A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC
A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Corrosive oxidant, explosive; additive to diesel and rocket fuels; causes skin and lung irritation; proposed war gas. A useful reagent for studying the modification of specific amino acids, particularly tyrosine residues in proteins. Has also been used for studying carbanion formation and for detecting the presence of double bonds in organic compounds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of cell surface receptors that were originally identified by their structural homology to neurotropic TYROSINE KINASES and referred to as orphan receptors because the associated ligand and signaling pathways were unknown. Evidence for the functionality of these proteins has been established by experiments showing that disruption of the orphan receptor genes results in developmental defects.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. The TYK2 kinase is considered the founding member of the janus kinase family and was initially discovered as a signaling partner for the INTERFERON ALPHA-BETA RECEPTOR. The kinase has since been shown to signal from several INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Members of the src-family tyrosine kinase family that are strongly expressed in MYELOID CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. High levels of EphB2 receptor are observed in growing AXONS and NERVE FIBERS. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (1/13395)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (2/13395)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (3/13395)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein. (4/13395)

The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 has been implicated in signaling pathways activated by G-protein-coupled receptors, intracellular calcium, and stress signals. Here we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel family of PYK2-binding proteins designated Nirs (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptors). The three Nir proteins (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3) bind to the amino-terminal domain of PYK2 via a conserved sequence motif located in the carboxy terminus. The primary structures of Nirs reveal six putative transmembrane domains, a region homologous to phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein, and an acidic domain. The Nir proteins are the human homologues of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein (rdgB), a protein implicated in the visual transduction pathway in flies. We demonstrate that Nirs are calcium-binding proteins that exhibit PI transfer activity in vivo. Activation of PYK2 by agents that elevate intracellular calcium or by phorbol ester induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Nirs. Moreover, PYK2 and Nirs exhibit similar expression patterns in several regions of the brain and retina. In addition, PYK2-Nir complexes are detected in lysates prepared from cultured cells or from brain tissues. Finally, the Nir1-encoding gene is located at human chromosome 17p13.1, in proximity to a locus responsible for several human retinal diseases. We propose that the Nir and rdgB proteins represent a new family of evolutionarily conserved PYK2-binding proteins that play a role in the control of calcium and phosphoinositide metabolism downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity. (5/13395)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (6/13395)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (7/13395)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (8/13395)

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

The BCR-ABL gene is a fusion gene that is present in the majority of cases of CML. It is created by the translocation of two genes, called BCR and ABL, which leads to the production of a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein that promotes the growth and proliferation of abnormal white blood cells.

There are three main phases of CML, each with distinct clinical and laboratory features:

1. Chronic phase: This is the earliest phase of CML, where patients may be asymptomatic or have mild symptoms such as fatigue, night sweats, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). The peripheral blood count typically shows a high number of blasts in the blood, but the bone marrow is still functional.
2. Accelerated phase: In this phase, the disease progresses to a higher number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with evidence of more aggressive disease. Patients may experience symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and pain in the joints or abdomen.
3. Blast phase: This is the most advanced phase of CML, where there is a high number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with significant loss of function of the bone marrow. Patients are often symptomatic and may have evidence of spread of the disease to other organs, such as the liver or spleen.

Treatment for CML typically involves targeted therapy with drugs that inhibit the activity of the BCR-ABL protein, such as imatinib (Gleevec), dasatinib (Sprycel), or nilotinib (Tasigna). These drugs can slow or stop the progression of the disease, and may also produce a complete cytogenetic response, which is defined as the absence of all Ph+ metaphases in the bone marrow. However, these drugs are not curative and may have significant side effects. Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is also a potential treatment option for CML, but it carries significant risks and is usually reserved for patients who are in the blast phase of the disease or have failed other treatments.

In summary, the clinical course of CML can be divided into three phases based on the number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, and treatment options vary depending on the phase of the disease. It is important for patients with CML to receive regular monitoring and follow-up care to assess their response to treatment and detect any signs of disease progression.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

People with agammaglobulinemia are more susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b. They may also experience recurrent sinopulmonary infections, ear infections, and gastrointestinal infections. The disorder can be managed with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which provides antibodies to help prevent infections. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Agammaglobulinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that a person must inherit two mutated copies of the BTK gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. It is relatively rare, affecting approximately one in 1 million people worldwide. The disorder can be diagnosed through genetic testing and a complete blood count (CBC) that shows low levels of immunoglobulins.

Treatment for ag

The term "basophilic" refers to the staining properties of these abnormal cells, which have a distinctive appearance under a microscope. The disease is often referred to as "acute" because it progresses rapidly and can be fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.

There are two main subtypes of basophilic leukemia: acute and chronic. Acute basophilic leukemia is the more aggressive and common form of the disease, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases. It typically affects adults in their 40s and 50s and is characterized by a high white blood cell count, anemia, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).

Chronic basophilic leukemia, on the other hand, is a rarer form of the disease that progresses more slowly and typically affects adults in their 60s and 70s. It is characterized by a lower white blood cell count, splenomegaly, and an increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (a precancerous condition).

The exact cause of basophilic leukemia is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation, and the prognosis varies depending on the subtype and overall health of the patient.

... residues may also be modified by the addition of a sulfate group, a process known as tyrosine sulfation. Tyrosine ... It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. Tyrosine is also the precursor to the pigment melanin. Tyrosine (or its ... Tyrosine MS Spectrum Tyrosine metabolism Archived 2019-07-26 at the Wayback Machine Phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis ... namely meta-tyrosine (also known as 3-hydroxyphenylalanine, L-m-tyrosine, and m-tyr) and ortho-tyrosine (o-tyr or 2- ...
... (or tyrosine transaminase) is an enzyme present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine ... L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate In humans, the tyrosine ... and elevated blood tyrosine levels. Keratitis in Tyrosinemia type II patients is caused by the deposition of tyrosine crystals ... wherein there is an abundance of tyrosine as a result of tyrosine failing to undergo an aminotransferase reaction to form 4- ...
... can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion ... As tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, tyrosine ... Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L- ... Increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity due to phosphorylation can be sustained by nicotine for up to 48 hours. Tyrosine ...
Tyrosine O-sulfate is a stable molecule and is excreted in urine in animals. No enzymatic mechanism of tyrosine sulfate ... Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein ... to the side-chain hydroxyl group of a tyrosine residue. Sulfation sites are tyrosine residues exposed on the surface of the ... Tyrosine O-sulfation is an irreversible process in vivo. It has been shown that the sulfation of Tyr1680 in Factor VIII is ...
Two important classes of tyrosine kinase in tyrosine phosphorylation are receptor tyrosine kinase and nonreceptor tyrosine ... Tyrosine phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43−) group to the amino acid tyrosine on a protein. It is one of the ... Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl group of tyrosine ... As of 2002, of the 90 known human tyrosine kinases, 58 were RTKs, and opposing the action of the tyrosine kinases were 108 ...
... s catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins. The phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in ... Once a tyrosine receptor kinase is bonded to its ligand, it is able to bind to tyrosine kinase residing in the cytosol of the ... A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of specific proteins ... Protein tyrosine kinase plays a role in this task, too. A protein tyrosine kinase called pp125, also referred to as focal ...
... tyrosine apodecarboxylase, and L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and alkaloid ... The enzyme tyrosine decarboxylase (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming). Other names in common use include L- ... tyramine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-tyrosine, and two products, tyramine and carbon dioxide. This enzyme ...
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (EC, L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, TAL or Tyrase) is an enzyme in the natural phenols biosynthesis ... It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. → T A L {\displaystyle {\xrightarrow {TAL}}} + Ammonia + H+ L-tyrosine = trans-p ... Tyrosine+ammonia-lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) www.hhmi.org Portal: Biology v t ... NH3 EC (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) EC (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase) Louie GV, Bowman ME, Moffitt ...
A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes ... Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor Protein kinase inhibitor Yaish P, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1988). "Blocking of EGF- ... Dasatinib is a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is effective both as a senolytic and as therapy for CML. Sunitinib, an ... It was further shown that in spite of the conservation of the tyrosine-kinase domains one can design and synthesize tyrphostins ...
... s are enzyme-linked receptor phosphatases, a sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Types ...
The TEK receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells in mice, rats, and humans. (TEK is ... TEK tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with: ANGPT2, Angiopoietin 1, DOK2. Tie-2/Ang-1 signaling GRCh38: Ensembl ... Sato A, Iwama A, Takakura N, Nishio H, Yancopoulos GD, Suda T (August 1998). "Characterization of TEK receptor tyrosine kinase ... Sato A, Iwama A, Takakura N, Nishio H, Yancopoulos GD, Suda T (August 1998). "Characterization of TEK receptor tyrosine kinase ...
The enzyme tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... and L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It employs ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... (THD) is a disorder caused by disfunction of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the ... "Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency". Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf. University of Washington, ... Patients with tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency are treated with L-dopa in conjunction with decarboxylase inhibitors. A ... In order to diagnose tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, a sample of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid may be obtained to assess ...
... catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + ... diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) The three substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-tyrosine, and a tyrosine-specific transfer RNA ... Tyrosine-tRNA ligase (EC, also known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that is encoded by the gene YARS. ... Xin, Y; Li, W; First, EA (Oct 2000). "Stabilization of the transition state for the transfer of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) by ...
In enzymology, a tyrosine-arginine ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tyrosine + L- ... Ueda H, Yoshihara Y, Fukushima N, Shiomi H, Nakamura A, Takagi H (June 1987). "Kyotorphin (tyrosine-arginine) synthetase in rat ... L-tyrosine, and L-arginine, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-tyrosyl-L-arginine. This enzyme belongs to the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine:L-arginine ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ...
L-tyrosine ligase (ADP-forming). Wehland J, Schroder HC, Weber K (1986). "Isolation and purification of tubulin tyrosine ligase ... In enzymology, a tubulin-tyrosine ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + detyrosinated α- ... and L-tyrosine, whereas its 3 products are alpha-tubulin, ADP, and phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... tubulin + L-tyrosine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } α-tubulin + ADP + phosphate The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP ...
1995). "Homodimerization and intermolecular tyrosine phosphorylation of the Tyk-2 tyrosine kinase". FEBS Lett. 374 (3): 317-22 ... "Direct binding to and tyrosine phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the type I interferon receptor by p135tyk2 tyrosine ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. Tyk2 was the first member of ... "Entrez Gene: TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2". Stark GR, Kerr IM, Williams BR, Silverman RH, Schreiber RD (1998). "How cells respond to ...
... tyrosine phosphate + H2O = [a protein]-tyrosine + phosphate Protein tyrosine (pTyr) phosphorylation is a common post- ... Tyrosine-specific protein phosphatases (PTPase; EC catalyse the removal of a phosphate group attached to a tyrosine ... Protein tyrosine phosphatases (EC, systematic name protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase) are a group of enzymes ... "The nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew functions in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways in Drosophila". ...
a 200-460-4 EINECS for Tyrosine ^a CID 71098 from PubChem ^a CID 1153 from PubChem (PubChem ID (CID) not in Wikidata, Chemical ...
... s are part of the larger family of protein tyrosine kinases, encompassing the receptor tyrosine kinase ... Kinase enzymes that specifically phosphorylate tyrosine amino acids are termed tyrosine kinases. Phosphate ATP Tyrosine ... Tyrosine kinase Insulin receptor Enzyme-linked receptor Tyrphostins Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors Robinson DR, Wu YM, Lin ... Of the 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in the human genome, 58 encode receptor tyrosine kinase proteins. Receptor ...
... (EC, tyrosine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A1) is an enzyme with systematic name L-tyrosine,NADPH: ... L-tyrosine + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine + NADP+ + H2O (1b) N-hydroxy-L-tyrosine ... N-dihydroxy-L-tyrosine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (Z)-[4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime] + CO2 + H2O Tyrosine N- ... Tyrosine+N-monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles with ...
... (abbreviated Btk or BTK), also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK, is a tyrosine kinase that is ... Bruton's tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with: ARID3A BLNK (SLP-65), CAV1, GNAQ, GTF2I, PLCG2, PRKD1, and SH3BP5. ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q06187 (Tyrosine-protein kinase BTK) at the PDBe- ... Yang W, Desiderio S (January 1997). "BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement ...
L-tyrosine methyl ester 4-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and L-tyrosine methyl ... In enzymology, a tyrosine-ester sulfotransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3'- ... Other names in common use include aryl sulfotransferase IV, and L-tyrosine methyl ester sulfotransferase. Duffel MW, Jakoby WB ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:L-tyrosine-methyl-ester sulfotransferase. ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AXL gene. The gene was initially designated ... AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with TENC1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167601 - Ensembl, May ... Hafizi S, Alindri F, Karlsson R, Dahlbäck B (Dec 2002). "Interaction of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase with C1-TEN, a novel C1 ... AXL is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, part of the TAM family of kinases including TYRO3 and MERTK.[citation needed] ...
... , also known as B lymphocyte kinase, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that in humans is encoded by ... It is of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. The tyrosine-protein kinase BLK has been shown to interact with UBE3A. ... "Entrez Gene: BLK B lymphoid tyrosine kinase". Oda H, Kumar S, Howley PM (August 1999). "Regulation of the Src family tyrosine ... Donovan JA, Wange RL, Langdon WY, Samelson LE (1994). "The protein product of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine- ...
In enzymology, a tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine 2,3-aminomutase. This enzyme is also called tyrosine alpha,beta-mutase. ... This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism. It employs one cofactor, 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) which is ... Kurylo-Borowska Z, Abramsky T (1972). "Biosynthesis of β-tyrosine". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 264 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/0304- ...
1994). "Molecular cloning of a novel non-receptor tyrosine kinase, HYL (hematopoietic consensus tyrosine-lacking kinase)". ... Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MATK gene. The protein encoded ... Jhun BH, Rivnay B, Price D, Avraham H (1995). "The MATK tyrosine kinase interacts in a specific and SH2-dependent manner with c ... Megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with CD117 and TrkA. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Unlike the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the second subgroup of tyrosine kinases, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases are ... to tyrosine residues in proteins. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of protein family tyrosine kinases, enzymes that ... Non-receptor tyrosine kinases do not contain only a tyrosine kinase domain, nRTKs also possess domains that mediate protein- ... Thirty-two non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in human cells (EC Non-receptor tyrosine kinases ...
... or 18F-FET is a neuro-oncologic PET tracer. Fluoroethyl CID 54255856 from PubChem Galldiks N, ... September 2015). "The use of dynamic O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine PET in the diagnosis of patients with progressive and ...
... , also known as spleen tyrosine kinase, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the SYK gene. SYK ... along with ZAP70, is a member of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases. These cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinases share a ... "Coordinated regulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl by Fyn and Syk tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological ... Melander F, Andersson T, Dib K (March 2003). "Fgr but not Syk tyrosine kinase is a target for beta 2 integrin-induced c-Cbl- ...
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects movement, with symptoms that may range from mild to ... Tyrosine hydroxylase helps convert the protein building block (amino acid) tyrosine to a catecholamine called dopamine. . ... Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects movement, with symptoms that may range from mild to ... Mutations in the TH gene result in reduced activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme. As a result, the body produces less ...
Protein target information for Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase (zebrafish). Find diseases associated with this biological target ...
All the latest news about tyrosine from Medical Xpress ... News tagged with tyrosine. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 day 3 days ...
Targeting Brutons tyrosine kinase in B cell malignancies.. 92. 12724322. 2003. Brutons tyrosine kinase is a Toll/interleukin- ... A tyrosine-kinase catalytic domain is located at the C-terminal end. Two tyrosine phosphorylation sites are located at the ... Resistance mechanisms for the Brutons tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib.. 277. 21422473. 2011. Bruton tyrosine kinase ... BTK (Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase). 2008-03-01 Rudi W Hendriks , Pieter Fokko van Loo Affiliation Department of ...
Treatment Free Remission After Combination Therapy With Ruxolitinib Plus Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. The safety and scientific ...
Antineoplastics, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor. Ibrutinib (Imbruvica). *View full drug information. Ibrutinib inhibits the function ... of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). BTK is a key signaling molecule of the B-cell receptor-signaling complex that plays an ...
Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met in complex with the microbial ... Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met in complex with the microbial ... Crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met and its complex with the ... The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Binding of its ligand, hepatocyte ...
... is synthesised in plants from the amino acid tyrosine, through oxidation. ... Conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA constitues the first step of betalain biosynthesis in plants. Recently, the gene responsible ... Diverting tyrosine: Data from untargeted metabolic analysis of tomato fruit accumulating L-DOPA. 23rd November 2021 ... These data can be used to study the impact of diversion of tyrosine in fruit, accompanied by the accumulation of L-DOPA in ...
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be effective for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). ... For Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be effective * Share on Facebook ... Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may improve treatment outcome for children and young adults with Ph-like acute lymphoblastic ... Close more info about For Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be effective ...
Distribution intracellulaire et trafic des récepteurs à tyrosine kinase EphA4 et EphB2 à la synapse mature dans le système ...
Nitration of tyrosine by hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. ... Nitration of tyrosine by hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. Journal ... Nitration and hydroxylation products of tyrosine and salicyclic acid were separated with an HPLC column and measured using ... This interaction can initiate nitration and hydroxylation of aromatic molecules such as tyrosine residues and may thereby ...
Shop enQuireBio™ Recombinant Mouse Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK1 Protein at Fishersci.dk ... A DNA sequence encoding the Mus musculus (Mouse) Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. ...
Both p46 and p52 forms of Shc were rapidly and transiently tyrosine phosphorylated upon CD16 or IL-2 stimulation with different ... CD16-mediated p21ras activation is associated with Shc and p36 tyrosine phosphorylation and their binding with Grb2 in human ... Shc immunoprecipitates from lysates of CD16- or IL-2-stimulated NK cells contained Grb2 and an unidentified 145-kD tyrosine ... Grb2 immunoprecipitates from anti-CD16-stimulated NK cells contained not only Shc, but also a 36-kD tyrosine phosphoprotein ( ...
L-Tyrosine is also used by the body to make thyroid hormones as well as melanin, the skin and hair pigment.L-Tyrosine is ideal ... It is noteworthy to mention that a high percentage of the studies done on L-tyrosine are conducted by the military looking to ... The most prevalent usage for supplemental L-tyrosine appears to be the enhancement of cognitive function and alertness under ... Clinical trials with L-tyrosine have also been conducted with respect to attention deficit disorder (ADD) with good results. ...
What is Tyrosine, what it does, how it is taken and where to buy it, all the information you need is gathered here. ... How is Tyrosine taken?. There is L-Tyrosine / L-Tyrosine and Acetyl L-Tyrosine / Acetyl L-Tyrosine, the first being the most ... Tyrosine. What is Tyrosine?. Tyrosine, Tyrosine in English, is a non-essential amino acid, essential for the production of the ... For Acetyl L-Tyrosine the doses are lower since it is more potent, the recommended dose will be between 250mg to 500mg before ...
Learn about the claims, recommended intake, and side effects of tyrosine.
Acetyl tyrosine (NAT) (NALT) For Sale , 100g $14.95 ✓ GMP manufactured ✓ 3rd party lab tested ✓ Free Shipping Worldwide! ...
"Tyrosine Transaminase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Tyrosine Transaminase" by people in this website by year, and ... L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC ...
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Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv ... Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv ... Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv ... Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv ...
To identify receptor tyrosine kinase-specific reorganization of the Swiss 3T3 proteome during phenotypic differentiation, we ... Functional proteomic analysis of long-term growth factor stimulation and receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation in Swiss 3T3 ... Together, the study demonstrates that long-term exposure to different growth factors results in receptor tyrosine kinase- ... specific regulation of relatively small subproteomes, and implies that the strength and longevity of receptor tyrosine kinase- ...
Galactosylated L-tyrosine. (N-Fmoc-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-L-tyrosine). Product Code: G-Y002 ...
erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4a [Source:ZFIN;Ac... [more]. erbb4a. 1.234e-71. 33.89. erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4a [ ... erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [Source:HGNC Sym... [more]. ERBB4. 1.142e-71. 33.01. erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [ ... erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [Source:NCBI gen... [more]. ERBB4. 3.386e-71. 32.61. erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [ ... erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [Source:NCBI gen... [more]. ERBB4. 5.750e-71. 32.40. erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 [ ...
Vun „https://lb.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tyrosin&oldid=2124911" ...
... it can be difficult to decide which tyrosine supplement is best for ... Whether you are looking to purchase a new tyrosine supplement or upgrade an existing one, ... JOYLI L Tyrosine Gummies - Organic L-Tyrosine... *🔸【L Tyrosine Supplement】- Joyli L-Tyrosine is a powerful, nature-based ... Superior Labs - Pure Natural L-Tyrosine NonGMO... *500mg PURE L-TYROSINE - Superior Labs L-Tyrosine is 100% pure. A potent 500 ...
Surplus specimen chlorinated tyrosine 2 year weights for 2015-2016. Target: Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code ... Chlorinated Tyrosine - Serum (Surplus) (SSCLTY_I). Data File: SSCLTY_I.xpt. First Published: January 2023. Last Revised: NA. ... al., 2010). Tyrosine residues are oxidized by hypochlorite at the ortho positions resulting in two stable chlorine adducts, 3- ... Chapman A.L., Senthilmohan R., Winterbourn C.C., Kettle A.J. Comparison of mono- and dichlorinated tyrosines with carbonyls for ...
Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis of key tyrosine residues, it is found that tyrosine phosphorylation can potentially dictate ... Here we show evidence that RACK1A proteins, depending on diverse environmental stresses, are tyrosine phosphorylated. ... like tyrosine phosphorylations and sumoylation at key residues. ... Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis of key tyrosine residues, ... Tyrosine Phosphorylation Based Homo-dimerization of Arabidopsis RACK1A Proteins Regulates Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways ...
L-tyrosine ABC transporter, ATPase component 1. AZOBR_RS28565. AZOBR_RS32405. Ac3H11_1692. L-tyrosine ABC transporter, ATPase ... L-tyrosine ABC transporter, permease component 1. AZOBR_RS08235. AZOBR_RS29670. Ac3H11_1694. L-tyrosine ABC transporter, ... Overview: Tyrosine utilization in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathway tyrosine degradation I, via homogentisate (link). This ... Comment: Transporters were identified using query: transporter:tyrosine:L-tyrosine:tyr. The ABC transporter livFGHM (with ...
Qtonics formed in 2018 to bring products and services that match the needs of science and industry.. Phone: 1-866-647- ...
  • Introduction and lung tyrosine kinase inhibitors / T. Moody and G. Giaccone. (nih.gov)
  • 100% of patients received prior platinum-based chemotherapy, 43% received prior immunotherapy, and 25% received prior EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (curetoday.com)
  • According to findings presented at the American Association for Cancer Research special conference Hematologic Malignancies: Translating Discoveries to Novel Therapies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be effective for the treatment of children and young adults with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) . (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may improve treatment outcome for children and young adults with Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL), a disease with dismal prognosis, according to data presented at the American Association for Cancer Research special conference Hematologic Malignancies: Translating Discoveries to Novel Therapies, held Sept. 20-23. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We wanted to examine whether these alterations contribute to the development of Ph-like ALL, and determine if they could be targeted with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Recently, we have discovered that Eph tyrosine kinase receptors control the growth and survival of colorectal cancer cells and have exploited this discovery to develop small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that effectively reduce the growth or induce cell death in colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Validation and specificity experiments performed in wild-type (WT) and STEP knockout (KO) cortical cells and in vivo in WT and STEP KO mice suggest specificity of inhibitors towards STEP compared to highly homologous tyrosine phosphatases. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in signaling proteins by protein tyrosine kinases mediates a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, death, and metabolism. (rndsystems.com)
  • Dysregulation of tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in the development of many human diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. (rndsystems.com)
  • Antibodies specific for phospho-tyrosine have been invaluable reagents in the studies of signaling pathways initiated by tyrosine phosphorylation. (rndsystems.com)
  • Two tyrosine phosphorylation sites are located at the positions Y223 and Y551, which are located in the SH3 and kinase domain, respectively. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Here, we have described a mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation of NLRP3 at Tyr861. (uzh.ch)
  • Together, our results identify tyrosine phosphorylation as an important regulatory mechanism for NLRP3 that prevents aberrant inflammasome activation. (uzh.ch)
  • Then insulin-stimulated IR and IRS tyrosine phosphorylation, and Akt pathway activation were measured. (minervamedica.it)
  • Compared with control cells, INS-1 cells overexpressing PTP1B showed decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) by 56.4% and 53.1%, respectively. (minervamedica.it)
  • CD16-mediated p21ras activation is associated with Shc and p36 tyrosine phosphorylation and their binding with Grb2 in human natural killer cells. (rupress.org)
  • Accumulation of guanosine triphosphate-bound Ras was detected within 1 minute and occurred with kinetics similar to inductive protein tyrosine phosphorylation and Grb2 association of Shc and p36 adaptor proteins. (rupress.org)
  • In cell-based secondary assays, TC-2153 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates ERK1/2, Pyk2, and GluN2B, and exhibited no toxicity in cortical cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Furukawa Y, Kish S. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furukawa Y, Kish SJ, Fahn S. Dopa-responsive dystonia due to mild tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recent clinical trials of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have shown promising results with fostamatinib, a spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibition restores myeloid homeostasis in COVID-19. (nih.gov)
  • This interaction can initiate nitration and hydroxylation of aromatic molecules such as tyrosine residues and may thereby contribute to the biochemical and toxic effects of the molecules. (duke.edu)
  • 2010). Tyrosine residues are oxidized by hypochlorite at the ortho positions resulting in two stable chlorine adducts, 3-chlorotyrosine (Cl-Tyr) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (Cl2-Tyr) that can be used as biomarkers of chlorine gas exposure (Hureiki et. (cdc.gov)
  • The Axl tyrosine kinase receptor is important in hematopoiesis, platelet aggregation, engulfment of apoptotic cells and cell survival. (nih.gov)
  • instructions for making a protein called fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), which is part of a family of proteins called receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). (nih.gov)
  • Mediated by both on-target inhibition of BTK and variable off-target inhibition of other kinases including interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK), tyrosine-protein kinase (TEC), and endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), the toxicity profile of BTKis is closely linked to their pattern of kinase binding. (nih.gov)
  • The protooncogene c-met codes for the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. (rcsb.org)
  • We demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), variants in which are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, dephosphorylates NLRP3 upon inflammasome induction, allowing efficient NLRP3 activation and subsequent IL-1β release. (uzh.ch)
  • STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is a neuron-specific phosphatase that regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, as well as ERK1/ 2, p38, Fyn, and Pyk2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • C-Abl is a ubiquitous non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Cocaine reward is reduced by decreased expression of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) and by a novel PTPRD antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) is a neuronal cell-adhesion molecule that has been associated with psychostimulant addiction in humans. (nih.gov)
  • [email protected].}, abstract = {Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) is a neuronal cell-adhesion molecule/synaptic specifier that has been implicated in addiction vulnerability and stimulant reward by human genomewide association and mouse cocaine-conditioned place-preference data. (nih.gov)
  • The translocation to the membrane brings the BTK protein in close proximity to the Lyn en Syk kinases that transphosphorylate BTK at tyrosine Y551. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • BTK belongs to the TEC family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The researchers introduced genetic mutations to tyrosine kinases in normal mouse blood cells and found that the cells developed Ph-like ALL. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Furthermore, they found that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway associated with the genetic alterations involving tyrosine kinases was suppressed. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We recently described a subtype of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with very poor outcome that is characterized by genetic alterations involving tyrosine kinases, termed Ph-like ALL," said Kathryn Roberts, PhD, postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Pathology at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Small molecule that selectively inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of c-kit, bcr-abl, and PDGFR. (medscape.com)
  • Because the signaling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors have been shown to be involved in lung fibrosis, it has been suggested that the inhibition of these receptors may slow the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) has revolutionized the treatment landscape for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (nih.gov)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase helps convert the protein building block (amino acid) tyrosine to a catecholamine called dopamine . (medlineplus.gov)
  • L-DOPA, also known as Levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, is synthesised in plants from the amino acid tyrosine, through oxidation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • From NCIt: The levorotatory isomer of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. (nih.gov)
  • Briefly, calibrators, quality controls, a matrix blank, blind QCs, and NHANES samples were prepared by performing a protein digestion using pronase to release the chlorinated tyrosine biomarkers. (cdc.gov)
  • These agents inhibit tyrosine kinase, which, in turn, inhibit activation of intracellular pathways that can promote deregulated cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibition of human sperm motility and capacitation by ziram is mediated by decreasing tyrosine protein kinase. (bvsalud.org)
  • L-tyrosine is a naturally occurring tyrosine and is synthesized in vivo from L-phenylalanine. (nih.gov)
  • however, in patients with phenylketonuria who lack phenylalanine hydroxylase and cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine, it is considered an essential nutrient. (nih.gov)
  • Mobocertinib is an orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is specifically being developed for the treatment of (patients with) EGFR (exon) 20 insertion mutations," added Ramalingam, who is also deputy director and director of the Lung Cancer Program of Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University. (curetoday.com)
  • In conclusion, ziram irreversibly inhibits human sperm motility , forward motility, and capacitation by reducing the level of tyrosine protein kinase and damaging the ultrastructure of mitochondria . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a 12-month, phase 2 trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of four different oral doses of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF 1120 as compared with placebo in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Panniculitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been implicated as a negative regulator of insulin signaling. (minervamedica.it)
  • In vivo, tyrosine plays a role in protein synthesis and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of catecholamines, thyroxine, and melanin. (nih.gov)
  • The TH gene provides instructions for making the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, which is important for normal functioning of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • a protein that belongs to the PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatases) family. (nih.gov)
  • Shc immunoprecipitates from lysates of CD16- or IL-2-stimulated NK cells contained Grb2 and an unidentified 145-kD tyrosine phosphoprotein. (rupress.org)
  • Grb2 immunoprecipitates from anti-CD16-stimulated NK cells contained not only Shc, but also a 36-kD tyrosine phosphoprotein (p36). (rupress.org)
  • Mounting evidence points to the role of the Abl tyrosine kinase family as an important player in Alzheimer's Disease, and thus a potential therapeutic target to delay and ameliorate neurodegeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies have shown that ziram inhibited the level of tyrosine protein kinase with an IC50 value of about 10 µM, without affecting p21-activated kinase 4, and it caused damage to the mitochondrial structure of normal spermatozoa at 2.5 and 5 µM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Diverting tyrosine: Data from untargeted metabolic analysis of tomato fruit accumulating L-DOPA. (jic.ac.uk)
  • These data can be used to study the impact of diversion of tyrosine in fruit, accompanied by the accumulation of L-DOPA in planta and to identify new biological roles associated with the accumulation of these metabolites. (jic.ac.uk)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Mus musculus (Mouse) Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (fishersci.dk)
  • Nitration and hydroxylation products of tyrosine and salicyclic acid were separated with an HPLC column and measured using ultraviolet and electrochemical detectors. (duke.edu)
  • Kathryn Roberts, PhD, postdoctoral research associate at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, and her colleagues recently described a type of B-cell ALL characterized by tyrosine kinase mutations associated with poor outcomes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Mutations in the TH gene result in reduced activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Modelling and cell-based structure-activity relationships were used to guide the optimization and diversification of ligands that are capable of crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), and bind to the myristate pocket on the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Stathmin and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) each form stable complexes with tubulin and inhibit tubulin polymerization. (nih.gov)
  • Conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA constitues the first step of betalain biosynthesis in plants. (jic.ac.uk)