Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type II: A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins with eight transmembrane domains. They are present primarily in the KIDNEY and SMALL INTESTINE and are responsible for renal and small intestinal epithelial transport of phosphate.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type II: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Keratins, Type II: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 126.96.36.199.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.ArthritisFatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Interleukin-4, Type II: An interleukin receptor subtype found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. It is a membrane-bound heterodimer that contains the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. Although commonly referred to as the interleukin-4 type-II receptor this receptor has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13Mice, Inbred DBAActivin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mucopolysaccharidosis II: Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antifreeze Proteins, Type II: A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that have a cystine-rich globular structure of approximately 14 kD.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Iduronate Sulfatase: An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 188.8.131.52.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Citrullinemia: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Endoleak: Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 184.108.40.206.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Human T-lymphotropic virus 2: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Glycogen Storage Disease: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.DNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the covalent sugar-phosphate linkages between NUCLEOTIDES that compose the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic - removing the end nucleotide, or endonucleolytic - splitting the strand in two.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIb: A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter present primarily at apical sites of EPITHELIAL CELLS in the SMALL INTESTINE.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.HTLV-II InfectionsApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Methylocystaceae: A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.Methylosinus: A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type I: A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins that also transport organic ANIONS. They are low affinity phosphate transporters.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
They consist of two or more nutrient components. Major two-component fertilizers provide both nitrogen and phosphorus to the ... The most common toxic elements in this type of fertilizer are mercury, lead, and arsenic. These potentially harmful impurities ... Types". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.n10_n01. ISBN 3527306730. "AESL Plant Analysis ... This goal is met in two ways, the traditional one being additives that provide nutrients. The second mode by which some ...
Two days after surgery he slept through the night. French sleep expert Michel Jouvet and his team reported the case ... An even lighter type of sleep has been seen in rats that have been kept awake for long periods of time. In a process known as ... Insomnia, one of the six types of dyssomnia, affects 21%-37% of the adult population. Many of its symptoms are easily ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-0245-0_2 *^ a b c d e f g h Durmer J. S., Dinges D. F. (2005). "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep ...
Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles. Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a ... There are many types of batteries. Some are far more toxic than others. Lithium ion is the least toxic of the two mentioned ... A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator ... Today most hybrid car batteries are one of two types: 1) nickel metal hydride, or 2) lithium ion; both are regarded as more ...
AC power plugs and sockets
Shaver sockets may accept multiple two-pin plug types including Europlug (Type C), Australian (Type I) and BS 4573. The ... The type 15 plug has three round pins, of the same dimensions as type 12, plus two smaller flat rectangular pins for two ... The type 12 socket has no recess, while the type 13 socket is recessed. Both sockets will accept type 11 and type 12 plugs, and ... The type 15 socket is recessed, and has five openings (three round and two flat rectangular). It will accept plugs of types 11 ...
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure. Many are able to maintain ... Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. ... Type 1. Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta ... Around 3,800 people with type II diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose ...
Branched-chain amino acid
Role in diabetes mellitus type 2. In addition to cell signaling, the mTOR pathway also plays a role in beta cell growth ... "Leucine signaling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and obesity". World Journal of Diabetes. 3 (3): 38-53. doi:10.4239/WJD ... contributing to development of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is able to activate AMP kinase which phosphorylates proteins ... Enzymes involved are branched chain aminotransferase and 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase. ...
Cannabinoid receptor type 2
... from various donor types". In Friedman H, Klein TW, Madden JJ. Neuroimmune Circuits, Drugs of Abuse, and Infectious Diseases. ... Oddi S, Spagnuolo P, Bari M, D'Agostino A, Maccarrone M (2007). "Differential modulation of type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid ... The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that ... "Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Mediate a Cell Type-Specific Plasticity in the Hippocampus". Neuron. 90 (4): 795-809. doi:10.1016/ ...
AC power plugs and sockets
The type 15 socket is recessed, and has five openings (three round and two flat rectangular). It will accept plugs of types 11 ... The type 15 plug has three round pins, of the same dimensions as type 12, plus two smaller flat rectangular pins for two ... The type 12 socket has no recess, while the type 13 socket is recessed. Both sockets will accept type 11 and type 12 plugs, and ... 4.3 Brazilian standard NBR 14136 (Type N). *4.4 British and compatible standards *4.4.1 BS 546 and related types (Type D and M) ...
Apoptosis (type I). Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. It is one of the main types ... Autophagic (type II). Autophagy is essentially a form of intracellular phagocytosis in which a cell actively consumes ... There are two types of caspases: initiators and effectors. Initiator caspases cleave inactive forms of effector caspases. This ... Experiments have revealed reduced transport rates of both wild-type and two familial Parkinson's disease-associated mutant ...
There are eight types, with type I being the least severe and type II the most severe. Diagnosis is often based on symptoms ... Similar to Type I, Type IV can be further subclassified into types IVA and IVB characterized by absence (IVA) or presence (IVB ... OI Type V leads to calcification of the membrane between the two forearm bones, making it difficult to turn the wrist. Another ... The current four type system began with Sillence in 1979. An older system deemed less severe types "osteogenesis imperfecta ...
Why can't we provide two bike cars on my train? Why can't we provide two bike cars on the most heavily used trains? Why is ... Revenue train consists are made of single type of cars; the Bombardier cars are never mixed with the Nippon-Sharyo gallery cars ... "Ticket Types". Caltrain. Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017. Batey, Eve (August 3, ... Eventually, two bike cars were added to every train consist by 2011, and in 2016, a third bike car was added to Bombardier ...
Other types of eggs from Two Medicine include Montanoolithus, Prismatoolithus levis (the eggs of Troodon formosus), some small ... It was laid by an unknown type of theropod. These small eggs (measuring 77-123 mm (3.0-4.8 in) long) are similar to the eggs of ... Carpenter, Kenneth (1999). "Appendix II. Dinosaur Eggs Types". Eggs, Nests, and Baby Dinosaurs. Bloomington and Indianapolis: ... They noted similarity between the new specimens and the ?Troodon eggs of Two Medicine, but the Two Medicine eggs would not be ...
There are two types. One in which the level variations are programmed in advance and one in which the actual activity sound ... One type of facility is called a SCIF (Secure Compartmented Information Facility); there are others. There are likely ... If the other two factors can move the Privacy Index to near 70 (the knee of the curve), addition of sound masking will have a ... The two lower figures are examples of speakers that are hung in the ceiling plenum. If the ceiling plenum is shallow, a low ...
Two general types exist. Those with a strong central leader, or excurrent growth, are all one clone originating in Morioka City ... The other type fails to form a central leader and is rounded in habit. There are several clones of this, including 'Amazing ... The two species are: Cercidiphyllum japonicum. Throughout the range of the genus. Typically a multi-stemmed tree to 40-45 m ... Cercidiphyllum is a genus containing two species of plants, both commonly called katsura. They are the sole members of the ...
Memory distrust syndrome
It focuses on two types of behavior, namely eagerness to please others, and avoidance of conflicts. The scale consists of 20 ... However, this statement included minor alterations such as the number of people in the store at the time or what type of ... Kopelman,M.D. (1987). Two types of confabulation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 50, 1482-1487.. ... These errors occur in one of two ways: either there is an "editing error" or there is a "source" error. There are several ideas ...
Two types are used; 'slurry' type for the Thames tunnel, which involves tunnelling through chalk; and 'Earth Pressure Balance ... Each section consists of two tunnels excavated at the same time, with two tunnel boring machines (TBMs) per section. The tunnel ... Two parts of a woolly mammoth jawbone The largest piece of amber ever found in the UK, discovered at Canary Wharf A Victorian ... One of the two eastern sections runs underground from Whitechapel to Stratford, then on the surface on the existing main line. ...
Printing historian James Mosley's review of Morison's memoir, A Tally of Types, described the original metal type as "crudely ... Ovink, G. Willem (1 January 1973). "Two Books on Stanley Morison (review)". Quaerendo. 3 (3): 229-242. doi:10.1163/ ... Fine Print on Type: the best of Fine Print magazine on type and typography. San Francisco: Fine Print. pp. 74-80. ISBN 978-0- ... With no need to keep type in stock, just the matrices used as moulds to cast the type, printers could use a wider range of ...
Consumer Credit Act 1974
Part II contains definitions for many types of agreements covered by the Act. There are three main types of agreement; ... What these provisions are depends on the type of agreement; small agreements, non-commercial agreements and contracts with a ... There are two types; return orders and transfer orders. Return orders are orders from the court requiring the return of goods ... There are two types of license given - group licenses and standard licenses. Group licenses are issued by the Director General ...
This type of confabulation is commonly seen in Korsakoff's syndrome. Two types of confabulation are often distinguished: ... Kopelman, M. D. (1987). "Two types of confabulation". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 50 (11): 1482-87. doi ... Kraepelin distinguished two subtypes of confabulation, one of which he called simple confabulation, caused partly by errors in ... In other words, there are two ways to confabulate. One is the unconscious, spontaneous way in which a memory goes through no ...
... known as types.ClassType, can also be considered a distinct metatype. >>> a = 0 >>> type(a) >>> type(type(a)) >>> type(type( ... The following example overrides two functions, Setwidth and SetHeight, to fix the problem. But fixing the code implies that the ... type(type(type(type(a)))) In Java, is-a relation between the type parameters of one class or interface and the type parameters ... type(a) is a "regular" type, and type(type(a)) is a metatype. While as distributed all types have the same metatype (PyType_ ...
There are two types. An "independent current source" (or sink) delivers a constant current. A "dependent current source" ... min is the lowest acceptable current gain for the particular transistor type being used. The Zener diode can be replaced by any ... There are two characteristics that define a current source in real life. One is its internal resistance and the other is its ... In the two previous circuits, a decrease in Vbe will cause an increase in voltage across the emitter resistor, which in turn ...
In bigger organizations, there are in general two models of the hierarchy: All the teams are fully independent and they work ... There are a number of different types of software houses: Large and well-known companies producing Commercial off-the-shelf ( ... however each type of role must be involved throughout the whole development process: Analysts, after completing the business ... "Types of Software Companies". Adnan Chohdry. 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2017. Software Process: Principles, Methodology, and ...
Sun Temple, Modhera
There are two types; semicircular and triangular. The semicircular arches has cusped arches with tips while triangular arches ... the eight stilted pillars have one more shaft and similar type of capital which is crowned with brackets of volutes and pendant ... The pillars of Sabhamandapa and Gudhamandapa are of two types; short and tall. The short pillars rests on walls and supports ... The shrine had two cells; a cell below the level of upper cell. The floor of upper cell is now fallen which once housed the ...
There are two types. The first type is names that can legally refer to any grape wine whatsoever. In practice, most have become ... The second type of semi-generic names have restrictions on what kind of wine they can be. The legal restriction is listed first ... Semi-generic is a legal term used in by the United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to refer to a specific type ... Agreement between the United States and the European Community on Trade in Wine. ...
Studies have found there to be two different types of cochlea in the dolphin population. Type I has been found in the Amazon ... there are two types; constant frequency (CF), and frequency modulated (FM) calls that descend in pitch Each type reveals ... Type II cochlea are found primarily in offshore and open water species of whales, such as the bottlenose dolphin. The sounds ... FM and CF are two different types of echo which inform the bat on the size and distance of the prey. The pulses of sound ...
There are two types. A torsion bar is a straight bar of metal or rubber that is subjected to twisting (shear stress) about its ... The D'Arsonval movement used in mechanical pointer-type meters to measure electric current is a type of torsion balance (see ... The other type, a helical torsion spring, is a metal rod or wire in the shape of a helix (coil) that is subjected to twisting ... The two charged balls repelled one another, twisting the fiber through a certain angle, which could be read from a scale on the ...
Various different types of pumps are used, depending on the type of filling products to be moved. Vacuum fillers with vane cell ... There are two types. With free-forming devices, the filling product is filled via tubing with an attached separating device. ... They can either be fixed onto the vacuum filler or a mast type lifting device can be positioned separately next to the vacuum ... With this application, two vacuum fillers are operated in synchronisation and their filling flows are combined into one ...
Freund, K., Seto, M. C., & Kuban, M. (1996). "Two types of fetishism". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 34 (9): 687-694. doi: ... but disagreed on what type of predisposition was necessary. The sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld followed another line of thought ... Possible boot fetishism has been reported in two different primates from the same zoo. Whenever a boot was placed near the ... Martin Kafka argued that partialism should be merged into fetishism because of overlap between the two conditions, and the DSM- ...
Date cultivation in Dar al-Manasir
Two types are differentiated; Wad Laqai and the more common Wad Khatib, formerly also called Umm Laqai and Umm Khatib. Both ... types are non-Nubian and originate in the area. Mishriq trees require more watering than other palm trees. The Wad Laqai type ... But I know of no more than two instances when a Mansuri ever sold his palm trees. And in both cases they only sold one, two or ... Wad Khatib is the type of Mishriq palm trees best adapted to the stony and often shallow soil of the Fourth Cataract region. ...
"Types of Craniosynostosis". Craniosynostosis Surgery in South Texas.. *^ "What is Craniosynostosis?". The Johns Hopkins ... These last two are both important factors influencing bone development.. Environmental factorsEdit. Environmental factors ... Oxycephaly, also known as turricephaly and high-head syndrome, is a type of cephalic disorder. This is a term sometimes used to ... 86 (2): 177-81. doi:10.3171/jns.1997.86.2.0177. PMID 9010415.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Blount JP, Louis RG, Tubbs RS, ...
It is believed to have descended from the black and tan terrier-type dogs of Britain and Ireland, just like the Kerry Blue and ... They were formerly of all types and of all colours - black-and-tan, grey-and-brindle, wheaten of all shades, and red being the ... The tail is customarily docked soon after birth to approximately two-thirds of the original length. In countries where docking ... Two Irish Terriers are depicted in limestone on the east elevation of Alumni Hall. ...
Housefly - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adults live from two weeks to a month in the wild. After they come out from the pupae, the flies do not grow. Small flies of ... Types of anthomyid genera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 9: 134-146. ... Type species Musca domestica. Linnaeus, 1758 . Housefly is the common fly often found in houses. The Latin name for the ... Each female fly can lay about 9,000 eggs in its life, in several batches of about 75 to 150. The eggs are laid on or near ...
Type 2 diabetes
Resistance training is also useful and the combination of both types of exercise may be most effective. ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ... The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is for a single raised glucose reading with ... Zaccardi F, Webb DR, Yates T, Davies MJ (February 2016). "Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year ...
When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are ... The combustion of hydrocarbons is an uncontrolled oxidation process that gives ketones as well as many other types of compounds ... Although ketoacidosis is characteristic of decompensated or untreated type 1 diabetes, ketosis or even ketoacidosis can occur ... The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group ...
LMNA - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Vertebrate lamins consist of two types, A and B. Through alternate splicing, this gene encodes three type A lamin isoforms. ... Dense Deposit Disease/Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Type II. 19 May 2011. PMID 20301598. NBK1425.. In GeneReviews ... Type 1/2. （角蛋白. 细胞角蛋白（英语：Cytokeratin））. ... Bird, Thomas D. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type 2. 30 January 2014. PMID 20301462. NBK1285.. In Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR ...
Gil Nonato C. Santos; Alfonso C. Danac; Jorge P. Ocampo (2003). E-Biology II. Rex Book Store. p. 58. ISBN 978-971-23-3563-1.. ... "Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of ... Ecologists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories called trophic levels: 1) the autotrophs, and 2) the ...
United States Merchant Marine Academy
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Metropolitan State Hospital (Massachusetts)
These groups have some overlap, and distinguish two types of energy medicine: veritable which involves scientifically ... changes in the medical marketplace had influenced the type of response in the journals. Changes included relaxed medical ... Types. See also: List of forms of alternative medicine. Alternative medicine consists of a wide range of health care practices ... According to two writers, Wallace Sampson and K. Butler, marketing is part of the training required in alternative medicine, ...
Dispute Poems and Dialogues in the Ancient and Mediaeval Near East: Forms and Types of Literary Debates in Semitic and Related ... In the 1200s, Nichiren Daishonin wrote some of his important writings in dialogue form, describing a meeting between two ... The Brazilian educationalist Paulo Freire, known for developing popular education, advanced dialogue as a type of pedagogy. ... Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more ...
... and two saints) by Jan van Eyck clearly representing the same type, from as early as 1434-36, as Otto Pächt has pointed out. ... The sacra conversazione was one of the types of image that led to the horizontal format becoming common in paintings; before ... Another type of composition developed to suit the needs of vertical format altarpieces with a sacra conversatione. Here the ... The mixture of figures from different periods that is normal in the type makes it clear than no historical incident is being ...
There are two versions of the %Passing equations. the .45 power formula is presented on .45 power gradation chart, whereas the ... The results of this test are provided in graphical form to identify the type of gradation of the aggregate. The complete ... Adjustment of parameters like amplitude and sieving time serves to optimize the sieving for different types of material. This ... A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sands, crushed rock, clays ...
Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II): Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
MPS II), is a member of a group of inherited metabolic disorders collectively termed mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). The MPSs are ... Two types of Hunter syndrome are recognized; a severe form, designated as type A (MPS IIA), and a milder form, designated as ... encoded search term (Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II)) and Hunter Syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II) What ... Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a member of a group of inherited metabolic disorders ...
Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Kids | Diabetes | CDC
Parents, help your kids prevent type 2 diabetes with this healthy plan of action for the whole family. ... Kids as young as 10 can get type 2 diabetes. ... Types of Insulin. *4 Ways To Take Insulin. *Low Blood Sugar ( ... Rates of New Diagnosed Cases of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Continue to Rise Among Children, Teens ... Theres a growing type 2 diabetes problem in our young people. But parents can help turn the tide with healthy changes that are ...
Restoring Electrical Conductivity In Pancreatic Islet Cells: A Cure For Type 2 Diabetes | Science 2.0
Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types. They directly connect the ... two gap junctions adjacent to any given gap junction "compete" to decide its type, and this continues to happen repeatedly ... for a strong (weak) type gap junction.. We now consider a mean-field version of the model. The idea behind the mean-field ... 3) share this middle gap junction in common; thus, in comparing how often the two -cells are found activated, one can factor ...
Division of Diabetes Translation | CDC
What Is Type 1 Diabetes?. *Just Diagnosed. *Types of Insulin. *4 Ways To Take Insulin ... Rates of New Diagnosed Cases of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Continue to Rise Among Children, Teens ... Prevent Type 2plus icon *Lost 170 Pounds and Regained His Life ... Making the Leap From Type 1 Teen to Adult. *Managing Diabetes ... Find out how the National Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle change program can cut your risk for type 2 diabetes. ...
Type 2 diabetes - Wikipedia
Resistance training is also useful and the combination of both types of exercise may be most effective. ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ... The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is for a single raised glucose reading with ... Zaccardi F, Webb DR, Yates T, Davies MJ (February 2016). "Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year ...
Treating Type 2 Diabetes
Kids who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will need a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay ... The three main types of nutrients found in foods are carbohydrates (carbs), proteins, and fats, which provide energy in the ... Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Basics. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of ... In type 2 diabetes, the body doesnt respond normally to insulin, so glucose is less able to enter the cells. This causes the ...
New Type 2 Diabetes Medications
... but you have more options than ever before to help control your type 2 diabetes. And more are coming. ... 3 Types of Exercise. How they help diabetes.. Type 2 Diabetes. Are you at risk? ... It is used once daily for type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It also comes premixed with insulin aspart (Ryzodeg 70/30). ... But with type 2 diabetes, if your blood sugar level is already creeping up, you dont need the glucose in your body. Pills ...
Basic Data Types and Interfaces - SVG 2
Constants in group "Unit Types":. SVG_UNIT_TYPE_UNKNOWN (unsigned short). The type is not one of predefined types. It is ... The unit type is not one of predefined unit types. It is invalid to attempt to define a new value of this type or to attempt to ... The unit type is not one of predefined unit types. It is invalid to attempt to define a new value of this type or to attempt to ... The type is not one of predefined types. It is invalid to attempt to define a new value of this type or to attempt to switch an ...
Two types of cancer
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Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Symptoms
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare genetic disorder that affects around 1 in 25,000 individuals. In about half of these ... http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/neurofibromatosis-type-2. *http://www.nfauk.org/what-is-neurofibromatosis/nf-type-2/ ... The type and severity of symptoms depends where in the body the benign tumors start to grow but the most common initial symptom ... Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare genetic disorder that affects around 1 in 25,000 individuals. In about half of these ...
Ducrot2009 - Malaria transmission in two host types
Fruit juice and type 2 diabetes - NHS
... particular types of fruit or vegetable, and fruit juice with the onset of type 2 diabetes during the 18 years of follow-up. ... Women who drink a daily glass of fruit juice are 18% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, but those who eat three pieces of ... The link between fruit juice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes may, in part, be related to the high sugar load that is ... During the 18 years of follow-up, there were 4,529 new cases of type 2 diabetes. There was no link between total fruit and ...
Type 2 diabetes statistics: Facts and trends
Diabetes affects over 9 percent of the population in the U.S., and 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. It is ... Type 2 diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and globally. ... Difference between types 1 and 2. Share on Pinterest. Type 1 and 2 have different causes and tend to appear at different ages. ... Type 1 diabetes affects around 1.25 million American adults and children.. People with type 2 diabetes may still have insulin ...
Surgery effective for Type 2 diabetes - SFGate
78.1% The percentage of Type 2 diabetic patients who went into remission for at least a year after bariatric surgery, according ... Those who chose a gastric bypass over other types of bariatric surgery or who were diagnosed with diabetes less than five years ... Two crashes snarl Hwy 101 to jam up rush-hour commute * 14 A 9-year-olds family says she hanged herself after racist bullying ... Two women caught on video trashing SF restaurant surrender to police * 2 A three-year-old tweet comes back to haunt Michael ...
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 2 - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf
Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2), caused by deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GR/HPR ... Milliner DS, Wilson D, Smith L. Phenotypic expression of primary hyperoxaluria: Comparative features of types I and II. Kidney ... The gene encoding hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is mutated in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type II.[Hum Mol Genet. ... Cardiomyopathy resulting from primary hyperoxaluria type II. Circulation. 2006;113:e39-e40. [PubMed: 16432059] ...
Type 2 Diabetes | Buzzle.com
There are three major types of diabetes: Type 1 and 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Today, however, we will only take a ... Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and Type 2. Diabetes mellitus is a condition, where the body cells fail to absorb or utilize ... Cure for Type 2 Diabetes. Wondering if there is a cure for type 2 diabetes? Well, the upcoming article promises to be an answer ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors. Knowing about various type 2 diabetes risk factors can make us aware of ways and means to fight ...
Collagenopathy, types II and XI - Wikipedia
... types II and XI. These genes carry instructions for the protein strands that make up type II and type XI collagen. All collagen ... Type II and type XI collagen disorders are grouped together because both types of collagen are components of the cartilage ... Genetic changes are related to the following types of collagenopathy, types II and XI. achondrogenesis type 2 ... Type II collagen is made by combining three copies of the alpha chain made by the COL2A1 gene. Type XI collagen, on the other ...
Type 2 Diabetes Overview
... : What it is, who gets it, how is it diagnosed and how is it treated? ... Types of B-Cell Therapy for MS * Living Better With T2 Diabetes ... Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?. Slideshow Tips for Dealing With ... What Does Type 2 Diabetes Look Like? See a pictorial overview of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of type 2 diabetes. ... What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, once called non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, ...
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How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Memory?
Studies show that people with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for Alzheimers disease, an expert says. She tells WebMD ... Types of B-Cell Therapy for MS * Living Better With T2 Diabetes ... Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?. Slideshow Tips for Dealing With ... Q. How does type 2 diabetes affect memory?. A. Studies show that people with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for ... I ask my overweight patients with type 2 diabetes to lose the excess weight and keep it off. Some studies show that obesity in ...
What are the 2 type of shapes? - Answers
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Type 2 Diabetes: How to Handle the News
You just learned you have type 2 diabetes. What now? ... Types of B-Cell Therapy for MS * Living Better With T2 Diabetes ... "You have type 2 diabetes." Its a tough diagnosis to hear. Once youre told, what should you do? ... Type 2 Diabetes: How to Handle the News By Kara Mayer Robinson ... Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?. Slideshow Tips for Dealing With ... Getting Past the Guilt of Type 2. See how one patient learned to manage her weight and diet. ...
Describe Two Types Of Challenging Behaviour | ipl.org
Describe two types of challenging behaviour that occurred and briefly describe the characteristics of such behaviours. ... More about Describe Two Types Of Challenging Behaviour. *. Personal Narrative: My Community Flaws. 1499 Words , 6 Pages ... 1. Describe two types of challenging behaviour that occurred and briefly describe the characteristics of such behaviours.. ... Different types of challenging behaviour displayed by children are: aggressive behaviour, self-injurious behaviour, disruptive ...
Wholegrains important for preventing type 2 diabetes | Chalmers
... study is a strong confirmation of previous research findings on the importance of whole grains for prevention of type 2 ... One might expect there would be, because they contain different types of dietary fibre and bioactive substances, which have ... Wholegrains important for preventing type 2 diabetes It doesnt matter if its rye, oats, or wheat. As long as it is ... Drinking coffee, and avoiding red meat, are other factors that can similarly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. "Our results ...
Antibiotic use linked to type 2 diabetes diagnosis | EurekAlert! Science News
People who developed type 2 diabetes tended to take more antibiotics in the years leading up to the diagnosis than people who ... Many types of antibiotics were associated with a higher risk of diabetes, but there was a stronger link with the use of narrow- ... People who had Type 2 diabetes filled 0.8 prescriptions a year, on average. The rate was only 0.5 prescriptions a year among ... Antibiotic use linked to type 2 diabetes diagnosis. The Endocrine Society. Journal. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ...
Probe and Modify Your Types' Alignment Programmatically : Page 2
03 offers no portable mechanism for querying the alignment of a certain type, let alone overriding the default alignment. This ... vexing state of affairs is about to change with the addition of two new built-in operators to C++0x. ... The operator alignof(T) takes a type T as its sole argument and returns an integral constant of type std::size_t that is the ... Therefore, you can assign an alignment value of type T to another type U without having to guess what the alignment of T is. ...
What is Type 2 Diabetes? (with pictures)
I have heard that diabetes types 1 and diabetes type 2 can be caused by eating large amounts of sugar over long periods. Is ... Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is not curable, but it can be managed with the assistance of a doctor and some work on ... The simple act of eating a lot of sugar isnt going to cause diabetes type 1 or diabetes type 2, but the extra calories can ... In cases of type 2 diabetes, the body manufactures insulin but is resistant to it. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the onset of ...
Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes
It is noteworthy that a distal-proximal gradient of muscle weakness was found for both types of patients. Also, in accordance ... Two of these patients had a history of myocardial infarction ,1 year before the study, and one of these two patients also had ... In a previous study using a quantitative electromyographic technique (macroEMG), we evaluated a mixed group of type 1 and type ... Ziegler D, Muhlen H, Gries FA: Neurophysiological tests in type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) ...
Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? (for Parents) - Connecticut Children's Medical Center
Learning what you can about type 2 diabetes will let you help your child manage and live with the disease. Here are the basics. ... The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ... Who Gets Type 2 Diabetes?. No one knows for sure what causes type 2 diabetes. But many kids who develop it have at least one ... But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:. *Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the ...
Eating more dietary fiber linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes
... the lower their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. ... The authors also looked at differences in types of dietary ... The meta-analysis found that the risk of type 2 diabetes fell by 9% for every 10 g per day more of total dietary fiber, and by ... A new study finds there is a link between the amount of fiber in the diet and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes - the more ... "All these mechanisms could lead to a lower BMI and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes," says Aune, who adds:. "As well ...
Walnuts and almonds help hearts of type 2 diabetics | Health24
"This observational study provides more evidence that certain types of nuts perhaps have some effect on diabetes and heart ... Folks with type 2 diabetes who ate five or more servings of certain kinds of nuts weekly dropped their odds of heart disease by ... If you have type 2 diabetes and you want to do your heart a favour, a new study suggests you should let your diet get a little ... He said the best type of nuts are raw, unsalted nuts. The study included diet and health information from more than 16 000 ...
2 Different Types of Toilet Fill Valves Explained | DoItYourself.com
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Why You Need Two Types of Content Strategist
1739062 - sugar-typing-turtle depends on Python 2
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Shank-type shaper cutters DIN 3972/II - Liebherr
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Two Types of Integralism | John Ehrett
Two Types of Integralism December 1, 2020 John Ehrett Patheos Explore the worlds faith through different perspectives on ... Get updates from Between Two Kingdoms delivered straight to your inbox. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special ... Most importantly, both types of "integralism" reject the key premise of modern liberalism that political and social life can be ... It would take reams of paper to fully develop the point, but in terms of their inner structures, both types of "integralism" ...
4 types of gravel, 2 types of fun - BikeRadar
So what is Type 2 fun? Experiences like Legans first Dirty Kanza are Type 2 fun - the type of enjoyment that comes well after ... And really, is gravel fun to ride? Here, two experts break down the four types of gravel and the two types of fun you can have ... Nick Legans Two Types of Fun. A former pro mechanic who has worked everything from the Tour de France to the Olympics, Nick ... Neil Shirleys Four Types of Gravel. Retired from professional road racing, Neil Shirley now uses the engine that put him on ...
T.26 Digital Type Foundry | EPS : SketchType 2
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idris-0.99.2: Functional Programming Language with Dependent Types (Index - T)
Understanding Type 2 Diabetes
There are three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. ... If needed, additional blood tests can help show whether you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. ... Type 2 diabetes used to be called "adult onset" diabetes. It is more common in adults, but you can get it at any age. ... Type 2 diabetes comes on slowly. Many people dont have symptoms.. You may be able to manage your type 2 diabetes with healthy ...
Jimmy Tarbuck- Comedian with Type 2 Diabetes
Other types of diabetes *Gestational diabetes. *Type 1.5 diabetes. *Type 3 diabetes ... People who use Low Carb Program have achieved weight loss, improved HbA1c, reduced medications and type 2 diabetes remission.. ... NHS-approved evidence-based behaviour change app for people with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, obesity and those looking to ... prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Hypo Program The first comprehensive, free and open to all online step-by-step guide to ...
Type 2 Diabetes in the Asian Population at Increased Risk of Cancer
Asian people who have type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. ... A modest increase in risk of specific types of cancer types in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients [published online ahead of ... "A modest increase in risk of specific types of cancer types in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients." ... particularly certain types of cancer (digestive and urogenital). Older Asian men with type 2 diabetes are especially at risk of ...
yesod-core-1.2.2: Creation of type-safe, RESTful web applications. (Index)
1 (Type/Class). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Widget, Yesod.Core. 2 (Data Constructor). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Widget, ... 1 (Type/Class). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Content, Yesod.Core. 2 (Data Constructor). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Content, ... 1 (Type/Class). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Widget, Yesod.Core. 2 (Data Constructor). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Widget, ... 1 (Type/Class). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Content, Yesod.Core. 2 (Data Constructor). Yesod.Core.Types, Yesod.Core.Content, ...
Coffee Rust Warning in Costa Rica: Two Types Could Destroy Future Harvests
The Costa Rican government this week issued a decree creating a new type of park within the framework of the… ... The Costa Rican Coffee Institute (ICAFE) reported the discovery of two new types of coffee rust fungus that had not been ... Coffee Rust Warning in Costa Rica: Two Types Could Destroy Future Harvests. ... The fungus types were found in samples collected at coffee plantations in the southern canton of Coto Brus, next to the border ...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 - History of OASDI Benefit Types and Levels (2.A20-2.A28)
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GLP-1 receptor agonists for type 2 diabetes
two types of girls when giving head | MyConfinedSpace
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Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIPatientsHunter SyndromeDiagnosing type 2 diabetAssociated with type 2 diabetComplicationsGlucose LevelsSymptomsBalanced dietPrevalenceLikely to develop type 2 diabetPrediabetesDiabeticsCure For Type 2 DiabetKids with type 2 diabetGestational diabetesAffect type 2 diabetLargely preventableOverweight or obeseRisk factors for typeOnsetInsulin is producedMedicationsNeuronsChronic diseaseNerveCollagenProteinOccursClinicalPreventionDevelopBodyGraduallyPregnancyFruit and vegetablesIncreasesGenesIncreasinglyCommonIncidenceMeal planPeople with typePreventNIDDMYearsBlood
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II1
- Neufeld et al, in the late 1960s, demonstrated that mucopolysaccharide accumulation in fibroblasts from patients with Hurler (MPS I) and Hunter (MPS II) syndromes could be corrected by co-culturing them with fibroblasts or tissue extracts from patients with a differently diagnosed MPSs. (medscape.com)
Diagnosing type 2 diabet1
Associated with type 2 diabet4
- It is also important to treat other conditions that can be associated with type 2 diabetes, like obesity, high blood pressure, or abnormal blood lipid (fat) levels. (kidshealth.org)
- Tests are available for some of the gene mutations associated with type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
- One in 3 people in the US will develop fatty liver disease, often associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. (endocrineweb.com)
- Read up on the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes to know your risk level. (endocrineweb.com)
- Read on to know about the health complications that women with type 2 diabetes may have to face during pregnancy and how to prevent such complications. (buzzle.com)
- Going through the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes discussed in this article will help you find out if you are vulnerable to the various complications associated with this condition. (buzzle.com)
- Someone dies from Type 2 Diabetes complications every 10 seconds worldwide. (wikihow.com)
- With type 2 diabetes, you must control your blood glucose level if you want to avoid short- and long-term complications. (endocrineweb.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, thus leading to abnormal blood glucose levels. (buzzle.com)
- In general, mutations in any gene involved in controlling glucose levels can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
- If you have prediabetes, the glucose levels in your blood are higher than usual - but not high enough to mean you have type 2 diabetes. (healthfinder.gov)
- With type 2 diabetes, the benefits of eating better can help you manage your weight, reduce your needs for meds, and control your glucose levels. (endocrineweb.com)
- The type and severity of symptoms depends where in the body the benign tumors start to grow but the most common initial symptom is hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears). (news-medical.net)
- Some of these symptoms are also seen in type 1 diabetes, but type 2 diabetes symptoms tend to develop more gradually and can take months or years to manifest. (news-medical.net)
- If you have type 2 diabetes, you may be able to control your symptoms simply by eating a healthy diet and monitoring your blood glucose level. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop over several years. (healthfinder.gov)
- Many people with type 2 diabetes have symptoms for a long time without noticing them. (healthfinder.gov)
- Because symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be hard to spot, it's important to talk with your doctor about your risk for type 2 diabetes. (healthfinder.gov)
- If your type 2 diabetes symptoms can't be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medications, you may wish to use insulin. (endocrineweb.com)
- A list of symptoms and warning signs of type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus). (endocrineweb.com)
- In contrast to type 1 diabetes, symptoms often have a more gradual onset. (endocrineweb.com)
- Defective or reduced numbers of collagen molecules affect the development of bones and other connective tissues, causing the signs and symptoms of the type II and XI collagenopathies. (wikipedia.org)
- Research shows that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among children has increased considerably over time. (buzzle.com)
- Type 2 diabetes often develops as a result of overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity and diabetes prevalence is on the rise worldwide as these problems become more widespread. (news-medical.net)
- In the past 30 years, the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes has skyrocketed to such an extent that it is now viewed as an epidemic in the western world. (wikihow.com)
Likely to develop type 2 diabet3
- Women who drink a daily glass of fruit juice are 18% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, but those who eat three pieces of fruit instead actually reduce their risk by the same amount, the newspaper adds. (www.nhs.uk)
- Smokers are 30 to 40 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than nonsmokers. (fda.gov)
- However, those with the highest consumption of low-fat fermented dairy products (such as yoghurt, fromage frais and low-fat cottage cheese) were 24% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes over the 11 years, compared with non-consumers. (cam.ac.uk)
- Certain racial or ethnic groups have higher rates of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
- Prediabetes increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, like heart disease and stroke. (healthfinder.gov)
- The good news about prediabetes is that healthy changes, like losing weight and getting enough physical activity, can stop it from becoming type 2 diabetes. (healthfinder.gov)
- Strategies to help prevent, slow or even reverse the progression of type 2 diabetes, including prediabetes, focus on making lifestyle adjustment-to diet and physical activity. (endocrineweb.com)
- He estimates about 30 percent of his bariatric surgery patients are Type 2 diabetics, and the number is growing as more learn about the potential benefits. (sfgate.com)
- The American Diabetes Association recommends Type 2 diabetics with a body mass index (BMI) of 35 or greater consider bariatric surgery. (sfgate.com)
- The following article presents information on healthy foods for diabetics with type 2 diabetes. (buzzle.com)
Kids with type 2 diabet5
- Now, about one-third of American youth are overweight, a problem closely related to the increase in kids with type 2 diabetes, some as young as 10 years old. (cdc.gov)
- Helping kids with type 2 diabetes switch to healthier habits is a key part of treatment. (kidshealth.org)
- Kids with type 2 diabetes who are trying to manage their weight still need energy to develop normally. (kidshealth.org)
- Many parents worry about what to feed their kids with type 2 diabetes. (kidshealth.org)
- Portion control - even of healthy foods - is important for kids with type 2 diabetes because they generally weigh more than kids who don't have the disease. (kidshealth.org)
- Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes , with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
- There are three major types of diabetes: Type 1 and 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. (buzzle.com)
- For example, gestational diabetes can make it more likely that you'll develop type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. (healthfinder.gov)
Affect type 2 diabet3
Overweight or obese1
Risk factors for type1
- Until recently, young children and teens almost never got type 2 diabetes , which is why it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. (cdc.gov)
- Type 2 diabetes ( T2D ), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes , is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (wikipedia.org)
- The study has published many parts of its results over time, and in this particular paper the researchers report on the association between all fruit and vegetables, particular types of fruit or vegetable, and fruit juice with the onset of type 2 diabetes during the 18 years of follow-up. (www.nhs.uk)
- An asymptomatic period that occurs between the onset of diabetic hyperglycemia, the elevated blood sugar levels that are a hallmark sign of type 2 diabetes, and clinical diagnosis is estimated to last from four to seven years, and many people are estimated to have had the condition for an average of ten years prior to diagnosis and treatment. (elsevier.com)
- Eating more yoghurt can reduce the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes, researchers at Cambridge have found. (cam.ac.uk)
- The study found that higher consumption of yoghurt, compared with no consumption, can reduce the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes by 28%, and that higher consumption of low-fat fermented dairy products - including all yoghurt varieties and some low-fat cheeses - also reduced the relative risk of diabetes by 24% overall. (cam.ac.uk)
- It compared a detailed daily record of all the food and drink consumed over a week at the time of study entry among 753 people who developed new-onset type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow-up with 3,502 randomly selected study participants. (cam.ac.uk)
Insulin is produced2
- To benefit from the types of medications Dr. Fonseca describes, patients must fill their prescriptions and take their medications as recommended. (elsevier.com)
- Sulfonylureas are a type of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- Your doctor may have you take a combination medication if you have type 2 diabetes: this drug will combine multiple medications to help keep your blood glucose level under control. (endocrineweb.com)
- Repaglinide and nateglinide, two medications for type 2 diabetes, were developed in 1997. (endocrineweb.com)
- Researchers are working on better medications to treat type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- People with type 2 diabetes may need to take medications to help control their blood glucose level. (endocrineweb.com)
- Loud sound progressively damages type I afferent neurons and OHCs ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Hyperactivity of type II neurons could contribute as well to the paradoxical hypersensitivity to loud sound that can accompany hearing loss, despite diminished type I afferent function. (pnas.org)
- Now, a group of researchers from the Institute of Computational Physics and Complex Systems at Lanzhou University, China, has used a combination of two computer models to study the ways different kinds of neurons can impact synchronisation. (springer.com)
- Their findings indicate that inhibitory neurons can have a two-fold impact on oscillatory patterns. (springer.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
- From being a once fairly mild and rare ailment of the elderly to becoming a chronic disease, this type of diabetes affects people of every age, race, and background, and is now a major modern cause of premature death in many countries around the world. (wikihow.com)
- These disorders are caused by defects in type II or type XI collagen. (wikipedia.org)
- Type II and type XI collagen disorders are grouped together because both types of collagen are components of the cartilage found in joints and the spinal column, the inner ear, and the jelly-like substance that fills the eyeball (the vitreous). (wikipedia.org)
- These genes carry instructions for the protein strands that make up type II and type XI collagen. (wikipedia.org)
- The alpha chains may be identical or different, depending on the type of collagen. (wikipedia.org)
- Type II collagen is made by combining three copies of the alpha chain made by the COL2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Type XI collagen, on the other hand, is composed of three different alpha chains: the products of the COL2A1, COL11A1, and COL11A2 genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. (wikipedia.org)
- Also known of as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. (news-medical.net)
- Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes, which occurs when the body does not produce any insulin at all. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, occurs in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and can be reversed with weight loss. (endocrineweb.com)
- I think Afrezza has a potential role, but a small one, in people with type 2 because of dose requirements," says Zach Weber, PharmD, clinical associate professor of pharmacy practice at the Purdue College of Pharmacy. (webmd.com)
- Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) should be suspected in individuals with the following clinical and laboratory features. (nih.gov)
- Clinical Therapeutics features a special report in its April issue focusing primarily on the behavioral issues associated with patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. (elsevier.com)
- The type II and XI collagenopathies result in similar clinical features. (wikipedia.org)
- achondrogenesis type 2 hypochondrogenesis Kniest dysplasia otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spondyloperipheral dysplasia Stickler syndrome Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome The system for classifying collagenopathies is changing as researchers learn more about the genetic causes of these disorders.The clinical features of the type II and XI collagenopathies vary among the disorders, but there is considerable overlap. (wikipedia.org)
- The Diabetes Prevention Program , a large study of people at high risk for diabetes, suggests that weight loss and increased physical activity can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. (healthline.com)
- According to lead researcher Dr Nita Forouhi, from the Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge: "This research highlights that specific foods may have an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and are relevant for public health messages. (cam.ac.uk)
- One reason is that hormones present during puberty make it harder for the body use insulin, especially for girls, who are more likely than boys to develop type 2 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
- A small number of people with type 2 diabetes can develop a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure ). (wikipedia.org)
- People usually develop type 2 diabetes after the age of 40 years, although people of South Asian origin are at an increased risk of the condition and may develop diabetes from the age of 25 onwards. (news-medical.net)
- Several factors must come together for you to develop type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
- Gestational ("jes-TAY-shon-al") diabetes is a type of diabetes that some women develop during pregnancy. (healthfinder.gov)
- 3 Though it has been referred to in the past as "juvenile diabetes," this type of diabetes can develop at any age, in any race, and is not related to body weight. (fda.gov)
- Being physically active lowers the risk for type 2 diabetes because it helps the body use insulin better, decreasing insulin resistance. (cdc.gov)
- In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn't respond normally to insulin, so glucose is less able to enter the cells. (kidshealth.org)
- Most type 2 diabetes drugs work by helping your body make insulin or use it better. (webmd.com)
- But with type 2 diabetes , if your blood sugar level is already creeping up, you don't need the glucose in your body. (webmd.com)
- Type 2 diabetes isn't a disease most people think can be treated with surgery, but a growing body of research may change that. (sfgate.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic condition that develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work properly, which is referred to as insulin resistance. (news-medical.net)
- In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin. (news-medical.net)
- Glucose (or dextrose) is a type of sugar that is used by the body to produce energy. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- This medication helps your body use insulin better, which can make it easier to control your blood glucose level when you have type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- Individuals with Type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, which is a hormone produced by the pancreas for converting the glucose and carbohydrates that we eat into energy the body can use. (fda.gov)
- Whether you have type 2 diabetes or not, the sooner you quit, the sooner your body can start to heal. (fda.gov)
- Women with type 2 diabetes need to take extra care during pregnancy. (buzzle.com)
- Pregnancy can also sometimes make existing type 2 diabetes more difficult to control. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- In up to 10 percent of them, the mother is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes just after the pregnancy. (healthline.com)
Fruit and vegetables1
- The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age. (healthline.com)
- Eating excessive sweets and fatty foods increases your risk for pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes development. (wikihow.com)
- This section defines a number of common data types used in the definitions of SVG properties and attributes. (w3.org)
- The most common of diabetes is type 2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
- Type 2 diabetes, which is responsible for 90 to 95% of all diabetes cases, is more common in adults, but as rates of childhood obesity increase, more young children are being diagnosed with the disease. (acefitness.org)
- Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. (healthline.com)
- Get quick answers to the most common questions about type 2 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- Includes links to in-depth articles so that you can get more information about this most common type of diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes. (endocrineweb.com)
- This type of neuropathy is more common in those with type 2 diabetes and in older adults with diabetes. (smartdraw.com)
- Type 2 diabetes is common and its incidence is increasing. (cam.ac.uk)
People with type2
- Parents can do a lot to help their kids prevent type 2 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
- Right now, there's no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. (healthfinder.gov)
- Ask your doctor or nurse these questions about how to prevent type 2 diabetes . (healthfinder.gov)
- Luckily, there is a great way to prevent Type 2 Diabetes: establish and maintain a healthy lifestyle. (wikihow.com)
- Find articles on Diabetes Mellitus type 2, also referred to as NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) in this section. (buzzle.com)
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since it can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or types of medication other than insulin therapy. (news-medical.net)
- A follow-up questionnaire was sent every two years after that, and detailed dietary information has been collected since 1980. (www.nhs.uk)
- During the 18 years of follow-up, there were 4,529 new cases of type 2 diabetes. (www.nhs.uk)
- Those who chose a gastric bypass over other types of bariatric surgery or who were diagnosed with diabetes less than five years before surgery had the best results. (sfgate.com)
- The rest of these women have a 35 to 60 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 10 to 20 years. (healthline.com)
- If your child is overweight and has any two of the risk factors listed above, talk to your doctor about getting his or her blood sugar tested. (cdc.gov)
- In type 1 diabetes there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
- It's appropriate to talk about with any (Type 2) diabetic who is overweight, on insulin and has trouble controlling blood sugar. (sfgate.com)
- This usually happens as a result of high blood pressure and blood pressure management is an important part of managing type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
- People at highest risk of developing type 2 diabetes have a family history, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. (acefitness.org)
- Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose, a type of sugar, in the blood. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Your doctor may also recommend you get tested if you are younger than age 40 and at risk for other health reasons, like having high blood pressure or having a family member with type 2 diabetes. (healthfinder.gov)