Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Receptors, Dopamine D5: A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Spiperone: A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Sulpiride: A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine: A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Type D Personality: Behavior pattern characterized by negative emotionality, an inability to express emotions, and social isolation, which has been linked to greater cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 217)Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseButaclamol: A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.MSH Release-Inhibiting Hormone: A hypothalamic tripeptide, enzymatic degradation product of OXYTOCIN, that inhibits the release of MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Homovanillic AcidBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.PyrrolidinesPergolide: A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Betaretrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Fenoldopam: A dopamine D1 receptor agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. It lowers blood pressure through arteriolar vasodilation.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Enterotoxemia: Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Drug Partial Agonism: Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.PiperazinesParkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.PhenanthridinesAutoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pimozide: A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Mice, Inbred C57BLSaimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Medial Forebrain Bundle: A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
D4 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). The D4 receptor gene displays polymorphisms that differ in a variable ... The existence of multiple types of receptors for dopamine was first proposed in 1976. There are at least five subtypes of ... D4-adrenoceptor α1B D4-adrenoceptor β1 Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D5 are Gs coupled receptors that stimulate ... D1-adenosine A1 D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D1-D3 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-D4 dopamine receptor heteromer D2- ...
DRD4 is the dopamine D4 receptor gene and is associated with ADHD and novelty seeking behaviors. It has been proposed that ... 2006). "The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Association signals in DRD4 ... Another theory suggests that binge eating involves reward seeking, as evidenced by decreased serotonin binding receptors of ... Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B. (2011). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric ...
1999). "Dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes, GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit genes and response to lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders ... At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. The GABRA1 receptor is the specific target of the z- ... 1999). "theta, a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (17): 9891-6. doi: ... 1999). "No interaction of GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit and dopamine receptor D4 exon 3 genes in symptomatology of major psychoses". ...
Studies have found an area on the Dopamine receptor D4 gene on chromosome 11 that is characterized by several repeats in a ... DRD4 receptors are highly expressed in areas of the limbic system associated with emotion and cognition. It is important to ... The mesolimbic pathway is active in every type of addiction and is involved with reinforcement. Because of this activation in ... Lusher, JM; Chandler, C; Ball, D (September 2001). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with Novelty Seeking (NS) ...
Chemokine CXCR4 receptor Dopamine D2, D3, D4 GABAB receptor Glutamate mGlu2, mGlu3, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, & mGlu8 receptors ... There are several types of Gi: Gia1, Gia2, Gia3 and Gia4 Gia1 or Gi1 is encoded by the gene GNAI1. Gia2 or Gi2 is encoded by ... A3 receptors Adrenergic α2A, α2B, & α2C receptors Apelin receptors Calcium-sensing receptor Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 ... TP receptors Serotonin 5-HT1 & 5-HT5 receptors Short chain fatty acid receptors: FFAR2 & FFAR3 Somatostatin sst1, sst2, sst3, ...
200-fold binding selectivity over D4, D2, 5-HT1A, and α1-receptors (-)-7-{[2-(4-Phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]propylamino}-5,6,7,8 ... Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene. This gene encodes the D3 subtype of the dopamine ... Schmauss C, Haroutunian V, Davis KL, Davidson M (October 1993). "Selective loss of dopamine D3-type receptor mRNA expression in ... "Entrez Gene: DRD3 dopamine receptor D3". Joyce JN, Millan MJ (February 2007). "Dopamine D3 receptor agonists for protection and ...
"Entrez Gene: DRD3 dopamine receptor D3".. *^ Joyce JN, Millan MJ (February 2007). "Dopamine D3 receptor agonists for protection ... "Dopamine Receptors: D3". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... "SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor" (PDF). Biochemistry. 37 (45): 15726-36. doi:10.1021/bi981634+. PMID 9843378.. ... "On the origin of mRNA encoding the truncated dopamine D3-type receptor D3nf and detection of D3nf-like immunoreactivity in ...
Another study evidenced that both 7R and 5R, ADHD-linked VNTR alleles of dopamine receptor D4 gene are directly associated with ... Most studies have focused on polymorphisms of serotonin receptors, dopamine receptors, and neurotransmitter metabolizing ... These three main experimental types are used in animal studies, studies testing heritability and molecular genetics, and gene/ ... Mutants were made by manipulating a receptor for serotonin by deleting a gene for the serotonin receptor. These mutant male ...
1996). "Association between schizophrenia and T102C polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2a-receptor gene. European ... Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia. Nature. 1993;365(6445):441. doi:10.1038/365441a0. PMID 8413587. For a ... Dopamine Receptor Oligermization, in Neve KA (ed)'Dopamine Receptors' Springer (2009) "Dopamine Receptors: Clinical Correlates ... Dopamine receptors interact with their own kind, or other receptors to form higher order receptors such as dimers, via the ...
Ptácek R, Kuzelová H, Stefano GB (Sep 2011). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric disorders". ... Apomorphine is an agonist, or activator, of both D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors with higher activity at D2. The members of ... The D4 receptor in particular is an important target in the signaling pathway, and is connected to several neurological ... A N Ernst then discovered in 1965 that apomorphine was a powerful stimulant of dopamine receptors. This, along with the use of ...
July 2004). "The subcommissural organ expresses D2, D3, D4, and D5 dopamine receptors". Cell and Tissue Research. 317 (1): 65- ... low-density lipoprotein receptor type A repeats (LDLrA) domains, SCO repeats (SCORs), 26 thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs), ... Herz J (March 2001). "The LDL receptor gene family: (un)expected signal transducers in the brain". Neuron. 29 (3): 571-81. doi: ... The presence of low-density lipoprotein receptor type A (LDLrA) domains repeated ten times in the consensus sequence could ...
"An unambiguous assay for the cloned human sigma1 receptor reveals high affinity interactions with dopamine D4 receptor ... and chromosomal localization of the human type 1 sigma receptor gene". Journal of Neurochemistry. 70 (2): 443-51. doi:10.1046/j ... σ1 receptors apparently co-localize with IP3 receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum. Also, σ1 receptors have been shown to ... In humans, the σ1 receptor is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene. The σ1 receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed in many ...
... β2 and β3 and the five dopamine receptors D1, D2, D3, D4 und D5. Their fine structure, without agonist or agonist-activated, is ... now β-adrenoceptor or β-adrenergic receptor). ″This concept of two fundamental types of receptors is directly opposed to the ... Genes for all mammalian catecholamine receptors have now been cloned, for the nine adrenoceptors α1A, α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, α2C, ... specific dopamine receptors for dilation″, and at the same time evidence for dopamine receptors distinct from α- and β- ...
More specific, the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, responsible for inhibited prefrontal cortex cognition and ... The mechanism of lithium include the inhibition of GSK-3, it is a glutamate antagonism at NMDA receptors that together make ... and many other factors to tailor the best type of treatment to relieve the child of the psychopathology symptoms.[citation ... However, the environment the child is in can change in impact of this gene, proving that correct treatment, intensive social ...
Dopamine receptor InterPro: IPR000929 D1 (DRD1, DADR) D2 (DRD2, D2DR) D3 (DRD3, D3DR) D4 (DRD4, D4DR) D5 (DRD5, DBDR) Trace ... IPR000248 Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1, AG2S) Angiotensin II receptor, type 2 (AGTR2, AG22) Apelin receptor (AGTRL1, ... receptor-like 2 (F2RL2, PAR3) Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3, PAR4) Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 ... Endothelin receptor InterPro: IPR000499 Endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA, ET1R) Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB, ETBR) GPR37 ...
The 7 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4-7R) causes increased inhibitory effects induced by dopamine and is ... ADHD inattentive type, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type and ADHD combined type. These terms were kept in the DSM-5 in 2013. ... Those involved with dopamine include DAT, DRD4, DRD5, TAAR1, MAOA, COMT, and DBH. Other genes associated with ADHD include SERT ... Berry, MD (January 2007). "The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases ...
"An unambiguous assay for the cloned human sigma1 receptor reveals high affinity interactions with dopamine D4 receptor ... and chromosomal localization of the human type 1 sigma receptor gene". J. Neurochem. 70 (2): 443-51. PMID 9453537. doi:10.1046/ ... Weissman AD, Su TP, Hedreen JC, London ED (1988). "Sigma receptors in post-mortem human brains". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 247 ( ... Sigma-2 receptor. Literatura[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Hayashi T, Su TP (2007). "Sigma-1 receptor chaperones at the ER- ...
Polymorphisms of the D4 and D3 receptor have been implicated in depression further suggesting a role of dopamine in MDD. ... One review identified multiple frequently studied candidate genes. The 5-HTT SLC6A4 and 5-HTR2A gene's yielded inconsistent ... A 2010 review found 17 replications, 8 partial replications (interaction only in females or only with one of several types of ... Increased numbers of T-Cells presenting activation markers, levels of neopterin, IFN gamma, sTNFR, and IL-2 receptors have been ...
... receptor, igf type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.780.410 -- receptor, igf type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.820 -- receptors ... receptors, dopamine d3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.150.400.500.750 -- receptors, dopamine d4 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.160.605 -- ... receptors, calcitonin MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.600.260 -- receptors, calcitonin gene-related peptide MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptors, dopamine d3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.300.400.500.500 -- receptors, dopamine d4 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.450 ...
... or D2-type (i.e., DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4) dopamine receptors. A subpopulation of MSNs contain both D1-type and D2-type receptors ... D1-type MSNs) and express dynorphin and substance P and those that express the D2 dopamine receptor (D2-type MSNs) and express ... D4) receptors, based on functional properties to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) via Gs/olf and to inhibit AC via Gi/o, ... some proportion of medium spiny neurons are known to expresses both D1 and D2 receptors (Hersch et al., 1995). Gene expression ...
Most striatal MSNs contain only D1-type or D2-type dopamine receptors, but a subpopulation of MSNs exhibit both phenotypes. ... It has been demonstrated that D1 receptors form the hetero-oligomer with D2 receptors, and that the D1-D2 receptor hetero- ... D4) receptors, based on functional properties to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) via Gs/olf and to inhibit AC via Gi/o, ... some proportion of medium spiny neurons are known to expresses both D1 and D2 receptors (Hersch et al., 1995). Gene expression ...
MSNs that express D2-type receptors and "direct" MSNs that express D1-type receptors. The basal ganglia core is made up of the ... Nishi A, Kuroiwa M, Shuto T (July 2011). "Mechanisms for the modulation of dopamine d(1) receptor signaling in striatal neurons ... in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the ventral striatum. Delta FosB is an inducible gene which is increasingly expressed in ... D4) receptors, based on functional properties to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) via Gs/olf and to inhibit AC via Gi/o, ...
Mochizuki D, Yuyama Y, Tsujita R, Komaki H, Sagai H (Jun 1992). "Cloning and expression of the human 5-HT1B-type receptor gene ... G-protein coupled receptor internalization. • regulation of dopamine secretion. • regulation of behavior. • response to ... "IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. ... 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.[5][ ...
Neurotensin receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTSR1 gene.[5][6] For a crystal structure of NTS1, ... Neurotensin receptor 1, also called NTR1, belongs to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors and is considered a ... "Entrez Gene: NTSR1 neurotensin receptor 1 (high affinity)".. *^ Peddibhotla S, Hedrick MP, Hershberger P, et al. (2013). " ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • protein N- ...
"Entrez Gene: CCKBR cholecystokinin B receptor".. *^ Altar CA, Boyar WC (Apr 1989). "Brain CCK-B receptors mediate the ... type B gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor binding. • gastrin receptor activity. • cholecystokinin receptor activity. • peptide ... CCK-B receptors possess a complex regulation of dopamine activity in the brain. CCK-B activation appears to possess a general ... Wang J, Si YM, Liu ZL, Yu L (Jun 2003). "Cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-A receptor and cholecystokinin-B receptor gene ...
The dopamine receptor D4 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5. The structure of DRD4 was recently reported in complex with the antipsychotic drug nemonapride. As with other dopamine receptor subtypes, the D4 receptor is activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is linked to many ...
This gene encodes the D3 subtype of the dopamine receptor. The D3 subtype inhibits adenylyl cyclase through inhibitory G-proteins. This receptor is expressed in phylogenetically older regions of the brain, suggesting that this receptor plays a role in cognitive and emotional functions.[citation needed] It is a target for drugs which treat schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Parkinson's ...
The 48-base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in exon 3 range from 2 to 11 repeats.[citation needed]. DRD4-7R, the 7-repeat (7R) variant of DRD4 (DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism), has been linked to a susceptibility for developing ADHD in several meta-analyses and other psychological traits and disorders.[20][21]. The frequency of the alleles varies greatly between populations, e.g., the 7-repeat version has high ...
Citicoline (INN), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) or cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline, a common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in particular the organs. Studies suggest that CDP-choline supplements increase dopamine receptor densities, and suggest that CDP-choline supplementation helps prevent memory impairment resulting from poor ...
Melis MR, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Mascia MS, Enguehard-Gueiffier C, Hubner H, Gmeiner P, Gueiffier A, Argiolas A (October 2006). "PIP3EA and PD-168077, two selective dopamine D4 receptor agonists, induce penile erection in male rats: site and mechanism of action in the brain". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (7): 2021-30. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.05043.x. PMID 17067298 ...
Animals exhibiting obsessive and compulsive behaviors that resemble OCD in humans have been used as a tool for elucidating possible genetic influences on the disease, potential treatments, and to better understand the pathology of this behavior in general. While such models are useful, they are also limited; it is unclear whether the behavior is ego dystonic in animals. That is, it is difficult to evaluate whether an animal is aware that its behavior is excessive and unreasonable and whether this awareness ...
Prunus bu prjedy jako jenički ród podswójby (Amygdaloideae) wobhladany. Dla molekulargenetiskich přepytowanjow so ród pak dźensa jako tribus Amygdaleae do podswójby Spiraeoideae staji.[Žórło 1] Eksistuja rozdźělne systematiki za ród. Zdźěla buchu družiny do wjacorych rodow rozdźělene, to so pak přez ...
Tarixi olaraq, vəhşi yaklar Tibet dövrünə aid insanlar üçün təhlükəli olan böyük pislərdən biri sayılır. Tibetdə, yabanı yak, ev yakından fərqli olaraq, dronq adlanır. Vəhşi yaklar insanlar tərəfindən idarə olunan yerlərə dözməzlər və buna görə də sürətlə öləcəklər - indi yalnız Tibet dağlıq ərazilərində, dəniz səviyyəsindən 4300-4600 metr yüksəkliklərdə yaşayırlar. qışda və ...
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Gbogbo ìkọ wà lábẹ́ Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; ó ṣe é ṣe kí àwọn ọ̀rọ̀ àdéhùn míràn tún wà. Ẹ wo Àwọn Ọ̀rọ̀ Àdéhùn Ìlò fún ẹ̀kúnrẹ́rẹ́ ...
Gbogbo ìkọ wà lábẹ́ Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; ó ṣe é ṣe kí àwọn ọ̀rọ̀ àdéhùn míràn tún wà. Ẹ wo Àwọn Ọ̀rọ̀ Àdéhùn Ìlò fún ẹ̀kúnrẹ́rẹ́ ...
1999. gadā, salīdzinot sešus plašus Rietumu valstīs veiktus pētījumus,[30] tika konstatēts, ka mirstības rādītāji viszemākie ir zivju ēdājiem (koeficients 0,82), tiem sekoja veģetārieši (0,84) un tie, kas gaļu ēd retumis, un visbeidzot - regulāri gaļas ēdāji (1,00) un vegāni (1,00)[71]. Kad pētījumā tika iegūti precīzākie rezultāti (ņemot vērā, ka sākotnējos rezultātus ietekmēja arī tādi ar veģetārismu tieši nesaistīti faktori kā, piemēram, dzimums, vecums, alkohola lietošana, smēķēšana u.c.), mirstības koeficients veģetāriešu vidū bija 0,94[72]. Rakstā "Britu veģetāriešu mirstība"[31] norādīts, ka "britu ...
Дофаминовый рецептор D1 - рецептор дофамина, сопряжённый с G-белками, стимулирующий аденилатциклазу и активирующий cAMP-зависимые киназы. В некоторых исследованиях отмечается ассоциация вариантов гена DRD1 с шизофренией, в других корреляции не обнаруживается[1]. Ген дофаминового рецептора D1 был впервые клонирован в 1990 году несколькими группами исследователей[2][3][4]. По результатам клонирования было установлено, что ген состоит из единственного экзона и кодирует белок из 446 аминокислотных остатков. Так же в первичной структуре соответствующего белка ...
Publication types, MeSH terms, Substance. Publication types. *Comparative Study. *Randomized Controlled Trial ... Building on gene-environment interaction (G × E) research, this study examines how the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene ... Receptors, Dopamine D4. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Silverchair Information Systems ... Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene.. Sasaki JY ...
Type=GeneProduct GroupRef=a7296, ,Attribute Key=org.pathvisio.model.BackpageHead Value=DRD4 , dopamine receptor D4 /, , ... Entrez Gene ID=26333 /, ,/DataNode, ,DataNode TextLabel=Dopamine GraphId=b1f Type=Metabolite, ,Graphics CenterX=84.25 ... Other Chemokine Receptors GraphId=ab5, ,Graphics CenterX=506.66666666666674 CenterY=248.0 Width=123.0 Height=12.0 ... Type=GeneProduct GroupRef=a7296, ,Attribute Key=org.pathvisio.model.BackpageHead Value=DRD2 , dopamine receptor D2 /, , ...
D4R−/− mice, lacking dopamine D4 receptors [D4 knock-out (KO)], and normal D4R+/+ control [wild-type (WT)] mice on a C57BL/6J ... and regulation of cAMP metabolism in mice with targeted disruption of the dopamine D4 receptor gene. Photoreceptor morphology ... a D2/D3/D4-receptor agonist, mimics the effect of light on cAMP levels (Fig. 3) by stimulating dopamine D4 receptors on ... Quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3/D4 receptor agonist, decreased cAMP synthesis in retinas of wild-type (WT) mice but not in retinas ...
Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse ... "Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study ... was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain ... In the study, published in todays Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into ...
VariO provides systematic names for variation types and detailed descriptions for changes in DNA function, structure and ... Numerous different types of variations can occur in DNA and have diverse effects and consequences. The Variation Ontology ( ... 48 bp minisatellite in dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4, is associated with Tourette syndrome, a neuropsychiatric disease [100]. ... To achieve the huge amount of variability to immunological recognition molecules (antibodies, B and T-cell receptors, and major ...
A-C, RT-PCR (A, C) and qRT-PCR (B) analysis of dopamine receptor expression in wild-type mice. A, D1, D5, and D2 receptors were ... D1-like receptors (D1 and D5) and D2-like receptors (D2, D3 and D4). As described in prior publications, the D2, D3, D4 and D5 ... 1996) A targeted mutation of the D3 dopamine receptor gene is associated with hyperactivity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... Cochlear phenotypes with targeted deletion of dopamine receptors. To assess the role of dopamine receptors in the auditory ...
1999). "Dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes, GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit genes and response to lithium prophylaxis in mood disorders ... At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. The GABRA1 receptor is the specific target of the z- ... 1999). "theta, a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (17): 9891-6. doi: ... 1999). "No interaction of GABA(A) alpha-1 subunit and dopamine receptor D4 exon 3 genes in symptomatology of major psychoses". ...
Receptors, Dopamine D2 - Genetics. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Receptors, Dopamine D4. en_US. ... dc.type. Article. en_US. dc.identifier.email. Sham, P: [email protected] en_US. ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the dopamine D4 receptor gene: Evidence of association but no linkage in a ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the dopamine D4 receptor gene: Evidence of association but no linkage in a ...
G Protein-Coupled Receptor Associated Sorting Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R ... Interacts with cytoplasmic tails of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors such as D2 dopamine receptor/DRD2 (By similarity ... Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPRASP1 Gene. Variant ID. Type. Subtype. PubMed ID. ...
Receptors, Dopamine D4 , Genetics , Metabolism , Rest ... Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with the Frontal-Striatal- ... Type: Article ... Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with the Frontal-Striatal- ... This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity ...
D4 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). The D4 receptor gene displays polymorphisms that differ in a variable ... The existence of multiple types of receptors for dopamine was first proposed in 1976. There are at least five subtypes of ... D4-adrenoceptor α1B D4-adrenoceptor β1 Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D5 are Gs coupled receptors that stimulate ... D1-adenosine A1 D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D1-D3 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-D4 dopamine receptor heteromer D2- ...
The present study was designed to investigate the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) ... The present study was designed to investigate the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) ... Gene Frequency * Humans * Minisatellite Repeats / genetics* * Pakistan / ethnology * Polymorphism, Genetic* * Receptors, ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * African Continental Ancestry Group / ethnology ...
There are five subtype dopamine receptors, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. The D3 receptor is a part of the D2-like family.[1] For ... Variations in the DRD3 gene is connected with essential tremor hereditary type 1 (ETM1).[12] ETM1 is the most common movement ... Human dopamine D3 receptor is a protein that is encoded by the dopamine receptor gene (DRD3).[2] The DRD3 gene codes for the D3 ... Dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors that are important in the central nervous system. ...
Further studies are needed to clarify what variant of DRD4 (or some nearby gene) accounts for this association. ... Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics* * Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism * Receptors, Dopamine D4 * Research Design / standards ... Publication types * Meta-Analysis * Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Although several studies have shown an association between ADHD and the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene ( ...
Both D1-class and D2-class dopamine receptors have been implicated in this immediate-early gene and peptide regulation. ... Evidence further suggests that dynorphin-containing projection neurons of both types express D1-class dopamine receptors (4, 19 ... D4) receptors (20). However, mutant mice in which particular D1- or D2-class receptors have been deleted by homologous ... demonstrate that D2 dopamine receptors can function without the enabling role of D1 receptors but that D1 dopamine receptors ...
Polymorphisms in the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4) Contribute to Individual Differences in Human Sexual Behavior: Desire, ... Additionally, some of these same genes have also been implicated in various types of abnormal behavior including addiction, ... Chronic rTMS modulates cortical beta-adrenergic receptors, reduces frontal cortex 5-HT2 receptors, increases 5- ... The most replicated associations have been between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and "novelty seeking" and between the ...
... with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. ... with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. ... Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in ... Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in ...
1991) Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature (Lond) ... the D4-dopamine receptor (Van Tol et al., 1991; Roth et al., 1995), all five muscarinic receptors (m1-m5) (Peroutka et al., ... 1994) Reciprocal binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2C receptor agonists and inverse agonists. Mol Pharmacol 46:937 ... 1995) D4 dopamine receptor binding affinity does not distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. ...
abstract = {Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous ... When compared with the wild-type mouse D4 receptor, the expanded intracellular domain of the humanized D4 receptor conferred a ... However, there remains some debate about the involvement of cannabinoid receptors/ligands in cocaine-induced plasticity and ... When compared with the wild-type mouse D4 receptor, the expanded intracellular domain of the humanized D4 receptor conferred a ...
Dopamine D2 and D4 receptor genes distinguish the clinica presence of tics in the obsessive-compulsive disorder ... Receptors, Dopamine D2 / Alleles / Genotype / Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Clinical aspect: Etiology Limits: Adolescent / ... Los genes de los receptores a dopamina D2 y D4 distinguen la presencia clínica de tics en el trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo / ... Se llevó a cabo un estudio de asociación alélica entre polimorfismos de los genes a los receptores a dopamina D2 (DRD2) y D4 ( ...
Re: The questionable implications of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene tree for primate phylogeny. To evaluate the ... Types I and III Gaucher disease in Poland: incidence of the most common mutations and phenotypic manifestations. These plaques ... Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. ... This gene, which we named ftsL, was detected through characterization of TnphoA insertions in a plasmid containing this ...
... dopamine D4 receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1, and proopiomelanocortin genes, suggesting ... Florez JC: The new type 2 diabetes gene TCF7L2. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:391-396, 2007. ... In animal models not expressing brain insulin receptors, obesity develops, as well as disruption of fertility (36). Similarly, ... Three genes appear to account for 15% of the variance in weight gain, the genes for the ADRA2 α-adrenoceptor, the NR3C1 ...
... emerging research on gene-brain relationships; and (d) current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms whereby environmental ... emerging research on gene-brain relationships; and (d) current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms whereby environmental ... rapidly expanding research on genetic heterogeneity and gene candidates for dyslexia and other reading disabilities; (c) ... rapidly expanding research on genetic heterogeneity and gene candidates for dyslexia and other reading disabilities; (c) ...
Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified.. RESULTS: Children with ADHD had significantly higher ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Receptors, Dopamine D4. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Medical. *Attention Deficit Disorder - ... Additive interaction; Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Dopamine receptor D4 gene; Organophosphate pesticides; ...
Some studies have implicated the D2 and D4 dopamine receptors as having a direct role in the etiology of GTS, but other studies ... However, the dopamine D2 receptor may modulate the severity of GTS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a reported association ... Investigations to date of Gilles de la Tourettes syndrome (GTS) have not resulted in the discovery of a gene of major effect. ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a reported association with the dopamine transporter. Findings of a genetic ...
  • This is believed to be linked to either unidentified Adipex with alcohol side effects or BRCA-2 carriers or less penetrating genes that have yet to be identified through genetics research. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • Amount 6 Drug-resistant TNBC cells possess raised reflection of cancers control cell genetics, while CFM-4.16 in mixture with ADR prevents cancer control cell gene term We next clarified whether and to the level CFM-4.16 was able to interfere with development of mammospheres derived from drug-resistant and parental TNBC-cells. (researchatlanta.org)
  • Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study to show how this genetic difference might translate into functional deficits seen with this disorder," said NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. (redorbit.com)
  • However, mutant mice in which particular D1- or D2-class receptors have been deleted by homologous recombination provide a means for genetic analysis of receptor-specific drug effects and for determining receptor function ( 21 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specific genetic mutations have been characterized in some developmental disorders (e.g., fragile X syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome), but thus far identification of etiological gene mutations in psychiatric illnesses has been unsuccessful. (wayne.edu)
  • These findings further support the possible involvement of the SAP97 gene variation in the susceptibility to schizophrenia in males and in the genetic basis for sex differences in the disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). (bvsalud.org)
  • In the striatum, where these neural responses have been most intensively studied, the patterns of gene regulation are exquisitely specific for drug type and target cell type. (pnas.org)
  • Both D1-class and D2-class dopamine receptors have been implicated in this immediate-early gene and peptide regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Pharmacologic studies point to D1-class dopamine receptors as essential to the induction of bZip and NGFI-A family transcription factors and to the regulation of dynorphin expression ( 3 , 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The present results suggest that the HTR3A and DBH genes may participate in the regulation of dopamine and serotonin turnover rates in the central nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA and histone methylation provide epigenetic regulation of gene expression during prenatal and postnatal development. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent elucidation of the central role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in development presents a molecular framework within which prenatal and postnatal maturation of neuronal, immune, and GI systems can be viewed. (hindawi.com)
  • As all cells possess the same DNA, their differentiation into various cell types reflects stable suppression of some genes and activation of others, accomplished in large part by epigenetic regulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Photoreceptors of wildtype mice display circadian clock-dependent regulation of visual arrestins ( Arr1 , Arr4 ) and the visual cycle gene Rdh12 , whereas cells of the RPE-choroid exhibit light-dependent regulation of the visual cycle key genes Lrat , Rpe65 , and Rdh5 . (arvojournals.org)
  • The data of the present study suggest that daily adjustment of retinal function combines clock-dependent regulation of genes responsible for phototransduction termination ( Arr1 , Arr4 ) and detoxification ( Rdh12 ) in photoreceptors with light-dependent regulation of genes responsible for retinoid recycling ( Lrat , Rpe65 , and Rdh5 ) in RPE. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, they indicate circadian and light-dependent regulation of genes genetically associated with severe retinal diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • 7 - 9 The circadian regulation of visual function involves the neurohormones melatonin acting on MT 1 and MT 2 receptors, 10 , 11 and dopamine acting on D 4 receptors 12 - 15 as biochemical transducers of night and day, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • The consequence of which, is that their integration has greater potential to have affects on gene regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Photoreceptor morphology and outer segment disc shedding after light onset were normal in D4 knock-out (D4KO) mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings indicate that dopamine D4 receptors normally play a major role in regulating photoreceptor cAMP metabolism and adaptive retinal responses to changing environmental illumination. (jneurosci.org)
  • Genes important for vision and genetically associated with severe retinal diseases were tested for 24-hour rhythms in transcript levels in neuronal retina, microdissected photoreceptors, photoreceptor-related pinealocytes, and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid (RPE-choroid) complex by using quantitative PCR. (arvojournals.org)
  • Quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3/D4 receptor agonist, decreased cAMP synthesis in retinas of wild-type (WT) mice but not in retinas of D4KO mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has recently been proposed that these atypical antipsychotic drugs may also be distinguished from typical antipsychotic drugs (e.g., haloperidol, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine, and so on) by inverse agonist actions at the 5-HT 2C-INI RNA edited isoform of the human 5-HT 2C receptor transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have examined the relationship among 5-HT 2C inverse agonist potency, efficacy, and atypical antipsychotic drug status in HEK-293 cells of a large number of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells stably transfected with the h5-HT 2C-INI receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Inverse agonist actions at h5-HT 2C-INI receptors were measured for both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs may exhibit inverse agonist effects at the 5-HT 2C-INI isoform of the human 5-HT 2C receptor and that no relationship exists between inverse agonist actions and atypicality. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A study using mice provides insight into how a specific receptor subtype in the brain could play a role in increasing a person's risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (redorbit.com)
  • However, these rhythmic activities were damped or undetectable in mice lacking the dopamine D4 receptor. (emory.edu)
  • Clock-driven rhythmicity of Arr1 , Arr4 , and Rdh12 was observed also in rat pinealocytes, to persist in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy ( db / db ) and, in the case of Arr1 , to be abolished in retinae of mice deficient for dopamine D 4 receptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1998). This natural process can be mimicked by the introduc- of analysis is dependent on gene-specific primers, including onerous tion of dsRNA into an organism (e.g. injection). (deepdyve.com)
  • Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead to new medications for the treatment of ADHD. (redorbit.com)
  • Targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes via its interaction with BECN2. (genecards.org)
  • The estimated value of the AP (attributable proportion due to interaction) was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.13-1.05), indicating that 59% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the DRD4 GG genotype were due to the gene-environment interaction. (cdc.gov)
  • This study indicated a gene-environment interaction in the risk of ADHD in children. (cdc.gov)
  • The sensation of taste is initiated by the interaction of tastants with their receptors in the taste cells, which are clustered in onion-shape taste buds embedded within the lingual epithelium in tongue and palate as described, e.g., in Lindemann, supra. (google.com)
  • Perkin, Lindsey C.;Gerken, Alison R.;Oppert, Brenda 2017-04-10 00:00:00 RNA interference (RNAi) is a functional genomics tool to correlate genotype and phenotype by delivering tar- geted, gene-specific, and complementary dsRNA into a host via injection, feeding, or other means in order to re- duce gene expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • In particular, the invention relates to polypeptides that are homologous to other sweet receptors, nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides, vectors and host cells comprising the nucleic acids and antibodies that specifically bind to the polypeptides. (google.com)
  • Tonic firing patterns maintain basal extracellular levels of DA in afferent regions, and can be affected by visceral stimuli that can moderately increase or decrease efferent DA levels to provide a "tone" on DA receptors (Grace, 1991). (scholarpedia.org)