Salmonella paratyphi A
Indian Ocean Islands
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
Dissent and Disputes
Sensitivity and Specificity
Rift Valley Fever
Encyclopedias as Topic
An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay. (1/836)AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi. (+info)
Relative bradycardia is not a feature of enteric fever in children. (2/836)We investigated pulse-temperature relationships in 66 children with enteric fever (group 1) and in 76 with other infections (group 2). Group 1 children were older than group 2 children (mean age +/- SD, 91 +/- 36 vs. 66 +/- 32 months, respectively; P < .001) and had mean oral temperatures +/- SD similar to those of group 2 children (38.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 38.3 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively; P > .2); however, group 1 children had lower mean baseline pulse rates +/- SD than did group 2 children (119 +/- 25 vs. 127 +/- 28 beats/min, respectively; P < .001). In a multiple linear regression model, pulse rate was independently associated with age (inversely; P < .001) and oral temperature (positively; P < .006) but not with diagnostic group or gender (P > .5). After adjustment of the mean initial pulse rate +/- SD to age of 72 months, there was no difference between group 1 and group 2 children (126 +/- 24 vs. 126 +/- 20 beats/min, respectively; P > .5). From 4 to 72 hours after commencement of treatment, the mean oral temperature in group 1 patients was approximately 0.3 degrees C higher than that in group 2 patients, and the age-adjusted pulse rate was 5 beats/min higher in group 1 children than in group 2 children. These data suggest that relative bradycardia is not characteristic of enteric fever in children. (+info)
Outcome in three groups of patients with typhoid fever in Indonesia between 1948 and 1990. (3/836)The outcome in three groups of patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi, treated during three episodes between 1948 and 1990 in Java, Indonesia, was compared by retrospective analysis of hospital records. The study population consisted of three groups of patients. Group I (n = 50) was treated in Batavia (the present Jakarta) from 1948 to 1950, Group II (n = 61) in Yogyakarta from 1952 to 1956, Group III (n = 105) in Semarang from 1989 to 1990. Main outcome measures were days until defervescence, early relapses during hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, complications and mortality. Group I received supportive treatment only, Group II low doses of chloramphenicol (total 12.5 g) and Group III full doses of chloramphenicol (total 27 g); occasionally other antibiotics were used. In Group I, II and III the mean number of days until defervescence was 16, 8 and 6 and the mean number of days in hospital 43, 47 and 15, respectively. Mortality was 26%, 10% and 5% and complications occurred in 38%, 18% and 13%, respectively. Between Group I and Group II the differences in mortality and complications were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared to Group I the proportion of early relapses was higher in Group II, but was zero in Group III. There were significantly fewer gastrointestinal complications in Group II than in Group I (P < 0.01) and even fewer in Group III. When no antibiotic against S. typhi was available, typhoid fever had a protracted course, and only 74% of patients survived. Even with low dosages of chloramphenicol, defervescence was earlier and mortality and complications decreased dramatically, but early relapses were frequent. Full doses of chloramphenicol for a sufficient period of time only slightly reduced mortality and complications further, but eliminated early relapses completely. (+info)
A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. (4/836)From 1 January through 30 June 1997, 8901 cases of typhoid fever and 95 associated deaths were reported in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Of 29 Salmonella serotype Typhi isolates tested, 27 (93%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In a case-control study of 45 patients and 123 controls, Salmonella Typhi infection was associated with drinking unboiled water (matched odds ratio, 7; 95% confidence interval, 3-24; P<.001). Of tap water samples, 97% showed fecal coliform contamination (mean level, 175 cfu/100 mL). Samples taken from water treatment plants revealed that fecal coliform contamination occurred both before and after treatment. Lack of chlorination, equipment failure, and back-siphonage in the water distribution system led to contamination of drinking water. After chlorination and coagulation were begun at the treatment plants and a water conservation campaign was initiated to improve water pressure, the incidence of typhoid fever declined dramatically. (+info)
Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome occurring after typhoid fever: a possible role of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in the occurrence of diffuse vasculopathy-coagulopathy. (5/836)We report a case of well-documented typhoid fever in a 30-year-old woman with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus with asymptomatic lupus anticoagulant and high-titer anticardiolipin antibody (aCL). Despite prompt eradication of the Salmonella typhi obtained with appropriate antibiotic therapy, multiple organ system dysfunction occurred. The central nervous system was involved, with ischemic infarcts in the occipital lobes. High-dose corticosteroid therapy failed to improve the neurologic manifestations, which responded to repeated plasmapheresis. A sharp fall in aCL and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibody titers was recorded before the start of plasmapheresis. At the same time, IgM and IgG antibodies to Salmonella group O:9 lipopolysaccharide became detectable; the IgM antibodies disappeared within 4 months, whereas the IgG antibodies remained detectable during the next 13 months. Despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis developed, leading to chronic renal failure. There is convincing evidence of a link between the S. typhi infection and the ensuing catastrophic syndrome in this patient, probably precipitated by bacterial antigens. (+info)
Azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in a randomized trial in Egypt that included patients with multidrug resistance. (6/836)To compare clinical and bacteriological efficacies of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin for typhoid fever, 123 adults with fever and signs of uncomplicated typhoid fever were entered into a randomized trial. Cultures of blood were positive for Salmonella typhi in 59 patients and for S. paratyphi A in 3 cases; stool cultures were positive for S. typhi in 11 cases and for S. paratyphi A in 1 case. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was present in isolates of 21 of 64 patients with positive cultures. Of these 64 patients, 36 received 1 g of azithromycin orally once on the first day, followed by 500 mg given orally once daily on the next 6 days; 28 patients received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood cultures were repeated on days 4 and 10 after the start of therapy, and stool cultures were done on days 4, 10, and 28 after the start of therapy. All patients in both groups improved during therapy and were cured. Defervescence (maximum daily temperatures of +info)
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Kapemba infection in an otherwise healthy middle-aged man. (7/836)We report the case of a patient with a Salmonella Kapemba infection, who suffered, 3 weeks after a holiday in Israel, occurrences of high fever and lower back pain for 10 days and icterus for 2 days before admission. Laboratory findings revealed a slight cholestasis and elevation of acute phase protein levels. In the blood culture a Salmonella Kapemba-type organism was cultured. The patient was afebrile for 10 days after hospitalization and then suddenly developed a temperature of 40 degrees C again. At the same time leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a rise of D-dimer levels were detected. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for a few days, because a disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. With magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy no osteomyelitis or abscess formation could be found. A transesophageal ultrasonography of the heart revealed no signs of endocarditis. In multiple stool cultures no salmonellas could be detected. After antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin the fever and lower back pain subsided, and the patient was discharged a fortnight later. This is the first reported case of typhoid fever due to the bacterium Salmonella Kapemba. (+info)
Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes. (8/836)The cytokine production patterns of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) were examined in culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated with STF. Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi, PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. Stimulation with STF induced rapid de novo synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), followed by IL-6 and IL-10. Trypsin treatment of STF abrogated their effects, while polymyxin B had no effect. Intracellular cytokine measurements of STF-stimulated PBMC revealed the existence of monocyte subpopulations that produce only TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or both cytokines. Moreover, STF markedly decreased the percentage of CD14(+) cells. These data demonstrate that STF are powerful monocyte activators which may have important implications for vaccine development and for understanding the pathogenesis of S. typhi infection. (+info)
The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
* High fever
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure
* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)
* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
Paratyphoid fever is typically spread through contaminated food or water, and it can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's feces. The symptoms of paratyphoid fever may include fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, such as meningitis or pericarditis.
Paratyphoid fever is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to shorten the duration and severity of the illness. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and manage any complications.
Prevention is key to avoiding paratyphoid fever, and this includes practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the infection, such as healthcare workers or travelers to areas where the infection is common.
The disease is primarily transmitted through inhalation of infected particles, such as dust or aerosols, which contain the bacterium. People working in close contact with animals, such as veterinarians and farmers, are at higher risk of contracting Q fever.
Symptoms of Q fever typically develop within 2-3 weeks after exposure and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the heart, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of Q fever is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and epidemiological investigations. Laboratory confirmation of the disease requires the isolation of Coxiella burnetii from blood or other bodily fluids.
Treatment of Q fever typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection if administered early. However, treatment is not always necessary for mild cases, and some people may recover without any treatment.
Prevention of Q fever primarily involves avoiding exposure to infected animals or their tissues, as well as practicing good hygiene practices such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues. Vaccination is also available for high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and farmers.
Overall, Q fever is an important zoonotic disease that can cause significant illness in humans and a range of animal species. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to preventing complications and ensuring effective management of the disease.
Intestinal perforations can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but they are most common in the small intestine. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma: Intestinal perforation can occur as a result of blunt abdominal trauma, such as a car accident or fall.
2. Gastrointestinal (GI) disease: Certain GI conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or diverticulitis, can increase the risk of intestinal perforation.
3. Infections: Bacterial infections, such as appendicitis, can cause intestinal perforation.
4. Cancer: Intestinal cancer can cause a perforation if it grows through the wall of the intestine.
5. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage in the intestine can cause pressure to build up and lead to a perforation.
Symptoms of intestinal perforation include:
1. Severe abdominal pain
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Abdominal tenderness and guarding (muscle tension)
5. Diarrhea or constipation
6. Loss of appetite
If intestinal perforation is suspected, immediate medical attention is necessary. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the hole in the intestine and drain any abscesses that have formed. In some cases, the damaged portion of the intestine may need to be removed.
With prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for intestinal perforation is generally good. However, if left untreated, it can lead to severe complications, such as sepsis (a systemic infection) and death.
Yellow fever is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, with a high mortality rate in unvaccinated individuals. However, it can be prevented through vaccination, which is recommended for all travelers to areas where the virus is present. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) both recommend that travelers to these areas receive a yellow fever vaccine at least 10 days before travel to ensure adequate protection.
Yellow fever is not contagious, meaning it cannot be spread from person to person through casual contact. However, infected mosquitoes can transmit the virus to other animals and humans. The virus is most commonly found in monkeys and other primates, which can become carriers of the disease without showing any symptoms.
There are several strains of the yellow fever virus, with some being more virulent than others. The most common strain is the Asibi strain, which is found in West Africa and is responsible for most outbreaks of the disease. Other strains include the Central African, East African, and South American strains.
Yellow fever was first identified in the 17th century in West Africa, where it was known as "yellow jack" due to the yellowish tint of the skin of infected individuals. The disease spread throughout the Americas during the colonial period, where it caused devastating outbreaks and killed millions of people. In the United States, yellow fever was eradicated in the early 20th century through vaccination and mosquito control measures. However, it still remains a significant public health threat in many parts of the world today.
Prevention of yellow fever is primarily achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for travelers to areas where the disease is common. Vaccines are available in different forms, including injectable and oral versions, and they provide long-lasting protection against the virus. In addition to vaccination, other measures can be taken to prevent the spread of yellow fever, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune response. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous fluids and other supportive care. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the disease.
Prevention is key to avoiding yellow fever, and vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this deadly disease. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for yellow fever, individuals can take steps to protect themselves and their loved ones from this potentially deadly illness.
Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.
Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.
Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.
The term "fever of unknown origin" was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe cases of fever that were unexplained after a careful physical examination, laboratory testing, and other diagnostic procedures. FUO is also sometimes referred to as "undifferentiated fever."
FUO can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions, including infections, inflammatory disorders, malignancies, and other rare medical conditions. Some common causes of FUO include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, tuberculosis, and rheumatic fever.
The diagnosis of FUO is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment of FUO typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement, pain management, and antipyretic medications, as well as empiric antibiotic therapy until the underlying cause is identified.
In summary, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a type of fever that cannot be diagnosed or identified after a thorough medical evaluation, and it can be caused by a wide range of underlying conditions.
A group of infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected body lice. The three forms of epidemic typhus are:
1. Classic typhus fever, which is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, headache, myalgia, and a rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness.
2. Brilliant's disease, which is similar to classic typhus fever but with a more rapid onset and a higher mortality rate.
3. Endemic typhus, which is a mild form of the disease that occurs in areas where the disease is constantly present.
Epidemic louse-borne typhus has been known to occur in areas of poverty, poor hygiene, and overcrowding, such as refugee camps, homeless shelters, and prisons. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include using insecticides to kill body lice and improving living conditions to reduce the risk of transmission.
1. Crohn's disease: A chronic inflammatory condition that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most commonly affects the ileum.
2. Ulcerative colitis: A chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine and rectum, but can also affect the ileum.
3. Ileal tumors: Such as carcinoid tumors, lymphoma, and sarcomas.
4. Ileal polyps: Growths of abnormal tissue in the ileum that can cause bleeding, obstruction, or cancer.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, that cause inflammation in the digestive tract.
6. Ileal strictures: Narrowing of the ileum that can cause obstruction and blockage of food passage.
7. Ileal dilatation: Expansion of the ileum beyond its normal size, which can cause abdominal pain and discomfort.
8. Ileal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the ileum, which can cause damage and inflammation.
9. Ileal infections: Such as bacterial or viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the ileum.
10. Ileal varices: Enlarged veins in the ileum that can cause bleeding and other complications.
These are some of the common ileal diseases, but there may be others depending on the individual case and specific symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe abdominal symptoms to get an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The term "Salmonella Infections, Animal" is used to distinguish these infections from Salmonella infections that are caused by contaminated food or water, which are referred to as "Salmonella Infections, Human."
Signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever may include:
* Joint pain and swelling
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Sore throat
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
Rheumatic fever can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and electrocardiogram (ECG).
Treatment for rheumatic fever typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.
Complications of rheumatic fever can include:
* Heart damage, such as inflammation of the heart muscle or scarring of the heart valves
* Joint damage, leading to long-term arthritis
* Nervous system damage, including inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
* Kidney damage
* Skin damage, including rashes and skin lesions
Prevention of rheumatic fever includes prompt treatment of group A streptococcal infections with antibiotics, as well as good hygiene practices to avoid the spread of infection. Vaccines are also available to prevent streptococcal infections.
The patient was admitted to the hospital with toxemia caused by a severe allergic reaction to a new medication.
The symptoms of RVF in humans can range from mild to severe and include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and bleeding disorders. In severe cases, RVF can cause hemorrhagic fever, which can lead to death. Pregnant women, the elderly, and young children are at higher risk for developing severe forms of the disease.
RVF is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and serology. Treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting vital organ function, and may include antiviral medications, antibiotics, and blood transfusions.
Prevention of RVF relies on controlling the transmission of the virus by reducing the population of infected mosquitoes through insecticides, eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed, and protecting against mosquito bites using personal protective measures such as long sleeves, pants, and insect repellents. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent RVF.
Rift Valley fever is a significant public health concern in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, where it can have a significant impact on human health, animal production, and economic development. Outbreaks of RVF can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, as well as disruption of social and economic activities.
History of typhoid fever
Bournemouth typhoid outbreak of 1936
Croydon typhoid outbreak of 1937
Economic importance of bacteria
George C. Whipple
D. LeRoy Dresser
Johann Lukas Schönlein
Katherine Bay, Auckland
Thomas Dutton (physician)
List of epidemics
Monark Springs, Missouri
Katherine Mansfield House and Garden
Collins H. Johnston
Arthur Fulton (engineer)
City of Glen Eira
Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis
The Bishop (short story)
William Watts McNair
Carrie Chapman Catt
Roman Catholic Diocese of Gap-Embrun
Rhodesia and weapons of mass destruction
Mary Ann Cotton
John Abner Snell
Simon Brown (Massachusetts politician)
List of Puerto Rican scientists and inventors
Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies
William Jay Youmans
John H. Doyle
Home | Typhoid Fever | CDC
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Onset of typhoid fever with aphasia.
Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. | Cochrane Database Syst Rev;5: CD001261, 2018 05 31. | MEDLINE
Typhoid Fever (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi)| CDC
- Typhoid or enteric fever is one of the most infectious diseases. (indianetzone.com)
- Typhoid or enteric fever is one of the more difficult fevers to deal with. (indianetzone.com)
- This cross sectional study on enteric fever was carried out during the period of July 2008 to June 2009 on 30 patients between 2 months 12 years of age of either sex admitted with the clinical diagnosis of enteric fever having positive hemoculture for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi and or significant Widal test. (banglajol.info)
- Some of the host and pathogenic mechanisms that are involved in the two most common clinical syndromes associated with Salmonella enteric infection: enterocolitis and typhoid. (alliedacademies.org)
- Typhoid, also known as "enteric fever", is a bacterial infection caused by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with disease-causing bacteria. (marham.pk)
- Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. (nih.gov)
- Typhoid and Paratyphoid Cost of Illness in Nepal: Patient and Health Facility Costs From the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project II. (bvsalud.org)
- Enteric fever is endemic in Nepal and its economic burden is unknown. (bvsalud.org)
- The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of illness due to enteric fever ( typhoid and paratyphoid) at selected sites in Nepal . (bvsalud.org)
- We implemented a study at 2 hospitals in Nepal to estimate the cost per case of enteric fever from the perspectives of patients , caregivers , and healthcare providers . (bvsalud.org)
- We estimated healthcare provider direct medical economic costs based on quantities and prices of resources used to diagnose and treat enteric fever , and procedure frequencies received at these facilities by enrolled patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Enteric fever can impose a considerable economic burden on patients , caregivers , and health facilities in Nepal . (bvsalud.org)
- These new estimates of enteric fever cost of illness can improve evaluation and modeling of the costs and benefits of enteric fever -prevention measures . (bvsalud.org)
- Background: very little info concerning the results of floods on enteric fever is out there in previous studies. (netzen.co.in)
- This study aimed to look at the relationships between floods and enteric fever and to spot the vulnerable teams in Yongzhou, China. (netzen.co.in)
- Methods: Weekly enteric fever knowledge, flood knowledge and earth science knowledge throughout the flood season (April to September) from 2005 to 2012 were collected for this study. (netzen.co.in)
- A Poisson generalized linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was conducted to quantify the lagged and additive effects of floods on enteric fever, considering the unsupportive effects of long-run trend, seasonality, and earth science variables. (netzen.co.in)
- The model was conjointly wont to calculate risk ratios of floods for weekly enteric fever cases among varied subpopulations. (netzen.co.in)
- During 2011 an outsized natural event of enteric fever affected associate calculable 1430 individuals in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. (netzen.co.in)
- The disease is a type of enteric fever, along with paratyphoid fever . (healthtian.com)
Centers for Diseas3
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website has information about where typhoid fever is common -- www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/index.html . (nih.gov)
- To clarify indications for typhoid vaccination, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed cases of typhoid fever reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1994 and 1999. (nih.gov)
- The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says typhoid fever isn't common in the U.S. but affects 22 million people annually in other countries. (ksl.com)
- Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are life-threatening illnesses caused by Salmonella serotype Typhi and Salmonella serotype Paratyphi, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- Most people in the United States with typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever become infected while traveling abroad, most often to countries where these diseases are common. (cdc.gov)
- Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, and Paratyphi C cause potentially severe and occasionally life-threatening bacteremic illnesses referred to as typhoid fever (for Typhi serotype) and paratyphoid fever (for Paratyphi serotypes), and collectively as enteric fever. (cdc.gov)
- Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are acquired through consumption of water or food contaminated by feces of an acutely infected or convalescent person, or a person with chronic, asymptomatic carriage. (cdc.gov)
- An estimated 11-21 million cases of typhoid fever and 5 million cases of paratyphoid fever occur worldwide each year, causing an estimated 135,000-230,000 deaths. (cdc.gov)
- paratyphoid fever caused by Paratyphi B and Paratyphi C is rarely reported. (cdc.gov)
- The incubation period of both typhoid and paratyphoid infections is 6-30 days. (cdc.gov)
- Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death , particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia . (bvsalud.org)
- A similar but often less serious disease, paratyphoid fever, is caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A and B (or uncommonly Paratyphi C). (healthtian.com)
Control Typhoid fever4
- To prevent and control Typhoid fever, key interventions include hygiene promotion, improvement of water safety, use of safe water for all purpose, better sanitation infrastructure and ensuring adequate and timely access to patient care. (who.int)
- Unlike most other vaccine-preventable diseases, it has not been vaccines, but rather improved hygiene, sanitation, and food safety that helped control typhoid fever in the United States. (vaxopedia.org)
- Therefore, safe drinking water, improved sanitation and adequate medical care can help to prevent and control typhoid fever. (paxspharma.com)
- Hence, some experts believe that vaccines are the best way to control typhoid fever. (paxspharma.com)
- The typhoid vaccination play an important role to control endemic typhoid fever and outbreaks as well. (who.int)
- In endemic areas like Bangladesh ultrasound findings of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, bowel wall thickening, gall bladder changes are useful diagnostic features of typhoid fever. (banglajol.info)
- All trials but one took place in typhoid -endemic countries. (bvsalud.org)
- Background: Typhoid fever is endemic in Fiji, with high reported annual incidence. (edu.au)
- Typhoid fever may be a multisystem unhealthiness caused primarily by the typhoidal enterobacteria serovars that area unit endemic in bound regions of the globe. (netzen.co.in)
- It will be recalled that in October 2017, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization, recommended TCV for routine use in children over 6 months of age in typhoid endemic countries. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- A blood culture during the first week of the fever can show S typhi bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease, caused by Salmonella typhi . (who.int)
- Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream, caused by the highly virulent bacteria Salmonella Typhi . (who.int)
- This fever is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. (indianetzone.com)
- Typhoid fever is caused by ingesting the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, which multiplies in the human bloodstream. (borgenproject.org)
- Human typhoid is caused by ingesting S. enterica serovar Typhi bacteria, commonly by contaminated water or animal products, or through intimate contact with an infected individual or carrier. (alliedacademies.org)
- The outcome addressed was typhoid fever , defined as isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood . (bvsalud.org)
- That makes sense though, as the Salmonella Typhi bacteria that causes typhoid fever is typically spread by ingesting food and water that is contaminated with feces from a S . Typhi carrier. (vaxopedia.org)
- And the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi continues to push interest in new and better typhoid fever vaccines. (vaxopedia.org)
- Typhoid fever is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria which can be spread via contaminated food and water or close contact with an infected person. (paxspharma.com)
- SAGE also called for the introduction of TCV to be prioritized for countries with the highest burden of typhoid disease or of antibiotic resistance to Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium that causes the disease. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- It further advised that the use of the vaccine will help to curb the frequent use of antibiotics for treatment of presumed typhoid fever, and thereby help to slow the alarming increase in antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhi. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- Antibiotics are used to eliminate the Salmonella typhi bacteria that causes typhoid. (healthtian.com)
- Person may get typhoid fever by consuming food or drink that has been carried by someone having the bacteria, or if sewage contaminated with S. Typhi gets into water used for drinking or washing food. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Among the available typhoid vaccines, typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) is preferred at all ages for its improved immunological properties, suitability for use in younger children and expected longer duration of protection. (who.int)
- Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. (bvsalud.org)
- Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). (bvsalud.org)
- Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. (bvsalud.org)
- To assess the effects of vaccines for preventing typhoid fever . (bvsalud.org)
- SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease ) in adults and children . (bvsalud.org)
- Typhoid fever vaccines were once given more routinely, as you can see from this immunization schedule from the 1940s . (vaxopedia.org)
- There was the rabies vaccine ( Louis Pasteur ) in 1885 and then vaccines for cholera and typhoid in 1896. (vaxopedia.org)
- The WHO, through a press statement described the Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) as innovative products that have longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines, require fewer doses, and can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programmes. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but only partially effective. (healthtian.com)
- Vaccines usually are generally reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is prevalent. (healthtian.com)
- The growth, called a culture, is checked under a microscope for the typhoid bacteria. (mayoclinic.org)
- One is a test to detect antibodies to typhoid bacteria in your blood. (mayoclinic.org)
- The medicine you get to treat typhoid fever may depend on where you picked up the bacteria. (mayoclinic.org)
- Sometimes, even when the symptoms are eliminated, people may still carry the typhoid bacteria, which means they can still spread it to others through their faeces. (paxspharma.com)
- People who are infected with typhoid pass the bacteria in their faeces and occasionally in their urine. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- Symptoms of typhoid fever range from mild to severe and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure to the bacteria. (healthtian.com)
- Symptoms of typhoid fever typically begin between 6 and 30 days after being exposed to the bacteria. (healthtian.com)
- This might sound strange but it is true that reactions to antibiotics vary for typhoid bacteria from one place to another. (ufasafety.xyz)
- The strain of typhoid bacteria is different at different places and the antibiotics vary accordingly. (ufasafety.xyz)
- When these contaminated food or drinks, are taken by healthy person, bacteria enter in to the body of person and causes typhoid fever. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Only 3 to 5 per cent of people recovered from typhoid become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness. (ufasafety.xyz)
- If you plan to travel outside of the United States, find out if you need the typhoid fever vaccine at www.cdc.gov/travel . (cdc.gov)
- A vaccine is recommended for travel outside of the United States to places where there is typhoid fever. (nih.gov)
- However, availability of good quality surveillance data on typhoid fever is a pre-requisite for introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccine either as preventive or control strategy for typhoid fever. (who.int)
- To estimate the risk of adverse events associated with typhoid vaccination, we reviewed reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System for the same period. (nih.gov)
- Only one trial included data on children under two years of age.Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine , three doses)A three- dose schedule of Ty21a vaccine probably prevents around half of typhoid cases during the first three years after vaccination (cumulative efficacy 2.5 to 3 years 50%, 95% CI 35% to 61%, 4 trials, 235,239 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). (bvsalud.org)
- Report of the Ad-hoc consultation on typhoid vaccine introduction and typhoid surveillance. (who.int)
- You can prevent typhoid fever by receiving a vaccine and taking preventive measures to avoid transmission. (otandp.com)
Drug-resistant typhoid fever2
Areas where typhoid fever1
- Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is established. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Travelers visiting friends and relatives are at increased risk because they might be less careful with food and water while abroad than other travelers and might not seek pretravel health consultation or typhoid vaccination (see Sec. 9, Ch. 9, Visiting Friends & Relatives: VFR Travel ). (cdc.gov)
- Typhoid vaccination can contribute to reduction of antibiotics use, which will delay AMR. (who.int)
- Reports of serious adverse events due to typhoid vaccination were very rare. (nih.gov)
- In addition to being careful about what you eat and drink, typhoid fever can be effectively prevented with the Typhoid Fever Vaccination. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- Vaccination is recommended for anyone planning to travel to parts of the world where typhoid fever is widespread. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- Before your trip, contact Touchwood Pharmacy for typhoid vaccination in Northolt and Leighton Buzzard. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- You can also get the typhoid vaccination in Northolt and Camberley from our comprehensive travel clinics. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- To See the use of abdominal ultrasonogrphic in the diagnosis of Typhoid fever. (banglajol.info)
Countries where typhoid1
- Most cases in the United States are brought in from other countries where typhoid fever is common. (nih.gov)
Burden of typhoid2
- Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash . (nih.gov)
- The research of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of susceptible mice has contributed greatly to our understanding of typhoid pathophysiology [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In the absence of intestinal infection, the central virulence aspects of typhoid may be regarded intracellular replication and survival [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- The symptoms of typhoid fever will start to develop 1-2 weeks after infection. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- Practising safe eating and drinking habits is very important to preventing typhoid fever infection . (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- This is because the antibiotic is mainly based on the area from where the typhoid infection has been contracted. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics but resistance to common antimicrobials is widespread. (who.int)
- Still, diseases like typhoid fever, identified in the quarantine poster to the left, remain very common worldwide over 60 years after the development of the first antibiotics. (nih.gov)
- Various kinds of antibiotics are proved to be highly effective in the treatment of typhoid in children. (ufasafety.xyz)
- High fever (103°F, or 39.5°C) or higher and severe diarrhea occur as the disease gets worse. (nih.gov)
- Easily contracted through contaminated food or water sources, the disease causes symptoms including chronic high fevers, headaches, nausea and diarrhea and, in severe cases, can be fatal. (borgenproject.org)
- Early symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, and abdominal pain. (nih.gov)
- This acute infectious disease is characterized by high fever, spots, and abdominal pain. (bangkokpattayahospital.com)
- It is characterized by the inflammation of the intestines, leading to high fever, chills, body aches, and abdominal pain. (marham.pk)
- Symptoms include a high-grade fever often accompanied by weakness, constipation, abdominal pain, and vomiting. (healthtian.com)
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the primary symptoms include fevers and headaches. (borgenproject.org)
- Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention? (nih.gov)
World Health Organ1
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO) , between 11 and 21 million cases and 128 000 to 161 000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide. (healthtian.com)
- Diarrhoea is a frequent and constant symptom of such fever. (indianetzone.com)
- The methods of transmission of Typhoid Fever are through sewage contamination of food or water and through person-to-person contact. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Typhoid sickness manifests itself in humans one to two weeks after bacterial inoculation with broad fever and malaise, abdominal discomfort with or without additional symptoms such as headache, myalgias, nausea, anorexia, and constipation [ 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- A 17-year-old young lady conferred to Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, with high-grade fever and headache for 4 days and non-projectile vomiting for 1 day. (netzen.co.in)
Spread through contaminated food2
- LOS ANGELES (AP) - A Los Angeles police detective has been diagnosed with typhoid fever, a rare illness typically spread through contaminated food or water, and at least five other officers who work in the same station are showing symptoms, union officials said Thursday. (ksl.com)
- For those who may not be aware of the burden of the disease, Typhoid is a serious and sometimes fatal disease spread through contaminated food and water. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- This helps prevent the dehydration caused by a long fever and diarrhea. (mayoclinic.org)
- The onset of illness is insidious, with gradually increasing fatigue and a fever that increases daily from low-grade to 102°F-104°F (38°C-40°C) by the third or fourth day of illness. (cdc.gov)
- She said homeless people could have a slightly higher risk of typhoid fever than others because of limited access to clean bathrooms or being immigrants from countries where the illness is more prevalent, but she doubted that the officers got sick from their work on Skid Row. (ksl.com)
- Typhoid fever is a very serious illness. (touchwoodpharmacy.com)
- With children under the age of 15 accounting for about 64% of Malawi's typhoid infections and 67% of its typhoid deaths as of 2017, increased drug resistance has made typhoid a growing concern in recent years. (borgenproject.org)
- Methodology/Principal findings: We identified and surveyed patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever from January 2014 through January 2017. (edu.au)
- Poor sanitation and lack of access to safe water have made it prevalent in Malawi, recording an estimated 16,000 cases or more of typhoid each year. (borgenproject.org)
- Typhoid fever is common in places with poor sanitation and a lack of safe drinking water. (paxspharma.com)
- In addition, increasing resistance to antibiotic treatment is making it easier for typhoid to spread through overcrowded populations in cities and inadequate and/or flooded water and sanitation systems. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- The risk factors of Typhoid Fever are coming in close contact with a person having typhoid, have poor hygiene habits, and traveling to the places where sanitation is poor. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Malaria, typhoid and cholera are three of the most predominant diseases impacting Malawi. (borgenproject.org)
- The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
- The critical unwellness typhoid results from the continued battle between the microorganism infectious agent enterics and therefore the immune cells of the body. (netzen.co.in)
- a research cluster has currently uncovered however the typhoid fever infectious agent repeatedly manages to evade the host's system. (netzen.co.in)
- Epidemiology and risk factors for typhoid fever in Central Division, F" by Namrata Prasad, Aaron P. Jenkins et al. (edu.au)
- Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever. (mayoclinic.org)
- How can I find treatment of Typhoid Fever? (marham.pk)
- Typhoid patients feel very weak after the end of the treatment. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Currently, acetaminophen has shown to have great results in the treatment of typhoid for children. (ufasafety.xyz)
- As mentioned earlier here, diet alone cannot cure typhoid and you will have to undergo proper treatment as well. (ufasafety.xyz)
- Marham is Pakistan's leading healthcare platform that provides the list of best doctors for Typhoid in Multan . (marham.pk)
Book an appointment1
- You can book an appointment with the best Typhoid specialist Multan . (marham.pk)
- Typhoid fever is an important public health problem in many low and middle income countries, causing between 11 and 21 million cases and between 128,000 to 161,000 deaths each year. (who.int)
- Ultrasonogram was done on first week of fever in 33.3% cases, on second week in 43.3% cases and third week in 23.3% cases. (banglajol.info)
- Global estimates of the typhoid burden range between 11 and 20 million cases and between about 128 000 and 161 000 typhoid deaths annually. (pharmanewsonline.com)
- If left untreated, around 1 in 5 cases of typhoid fever can be fatal. (healthtian.com)
- We sought to identify the sources and modes of transmission of typhoid fever in Fiji with the aim to inform disease control. (edu.au)