Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).TajikistanVietnamChloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Mammea: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain xanthones and BENZOPHENONES. The common name of Mamey is also used with POUTERIA.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.PakistanGeography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Rheumatic Fever: A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.UzbekistanSalmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Toxemia: A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.

An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay. (1/836)

AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi.  (+info)

Relative bradycardia is not a feature of enteric fever in children. (2/836)

We investigated pulse-temperature relationships in 66 children with enteric fever (group 1) and in 76 with other infections (group 2). Group 1 children were older than group 2 children (mean age +/- SD, 91 +/- 36 vs. 66 +/- 32 months, respectively; P < .001) and had mean oral temperatures +/- SD similar to those of group 2 children (38.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 38.3 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively; P > .2); however, group 1 children had lower mean baseline pulse rates +/- SD than did group 2 children (119 +/- 25 vs. 127 +/- 28 beats/min, respectively; P < .001). In a multiple linear regression model, pulse rate was independently associated with age (inversely; P < .001) and oral temperature (positively; P < .006) but not with diagnostic group or gender (P > .5). After adjustment of the mean initial pulse rate +/- SD to age of 72 months, there was no difference between group 1 and group 2 children (126 +/- 24 vs. 126 +/- 20 beats/min, respectively; P > .5). From 4 to 72 hours after commencement of treatment, the mean oral temperature in group 1 patients was approximately 0.3 degrees C higher than that in group 2 patients, and the age-adjusted pulse rate was 5 beats/min higher in group 1 children than in group 2 children. These data suggest that relative bradycardia is not characteristic of enteric fever in children.  (+info)

Outcome in three groups of patients with typhoid fever in Indonesia between 1948 and 1990. (3/836)

The outcome in three groups of patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi, treated during three episodes between 1948 and 1990 in Java, Indonesia, was compared by retrospective analysis of hospital records. The study population consisted of three groups of patients. Group I (n = 50) was treated in Batavia (the present Jakarta) from 1948 to 1950, Group II (n = 61) in Yogyakarta from 1952 to 1956, Group III (n = 105) in Semarang from 1989 to 1990. Main outcome measures were days until defervescence, early relapses during hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, complications and mortality. Group I received supportive treatment only, Group II low doses of chloramphenicol (total 12.5 g) and Group III full doses of chloramphenicol (total 27 g); occasionally other antibiotics were used. In Group I, II and III the mean number of days until defervescence was 16, 8 and 6 and the mean number of days in hospital 43, 47 and 15, respectively. Mortality was 26%, 10% and 5% and complications occurred in 38%, 18% and 13%, respectively. Between Group I and Group II the differences in mortality and complications were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared to Group I the proportion of early relapses was higher in Group II, but was zero in Group III. There were significantly fewer gastrointestinal complications in Group II than in Group I (P < 0.01) and even fewer in Group III. When no antibiotic against S. typhi was available, typhoid fever had a protracted course, and only 74% of patients survived. Even with low dosages of chloramphenicol, defervescence was earlier and mortality and complications decreased dramatically, but early relapses were frequent. Full doses of chloramphenicol for a sufficient period of time only slightly reduced mortality and complications further, but eliminated early relapses completely.  (+info)

A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. (4/836)

From 1 January through 30 June 1997, 8901 cases of typhoid fever and 95 associated deaths were reported in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Of 29 Salmonella serotype Typhi isolates tested, 27 (93%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In a case-control study of 45 patients and 123 controls, Salmonella Typhi infection was associated with drinking unboiled water (matched odds ratio, 7; 95% confidence interval, 3-24; P<.001). Of tap water samples, 97% showed fecal coliform contamination (mean level, 175 cfu/100 mL). Samples taken from water treatment plants revealed that fecal coliform contamination occurred both before and after treatment. Lack of chlorination, equipment failure, and back-siphonage in the water distribution system led to contamination of drinking water. After chlorination and coagulation were begun at the treatment plants and a water conservation campaign was initiated to improve water pressure, the incidence of typhoid fever declined dramatically.  (+info)

Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome occurring after typhoid fever: a possible role of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in the occurrence of diffuse vasculopathy-coagulopathy. (5/836)

We report a case of well-documented typhoid fever in a 30-year-old woman with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus with asymptomatic lupus anticoagulant and high-titer anticardiolipin antibody (aCL). Despite prompt eradication of the Salmonella typhi obtained with appropriate antibiotic therapy, multiple organ system dysfunction occurred. The central nervous system was involved, with ischemic infarcts in the occipital lobes. High-dose corticosteroid therapy failed to improve the neurologic manifestations, which responded to repeated plasmapheresis. A sharp fall in aCL and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibody titers was recorded before the start of plasmapheresis. At the same time, IgM and IgG antibodies to Salmonella group O:9 lipopolysaccharide became detectable; the IgM antibodies disappeared within 4 months, whereas the IgG antibodies remained detectable during the next 13 months. Despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis developed, leading to chronic renal failure. There is convincing evidence of a link between the S. typhi infection and the ensuing catastrophic syndrome in this patient, probably precipitated by bacterial antigens.  (+info)

Azithromycin versus ciprofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in a randomized trial in Egypt that included patients with multidrug resistance. (6/836)

To compare clinical and bacteriological efficacies of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin for typhoid fever, 123 adults with fever and signs of uncomplicated typhoid fever were entered into a randomized trial. Cultures of blood were positive for Salmonella typhi in 59 patients and for S. paratyphi A in 3 cases; stool cultures were positive for S. typhi in 11 cases and for S. paratyphi A in 1 case. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was present in isolates of 21 of 64 patients with positive cultures. Of these 64 patients, 36 received 1 g of azithromycin orally once on the first day, followed by 500 mg given orally once daily on the next 6 days; 28 patients received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood cultures were repeated on days 4 and 10 after the start of therapy, and stool cultures were done on days 4, 10, and 28 after the start of therapy. All patients in both groups improved during therapy and were cured. Defervescence (maximum daily temperatures of +info)

Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Kapemba infection in an otherwise healthy middle-aged man. (7/836)

We report the case of a patient with a Salmonella Kapemba infection, who suffered, 3 weeks after a holiday in Israel, occurrences of high fever and lower back pain for 10 days and icterus for 2 days before admission. Laboratory findings revealed a slight cholestasis and elevation of acute phase protein levels. In the blood culture a Salmonella Kapemba-type organism was cultured. The patient was afebrile for 10 days after hospitalization and then suddenly developed a temperature of 40 degrees C again. At the same time leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a rise of D-dimer levels were detected. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for a few days, because a disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. With magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy no osteomyelitis or abscess formation could be found. A transesophageal ultrasonography of the heart revealed no signs of endocarditis. In multiple stool cultures no salmonellas could be detected. After antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin the fever and lower back pain subsided, and the patient was discharged a fortnight later. This is the first reported case of typhoid fever due to the bacterium Salmonella Kapemba.  (+info)

Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes. (8/836)

The cytokine production patterns of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) were examined in culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated with STF. Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi, PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. Stimulation with STF induced rapid de novo synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), followed by IL-6 and IL-10. Trypsin treatment of STF abrogated their effects, while polymyxin B had no effect. Intracellular cytokine measurements of STF-stimulated PBMC revealed the existence of monocyte subpopulations that produce only TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or both cytokines. Moreover, STF markedly decreased the percentage of CD14(+) cells. These data demonstrate that STF are powerful monocyte activators which may have important implications for vaccine development and for understanding the pathogenesis of S. typhi infection.  (+info)

  • Two typhoid vaccines are available in the U.S. One is a series of capsules and the other is an injection. (kidshealth.org)
  • There are two other typhoid vaccines, but one comes in a capsule too large for young children to swallow, and the second is an injection that doesn't work in children under the age of two. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • Based on Steinberg et al's estimate that 5.5 million doses of typhoid vaccines (oral live-attenuated, parenteral heat-inactivated, and parenteral capsular polysaccharide) were administered, estimated rates for hospitalization, disability, and death were 0.47, 0.03, and 0 per 100,000 vaccine recipients, respectively. (reliasmedia.com)
  • What is the limit in a Widal test to determine if a person has typhoid fever? (healthtap.com)
  • Typhoid fever is a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • The trial, which took place in Nepal and included children as young as nine months old, provides evidence of the vaccine's potential level of impact for preventing typhoid, a bacterial infection often spread through contaminated water which leaves people sick for weeks or months. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • We can contact the infection if we eat food handled by someone with typhoid fever who hasn't washed carefully after using the toilet. (clinicone.com.np)
  • Therefore, in this article we want to inform you about everything regarding typhoid fever: infection, symptoms and treatment. (fromdoctor.com)
  • If we are to combat typhoid, understanding how the toxin causes breaks in the DNA of human cells and promotes infection is key and we hope this find will be the first step in developing new strategies to control typhoid, which affects some of the world's most vulnerable communities. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Your healthcare provider will use a blood test or stool sample to diagnose typhoid fever. (rochester.edu)
  • People usually get typhoid fever by drinking beverages or eating food that has been handled by someone who has typhoid fever or is a carrier of the illness. (kidshealth.org)
  • The distinguishing characteristics of typhoid fever illness are high fever (temperature as high as 40°C [104°F]), feeling generally weak and achy (malaise), headache, loss of appetite, rash, and sometimes diarrhea or constipation. (skinsight.com)
  • For any illness with high fever, rash, and gastrointestinal symptoms, it is a good idea to consult a doctor. (skinsight.com)
  • But if you plan to travel to a foreign country (especially South-central and Southeast Asia, Africa, Latin America, or the Caribbean), it's a good idea to talk to your doctor about prevention and treatment of typhoid fever. (kidshealth.org)
  • Due to the mechanisms that this bacterium uses to enter the human body, typhoid fever is more common in developing places, where the environmental condition, sanitation and hygienic infrastructures are not usually efficient and of quality. (fromdoctor.com)
  • In the first week, the body temperature rises slowly, and fever fluctuations are seen with relative bradycardia ( Faget sign ), malaise , headache, and cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • After treatment for typhoid fever I had blood test and the result was negative, but still I feel stomach ache, numbness of hands, headache and feeling sick with nausea. (medicinenet.com)
  • first I had a runny nose for whole day, then the next day, I woke up to find myself fatigued, unable to eat anything and with a fever along with headache. (medicinenet.com)
  • A recent analysis of the global burden of typhoid fever estimated the annual total for the year 2000 to be at least 21 million illnesses and at least 210,000 deaths. (reliasmedia.com)
  • The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. (aku.edu)
  • Sir.can u plz prescribe the treatment for resistant typhoid fever? (healthtap.com)
  • The researchers now hope to further investigate how this discovery can be exploited to help us diagnose and treat typhoid as well, as determine whether the RING phenotype is a signature of other diseases associated with DNA damage, such as cancer. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Description of the Research Project: It has been previously shown that IFN-gamma and IL-17 are increased in typhoid fever patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with fever preferred to visit pharmacies in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, and favored self-management of fever in Moshi. (duke.edu)
  • Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second week, the person is often too tired to get up, with high fever in plateau around 40 °C (104 °F) and bradycardia (sphygmothermic dissociation or Faget sign), classically with a dicrotic pulse wave. (wikipedia.org)