orthologue Sticky has been suggested to interact with several molecules in cytokinesis such as Kinesin-3 ( ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC 2.7.11.4). *BCKDK ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 88 (3): 1034-7. doi:10.1172/JCI115363. PMC 295513 . PMID 1885764.. *. Zneimer SM, Lau KS, Eddy RL, et al. (1991). "Regional ... 95 (3): 954-63. doi:10.1172/JCI117804. PMC 441427 . PMID 7883996.. *. Wynn RM, Kochi H, Cox RP, Chuang DT (1994). "Differential ... doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90390-3. PMID 3224821.. *. Hu CW, Lau KS, Griffin TA, et al. (1988). "Isolation and sequencing of a ...
"Direct interaction in T-cells between thetaPKC and the tyrosine kinase p59fyn". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19003-10. doi:10.1074/ ... 275 (3): 1902-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.3.1902. PMID 10636891.. *^ Hehner SP, Li-Weber M, Giaisi M, Dröge W, Krammer PH, Schmitz ... 70 (3): 1384-9. PMC 189957 . PMID 8627654.. *. Smith BL, Krushelnycky BW, Mochly-Rosen D, Berg P (1996). "The HIV nef protein ... 16 (3): 178-92. doi:10.1002/stem.160178. PMID 9617893.. *. Greenway AL, Holloway G, McPhee DA, Ellis P, Cornall A, Lidman M ( ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC 2.7.11.4). *BCKDK ...
protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein kinase binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway. • response to drug ... 273 (3): 1741-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.3.1741. PMID 9430721.. *. Chan-Hui PY, Weaver R (Dec 1998). "Human mitogen-activated ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.. *. Enslen H, Raingeaud J, Davis RJ (Jan 1998). "Selective activation of p38 ...
protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase ... peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • regulation of Golgi inheritance. • signal transduction. • positive regulation of ... signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. • protein N-terminus binding. • kinase ... 78 (3-4): 301-3. doi:10.1159/000134677. PMID 9465908.. *^ Zheng CF, Guan KL (Jun 1993). "Cloning and characterization of two ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 3 (3): 481-8. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.3.481. PMID 8012361.. *^ Gomez-Escobar N, Chou CF, Lin WW, Hsieh SL, Campbell RD (Dec 1998). " ... 53 (3): 338-47. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5499. PMID 9799600.. *. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation ... 146 (3): 1057-66. PMID 1988494.. *. Shen L, Wu LC, Sanlioglu S, et al. (1994). "Structure and genetics of the partially ...
In the case of classical MAP kinases, the activation loop contains a characteristic TxY (threonine-x-tyrosine) motif (TEY in ... In vivo and in vitro, phosphorylation of tyrosine oftentimes precedes phosphorylation of threonine, although phosphorylation of ... Since removal of either phosphate groups will greatly reduce MAPK activity, essentially abolishing signaling, some tyrosine ... Huang Z, Zhou B, Zhang ZY (Dec 2004). "Molecular determinants of substrate recognition in hematopoietic protein-tyrosine ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80463-3. PMID 10198638.. *^ Suñé C, Hayashi T, Liu Y, Lane WS, Young RA, Garcia-Blanco MA (Oct 1997 ... 25 (3): 185-9. doi:10.1023/A:1018897624615. PMID 11441538.. *. Vogel L, Baratte B, Détivaud L, Azzi L, Leopold P, Meijer L (Apr ... doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80463-3. PMID 10198638.. *. Rachez C, Lemon BD, Suldan Z, Bromleigh V, Gamble M, Näär AM, Erdjument- ...
Tyrosine:. *protein tyrosine phosphatase: Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase. *Sh2 domain-containing protein tyrosine ... A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3. EC 2.7.1.37 Pelle. is a serine/threonine kinase that can ... Langan TA (1969). "Action of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent histone kinase in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (20): 5763-, 5 ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC 2.7.11.4). *BCKDK ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 5 (3-4): 184-92. doi:10.1159/000026336. PMID 9730685.. *. Cheung PC, Salt IP, Davies SP, Hardie DG, Carling D (March 2000). " ... doi:10.1210/mend-4-3-465. PMID 2342480.. *. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey JL (July 1993). "Human ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC 2.7.11.4). *BCKDK ...
Dual-specificity kinases are subclass of the tyrosine kinases.[8] mTOR is a kinase within the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 ... In general, protein kinases are classified in two major categories based on their substrate specificity, protein tyrosine ... a small-molecule irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This study enrolled patients being treated for HER2-amplified ... 978-1-84973-126-3. .. [page needed] *^ Willemsen AE et al. mTOR inhibitor-induced interstitial lung disease in cancer patients ...
L-Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O2, and iron (Fe2+) as ... L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → Dopamine The direct precursor of dopamine ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are readily available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. ... Substrate: m-tyrosine Product: m-tyramine + CO2 Organism: Homo sapiens Reaction diagram Musacchio JM (2013). "Chapter 1: ...
"Entrez Gene: YWHAE tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide".. ... 14-3-3 protein. References[edit]. *^ a b c ENSG00000108953 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000274474, ENSG00000108953 - ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon. External IDs. MGI: 894689 HomoloGene: 100743 ... 34 (3): 274-85. doi:10.1038/ng1169. PMID 12796778.. *^ Kimura MT, Irie S, Shoji-Hoshino S, Mukai J, Nadano D, Oshimura M, Sato ...
"Entrez Gene: YWHAQ tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide". Nomura M, ... a substrate of Src family tyrosine kinases". J. Immunol. 158 (6): 2736-44. PMID 9058808. Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM ... "Molecular features underlying the sequential phosphorylation of HS1 protein and its association with c-Fgr protein-tyrosine ... 14-3-3 protein theta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAQ gene. This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family ...
"Entrez Gene: YWHAH tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide". Vincenz C, Dixit ... a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... 14-3-3 protein eta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAH gene. This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of ... 1174 (3): 241-57. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(93)90193-h. PMID 7690594. Swanson KD, Dhar MS, Joshi JG (Oct 1993). "The human and ...
The enzyme defect responsible for OCA1-type albinism is tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (tyrosinase), which synthesizes melanin from ... the amino acid tyrosine. It is suggested that the early genus Homo (humans in the broader sense) started to evolve in East ... Africa around 3 million years ago. The dramatic phenotypic change from the ape-like Australopithecus to early Homo is ...
Tyrosine - tyrosine 3-monooxygenase - Ubiquitin - Urea - Urea cycle - Uric acid - UV/VIS spectroscopy - vaccine - vacuole - ... steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase - steroid 21-monooxygenase - steroid receptor - stimulatory gs G-protein - stoichiometry - ... protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine-phosphatase - proteinoid - proteomics - protirelin - proto-oncogene - proto-oncogene ... receptor protein-tyrosine kinase - recombinant fusion protein - recombinant interferon-gamma - recombinant protein - ...
... fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.120 - receptor, fibroblast growth factor, type 3 MeSH D12.776.624.664. ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915 - steroid hydroxylases MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.050 - aldosterone ... lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck) MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.642 - receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.624.664. ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.100 - adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - ...
... can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ... As tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, tyrosine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ... Increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity due to phosphorylation can be sustained by nicotine for up to 48 hours. Tyrosine ...
monooxygenase activity. • protein domain specific binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • mitochondrion. • ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ... Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L-tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L-3,4- ... Tyrosine hydroxylase can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ...
... (EC 1.14.13.41, tyrosine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A1) is an enzyme with systematic name L-tyrosine,NADPH: ... L-tyrosine + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine + NADP+ + H2O (1b) N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine ... Tyrosine+N-monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... H2O Tyrosine N-monooxygenase is heme-thiolate protein (P-450). Halkier BA, Møller BL (December 1990). "The biosynthesis of ...
... coli enzyme can catalyze reactions such as hydroxylation of tyrosine to L-dopa and hydroxylation of the pharmacologically ... "Structure of the monooxygenase component of a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase". PNAS. 104: 1177-82. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... While most known flavin monooxygenases use NADH or NADPH as substrates (and use the flavins FAD or FMN as prosthetic groups ), ... In addition to the exclusively FADH2-dependent monooxygenase found in species such as E. coli and T. thermophilus, a version of ...
Peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase-PHM peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase-PAL Tyrosine 3- ... DBH-like monooxygenase protein 1, also known as monooxygenase X, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MOXD1 gene. DBH- ... Xin X, Mains RE, Eipper BA (2004). "Monooxygenase X, a member of the copper-dependent monooxygenase family localized to the ... Xin X, Mains RE, Eipper BA (November 2004). "Monooxygenase X, a member of the copper-dependent monooxygenase family localized ...
Other names in common use include pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase-associated kinase, STK4, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase ... In enzymology, a [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase] kinase (EC 2.7.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + [ ... Pigeon D, Ferrara P, Gros F, Thibault J (1987). "Rat pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase is phosphorylated on serine 40 by an ... Pigeon D, Drissi-Daoudi R, Gros F, Thibault J (1986). "[Copurification of tyrosine hydroxylase from rat pheochromocytoma by ...
... trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.870 - tryptophan hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.923 - tyrosine 3 ... receptor protein-tyrosine kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.400.020 - fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... protein-tyrosine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.725.049 - focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ...
Specifically, the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine 201 and 222, in addition to the hydroxyl group of serine 212, interact with the ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase is a homodimer with a flavin bound to each monomer. The active site is composed of the flavin ... Tautomerization leads to the formation of 3,4-dihydoxybenzoate. The final step in the mechanism is dissociation of the product ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooygenase catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoate, giving 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate ...
Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... These functions include the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neurotransmitters; the synthesis and catabolism of tyrosine; ... Retrieved August 3, 2017.. *^ a b c "Vitamin C: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original ... 3 (3): CD007176. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007176.pub2. PMID 22419320.. *^ a b Lind J (1753). A Treatise of the Scurvy. London: A ...
Goodwill, K.E., Sabatier, C., Marks, C., Raag, R., Fitzpatrick, P.F. and Stevens, R.C. (1997). „Crystal structure of tyrosine ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... Ikeda, M., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. (1967). „Phenylalanine as substrate and inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase". Arch. ... Nagatsu, T., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. (1964). „Tyrosine hydroxylase. The initial step in norepinephrine biosynthesis". J. ...
It is possible to assemble phenethylamine structures for synthesis of compounds such as epinephrine, amphetamines, tyrosine and ... flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3),[8][9] and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).[5][40] N-Methylphenethylamine, an ... Primarily: MAO-B[3][4][5]. Other enzymes: MAO-A,[5][6] SSAOs (AOC2 & AOC3),[5][7] PNMT,[3][4][5] AANAT,[5] FMO3,[8][9] and ... Primarily: MAO-B[3][4][5]. Other enzymes: MAO-A,[5][6] SSAOs (AOC2 & AOC3),[5][7] PNMT,[3][4][5] AANAT,[5] FMO3,[8][9] and ...
... is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine- ... The last hydrolysis that releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase ... activity of peptidyl glycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase and concentrations of its cofactor, ascorbic acid". The Journal of ... ISBN 978-1-118-36173-3.. *^ "Oxytocin: Summary". IUPHAR/BPS guide to pharmacology. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
P450 monooxygenases are involved in the amygdalin biosynthetic pathway. A point mutation in a bHLH transcription factor ... Tyrosine. 0.452 g. Valine. 0.817 g. Arginine. 2.446 g. Histidine. 0.557 g. ... 0-19-850356-3. .. *^ a b G. Ladizinsky (1999). "On the origin of almond". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 46 (2): 143-147 ... listen) (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Iran and surrounding countries[3][4][5] as well ...
... and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are termed multispecific or broad-specificity enzymes.[2] The ability to catalyse ... whereas the next most catalysed native amino acid was the structurally similar tyrosine, but at a thousandth as much as ... Distinct multiple chemistries catalyzed by phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase". Biochemical Journal. ... 3: 1257. Bibcode:2012NatCo...3E1257T. doi:10.1038/ncomms2246. PMID 23212386.. *^ Pauling, L. and E. Zuckerkandl, Chemical ...
Monooxygenases, or mixed function oxidase, transfer one oxygen atom to the substrate, and reduce the other oxygen atom to water ... Among the most important monooxygenases are the cytochrome P450 oxidases, responsible for breaking down numerous chemicals in ... Sligar SG, Makris TM, Denisov IG (2005). "Thirty years of microbial P450 monooxygenase research: peroxo-heme intermediates--the ... Oxygenases were discovered in 1955 simultaneously by two groups, Osamu Hayaishi from Japan[1][2][3] and Howard S. Mason from ...
腎上腺是人體含維生素C最高的器官。人體在緊張的時候,腎上腺分泌大量的腎上腺素到全身的肌肉中,準備好隨時動作,應付危機。腎上腺素是從酪氨酸(Tyrosine)制成多巴(Dopa),轉化成多巴胺(Dopamine),再轉化為降腎上腺素( ... Eipper BA, Milgram SL, Husten EJ, Yun HY, Mains RE: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional protein ... B1(硫胺) · B2(核黄素) · B3(
In enzymology, a L-lysine 6-monooxygenase (NADPH) (EC 1.14.13.59) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The 4 substrates of this enzyme are L-lysine, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are N6-hydroxy-L-lysine, NADP+, and H2O ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=L-lysine_6-monooxygenase_(NADPH)&oldid=729340513" ... 213 (3): 995-1002. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17846.x. PMID 8504838.. ...
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity. • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT ... The most promising result was achieved in patients with stage 2 and 3 of ovarian carcinoma. The in vitro study of IFN-gamma in ... 3 (1): 87-94. doi:10.2174/1570162052773013. PMID 15638726.. *. Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by ...
"An evolutionarily conserved glycine-tyrosine motif forms a folding core in outer membrane proteins". PLOS ONE. 12 (8): ... Methane monooxygenase. *Rhomboid protease. *Disulfide bond formation protein (DsbA-DsbB complex). Proteins with alpha-helical ... There are two basic types of transmembrane proteins:[3] alpha-helical and beta-barrels. Alpha-helical proteins are present in ... 3 Thermodynamic stability and folding *3.1 Stability of α-helical transmembrane proteins ...
The conversion of phe to tyr is catalyzed by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, a monooxygenase. This enzyme catalyzes the ... Tyrosine residues may also be modified by the addition of a sulfate group, a process known as tyrosine sulfation.[7] Tyrosine ... It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. Precursor to pigmentsEdit. Tyrosine is also the precursor to the pigment melanin ... Ortho- and meta-tyrosineEdit. Enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylase (top) and non-enyzmatic oxidation by ...
... catabolism of tyrosine) மைக்ரோசோமின் வளர்ச்சிதை மாற்றம்.[53] அஸ்கோர்பேட் குறைப்பு பதிலியாக (அதாவது இலத்திரன் கொடயாளியாக, ... "Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional protein with catalytic, processing, and routing domains" ... 2-oxo-L-threo-hexono-1,4- lactone-2,3-enediol. or. (R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one ... Brzozowska A, Kaluza J, Knoops KT, de Groot LC (April 2008). "Supplement use and mortality: the SENECA study". Eur J Nutr 47 (3 ...
... which promotes its binding to proteins with SH3 domains such as Grb2 and may thereby link the enzyme's regulation to tyrosine ... Oxidoreductases: monooxygenases (EC 1.13). 1.13.11: two atoms of oxygen. *lipoxygenase: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ... 39 (1): 3-22. doi:10.1002/cbin.10345. PMID 25052386.. *^ a b Barden AE, Mas E, Mori TA (2016). "n-3 Fatty acid supplementation ... 3 (4): 347-55. PMC 3744015. PMID 23977445.. *^ a b Maaløe T, Schmidt EB, Svensson M, Aardestrup IV, Christensen JH (Jul 2011 ...
Methane monooxygenase. *3A4. *Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. *24-hydroxycholesterol 7α-hydroxylase ... 24-trien-3β-ol.[1] The cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are a conserved group of proteins that serve as key players in the metabolism ... 3][11][12] With the proliferation of immuno-suppressive diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer, patients have become increasingly ... 3] In fungi, CYP51 catalyzes the demethylation of lanosterol to create an important precursor that is eventually converted into ...
Mechanistically, the flavin-dependent halogenases are similar to flavin-containing monooxygenases. In the first step, FADH2 is ... and the amino acid moiety of tryptophan interacts with nearby tyrosine and glutamate residues. It is thought that the ... 50 (13): 2951-3. doi:10.1002/anie.201007896. PMID 21404376. Flecks S, Patallo EP, Zhu X, Ernyei AJ, Seifert G, Schneider A, ...
Methane monooxygenase. *3A4. *Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. *24-hydroxycholesterol 7α-hydroxylase ... 4 (3): 152-6. doi:10.1038/nchembio0308-152. PMID 18277970.. *^ a b c Loenarz C, Ge W, Coleman ML, Rose NR, Cooper CD, Klose RJ ... 85 (3): 216-20. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990730)85:3,216::AID-AJMG6,3.0.CO;2-X. PMID 10398231.. ...
Oliw, E. H. (1993). "Bis-Allylic hydroxylation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid by human hepatic monooxygenases". ... HETE stimulates human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK activation". ... 19 (3): 680-6. doi:10.1161/01.atv.19.3.680. PMID 10073973. Yoo, H; Kim, S. J.; Kim, Y; Lee, H; Kim, T. Y. (2007). "Insulin-like ... 43 (3): 129-37. doi:10.3858/emm.2011.43.3.014. PMC 3068295 . PMID 21252614. Cho, N. K.; Joo, Y. C.; Wei, J. D.; Park, J. I.; ...
Other names in common use include pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase-associated kinase, STK4, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase ... In enzymology, a [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase] kinase (EC 2.7.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + [ ... Pigeon D, Ferrara P, Gros F, Thibault J (1987). "Rat pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase is phosphorylated on serine 40 by an ... Pigeon D, Drissi-Daoudi R, Gros F, Thibault J (1986). "[Copurification of tyrosine hydroxylase from rat pheochromocytoma by ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Host server : magellan-srch-3-prod-blue:8080/10.253.228.147:8080. git-commit: 6136e08f67ca8347288aba899de9614a85a4e341 git-url ...
Compare tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from BosterBio from leading ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from BosterBio. Clear ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from BosterBio. ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from BosterBio. ...
Compare tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from Abnova Corporation from ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from Abnova Corporation. Clear ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from Abnova Corporation. ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA Kits from Abnova Corporation. ...
... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet ... YWHAG 7532 tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma. Aliases. 14-3-3GAMMA; EIEE56; PPP1R170 ... X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA YWHAG (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase ... Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 3 ]. t(7;8)(q11;p11) YWHAG/RAB11FIP1 t(7;15)(q11;q15 ...
... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet ... YWHAE 7531 tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon. Aliases. 14-3-3E; HEL2; KCIP-1; MDCR ... X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA YWHAE (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase ...
ywhag (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma ) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo ... 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3gamma, 14-3-3g, ywhag-a, ywhag-b. X.laevis. Throughout NF stage 25. ...
... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein eta), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet ... X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA YWHAH (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase ...
Crystal structure of a tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activa tion protein, gamma polypeptide (YWHAG) from ... Crystal structure of a tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma polypeptide (YWHAG) from ... 14-3-3 protein gamma. A. 248. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BC020963, YWHAG. ...
anti-Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 22 Antikörper * anti-Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 4 ... monooxygenase activation protein gamma polypeptide , tyrosine 3/tryptophan 5 -monooxygenase activation protein, gamma ... tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide (YWHAG) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung ... anti-tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide Antikörper (YWHAG). Auf www. ...
MonooxygenaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide, isoform CRA_bImported. Automatic ... Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (Predicted). PAPAN ... Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide, isoform CRA_b. ...
This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine- ... YWHAH; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide; YWHA1; 14-3-3 eta; Protein AS1 ... This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine- ...
Mouse tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (Ywhaz), (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Ywhaz (untagged) - Mouse tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, ... MC202613 Ywhaz (untagged) - Mouse tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide ( ... Properties for Ywhaz (untagged) - Mouse tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta ...
Research proven mouse monoclonal 14-3-3 eta Antibody. Strong marker for Neuronal perikarya. Useful for the study of Creutzfeld ... The 14.3.3 eta protein accumulates in the CSF of patients suffering from Creutzfeld Jacob Disease, and can be used for the ... The 14.3.3 family of proteins were originally discovered as prominent protein spots on 2 dimensional gels. They are a family of ... rat mixed neuron/glial cultures stained with 14-3-3 eta antibody (red). Neuronal perikarya are very rich in 14-3-3 eta which ...
Rabbit tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide Polyclonal Antibody-CAX78505.1 ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide UniProt Protein Name SJCHGC01759 ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein; beta polypeptide; YWHAB; GW128; HS1; KCIP-114-3-3; ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide (ywhab-prov), Polyclonal Antibody. ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, ...
Human YWHAz(Tyrosine 3/Tryptophan 5 Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta) ELISA Kit. To Order Contact us: [email protected] ... Rat NTRK2(Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Type 2) ELISA Kit. *Rat FRAP(FK506 Binding Protein 12 Rapamycin Associated ... Should the Rat Tyrosine 3/Tryptophan 5 Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta (YWHAz) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance ... Should the Rat Tyrosine 3/Tryptophan 5 Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta (YWHAz) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance ...
monooxygenase activity. • protein domain specific binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • mitochondrion. • ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ... Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L-tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L-3,4- ... Tyrosine hydroxylase can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein thetaprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:891963 See ... Ywhaq tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein theta [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: ... Ywhaq tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein the... Ywhaq tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5 ... 14-3-3 protein theta. Names. 14-3-3 protein T-cell. 14-3-3 protein tau. 14-3-3 tau. 14-3-3 theta. tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/ ...
The TH gene provides instructions for making the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, which is important for normal functioning of the ... Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. More than 20 mutations in the TH gene have been identified in people with tyrosine hydroxylase ... Tyrosine hydroxylase takes part in the first step of the pathway that produces a group of hormones called catecholamines. This ... Tyrosine hydroxylase: another piece of the genetics of hypertension puzzle. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28;116(9):970-2. Citation on ...
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase. Larimichthys crocea (Large yellow croaker). Loading... A0A0G2JTA6 Insulin-like growth factor 2, ...
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase. Rattus norvegicus (Rat). Loading... P07101 3D Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase. Homo sapiens (Human). Loading ...
IPR019773, Tyrosine_3-monooxygenase-like. PANTHERi. PTHR11473, PTHR11473, 1 hit. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00351, ... Phe-4-monooxygenase (Henna), Phe-4-monooxygenase (Hn), Phe-4-monooxygenase (Hn), Protein henna (Hn), Phe-4-monooxygenase (Hn) ... Protein henna, EC 1.14.16.1, EC 1.14.16.4 (Phe-4-monooxygenase) (Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, PAH) (Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase, ... tr,Q59E23,Q59E23_DROME Phe-4-monooxygenase OS=Drosophila melanogaster OX=7227 GN=Hn PE=1 SV=1 ...
Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Theta, including: function, proteins, disorders, ... YWHAQ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Theta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide:. *Hs.74405 ...
Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Eta, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways ... YWHAH (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Eta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases ... monooxygenase activity. IEA. --. GO:0005159. insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. ISS. --. ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
... dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, demonstrating that Phox2b regulates the noradrenergic phenotype in ...
14-3-3Sigma is a member of a family of proteins that regulate cellular activity by binding and sequestering phosphorylated ... It has been suggested that 14-3-3sigma promotes pre-mitotic cell-cycle arrest following DNA damage, and that its expression can ... 14-3-3Sigma is required to prevent mitotic catastrophe after DNA damage Nature. 1999 Oct 7;401(6753):616-20. doi: 10.1038/44188 ... Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase* * cdc25 Phosphatases / physiology Substances * 14-3-3 Proteins * CCNB1 protein, human ...
Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: metabolism. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing ...
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.6). *STK4. Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931.. *^ Dai K, Kobayashi R, Beach D (1996). "Physical interaction of ... 7 (3): 331-42. doi:10.1101/gad.7.3.331. PMID 8449399.. *. Zuo L, Weger J, Yang Q, et al. (1996). "Germline mutations in the ... 3 (4): 261-2. doi:10.1007/BF00713052. PMID 7606365.. *. Wölfel T, Hauer M, Schneider J, et al. (1995). "A p16INK4a-insensitive ...
Tyrosine-3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, Epsilon polypeptide: YWHAEAli et al. Proteome Science ... LR13; Transferrin: TF; Tyrosine-3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, Epsilon polypep Posted by ... LR13; Transferrin: TF; Tyrosine-3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, Epsilon polypeptide: YWHAEAli et ...
  • rat mixed neuron/glial cultures stained with 14-3-3 eta antibody (red). (neuromics.com)
  • Tyrosine Hydroxylase (phospho-Ser19) antibody detects endogenous levels of Tyrosine Hydroxylase only when phosphorylated at serine19. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Tyrosine Hydroxylase Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # P21962, RRID AB_2539844. (thermofisher.com)
  • The TH-2 antibody clone recognizes an epitope present in the N-terminal region of both rodent (~60 kDa) and human (62 - 68 kDa) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). (stemcell.com)
  • IHC staining of purified anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody (clone 2/40/15) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mouse (A) and (B) rat brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of purified anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody (clone 2/40/15) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of purified anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody (clone 2/40/15) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded rat brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • Western blot of purified anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody (clone 2/40/15). (biolegend.com)
  • This monoclonal antibody was raised against purified Tyrosine Hydroxylase from rat Pheochromocytoma tumor. (biolegend.com)
  • Use Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody is used in laboratories on a frequent basis. (gentaur.com)
  • Reference Gentaur can give you references of users of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody in your area. (gentaur.com)
  • Delivery The Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody can be delivered to your laboratory the next week after your order if you order before Friday 15:00. (gentaur.com)
  • Contact with other users Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody is frequently used in research laboratories. (gentaur.com)
  • Anti-YWHAZ / 14-3-3 Zeta Delta antibody IHC of human liver. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A partial recombinant 14-3-3 protein (amino acids 20-225) was used as the immunogen for this antibody. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • 14-3-3 eta Polyclonal antibody specifically detects 14-3-3 eta in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • 14-3-3 zeta antibody detects 14-3-3 zeta protein at cytosol on mouse colon by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • 14-3-3 zeta antibody (GTX101075) dilution: 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Cal27 xenograft, using 14-3-3 zeta(GTX101075) antibody at 1:100 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLaS3, using 14-3-3 zeta (GTX101075) antibody at 1:100 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Other names in common use include pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase-associated kinase, STK4, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase kinase (phosphorylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity leads to dephosphorylation of Ser(910)/Ser(935), disruption of 14-3-3 binding and altered cytoplasmic localization. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A MAP3K that is activated by extracellular stimuli phosphorylates a MAP2K on its serine and threonine residues, and then this MAP2K activates a MAP kinase through phosphorylation on its serine and tyrosine residues. (thefullwiki.org)
  • calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, de. (broadinstitute.org)
  • RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 ( Flt1 ) and proenkephalin ( Penk ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The relationship between preliminary efficacy and prognosis after first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor ( EGFR -TKI) treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The up-regulated gene annotation showed regulation of phospholipase activities, alanine transport, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signalling pathway, regulation of blood vessels diameter and 3, 5-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity as the five most enriched GO terms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [11] Since L -DOPA is the precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline, tyrosine hydroxylase is therefore found in the cytosol of all cells containing these catecholamines . (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme helps convert the protein building block (amino acid) tyrosine to a catecholamine called dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A reduction in normal tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme leads to a decrease in the production of dopamine, which causes the movement problems characteristic of dopa-responsive dystonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutant ganglionic anlagen also fail to switch on the genes that encode two enzymes needed for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, demonstrating that Phox2b regulates the noradrenergic phenotype in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • dopamine from L-tyrosine: step 1/2. (abcam.com)
  • Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the catecholamines Dopamine and Norepinephrine. (fishersci.com)
  • Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a neurotransmitter that plays several important roles in the brain and body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary and minor metabolic pathways respectively are: Primary: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → Dopamine The direct precursor of dopamine, L-DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia of mice lacking the dopamine transporter. (curehunter.com)
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin is a natural occurring cofactor of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase and is involved in the synthesis of tyrosine and the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. (hmdb.ca)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. (fishersci.ca)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine. (abnova.com)
  • Your search returned 2 tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • ywhag (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-mo. (xenbase.org)
  • ywhag (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma ) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo, assayed via in situ hybridization, NF stage 25, lateral view, anterior left, dorsal up. (xenbase.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 135 tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide (YWHAG) Antikörper von 21 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide Proteine (20) und tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide Kits (17) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 179 tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, gamma Polypeptide Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Should the Rat Tyrosine 3/Tryptophan 5 Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta (YWHAz) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (hiv-pharmacogenomics.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Tyrosine 3/Tryptophan 5 Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta (YWHAz) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (hiv-pharmacogenomics.org)
  • [6] Tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase together make up the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAHs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tryptophan is a poor substrate for tyrosine hydroxylase, however it can hydroxylate L -phenylalanine to form L -tyrosine and small amounts of 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • YWHAQ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Theta) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Tyrosine-3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, Epsilon polypeptide: YWHAEAli et al. (london8.net)
  • 14 Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, beta Polypeptide (YWHAB) ELISA Kits from 3 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 14.3.3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism, protein trafficking, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. (genecards.org)
  • Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (Th), is a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase: another piece of the genetics of hypertension puzzle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TH is also responsible for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dopa. (fishersci.ca)
  • First, immunoprecipitation experiments, using isoenzyme-specific monoclonal Lox antibodies, showed that 14-3-3 proteins co-precipitate with 13-Lox, but not with the 9-Lox from barley. (tudelft.nl)
  • The PA1-18315 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues P (63) R F I G R R Q S L I E D A R K(78) of human Tyrosine Hydroxylase conjugated to KLH. (fishersci.ca)
  • 14.3.3 proteins are phospho-serine/-threonine binding proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Tyrosine Hydroxylase (phospho S19). (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding the phospho-Ser40 site of rat tyrosine hydroxylase. (fishersci.com)
  • MiR (zeige MLXIP Antikörper )-217 directly targeted 3' UTR (zeige UTS2R Antikörper ) of YWHAG and suppressed the expression of YWHAG . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In humans, tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the TH gene , [6] and the enzyme is present in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla . (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological and pharmacological properties of DAergic neurons have been determined using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry but many properties overlap with non-DAergic neurons presumed to be GABAergic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • TH catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in brain and adrenal medulla and can therefore be used to detect dopaminergic neurons. (stemcell.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that 14-3-3 epsilon and 14-3-3 zeta exhibit unique distributions in photoreceptors with 14-3-3 epsilon restricted to the inner segment and 14-3-3 zeta localized to the outer segment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This DuoSet ELISA Development kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure natural and recombinant human 14-3-3 zeta. (rndsystems.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human 14-3-3 zeta. (genetex.com)
  • Like the other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAHs), tyrosine hydroxylase use the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) under normal conditions, although other similar molecules may also work as a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th utilizes tetrahydrobiopterin as well as molecular oxygen to convert tyrosine to DOPA. (prospecbio.com)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in this synthesis of catecholamines . (wikipedia.org)
  • An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Autoreceptor-mediated actions on adenylate-cyclase linked DA synthesis will be assessed by kinetic analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase. (elsevier.com)
  • Purified, E. coli-derived, recombinant human 14-3-3 eta protein. (neuromics.com)
  • The present invention provides a recombinant DNA that is composed of a promoter, a protein coding region, and the hybrid 3′UTR in a continuous and directional orientation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 2, wherein the 3′ end of the first region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the second region or the 3′ end of the second region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the first region or the first region is located within the second region. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14-3-3 proteins act as key regulators of intracellular signal transduction through their ability to bind specific motifs containing phosphorylated serine or threonine residues. (rndsystems.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues P (63) R F I G R R Q S L I E D A R K(78) of human Tyrosine Hydroxylase conjugated to KLH. (fishersci.ca)
  • SDS-denatured rat tyrosine hydroxylase, purified from pheochromocytoma. (thermofisher.com)
  • Here we describe an improved approach to the generation of human somatic-cell knockouts, which we have used to generate human colorectal cancer cells in which both 14-3-3sigma alleles are inactivated. (nih.gov)
  • Length increase of the human α-globin 3′-untranslated region disrupts stability of the pre-mRNA but not that of the mature mRNA," Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2000, vol. 275, pp. 30248-30255. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The 3′-end of the human β-actin gene enhances activity of the β-actin expression vector system: construction of improved vectors," Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 1997, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 63-72. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An episomal expression vector system for monitoring sequence-specific effects on mRNA stability in human cell lines," Plasmid, 1995, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 198-207. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The 14-3-3 proteins are thought to be key regulators of signal transduction events mediated through their binding to serine-phosphorylated proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Blots of crude HeLa cell homogenate blotted with 14-3-3 eta (left lane) and various molecular weight standards (right lane- numbers indicate apparent SDS-PAGE molecular weight in kDa). (neuromics.com)
  • Translational efficiency is regulated by the length of the 3′ untranslated region," Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1996, vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 146-156. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the present report we show that the presence of 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins was established in high-molecular-mass complexes. (tudelft.nl)
  • Amounts of 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins in high-molecular-mass fractions increased during germination, but were reduced after dephosphorylation of protein extracts or competition with the 14-3-3-binding peptide P-Raf-259, indicating that 13-LOX and 14-3-3 proteins interact in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. (tudelft.nl)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L -tyrosine to L -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( L -DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase, also known as tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, is the enzyme that converts amino acid L-Tyrosine to L-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). (biolegend.com)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to 14-3-3 beta/alpha. (novusbio.com)
  • PA1-18315 detects Tyrosine Hydroxylase from rat, mouse, and guinea pig samples. (fishersci.ca)
  • 14-3-3 proteins constitute a highly conserved family of homo- and heterodimeric proteins present in high abundance in all eukaryotic cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L -tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( L -DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of proteins involved in the regulation of apoptosis, mitogenic signaling and cell-cycle checkpoints. (novusbio.com)
  • 14-3-3gamma regulates the differentiation ability of CPNE1 (zeige CPNE1 Antikörper ) through the binding with C2A domain of CPNE1 (zeige CPNE1 Antikörper ) in HiB5 cells. (antikoerper-online.de)