Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.GuanineSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.TritiumColiphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.ThymineHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Uracil
6 bases, 4^6 or 4,096bp, and 8 bases would be 4^8 or 65,536bp.[27] Many of them are palindromic, meaning the base sequence ... Some recognize palindromic sequences while others have asymmetric recognition sites.[28] Type III[edit]. Type III restriction ... Types[edit]. Naturally occurring restriction endonucleases are categorized into four groups (Types I, II III, and IV) based on ... The recognition sequences can also be classified by the number of bases in its recognition site, usually between 4 and 8 bases ...
Basically, there are two types: 1) based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform method such as Bowtie and BWA, and 2) based on Seed- ... Quickly scans reads and gathers statistics on base and quality frequencies, read length, and frequent sequences. Produces ... The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequence data from "next-generation" sequencing technologies including 454, ... filtering and cutting sequences based on quality or conversion DNA/RNA. Flexbar Flexbar performs removal of adapter sequences, ...
Type I can cleave at random sites of about 1000 base pairs or more from the recognition sequence and it requires ATP as source ... A restriction endonuclease typically requires a recognition site and a cleavage pattern (typically of nucleotide bases: A, C, G ... Type III, however, cleaves the DNA at about 25 base pairs from the recognition sequence and also requires ATP in the process. ... Restriction endonucleases (restriction enzymes) are divided into three categories, Type I, Type II, and Type III, according to ...
A consensus sequence is a sequence that is created based on the repeats that comprise a TE family. A base pair in a consensus ... k-mers that occur more often than is likely based on probability alone. The length k is determined by the type of transposon ... For example, in a family of 50 repeats where 42 have a T base pair in the same position, the consensus sequence would have a T ... The most common transposable element in humans is the Alu sequence. It is approximately 300 bases long and can be found between ...
Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases ... Base pairing. Further information: Base pair. In a DNA double helix, each type of nucleobase on one strand bonds with just one ... the sequence of bases along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which then defines one or more protein sequences. ... it is essential that the sequence of bases in each copy are precisely complementary to the sequence of bases in the template ...
Type I and Type II oxidants preferentially cleave at the specific sequences. Hydroxyl radicals can attack the deoxyribose DNA ... Hydroxyl radicals react with DNA bases via addition to the electron-rich, pi bonds. These pi bonds in the bases are located ... In the case of free radical attack on DNA, base-excision repair is the repair mechanism used. Hydroxyl radical reactions with ... The Fenton reaction generates two types of oxidants, Type I and Type II. Type I oxidants are moderately sensitive to peroxides ...
... base pair occurring in all sequences used to generate the consensus; yellow: two types of base pairing occur; Green: three ... Recent deep sequencing-based characterization of the small RNA fraction (50-350 nt) of S. meliloti 2021 further also confirmed ... types of base pairing occur. The shading of base pairs represents: Saturated, no inconsistent sequences; Pale, one inconsistent ... The color scheme of Smr7C represents the base pairs probabilities. The coloring scheme for the ar7 family structure is based on ...
Repeated sequences are of two basic types: unique sequences that are repeated in one area; and repeated sequences that are ... Short interspersed sequences. The repeats are normally a few hundred base pairs in length. These sequences constitute about 13 ... with sequences that are found interspersed across the genome. They can be classified based on the length of the repeat as: SINE ... Long interspersed sequences. The repeats are normally several thousand base pairs in length. These sequences constitute about ...
For example, if the 100th base of a nucleotide sequence mutated from G to C, then it would be written as g.100G>C if the ... Based on the occurrence of mutation on each chromosome, we may classify mutations into three types. A heterozygous mutation is ... Molecular sequence analysis: With rapid development of DNA sequencing technology, an enormous amount of DNA sequence data is ... Some mutations alter a gene's DNA base sequence but do not change the function of the protein made by the gene. One study on ...
The genome sequence of the type strain of E. coli has been added to this collection not before 2014. Comparison of these ... The 4,639,221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coliK-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have ... Particularly the use of whole genome sequences yields highly supported phylogenies. Based on such data, five subspecies of E. ... The genome of the type strain has only lately been sequenced. A large number of strains belonging to this species have been ...
The classification of importer folds is based on detailed characterization of the sequences. The type I ABC importer fold was ... A general base, which may be the glutamate residue adjacent to the Walker B motif, glutamine in the Q-loop, or a histidine in ... This class of transporters is studied based on the type of substrate that is transported. One class is involved in the protein ... ABC transporters are considered to be with the ABC superfamily based on the sequence and organization of their ATP-binding ...
However, certain sequences of base pairs have catalytic properties that lower the energy of their chain being created, enabling ... RNA is made of long stretches of specific nucleotides arranged so that their sequence of bases carries information. The RNA ... One version of the hypothesis is that a different type of nucleic acid, termed pre-RNA, was the first one to emerge as a self- ... One version, 189-bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ...
The number of occurrences in each sequence. The composition of each motif. The algorithm uses several types of well known ... The MEME Suite - Motif-based sequence analysis tools GPU Accelerated version of MEME EXTREME - An online EM implementation of ... Due to this we define log 10 ⁡ 0 := − 10 {\displaystyle \log _{10}0:=-10} and take the (base 10) logarithm: This is our new ... Several possibilities exist: Exactly one motif per sequence. One or zero motif per sequence. Any number of motifs per sequence ...
Substitution, where one or more bases are changed for another base in the sequence. ... Types of mutation[change , change source]. Gene duplication causes different lengths at a single locus (allele). Shows ... Insertion, where one or more extra base is put in.. * ... 1 Types of mutation *1.1 DNA mutations. *1.2 Chromosome ... Deletion, where one or more DNA bases are left out.. * ... There are four main types of mutations: * ...
It was previously referred to as phylogenetic species Mel-5 (i.e., identified based on DNA sequence) in a 2011 publication. The ... The type locality is in Jackson County, Oregon. The fungus used to be referred to as Morchella semilibera (the "half-free morel ... In warm, wet conditions the stipe sometimes becomes inflated, especially near the base. White to whitish or watery brownish in ... and sometimes forms chambers or layers near the base. The whitish to brownish sterile inner surface of the cap is covered in ...
Provides several types and functions related to exception handling, including std::exception, the base class of all exceptions ... Provides reading and writing functionality to/from certain types of character sequences, such as external files or strings. ... The C++ Standard Library is based upon conventions introduced by the Standard Template Library (STL), and has been influenced ... Provides several types and functions basic to the operation of iostreams. Provides forward declarations of several I/O-related ...
These type of markers are based on PCR primers and are categorized as DNA sequence polymorphism. Microsatellites Also known as ... Minisatellites are short sequences of tandem repeats, approximately 10-60 base pairs. Minisatellites can be used in DNA ... Sequencing is much faster and more efficient. The analysis is automated, as it uses a technique known as shotgun sequencing. ... The first type of molecular marker developed and run on gel electrophoresis were allozymes. These markers are used for the ...
Cw polymorphism in a Berber population from North Morocco using sequence-based typing". Tissue Antigens. 63 (2): 158-72. doi: ... 1 million base pairs from DQ2.5 is also associated with Type 1 diabetes. A relationship between HLA and sarcoidosis has been ... revealed by high-resolution sequence-based typing (SBT)". Tissue Antigens. 55 (3): 275-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550313.x ... And DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 individuals who have type 1 diabetes (late onset) are often mistaken for type-2 diabetes. DR3-DQ2 is ...
HATs are traditionally divided into two different classes based on their subcellular localization. Type A HATs are located in ... HATs can be grouped into several different families based on sequence homology as well as shared structural features and ... The overall topology resembles a vise, with the central core of the protein at the base and the N- and C-terminal segments on ... Gcn5, p300/CBP, and TAFII250 are some examples of type A HATs that cooperate with activators to enhance transcription. Type B ...
This base continued the serial sequence of the prior base. The state's various non-passenger and optional issues gradually ... Most of these plate types first appeared on the www.GEORGIA.gov base and are currently migrating to the new GEORGIA.gov base. ... Those used between 1962 and 1970 were based on the updated 1960 census figures. After 1970, decals of the county names were put ... migrated to the new base as supplies of the old base were exhausted. As of July 2009[update], not all types have yet made the ...
Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases ... According to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), hydrogen bonds bind the nitrogenous bases of the two separate ... A sequence of amino acids is assembled and joined together based upon gene expression of the cell's nucleic acid. In eukaryotic ... The other primary type of cells are the eukaryotes, which have distinct nuclei bound by a nuclear membrane and membrane-bound ...
... based upon the ASCII collating sequence. (These ASCII functions were demanded by the U.S. Department of Defense, in their ... data types New data type declaration syntax, to specify the data type and other attributes of variables Dynamic memory ... In addition to the mandatory "Base language" (defined in ISO/IEC 1539-1 : 1997), the Fortran 95 language also includes two ... dynamic type allocation, and type-bound procedures, providing complete support for abstract data types Data manipulation ...
"Whole-genome sequencing analysis reveals high specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 and TALEN-based genome editing in human iPSCs". Cell ... This type of damage is caused by reactive oxygen species that build up in the cell as a by-product of cellular respiration.[9] ... These mutations include single base pair deletions, insertions, duplications, and amino acid changes.[7] ... which can then be used to mutate or repair the DNA sequence.[30] It functions by using a specific repeated sequence of an amino ...
... rather than via specific base sequence recognition. Each MetJ dimer contains two binding sites for the cofactor S-Adenosyl ... MetJ interacts with DNA bases via a ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) motif.[2] MetJ is a homodimer consisting of two monomers, which ... The above mechanism of repression is a type of a feedback mechanism because it only allows transcription to occur if a certain ... The Met box has the sequence AGACGTCT which is a palindrome (it shows dyad symmetry) allowing the same sequence to be ...
The sequencing of the cow rumen metagenome generated 279 gigabases, or 279 billion base pairs of nucleotide sequence data, ... In practice, experiments make use of a combination of both functional and sequence-based approaches based upon the function of ... This type of approach is implemented in the program MEGAN4. The second, ab initio, uses intrinsic features of the sequence to ... sequences many short sequences, and reconstructs them into a consensus sequence. Shotgun sequencing reveals genes present in ...
... (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with only one known sequence. One limitation of conventional PCR is that it requires primers complementary to both termini of the target DNA, but this method allows PCR to be carried out even if only one sequence is available from which primers may be designed. Inverse PCR is especially useful for the determination of insert locations. For example, various retroviruses and transposons randomly integrate into genomic DNA. To identify the sites where they have entered, the known, "internal" viral or transposon sequences can be used to design primers that will amplify a small portion of the flanking, "external" genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been ...
... is a method of investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins in vitro. This technique can be used to study protein-DNA interactions both outside and within cells. The regulation of transcription has been studied extensively, and yet there is still much that is not known. Transcription factors and associated proteins that bind promoters, enhancers, or silencers to drive or repress transcription are fundamental to understanding the unique regulation of individual genes within the genome. Techniques like DNA footprinting help elucidate which proteins bind to these associated regions of DNA and unravel the complexities of transcriptional control. In 1978, David Galas and Albert Schmitz developed the DNA footprinting technique to study the binding specificity of the lac repressor protein. It was originally a modification of the Maxam-Gilbert chemical sequencing technique. The simplest application of this technique is to assess whether a given protein binds ...
The touchdown polymerase chain reaction or touchdown style polymerase chain reaction is a method of polymerase chain reaction by which primers avoid amplifying nonspecific sequences. The annealing temperature during a polymerase chain reaction determines the specificity of primer annealing. The melting point of the primer sets the upper limit on annealing temperature. At temperatures just above this point, only very specific base pairing between the primer and the template will occur. At lower temperatures, the primers bind less specifically. Nonspecific primer binding obscures polymerase chain reaction results, as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction cycle have high annealing ...
An expression cassette is a distinct component of vector DNA consisting of a gene and regulatory sequence to be expressed by a transfected cell. In each successful transformation, the expression cassette directs the cell's machinery to make RNA and protein(s). Some expression cassettes are designed for modular cloning of protein-encoding sequences so that the same cassette can easily be altered to make different proteins. An expression cassette is composed of one or more genes and the sequences controlling their expression. An expression cassette comprises three components: a promoter sequence, an open reading frame, and a 3' untranslated region that, in eukaryotes, usually contains a polyadenylation site. Different expression cassettes can be transfected into different organisms including bacteria, yeast, plants, and mammalian cells as long as the correct regulatory ...
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment. So far, most DNA sequencing has been performed using the chain termination method developed by Frederick Sanger. This technique uses sequence-specific termination of a DNA synthesis reaction using modified nucleotide substrates. However, new sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing are gaining an increasing share of the sequencing market. More genome data are now being produced by pyrosequencing than Sanger DNA sequencing. Pyrosequencing has enabled rapid genome ...
A cDNA library is a combination of cloned cDNA (complementary DNA) fragments inserted into a collection of host cells, which together constitute some portion of the transcriptome of the organism and are stored as a "library". cDNA is produced from fully transcribed mRNA found in the nucleus and therefore contains only the expressed genes of an organism. Similarly, tissue-specific cDNA libraries can be produced. In eukaryotic cells the mature mRNA is already spliced, hence the cDNA produced lacks introns and can be readily expressed in a bacterial cell. While information in cDNA libraries is a powerful and useful tool since gene products are easily identified, the libraries lack information about enhancers, introns, and other regulatory elements found in a genomic DNA library. cDNA is created from a mature mRNA from a eukaryotic cell with the use of reverse transcriptase. In eukaryotes, a poly-(A) tail (consisting of a long sequence of adenine nucleotides) distinguishes mRNA ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction ...
This article contains a list of the most studied restriction enzymes whose names start with Ba to Bc inclusive. It contains approximately 120 enzymes. The following information is given: Enzyme: Accepted name of the molecule, according to the internationally adopted nomenclature, and bibliographical references. (Further reading: see the section "Nomenclature" in the article "Restriction enzyme".) PDB code: Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a protein provides highly valuable information to understand the intimate details of its mechanism of action. Source: Organism that naturally produces the enzyme. Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds. Cut: Cutting site and DNA products of the cut. The recognition sequence and the cutting site usually match, but ...
Coiled-Coil Domain Containing protein 82 (CCDC82) is a protein that in humans, is encoded for by the gene of the same name, CCDC82. The CCDC82 gene is expressed in nearly all of human tissues at somewhat low rates. As of today, there are no patents involving CCDC82 and the function remains unknown. CCDC82 is located on chromosome 11 at 11q21.5. It contains two domains of unknown function, DUF4196 and DUF4211. The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. CCDC82 is present in many orthologs. It is conserved throughout other mammals, reptiles, birds and bony fish. It is not found in invertebrates, bacteria or fungi. There are no paralogs. The predicted promoter for CCDC82 is located on the minus strand and spans from base pairs 96,122,963 to 96,123,587. It is 625 base pairs long. The transcription factors listed below are for the predicted promoter sequence and are located ...
The staggered extension process (also referred to as StEP) is a common technique used in biotechnology and molecular biology to create new, mutated genes with qualities of one or more initial genes. The technique itself is a modified polymerase chain reaction with very short (approximately 10 seconds) cycles. In these cycles the elongation of DNA is very quick (only a few hundred base pairs) and synthesized fragments anneal with complementary fragments of other strands. In this way, mutations of the initial genes are shuffled and in the end genes with new combinations of mutations are amplified. The StEP protocol has been found to be useful as a method of directed evolution for the discovery of enzymes useful to industry. Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lori; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Arnold, Frances H. (1998). "Molecular evolution by staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (3): 258-261. doi:10.1038/nbt0398-258. Zhao, Huimin; Zha, Wenjuan (1 ...
Itoh S; Yanagimoto T; Tagawa S; et al. (1992). „Genomic organization of human fetal specific P-450IIIA7 (cytochrome P-450HFLa)-related gene(s) and interaction of transcriptional regulatory factor with its DNA element in the 5' flanking region". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1130 (2): 133-8. PMID 1562592 ...
மரபு நூலிழையில் உள்ள குறிப்பிட்ட ஒரு பகுதியைப் பெருக்குவதற்கு இந்தத் தொழில்நுட்பம் உதவுகின்றது. இலக்குப் பகுதியானது பொதுவாக 0.1-10 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகளைக் (kilo base pairs - kb) கொண்டதாக இருக்கும். ஆனாலும் ஒரு சில தாக்கங்கள் 40 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகள் வரை பெருக்கும் தன்மை கொண்டன.[2] குறிப்பிட்ட பகுதியின் பெருக்கமானது வழங்கப்படும் பொருட்களின் அளவில் தங்கியிருக்கும். செயற்பாட்டிற்குத் ...
注意:此处包括了那些只有微弱男性化效应(或抗男性化(如氧雄龙))的蛋白同化甾类(因为它们合成代谢效应也是通过激活雄激素受体而是显得)。. ...
Type III recognizes a short asymmetric sequence and cuts at a site 24-26 base pairs from the recognition site. Type II ... These highly specific enzymes will scan DNA until a certain sequence of nucleotide bases is identified. The specificity is such ... but cleave DNA at random sequences approximately twenty-five bp from the recognition sequence. Neither type I nor type III ... Type II restriction enzymes cleave the DNA sequence at the same site at which they recognize it. The only exception are type ...
... resulting from a failure to call both peaks in a mixed base) was observed out of ,46,975 bases sequenced (,99.9% concordance). ... HLA class I sequence-based typing using DNA recovered from frozen plasma.. Cotton LA1, Abdur Rahman M, Ng C, Le AQ, Milloy MJ, ... We describe a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for intermediate-to-high-resolution sequence-based HLA class I typing ... This method provides comparable specificity to conventional sequence-based approaches and could be applied in situations where ...
Five sequence types included only one couple, three sequence types three couples, and one sequence type four couples (Fig. 2). ... had a new sequence type introduced apart from their initial unique sequence type but had initially had the same sequence types. ... The sequence name includes the name of the prototype sequence, i.e., the specimen number as well as the proposed sequence type ... sequence type whereas the cervical and urethral swab specimens from his partner had a new sequence type and a mixed type, ...
Kits are Invitrogens latest line of high resolution HLA typing products based on sequenced based typing - the gold standard ... SeCore® Kits are our latest line of high-resolution HLA typing products based on sequence-based typing-the gold standard of ... Transplant Diagnostics News and Announcements about generating IVD results with the SeCore(R) Sequence-Based Typing HLA ... Transplant Diagnostics News and Announcements about generating IVD results with the SeCore(R) Sequence-Based Typing HLA ...
Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt. MeSH terms. *Base Sequence ... Species identification and strain typing of Malassezia species stock strains and clinical isolates based on the DNA sequences ... ribosomal DNA sequences to the species identification and strain typing of 28 standard strains and 46 clinical isolates of the ...
Asia, KIR3DS1, new allele, sequencing, Alleles, Base Sequence, Histocompatibility Testing, Humans, Introns, Molecular Sequence ...
Asia, KIR3DS1, new allele, sequencing, Alleles, Base Sequence, Histocompatibility Testing, Humans, Introns, Molecular Sequence ...
RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of ... Bacterial Outer Membrane ProteinsBacteriological TechniquesBase SequenceCervix UteriChlamydia InfectionsChlamydia trachomatis ... Comparison of Gen-probe transcription-mediated amplification, Abbott PCR, and Roche PCR assays for detection of wild-type and ... VL - 34 IS - 12 N2 - In the present study, the suitability of RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification ( ...
... africana strains into 6 existing diploid sequence types. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprint analysis ... africana strains into 6 existing diploid sequence types. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprint analysis ... Multilocus sequencing of seven housekeeping genes revealed a substantial genetic homogeneity among the strains, except for the ... All fungal strains were heterozygous at the mating type-like locus and belonged to the genotype A of Candida albicans. Moreover ...
Instantaneous frequency-Based Analysis and Characterization of laser Generated droplet sequence Dynamics ... Pattern of nucleotide base pairing created by the genetic code Messenger RNA self-folding allows three types of nucleotide base ... Table 1. Frequencies of base paired nucleotides at different codon sites in the human mRNAs and randomized sequences in ... This significantly decreased base pairing for C and G at the third codon sites (Figure 2 and Table 1), pattern of base pairing ...
... that can analyze a large volume of base sequences at once was developed. Firstly, a multiplex PCR method designed to amplify ... A rapid typing method for Listeria monocytogenes based on high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (Hi-MLST) Takahashi, ... Thus, this method could classify the 48 strains into 39 sequence types (ST) with a Diversity index (DI) of 0.989. In summary, ... As an alternative, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is now seeing widespread use; however, owing to its cost, time, and labor ...
RECALL What determines the base sequence of all types of RNA?. Biochemistry ... Find more solutions based on key concepts. Show solutions add. List the most important ideas of the quantum mechanical model of ... Use rise web to look up the percentage of dopant for a commercially available p-type semiconductor. Imagine tha.... Chemistry ... What is the general type of reaction used to decompose sucrose to glucose + fructose?. Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, ...
... base="iris:resultType", ,sequence, ,element name="domainName" type="token" /, ,element name="idn" type="token" minOccurs="0" ... The query and result types outlined in this document are based on the functional requirements described in CRISP [17]. The ... base="iris:queryType", ,sequence, ,element name="namePart" type="dreg:exactMatchParameter" /, ,element name="language" type=" ... base="iris:queryType", ,sequence, ,element name="namePart" type="dreg:partialMatchParameter" /, ,/sequence, ,/extension, ,/ ...
... sequence-based typing (SBT), Real-Time PCR (qPCR), sequence-specific primers (SSP), and reverse sequence-specific ... Sequence-Based Typing:. SeCore™. High Resolution typing of HLA alelles using SBT technique. ... Reverse Sequence-Specific Oligonucleotide Typing: LABType™. Using Luminex xMAP technology and rSSO technology, high throughput ... Sequence-Specific Primer Typing:. Micro SSP™. Amplify genomic DNA using SSP to determine HLA Class I and Class II alleles. ...
evaluacion por pares, comite cientifico internacional, contenido exclusivo de articulos de investigacion ,br,Publicación indexada en: INIST - CNRS. Institut de Linformation Scientifique et Technique. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CINDOC - CSIC. Sumarios ISOC: Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. Centro de Información y Documentación Científica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, e-Revistas. Plataforma Open Access de revistas Científicas y Electrónicas Españolas y Latinoamericanas, RUA. Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante, Dialnet, Biblioteca.Net, CARHUS PLUS+ (Índice de la Agència de Gestió dAjuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR) de la Generalitat de Catalunya, LATINDEX (Sistema Regional de Información en Línea para Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal), DICE (Difusión y Calidad Editorial de las Revistas Españolas de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas), RESH (Revistas Españolas de ...
Publication Type. Article Keywords. Amino Acid Sequence Animals Base Sequence Basement Membrane - metabolism Collagenases - ... that a mechanism of replication based on tandem duplication may be a potential explanation for the origin of this length ... Publication Type. Article Keywords. Adult Aged Base Sequence Exons Factor V - genetics Female Genotype Humans Male Middle Aged ... Publication Type. Article Keywords. Adolescent Adult Aged Base Sequence Blotting, Southern Child Cholesterol - blood DNA - ...
... extension base="ipo:Address", ,sequence, ,element name="state" type="ipo:USState"/, ,element name="zip" type="positiveInteger ... 1.3 Use Case "SEQ" - Queries based on Sequence. This use case illustrates queries based on the sequence in which elements ... extension base="ipo:Address", ,sequence, ,element name="postcode" type="ipo:UKPostcode"/, ,/sequence, ,attribute name=" ... 1.3 Use Case "SEQ" - Queries based on Sequence. 1.3.1 Description. 1.3.2 Document Type Definition (DTD). 1.3.3 Sample Data. 1.3 ...
... extension base="vim25:VirtualDevice", , ,sequence, , ,element name="busNumber" type="xsd:int" /, , ,element name="device" type ... sequence, , ,element name="numCPU" type="xsd:int" /, , ,element name="memoryMB" type="xsd:int" /, , ,element name="device" type ... type based type serialization/deserialization (which admittedly fits really poorly with a non-object oriented language like C ... Anyway adb stores type information in the structs, (i.e. all the attribute is in the mapped c type from the xsd type). Can you ...
Scenario based design. Algorithms. Control structures: sequence, selection and iteration. Scope and extent. Simple data types. ... Connection with Data base techniques. Proof. Induction. Binomial coefficients. Partially ordered sets. Well ordered sets. ... Algorithms, control structures; sequence selection, iteration and recursion. Scope, complexity and extent. Simple data types, ... Typed lambda calculus and type inference. Combinatory logic and lazy functional languages. Programming in a functional style. ...
La presente simulazione è stata realizzata sulla base delle specifiche raccolte sul tavolo ER del Focus Group IRIS coordinato ... Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine ... Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine ... full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of ...
... a fast k-mer based tool for multilocus sequence typing [article] ... Base have 820 524 books.. Search: 📙 stringMLST: a fast k-mer ... based tool for multilocus sequence typing [article] by Anuj Gupta I. King Jordan Lavanya Rishishwar - pdf free. About book:. * ... Design Automation Methods and Tools for Microfluidics-Based Biochips free download by Jun Zeng Microfluidics-based biochips, ... Advances in Web-Based Learning) download pdf by Nikos Karacapilidis, Nikos Karacapilidis The proper exploitation of Web-based ...
... the AFR type; and iv) the ISFR type. Among these four MLST genotypes, the pairwise similarity in nucleotide sequence varied ... Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we have recently found that distinct serotypes may not always represent distinct ... type strain = Malish, ATCC VR-613), R. conorii subspecies indica subsp. nov. (type strain = ATCC VR-597), R. conorii subspecies ... type strain = A-167), and R. conorii subspecies israelensis subsp. nov. (type strain = ISTT CDC1). The description of R. ...
... specifically the new assertions and type alternatives features with authors Neil Delima, Sandy Gao, Michael Glavassevich, and ... The assertions schema component contains a value property which is a sequence of assertions from the base type, if any, and ... default type definition is chosen). The first three type alternatives select a type based on the value of the type. attribute ... type" type="xs:error"/, ,xs:alternative type="xs:string"/, ,/xs:element,. The element declaration for title. has a base type of ...
  • We describe a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for intermediate-to-high-resolution sequence-based HLA class I typing using frozen plasma as a source of genomic DNA. (nih.gov)
  • This protocol has previously been used to perform HLA class I typing from a variety of genomic DNA sources including PBMC, whole blood, granulocyte pellets and serum, from specimens up to 30 years old. (nih.gov)
  • Network Working Group A. Newton Internet-Draft VeriSign, Inc. Expires: October 14, 2004 M. Sanz DENIC eG April 15, 2004 IRIS - A Domain Registry (dreg) Type for the Internet Registry Information Service draft-ietf-crisp-iris-dreg-06 Status of this Memo This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 . (ietf.org)
  • The issue I am running into is that WSDL2C does not seem to support this kind of xsi:type based type serialization/deserialization (which admittedly fits really poorly with a non-object oriented language like C). You could probably make it work by storing type information in the generated structs, combined with a type registry. (apache.org)
  • Complex and simple type definitions in XML Schema 1.0 allow schema authors to specify and restrict the content of elements and values of attributes. (ibm.com)
  • According to the XML Schema 1.0 specification, complex type definitions constrain elements by providing attribute declarations that govern the appearance and contents of attributes by restricting elements to be empty or to conform to a specific content model, such as element-only, mixed, or simple content determined by a simple type definition of the content. (ibm.com)
  • Microfluidics-based biochips, also known as lab-on-a-chip or bio-MEMS, are becoming increasingly popular for DNA analysis, clinical diagnostics, and the detection/manipulation of bio-molecules. (pdf.to)
  • These lower bounds are then exploited in a greedy construction heuristic and a novel exact anytime A* algorithm, which uses an advanced diving mechanism based on Beam Search and Local Search to find good heuristic solutions early. (csic.es)
  • With the constant requests for co-occurrence constraint checking support from the XML Schema 1.0 user community, the XML Schema 1.1 working group introduced the concept of assertions and type alternatives in XML Schema 1.1 to allow XML schema authors to express such constraints. (ibm.com)
  • The present typing system is simple and reproducible and has an excellent discriminatory capacity which might prove useful in studies of sexual networks and for evaluation of treatment failures. (asm.org)
  • Simple data types. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Simple types on the other hand constrain the character values of the contents of elements and attributes. (ibm.com)
  • Specify a constraining rule based on the values of two or more attributes. (ibm.com)
  • DTU will promote promising fields of research within the technical and the natural sciences, especially based on usefulness to society, relevance to business and sustainability. (dtu.dk)
  • The name derives from the following components: Darwin: it uses the principles of specialization and inheritance, which is in some ways analogous to the naturalist Charles Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation, Information typing, which means each topic has a defined primary objective (procedure, glossary entry, troubleshooting information) and structure, Architecture: DITA is an extensible set of structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanotechnology-Based Precision Tools for the Detection and Treatment of Cancer free pdf by Chad A. Mirkin, Thomas J. Meade, Sarah Hurst Petrosko, Alexander H. Stegh (eds. (pdf.to)
  • An extensive experimental evaluation on two types of problem instances shows that the approach works even for large instances with up to 2000 jobs extremely well. (csic.es)
  • Substitution groups on complex types control the substitution of elements with elements of its derived type. (ibm.com)
  • The latest version of DITA (DITA 3.0.1) includes five specialized topic types: Task, Concept, Reference, Glossary Entry, and Troubleshooting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiological studies indicate that M. genitalium is sexually transmitted, and the aim of the present study was to further substantiate this by means of a DNA typing system. (asm.org)
  • The stability of the typing system was determined by analyzing patients with consecutive positive specimens. (asm.org)
  • The BioNumerics SmartFinder data application is a plugin-based system for the automated analysis of SmartFinder melt curves. (applied-maths.com)