DimethylformamideDMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.United States
Solvation significantly affects the basicity of amines. N-H groups strongly interact with water, especially in ammonium ions. Consequently, the basicity of ammonia is enhanced by 1011 by solvation. The intrinsic basicity of amines, i.e. the situation where solvation is unimportant, has been evaluated in the gas phase. In the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the electron-releasing effects of the organic substituents. Thus tertiary amines are more basic than secondary amines, which are more basic than primary amines, and finally ammonia is least basic. The order of pKb's (basicities in water) does not follow this order. Similarly aniline is more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution.[11]. In aprotic polar solvents such as DMSO, DMF, and acetonitrile the energy of solvation is not as high as in protic polar solvents like water and methanol. For this reason, the basicity of amines in these aprotic solvents is almost solely ...
... is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
... (1-methyl-4-[(oxocyclohexadienylidene)ethylidene]-1,4-dihydropyridine, MOED) is an organic dye belonging to the class of merocyanines. MOED is notable for its solvatochromic properties, meaning it changes color depending on the solvent in which it is dissolved. As shown in the structural formula, MOED can exist in two resonance forms: A neutral molecule and a zwitterion. Research indicates that the zwitterion form is most representative when the compound exists in polar solvents such as water, and the neutral form when it exists in nonpolar solvents such as chloroform. When MOED is dissolved in various liquids, its colour will vary, depending on the solvent and its polarity. In general, the more polar the solvent, the shorter the wavelengths of the light absorbed will be. When light of a certain colour (wavelength) is absorbed, the solution will appear in the complementary colour of the one absorbed. Therefore, in water, a highly polar solvent, MOED appears yellow ...
... (DMF) is the methyl ester of fumaric acid. DMF was initially recognized as a very effective hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Later, DMF combined with three other fumaric acid esters (FAE) was licensed in Germany as oral therapy for psoriasis (trade name Fumaderm). Other diseases, such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, and sarcoidosis were also found to respond to treatment with DMF in case reports or small patient series. Phase III clinical trials found that DMF (BG-12) successfully reduced relapse rate and increased time to progression of disability in multiple sclerosis (trade name Tecfidera). DMF is thought to have immunomodulatory properties without significant immunosuppression. In a non-medical use, DMF was applied as a biocide in furniture or shoes to prevent growths of mold during storage or transport in a humid climate. However, due to incidences of allergic reactions ...
3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 9195223. Kemp S, Pujol A, Waterham HR, van Geel BM, Boehm CD, Raymond GV, Cutting GR, Wanders RJ, Moser HW (2002). "ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations". Hum. Mutat. 18 (6): 499-515. doi:10.1002/humu.1227. PMID 11748843. Lan F (2002). "Molecular diagnostics in China". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 39 (12): 1190-1194. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2001.188. PMID 11798073. Feil R, Aubourg P, Mosser J, Douar AM, Le Paslier D, Philippe C, Mandel JL (1992). "Adrenoleukodystrophy: a complex chromosomal rearrangement in the Xq28 red/green-color-pigment gene region indicates two possible gene localizations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 49 (6): 1361-71. PMC 1686466 . PMID 1746561. Moser HW, Moser AE, Singh I, O'Neill BP (1985). "Adrenoleukodystrophy: survey of 303 cases: biochemistry, diagnosis, and therapy". Ann. Neurol. 16 (6): 628-641. doi:10.1002/ana.410160603. PMID 6524872. Migeon BR, Moser HW, Moser AB, Axelman J, Sillence D, Norum ...
The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent is function of temperature. Depending on the change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the dissolution reaction, i.e., on the endothermic (ΔG , 0) or exothermic (ΔG , 0) character of the dissolution reaction, the solubility of a given compound may increase or decrease with temperature. The van 't Hoff equation relates the change of solubility equilibrium constant (Ksp) to temperature change and to reaction enthalpy change (ΔH). For most solids and liquids, their solubility increases with temperature because their dissolution reaction is endothermic (ΔG , 0).[8] In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g. that approaching the critical temperature), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water; the lower dielectric constant results in a less polar solvent and in a change of hydration energy affecting the ΔG of the dissolution reaction. Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior ...
... is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH. This heterocyclic amine consists of a six-membered ring containing five methylene bridges (-CH2-) and one amine bridge (-NH-). It is a colorless liquid with an odor described as objectionable, and typical of amines. the name comes from the genus name Piper, which is the Latin word for pepper. Although piperidine is a common organic compound, it is best known as a representative structure element within many pharmaceuticals and alkaloids. Piperidine was first reported in 1850 by the Scottish chemist Thomas Anderson and again, independently, in 1852 by the French chemist Auguste Cahours, who named it. Both men obtained piperidine by reacting piperine with nitric acid. Industrially, piperidine is produced by the hydrogenation of pyridine, usually over a molybdenum disulfide catalyst: C5H5N + 3 H2 → C5H10NH Pyridine can also be reduced to piperidine via a modified Birch reduction using sodium in ethanol. Piperidine itself has ...
... s (also termed pit and fissure sealants, or simply fissure sealants) are a dental treatment intended to prevent tooth decay. Teeth have recesses on their biting surfaces; the back teeth have fissures (grooves) and some front teeth have cingulum pits. It is these pits and fissures which are most vulnerable to tooth decay, partly because food sticks in them and they are hard-to-clean areas. Dental sealants are materials placed in these pits and fissures to fill them in, creating a smooth surface that is easy to clean. Dental sealants are mainly used in children who are at higher risk of tooth decay, and typically they are placed as soon as the adult molar teeth come through. Dental caries is an upset of the balance between loss and gain of minerals from a tooth surface. The loss of minerals from our teeth occurs from the bacteria within our mouths fermenting foods and producing acids, whereas the tooth gains minerals from our saliva and fluoride that is present within our mouths. ...
... is an Indian public health specialist, scholar and environmentalist. The Government of India honoured her, in 2014, by awarding her the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for her contributions to the fields of public health and environment. Micronutrient deficiency is a serious public health concern in most developing countries. In India, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorder are of greatest public health significance. In addition, subclinical zinc deficiency, fluorosis, and fluoride-deficient dental caries are important areas of concern, writes Dr. Indira Chakravarty. Chakravarty hails from West Bengal and secured a doctoral degree (PhD) in Biochemistry from Calcutta University. This was followed by a second doctoral degree (DSc). She has been active in the food safety and hygiene milieu of India and the world in general, and has participated in 30 research projects. She has been involved with two projects of the World Health ...
In dentistry, the approximal surfaces are those surfaces which form points of contact between adjacent teeth. However, in diastemic individuals these surfaces may not make contact but are still considered approximal. Due to the topography of approximal sites the removal of plaque by brushing may be difficult and hence a significant build-up may occur increasing the risk of plaque-related diseases such as dental caries or gingivitis. It is recommended that teeth be professionally cleaned every six months, in part, to avoid this build-up and therefore maintain the health of the dentition and surrounding tissues. Fejerskov, O; Kidd, E (2008). Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management, 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-3889-5 ...
A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from. It is typically used by infants and young children, or if someone cannot (without difficulty) drink from a cup, for feeding oneself or being fed. It can also be used to feed non-human mammals. In particular it is used to feed infant formula, expressed breast milk or pediatric electrolyte solution. A large-sized bottle typically holds 280 ml; the small size 150 ml.[citation needed] It is composed of a bottle itself, a teat, a ring to seal the teat to the bottle, a cap to cover the teat and optionally a disposable liner. The height-to-width ratio of bottles is high (relative to adult cups) because it is needed to ensure the contents flood the teat when used at normal angles; otherwise the baby will drink air. However, if the bottle is too tall, it easily tips. There are asymmetric bottles that ensure the contents flood the teat if the bottle is held at a certain direction. The teat itself is generally ...
The Hall Technique is a non-invasive treatment for decayed baby back (molar) teeth. Decay is sealed under preformed (stainless steel) crowns, avoiding injections and drilling. It is one of a number of biologically orientated strategies for managing dental decay. The technique has an evidence-base showing that it is acceptable to children, parents and dentists and it is preferred over standard filling techniques, due to the ease of application and overall patient comfort as young patient don't have to undergo traumatic injections. Preformed metal crowns are now recommended as the optimum restoration for managing carious primary molars. There are now 5 randomised control trials that have shown the Hall Technique to be superior to other methods for managing decay in baby teeth but there is a lack of evidence to conclude that the Hall technique is superior to placing preformed metal crowns in a conventional manner. Initial fears over the potential problem with sealing caries into teeth being that ...
A toothache is a pain felt in a person's tooth, normally when the tooth is hurt. A tooth can be hurt by tooth decay caused by plaque or by an injury.. ...
That type of indexes may be listed at the bottom of the output, hence it leads us to assume the index is heavily used. Because ... from sys.indexes i. inner join sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats s. on s.object_id = i.object_id. and s.index_id = i.index_id. and s. ... from sys.indexes i. left outer join sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats s. on s.object_id = i.object_id. and s.index_id = i.index_id. ... Index related DMVs and DMFs - sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats. By Dinesh Priyankara ...
Full text: Available Index: GHL / IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Female / Humans / Male / DMF Index / Regression ... Type: Article ... Role of bitewing in enhancing the assessment of DMFS index in a ... Adolescent , DMF Index , Dental Caries/pathology , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , India , Male , ... Two groups of 100 subjects each, in the age range of 16-20 years, were examined clinically for caries and their DMFS index ...
DMF Index * Dental Care for Children* * Dental Caries / prevention & control* * Disease Progression ... Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of ... Publication types * Randomized Controlled Trial MeSH terms * Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use* * Child, Preschool ... Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was ...
4. dmft index and dmfs index of children of Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Filipinos women were higher than those of Chinese and ... 5. In sagittal primary molar relationship, flush terminal plane type was 82.6%, distal step type was 5.2% and mesial step type ... The results were as follows : 1. Dental caries prevalence rate of primary teeth (dmf rate) was 61.7% at 3 years of age, 88.7% ... at 4 years of age, and 92.6% at 5 years of age (p>0.05). 2. Average score of dmft index was 2.22 at 3 years of age, 4.97 at 4 ...
... dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled ... 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF). Variable fluoride ... Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96) and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97). Preschoolers presented dmft = ... Brand, type of package (cardboard or plastic bag), source (land or marine), place of manufacturing, lot number, and expiration ...
DMF) index ignores noncavitated enamel lesions, leading to underestimation of caries (8). ... The D and d component of DMFS (Decayed, Missing and Filled Surface )and dmfs (deciduous teeth) were not considered. Caries ... type of dentition and risk factors for dental caries are summarized in Appendix 1 (9-29). The caries prevalence of permanent ... the index information was obtained (Appendix 1). The number of times the index was used was totalled to meet the second ...
Obesity OR Overweight OR BMI OR body mass index OR weight AND caries OR dental caries OR oral health OR dmf OR teeth decay OR ... Keywords and index terms: obes, child, paediatric, weight, overweight, BMI, dental caries, primary dentition, dft, dmft, dmfs, ... Types of studies. Studies will be systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational studies in humans. Systematic reviews or ... Obesity, DMFT Index, tooth decay, waist circumference, skinfolds and body mass index. Operators OR or AND used [23]. ...
Some drawbacks of this index were - it employs same caries detection criteria as DMF or DMFS; in cases of large lesions, which ... does not correlate well with the detection and assessment of the conditions and various type of restorations and may lead to an ... Main disadvantage of SiC index is that this index is just an extension of DMF index as it follows same criteria for assessing ... Keywords: caries assessment; DMF index; significant caries index; ICDAS; specific caries index; PUFA; CAST. ...
In 1943 the DMF in 12 -year-olds in North Shields was 4.3 and in 1949 it was 2.4. In South Shields the DMF was 2.4 in 1943 and ... The DMFS in 15-year-olds has hardly changed since 1993 when the DMFS was 4.00 and 60% of children were caries free53,139. In ... They are the only types of study which actually record the development of caries in people and as such should provide the most ... http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/index.html, 1999. 14 Pitts NB, Palmer J. The Dental Caries Experience of 5-, 12- and 14-Year Old ...
DMFs) is outdated and not in line with international efforts to standardize MF terminology and MF procedures. The revised draft ... When a MF Holder is filing a Type IV Dosage Form Master File that references a Type I ASMF, the MF Holder for the Type I ASMF ... The 2008 Draft Guidance Document - Drug Master Files (DMFs) is outdated and not in line with international efforts to ... Also refer to the 2015 Notice - Re: Preparation of Drug Master File (DMF) in "Non-eCTD Electronic-Only" Format. ...
When the index is applied to the tooth surface it is called the DMFS index and scores from a range of 0-128 or 148 also ... The DMF index expresses the total number of teeth or surfaces that have decayed. When the index is applied specifically to ... These types of media suppress the growth of most microorganisms but allows the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus ... The Decayed Missing Filled also known as the DMF index is the key to measuring the caries that are caused by the bacterial ...
Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article. Share. Publication types, MeSH terms, Grant support. Publication types. *Evaluation ... Both methods can be used to compute caries increments for populations with similar distribution of the dmfs scores to the ... DMF Index. *Dental Caries/epidemiology*. *Dental Caries/ethnology. *Dental Health Surveys/methods* ... We computed and compared mean dmfs (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) increment scores including (d(t) mfs) or ...
One of them, allow us to take a look at the index fragmentation level - sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats DMF. It is important to ... Identifying fragmented indexes. Starting from version 2005, SQL Server contains a number of DMVs and DMFs qhich allow us to ... SELECT s.[name] AS SchemaName, t.[name] AS TableName, i.[name] AS IndexName, p.[index_type_desc], p.[avg_fragmentation_in_ ... INNER JOIN [sys].[indexes] i ON p.[object_id] = i.[object_id] AND p.index_id = i.index_id. WHERE t.[is_ms_shipped] = 0 ...
Email marketing is said to be a feasible type of advertising. It has the calibre to drive more engagements and increase website ... SQL Server DBA Interview Questions and Answers , What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. SQL Server Interview ... Many people take advantage of WordPress, the open-source tool businesses of all types use for blogging or as a content ... What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. Sachin Diwakar January 25, 2018 23 ...
Email marketing is said to be a feasible type of advertising. It has the calibre to drive more engagements and increase website ... SQL Server DBA Interview Questions and Answers , What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. SQL Server Interview ... Many people take advantage of WordPress, the open-source tool businesses of all types use for blogging or as a content ... What are the differences between DMVs and DMFs. Sachin Diwakar February 3, 2018 85 ...
DMFS index is most common index used for assessment of caries during epidemiological studies.DMFT/DMFS index is universal index ... Relationship Between Different Types and Forms of Anti-Asthmatic Medications and Dental Caries in Three to 12 Year Olds Alireza ... DMF and SiC) together may help to highlight oral health inequalities more accurately ... DMFS index is most common index used for assessment of caries during epidemiological studies.DMFT/DMFS index is universal index ...
DMFs, (A)NDAs, (A)ADAs, and (A)NADAs filed with the agency are accessible to the inspection team through ITOB. Copies of the ... During the inspection, he or she leads the direction of the investigation and determines the types of records or operations to ... team is to evaluate the foreign facilitys compliance with cGMPs and its adherence to application commitments and DMF ... The Merck Index. *The Pharmaceutical Quality Control Handbook. *The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy ...
DMFs) and info on submission of DMFs to agency. FDA provides info on DMF list, status of DMF, types of DMF, and more. ... If a DMF in eCTD format is flagged with a validation error due to the form heading element not being included in the index.xml ... TYPES OF DMFs. Type I DMFs (Category 1). Type I DMFs are no longer accepted per a Final Rule published January 12, 2000 (65 FR ... Type V DMFs (Category 3). As specified in 21 CFR 314.420(a)(5), DMF holders wishing to submit a Type V DMF must obtain ...
As SiC index is an expansion of DMF index and follows the same criteria as that of DMF index, it may have a limitation in ... Comparison of xeroradiographs and two types of film for detecting caries in approximal surfaces of primary teeth.. Caries Res. ... DMFS) scores in a clinical epidemiological study.[36] ... The major drawback of the DMF index is that it cannot assess ... CAST index was developed based on the strengths of PUFA and ICDAS indices and provide a link to the widely used DMF index (M ...
... care index (CI), and restorative index (RI) values. Without date or language restrictions four databases were searched for; ... DMF OR DMFS OR DMFT) AND (restorative index OR RI OR care index OR CI). ... 2. When the types of disabilities were separated out, there was evidence of lower levels of dental caries in children with Down ... Table 4 DMFT, Care index (CI) and Restorative index (RI) in CLD and CNLD (n = 25 studies; 20 studies with DMFT data and 16 with ...
Dental caries was assessed with the DMFS/DMFT indexes, the significant caries index (SiC) and their 95% confidence intervals ( ... Document type: Research Article. Document available free of charge. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2010, pp ... dental caries, DMF index, oral health, trends. © Copyright 2010 Braz J Oral Sci.. Alternative site location: http://www.fop. ... The mean DMFS index was 2.0, and it was composed of an average of 1.8 and 0.2 decayed and filled surfaces, respectively. ...
DMF Index Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control Female Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use Health Education, ... Publication Type. Article Keywords. Achievement Adolescent Adolescent Behavior Attitude Cognition Educational Status Female ... FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean net dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for ... Publication Type. Article Keywords. Adolescent Adult Age Factors Aged Canada Cohort Studies Delivery of Health Care - ...
Publication Type. Article Keywords. Adult Blood Pressure Determination Body mass index Cross-Sectional Studies Denmark Female ... DMF Index Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control Female Fluorides, Topical - therapeutic use Health Education, ... FV treatment conferred an 18% reduction in the 2-year mean net dmfs increment for Aboriginal children and a 25% reduction for ... Publication Type. Article Keywords. Age Factors Aged Cohort Studies Comorbidity Humans Logistic Models Male Middle Aged ...
Key words: Oral health TMJ , disorder, DMF index, mental health, psychiatry. Assuntos. Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto ... DMFS, the WHO and the Dean index were used. The students were examined visually and clinically. Results: Regarding IHO-S: good ... DML types and locations were recorded in detail, and patients were followed up after treatment. Based on the data of this study ... TMD was found in 83.5% and the DMFT index was 22.8. Among the signs of TMD, joint noise was the most common. Conclusion:A high ...
Dental caries by dmf(t) and dmf(s) indices for primary dentition and DMF(T) and DMF(S) indices was used in permanent dentition ... Diabetics have lower mean DMFT, DMFS, dmft, and dmfs compared to the nondiabetic group. Diminished unstimulated and stimulated ... A comparative cross-sectional descriptive type. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of two groups: 140 diabetic group ( ... Abstracting and Indexing · *Aims and Scope · *Article Processing Charges · *Bibliographic Information · *Editorial Board · ...
  • Two groups of 100 subjects each, in the age range of 16-20 years, were examined clinically for caries and their DMFS index recorded. (bvsalud.org)
  • Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. (nih.gov)
  • Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). (nih.gov)
  • The most common index used for oral examination to calculate caries experience was WHO Basic Oral Health Survey Criteria, 1997. (who.int)
  • For example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) considers even white spots as caries, while the traditional Decayed Missing and Filled (DMF) index ignores noncavitated enamel lesions, leading to underestimation of caries (8). (who.int)
  • The path of future research in caries epidemiology will depend on finding an ideal caries index. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are many promising new caries indices purposed, but still there is a need for further studies to evaluate their validity and reliability before they can replace DMFT index. (bvsalud.org)
  • this can only be obtained if we have a reliable caries assessment system (index). (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this literature review is to critically evaluate major caries assessment systems purposed in last one decade and try to build up requisites for an ideal caries index. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brathall 2 introduced this index in order to bring attention to the individuals with the highest caries values in each population under investigation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The authors concluded that using both caries indices (DMF and SiC) together may help to highlight oral health inequalities more accurately among different population groups within the community in order to identify the need for special preventive oral health interventions 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Both methods can be used to compute caries increments for populations with similar distribution of the dmfs scores to the sample used in this study. (nih.gov)
  • This systematic review compared caries experience and met dental care need for CLD to CNLD using Decayed, Missing, Filled Permanent Teeth (DMFT) and decayed, missing/extracted, filled primary teeth (dmft/deft), care index (CI), and restorative index (RI) values. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The two-year mean caries increments in the test and the control group children were 1.0 and 1.6 decayed, missing, or filled molar surfaces (dmfs-molar), respectively, a 37.3% reduction (t test, p = 0.036). (hku.hk)
  • Although many dental studies provide detailed tooth-level data on caries activity, most analyses still rely on aggregated scores such as the DMF index. (doctorabel.us)
  • Starting from version 2005, SQL Server contains a number of DMVs and DMFs qhich allow us to retrieve informations about SQL Server health and performances and identifying problems. (blogspot.com)
  • We computed and compared mean dmfs (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) increment scores including (d(t) mfs) or excluding the noncavitated stage (d(c) mfs) from TSS and another adjustment method proposed by Beck (modified Beck's method). (nih.gov)
  • Beginning on May 5, 2018, new DMFs, as well as all documents submitted to existing DMFs, must be submitted using the Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD). (fda.gov)
  • However, starting May 5, 2018, any new submissions to the existing DMF must be done in eCTD format. (fda.gov)
  • NOTE: On 4/7/2017 the FDA announced that it is extending the compliance date for submitting DMFs in eCTD format to May 5, 2018. (fda.gov)
  • The current list contains DMFs RECEIVED by December 31, 2017 for which acknowledgment letters were sent before January 10, 2018. (fda.gov)
  • DMF submissions that are not submitted in eCTD format after this date will be rejected. (fda.gov)
  • DMFs are submissions made to the USFDA (Food and Drug Administration) providing details of the manufacturing facilities, process, ingredients used in manufacturing, processing, packaging and storing of drugs that are supplied to the US. (bharat-rakshak.com)
  • The Ekstrand index scores resemble the clinical situations and are based on signs found on the enamel surface such as opacities, white spots, brown spots, presence of cavities or micro-cavities, and a combination of these conditions. (jglobaloralhealth.org)
  • One thing needs to be made checked before removing - there may be some indexes that have been created for read-only tables (so, no updates) and they are used by some scheduled (eg. (sql-server-performance.com)
  • Changes to the DMF activity status, DMF type, holder name, and subject made since the last update of September 30, 2017 are included. (fda.gov)
  • A Drug Master File (DMF) is a submission to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that may be used to provide confidential detailed information about facilities, processes, or articles used in the manufacturing, processing, packaging, and storing of one or more human drugs. (fda.gov)
  • If a DMF is in paper format with FDA, the same submission does not need to be resubmitted in eCTD format. (fda.gov)
  • In addition, if the DMF holder chooses to resubmit all of an existing paper DMF in eCTD format, and there are any changes in the content of the DMF as a result of the reformatting (e.g., addition of new or updated information), the Cover Letter for the submission should specify what areas of information have been updated. (fda.gov)
  • This document outlines the types of information and documents that the inspection team is expected to review prior to the foreign inspection trip. (fda.gov)
  • Even that you see, everything is fine, your index can be fragmented so that SQL Server needs to make unnecessary data reads to execute query. (blogspot.com)
  • Any information that a manufacturer does not wish to share with the applicant or sponsor (i.e., because it is considered proprietary) may be placed in a Type III DMF and incorporated into the application by a letter from the manufacturer to the applicant which authorizes reference to the DMF. (fda.gov)
  • Many people take advantage of WordPress, the open-source tool businesses of all types use for blogging or as a content management system, but the … Best SEO Plugins Read More » The post Best SEO Plugins appeared first on Launch Your Business. (dbathings.com)
  • The DMF index despite having limitations has been widely utilized in oral epidemiological surveys. (bvsalud.org)
  • or who are from families or ethnic groups with a high incidence of type 2 DM) should undergo oral glucose tolerance testing as soon as possible to assess blood glucose levels while fasting and after meals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If the existing number is four-digits, e.g., 1234, the DMF holder will need to pad left with zeroes to convert the DMF number to a g-digit format, e.g., 001234 when the DMF is converted to eCTD format. (fda.gov)
  • The list of DMFs is current through DMF 32419. (fda.gov)
  • Numbers for DMFs that are Cancelled, Preassigned and Pending or have been transferred to another center in the FDA are not included in the list. (fda.gov)
  • Dose modification factors (DMF) were determined from survival curves (ratio of radiation doses for control versus drug treated at 10% survival). (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the time, when updates, inserts and deletes occur indexes get fragmented what is a real bottleneck in a SQL Server performances. (blogspot.com)