A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS and pancreatic sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (1/4851)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by protein kinase C decreases catalytic activity of avian phospholipase C-beta. (2/4851)

The potential role of protein kinase C (PKC)-promoted phosphorylation has been examined in the G-protein-regulated inositol lipid signalling pathway. Incubation of [32P]Pi-labelled turkey erythrocytes with either the P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) or with PMA resulted in a marked increase in incorporation of 32P into the G-protein-activated phospholipase C PLC-betaT. Purified PLC-betaT also was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro to a stoichiometry (mean+/-S. E.M.) of 1.06+/-0.2 mol of phosphate/mol of PLC-betaT. Phosphorylation by PKC was isoenzyme-specific because, under identical conditions, mammalian PLC-beta2 also was phosphorylated to a stoichiometry near unity, whereas mammalian PLC-beta1 was not phosphorylated by PKC. The effects of PKC-promoted phosphorylation on enzyme activity were assessed by reconstituting purified PLC-betaT with turkey erythrocyte membranes devoid of endogenous PLC activity. Phosphorylation resulted in a decrease in basal activity, AlF4(-)-stimulated activity, and activity stimulated by 2MeSATP plus guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate in the reconstituted membranes. The decreases in enzyme activities were proportional to the extent of PKC-promoted phosphorylation. Catalytic activity assessed by using mixed detergent/phospholipid micelles also was decreased by up to 60% by phosphorylation. The effect of phosphorylation on Gqalpha-stimulated PLC-betaT in reconstitution experiments with purified proteins was not greater than that observed on basal activity alone. Taken together, these results illustrate that PKC phosphorylates PLC-betaT in vivo and to a physiologically relevant stoichiometry in vitro. Phosphorylation is accompanied by a concomitant loss of enzyme activity, reflected as a decrease in overall catalytic activity rather than as a specific modification of G-protein-regulated activity.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (3/4851)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (4/4851)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways. (5/4851)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms.  (+info)

Resolution of a signal transfer region from a general binding domain in gbeta for stimulation of phospholipase C-beta2. (6/4851)

Signaling by guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) involves sequential protein-protein interactions. G protein-betagamma subunit (Gbetagamma) interactions with phospholipase C-beta2 (PLC-beta2) were studied to determine if all Gbeta contacts are required for signaling. A peptide encoding Gbeta amino acid residues 86 to 105 stimulated PLC-beta2. Six residues (96 to 101) within this sequence could transfer signals and thus constitute a core signal transfer region. Another peptide, encoding Gbeta amino acid residues 115 to 135, did not substantially stimulate PLC-beta2 by itself but inhibited Gbetagamma stimulation, indicating that residues 115 to 135 constitute a general binding domain. Resolution of signal transfer regions from general binding domains indicates that all protein-protein contacts are not required for signal transfer and that it may be feasible to synthesize agonists and antagonists that regulate intracellular signal flow.  (+info)

Carbamazepine-induced upregulation of adenosine A1-receptors in astrocyte cultures affects coupling to the phosphoinositol signaling pathway. (7/4851)

The anticonvulsant and antibipolar drug carbamazepine (CBZ) is known to act as a specific antagonist at adenosine A1-receptors. After a 3-week application of CBZ, A1-receptors are upregulated in the rat brain. We have investigated the consequences of this upregulation for the A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in primary astrocyte cultures from different regions of the rat brain. CBZ treatment for 10 days had no effect on adenosine A1-receptor mRNA expression in cultures with high basal A1-receptor mRNA levels, but increased A1-receptor mRNA in cultures exhibiting low basal A1-receptor mRNA levels. This upregulation of A1-receptor mRNA was accompanied by an upregulation or induction of A1-receptor-mediated potentiation of PLC activity, a property that was not found in these cultures before CBZ treatment. Thus, CBZ treatment for 10 days induces a new quality of adenosine A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells that express low basal A1-receptor numbers.  (+info)

Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea. (8/4851)

1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement of phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) for dectin-1-induced antigen presentation and induction of TH1/TH17 polarization. AU - Tassi, Ilaria. AU - Cella, Marina. AU - Castro, Iris. AU - Gilfillan, Susan. AU - Khan, Wasif N.. AU - Colonna, Marco. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - DC recognize microbial components through an array of receptors known as PRR. PRR initiate intracellular signals, which engender DC with the capacity to stimulate T-cell responses. Dectin-1 is a PRR that recognizes β-glucan, a major constituent of many fungis outer cell wall. Here we show that Dectin-1 activates DC through phospholipase (PLC)γ2 signaling. PLCγ2-deficient DC were unable to expand antigen-specific T cells and induce TH1 and TH17 differentiation in response to β-glucan. Mechanistically, PLCγ2-deficiency impaired the capacity of DC to secrete polarizing cytokines following exposure to β-glucan. Dectin-1 required PLCγ2 to activate MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB, which induce cytokine gene ...
Phospholipase C-(gamma) (PLC-(gamma)) is activated in many cell types following growth factor stimulation. Our understanding of the role of PLC-(gamma) in cell growth and differentiation has been severely limited by the dearth of mutations in any organism. In this study, we show that the Drosophila gene small wing (sl), identified by Bridges in 1915, encodes a PLC-(gamma). Mutations of sl result in extra R7 photoreceptors in the compound eye, consistent with overactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that control R7 development. The data presented here provide the first genetic evidence that PLC-(gamma) is involved in Ras-mediated signaling and indicate that PLC-(gamma) acts as a negative regulator in such pathways in Drosophila.. ...
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enhancer (PIKE) is small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that associates with nuclear-localized PI3K and increases its lipid kinase activity and its ability to promote cellular proliferation. Activated phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) can also promote mitogenesis, but this effect does not require the phospholipase activity of PLC-γ1. Now Ye et al. have found that PLC-γ1 might act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for PIKE. The Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of PLC-γ1 (PLCγ1-SH3) bound to PIKE in glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Increasing concentrations of the PLCγ1-SH3 incubated with PIKE stimulated GTP binding to and GDP dissociation from PIKE. These data suggest that PLCγ1-SH3 functioned like a GEF with PIKE as its substrate. PC12 cells that expressed PLCγ1-SH3 exhibited increased nuclear PI3K activity, suggesting a link between PLC-γ1 and increased PI3K activity, and a possible explanation of how PLC-γ1 can promote ...
AB - Phospholipases C play a role in the pathogenesis of several bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, possesses four genes encoding putative phospholipases C, plcA, plcB, plcC and plcD. However, the contribution of these genes to virulence is unknown. We constructed four single mutants of M. tuberculosis each inactivated in one of the plc genes, a triple plcABC mutant and a quadruple plcABCD mutant. The mutants all exhibited a lower phospholipase C activity than the wild-type parent strain, demonstrating that the four plc genes encode a functional phospholipase C in M. tuberculosis. Functional complementation of the Delta plcABC triple mutant with the individual plcA, plcB and plcC genes restored in each case about 20% of the total Plc activity detected in the parental strain, suggesting that the three enzymes contribute equally to the overall Plc activity of M. tuberculosis. RT-PCR analysis of the plc genes transcripts showed that the expression of these ...
The data presented in this study demonstrate that activation of PKC-ε on stimulation of the A1R in the rat or mouse heart elicits the translocation of the kinase to a RACK2 protein of the cardiomyocyte. Previously, we reported A1R activation promotes the translocation of PKC-ε, but not PKC-δ, to the t-tubules of the cardiomyocyte (30). The present data indicate that RACK2 was the target protein for this translocation. Our present observations include the measurement of contractile activity of isolated cardiomyocytes and the visualization with imaging (rat) and coimmunoprecipitation of the kinase and RACK2 (rat and mouse). Translocation of PKC-ε to RACK2 occurred whether the PKC-ε was activated nonspecifically by a phorbol ester, or by A1R activation with PIA, or with the selective agonist CCPA. The action induced by CCPA was selective for the A1R, as indicated by the inhibition elicited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX. Furthermore, PKC-ε translocation most likely results from an A1R-induced ...
An unpaired ANOVA was utilized in the examination from the protein tyrosine kinase read full report information in Figure 8. For all other data, a paired ANOVA was made use of. Prism four for the Macintosh was made use of for all graphing and statistical calculations. Effects Characterization of GM M Monocytes are typically matured into M in vitro utilizing M CSF. On the other hand, AM are uncommon in they need GM CSF, but not M CSF, for his or her improvement in vivo. As a result, we followed the GM CSF based mostly differentiation protocol of Akagawa, et al., made to provide mono cyte derived M by using a distinctly AM like phenotype. The two AM and GM M happen to be proven to provide decrease levels of H2O2, express higher ranges of catalase and therefore are a lot more resistant to H2O2 toxicity when in comparison to M CSF derived M. Furthermore, AM and GM M express HLA DQ and are resistant to HIV infection, but prone to Myco bacterium tuberculosis infection. Finally, we are confident that ...
Similarly, splenic B cells from one to 4 month old premalignant iMycEu mice exhib ited highly elevated NFB and STAT3 DNA binding exercise, at as early as one month of age, relative to splenic B cells from age matched, typical BL6 mice. These data show that constitutive activation of the two NFB and STAT3 happens months before tumors are current, and at an early age, in iMycEu mice. We also evaluated the degree of Myc protein in splenic B cells of premalignant and malignant iMycEu mice, likewise as in iMycEu one cells. Its broadly accepted the cellular level of Myc must continue to be exquisitely titrated to induce neoplastic growth but steer clear of apoptosis. Consistent with this particular, only a marginal elevation of Myc protein was repeat edly observed in premalignant iMycEu B splenocytes. Myc protein was, however, drastically elevated in malignant B cells and in iMycEu one cells. Despite the fact that NFB and STAT3 are acknowledged to drive Myc expression, constitutive exercise of NFB and ...
Phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to form the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Recently, PLC-L2, a PLC-like protein that lacks lipase activity, has been identified in skeletal muscle, as well as in B and T lymphocytes. Takenaka et al. generated PLC-2-deficient mice to investigate the possible role of PLC-2 signaling in B lymphocytes. PLC-L2-deficient mature B cells showed an enhanced proliferative response and increased expression of the activation marker CD69 after B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation in vitro, and mice displayed increased production of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG3 in response to antigen treatment in vivo. The authors used fura-2 imaging to show that Ca2+ influx after BCR stimulation was enhanced in PLC-2-deficient cells; moreover, translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (which is regulated by calcineurin, which is itself calcium-dependent) was enhanced. Finally, PLC-2-deficient cells showed ...
This study reports the successful purification of the P2Y12-R to near homogeneity. The purified receptor, when stimulated by 2MeSADP, functionally activates reconstituted purified G proteins, promoting GTPase activity that is greatly augmented by RGS4. This reconstitution system provides the most unambiguous means available to date to assess the pharmacological selectivity of the P2Y12-R and to directly determine its Gα-subunit selectivity.. The P2Y12-R was one of the first receptors illustrated to inhibit adenylyl cyclase and the first P2Y receptor studied biochemically (Cooper and Rodbell, 1979). Subsequent investigations revealed the P2Y12-R to be a unique member of the P2Y receptor family in that it coupled to Gαi rather than Gαq (Hollopeter et al., 2001). The eventual cloning of the P2Y12-R revealed a sequence with very low homology to the five previously cloned Gq/phospholipase C-coupled P2Y receptors (Foster et al., 2001; Hollopeter et al., 2001; Takasaki et al., 2001; Zhang et al., ...
PLC activity is required for directional protrusion in response to an EGF source. (A) The response of a control (U73343) cell (top) and of a PLC-inhibited (U731
U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ increases in platelets and PMN. U73122 potently inhibits human ... Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
Together, the results from this study provide evidence for B1 receptor homo-oligomerization and the importance of this mechanism in the expression of the receptor on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. This mechanism directly translates into the presentation of a constitutive mechanism for cellular signaling through Gq/11-mediated phospholipase Cβ activity. Such homo-oligomers may be a regulatory point in B1 receptor maturation, and their disruption could provide a unique way for silencing signaling through this and other B1 receptor-stimulated pathways during inflammation.. Multiple methods were used to investigate whether B1 receptors form homo-oligomers in HEK293 cells. Although neither of these methods alone is sufficient to prove oligomerization, together they are consistent with such a mechanism. Higher order oligomeric receptor forms were readily apparent on immunoblots of SDS-PAGE gels. Such complexes were also indicated by coimmunoprecipitation of differentially tagged receptors. ...
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To investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in inflammatory processes, we tested 1-(6-((17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), a widely used PLC inhibitor, in several in vitro and in vivo assays. We first examined the effects of U73122 on human phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) isozymes and found that U73122 significantly inhibited recombinant human PLC-β2, with an IC50 of ∼6 μM. U73122 had little effect on PLC-β1, PLC-β3, or PLC-β4. Consistent with its ability to inhibit PLC-β2 enzymatic activity, U73122 reduced interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4-induced Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, U73122 blocked carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats, carrageenan-induced macrophage and lymphocyte accumulation into subcutaneous chambers in dogs, lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage, lymphocyte infiltration and prostaglandin E2 production in a mouse peritonitis model, and ...
0004]The present invention comprises the method of treating host organisms (i.e. human or animal) in need of a drug having anti-neoplastic activity comprising the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of venom anti-serum either alone or preferably in combination with a Phospholipase C inhibitor of non-toxic nature or monoclonal or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme or a vaccine containing in whole or in part venom and/or other components of animal, insect or plant origin showing Phospholipase A2 and/or Phospholipase C activity. This patent presents pharmaceutical formulations containing snake and/or insect venoms, or extracts from such venoms which may contain, total or partial, Phospholipase A2 enzyme activity alone or in combination with animal or plant Phospholipase A2 with or without Phospholipase C inhibiting compounds or Phospholipase C mono or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme as therapeutic vaccine candidate for all neoplastic diseases. This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct CCK-2 Receptor Conformations Associated with β-Arrestin-2 Recruitment or Phospholipase-C Activation Revealed by a Biased Antagonist. AU - Magnan, Rémi. AU - Escrieut, Chantal. AU - Gigoux, Véronique. AU - De, Kavita. AU - Clerc, Pascal. AU - Niu, Fan. AU - Azema, Joelle. AU - Masri, Bernard. AU - Cordomi, Arnau. AU - Baltas, Michel. AU - Tikhonova, Irina G. AU - Fourmy, Daniel. PY - 2013/2/20. Y1 - 2013/2/20. N2 - Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), form the largest class of cell surface membrane receptors, involving several hundred members in the human genome. Near 30% of marketed pharmacological agents target 7TMRs. 7TMRs adopt multiple conformations upon agonist binding. Biased agonists, in contrast to non-biased agonists, are believed to stabilize conformations preferentially activating either G-protein- or ß-arrestin-dependent signalling pathways. However, proof that cognate conformations of receptors display ...
Phylogenetic analysis of PLC-γ proteins: The PLC-γ homolog encoded by sl is the only one present in the now almost-complete D. melanogaster genome sequence, and only a single gene has been identified in the other invertebrate genomes sequenced to date. By contrast, a gene duplication event produced separate γ1 and γ2 subtypes at some point in the vertebrate lineage; each subtype has identical domain structure and similar sequence, but distinct functions. To reveal the relationships between PLC-γ homologs, we produced a translation of the putative ORFs from both D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis and compared them to all other complete PLC-γ homologs in the GenBank database, including D. melanogaster, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the sponge E. fluviatilis, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the cow Bos taurus (γ1), the rat Rattus rattus (γ1 and γ2), and Homo sapiens (γ1 and γ2). The best tree from this comparison is shown in Figure 1A. The tree divides the taxa unambiguously into a ...
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Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a minor phospholipid in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 via phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis leads to a decrease in exocytosis and alters electrical excitability in neurons. Restoration of PI(4,5)P2 is ess …
Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting β-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCδ1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 β-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with ...
Dermal fibroblasts from human, rhesus macaque, mouse and rat with and without dsRNA (poly I:C) stimulation (1ug/mL for 4 hours). The innate immune response - the expression programme that is initiated once a pathogen is sensed - is known to be variable among responding cells, as well as to rapidly evolve in the course of mammal evolution. To study the transcriptional divergence and cell-to-cell variability of this response, we stimulated dermal fibroblast cells from two primates (human and macaque) and two rodents (mouse and rat) with dsRNA - a mimic of viral RNA that elicits a rapid innate immune response. Subsequently, we profiled the response using bulk RNA-seq, scRNA-seq and ChIP-seq across the four species and across different time points.
최근 외부자극에 대한 생체 신호전달체계에서 중요한 효소로 알려진 phospholipase C(PLC) 동위효소(isozyme)들의 발현은 조직의 종류와 발달과정에 따라 특이한 양상을 보이며 PLC동위효소 중 PLC-γ1은 세포의 성장, 분화 및 증식에 중추적 요소로 알려져 있다. 또한 ras 암유전자단백도 세포의 성장을 유도하는 것으로 알려져 있어 방사선 조사 후 PLC 동위효소와 ras암유전단백이 관여하는지를 규명하고, 이러한 재생과정에 방사선감작약물로 널리 알려져 있는 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)투여방법이 미치는 영향을 보고자 본 연구를 계획하였다. 흰쥐를 실험동물로 하여 정상대조군(I), 방사선조사 단독군(II), 방사선과 5-FU 12시간 지속성 정주병행군(III), 방사선조사 단독군 (II), 방사선과 5-FU12시간 지속성 정주단독군 (V), 5FU 일시정주단독군 (VI)로 나누어 관찰하였다. 방사선은 흰쥐 ...
these data suggest that at least two pathways can mediate 2). The magnitude of IP production produced in the Y934F PDGF ␤-receptor-induced chemotaxis, i.e. PI3-kinase and PLC- mutant cell line was about 3-fold higher than in wild-type ␥1. It is possible that the expression levels of PI3-kinase and receptor-expressing cells. The difference in response is not due PLC-␥1, and their magnitude of activation, determines which to differences in receptor number or ligand affinity between the cell lines, as indicated by Scatchard analyses of PDGF-BB Activation of PLC-␥1 leads to production of two second mes- sengers, IP and diacylglycerol (DAG). Binding of IP to recep- The importance of PLC-␥1 in chemotactic signaling was tors on the endoplasmic reticulum leads to release of calcium, pointed out by Kundra et al. (15, 16). However, PAE cells while DAG is an activator of the classical PKCs (18). Further- expressing a PDGF ␤-receptor mutant, with the association more, DAG has been implicated in ...
Gemphire Therapeutics (NASDAQ: GEMP) and GW Pharmaceuticals PLC- (NASDAQ:GWPH) are both medical companies, but which is the superior business? We will compare the two companies based on the strength of their risk, valuation, earnings, dividends, institutional ownership, profitability and analyst recommendations. Analyst Ratings This is a summary of current ratings and price targets for Gemphire […]
Plasmid pGEX PLCg1(NC)-SH2 from Dr. Bruce Mayers lab contains the insert PLCg1(NC) and is published in Mol Cell. 2007 Jun 22;26(6):899-915. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
We are interested in learning how small molecules in the blood stream can cause cells to react in specific ways, such as growing, dividing or migrating. While there are many agents that can stimulate or inhibit cell behavior, we are most interested in the ability of certain hormones and neurotransmitters to activate a family of proteins called G Proteins. G proteins can simulate an enzyme called phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta). Activation of PLCbeta raises the level of calcium in the cell, which changes the activity of many other proteins. Additionally, PLCbeta can also affect the ability of a cell to control the transcription of specific genes into proteins by changing the stability of their messenger RNA. ...
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Overexpression on plasma membrane of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is reported in 25% to 30% of breast cancers. Heterodimer formation with cognate members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, such as HER3 and EGFR, activates abnormal cell-signalling cascades responsible for tumorigenesis and further transcriptional HER2 gene upregulation. Targeting the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression and recycling may effectively deactivate this feedback-amplification loop. We recently showed that inactivation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) may exert a pivotal role in selectively modulating the expression on the membrane of specific receptors or proteins relevant to cell function. In the present study, we investigated the capability of PC-PLC inhibition to target the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression on the membrane of breast cancer cells by altering the rates of its endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. Localization
This study was undertaken to define pathways by which LPS might activate the ERK kinases in alveolar macrophages. We hypothesized that LPS activates a PC-PLC, leading to production of DAG, an activator of sphingomyelinase activity. This, in turn, results in increased amounts of ceramide, an important effector molecule, which activates PKC ζ. PKC ζ activates MEK, which subsequently leads to ERK kinase activation. To test this hypothesis, we showed that LPS activates the ERK 2 kinase in alveolar macrophages and that this activation is inhibited by D609, a relatively specific inhibitor of PC-PLC. We next showed that LPS increases amounts of DAG and ceramide and that both of these effects of LPS are inhibited by D609. Our present studies indicate that LPS induction of DAG in alveolar macrophages is derived, at least in part, from a PC-containing phospholipid. Thus, we conclude from these experiments that the LPS-induced DAG is derived from hydrolysis of PC via activation of PC-PLC. In separate ...
Interferon (IFN) therapy comes with an important role in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and chronic hepatitis C contamination. severe PAH after exposure to IFN therapy. The patient experienced significant clinical and hemodynamic improvement with CI-1033 normalization of her pulmonary pressures after the initiation of combination therapy for PAH. At 28 months after diagnosis she remains CI-1033 asymptomatic with no hemodynamic evidence of PAH and has been off all PAH therapy for 10 months. Keywords: Diagnosis Interferon treatment Multiple sclerosis Pulmonary artery hypertension Résumé Linterféron (IFN) joue un r?le important dans le traitement de la sclérose en plaques et de linfection par le computer virus de lhépatite C chronique. Quelques rapports de cas ont décrit une association entre le traitement à lIFN et lapparition dune hypertension artérielle pulmonaire (HAP) irréversible. La plus récente classification de lhypertension pulmonaire linclut dans les causes ...
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. Required for secondary responses to abscisic acid signals.
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes.
PLCB1 (phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)), Authors: Matilde Y. Follo, Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco, Giovanni Martinelli, Giandomenico Palka, Lucio Cocco. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipase β4-knockout mouse exhibits retinal phenotype. AU - Jiang, Huiping. AU - Lyubarsky, A.. AU - Vardi, N.. AU - Pugh Jr, Edward N. AU - Chen, J.. AU - Xu, J.. AU - Simon, M. I.. AU - Wu, Dianqing. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose: Determine if PLC-β4 has a retinal function by making/assessing a mouse knockout. Rationale: PLC-β4 is one of the four PLC-β isoforms that have been cloned and can be activated by the Gα subunits of G-proteins of the Gq class, but not by the Gβγ subunits. PLC-β4 shares a closer homology to the NorpA protein (which mediates phototransduction in Drosopnila) than to the isoforms PLC-β1-β3. Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown that PLC-β4 is expressed in cone photoreceptors, and in bipolar and ganglion cells1. Method: A mouse line was generated in which the PLC-β4 genes are disrupted. Retinal rod function was assessed with single-flash a- and b-wave electroretinography. Anatomical analysis of rod density, rod ...
PH-PLCdelta1 [the PH domain (pleckstrin homology domain) of PLCdelta1 (phospholipase C-delta1)] is among the best-characterized phosphoinositide-binding domains. PH-PLCdelta1 binds with high specificity to the headgroup of PtdIns(4,5)P2, but little is known about its interfacial properties. In the p …
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase delta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCD1 gene. PLCd1 is essential to maintain homeostasis of the skin. Phospholipase C GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187091 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000010660 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Ishikawa S, Takahashi T, Ogawa M, Nakamura Y (Nov 1997). Genomic structure of the human PLCD1 (phospholipase C delta 1) locus on 3p22→p21.3. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 78 (1): 58-60. doi:10.1159/000134629. PMID 9345909. Entrez Gene: PLCD1 phospholipase C, delta 1. Yagisawa H (2006). Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of phospholipase C-delta1: a link to Ca2+. J. Cell. Biochem. 97 (2): 233-43. doi:10.1002/jcb.20677. PMID 16240320. Cefai D, Debre P, Kaczorek M, et al. (1991). Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor phosphoinositide transduction pathway. ...
The activity of the early signaling enzyme, phospholipase Cβ1b (PLCβ1b), is elevated in diseased myocardium and activity increases with disease progression. PLCβ1b and the alternative splice variant, PLCβ1a, were expressed in mouse hearts using adeno-associated viral constructs (rAAV6-FLAG-PLCβ1b, rAAV6-FLAG- PLCβ1a) delivered intravenously. Functional responses were assessed in vivo and confirmatory mechanistic studies were conducted in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). FLAG-PLCβ1b was expressed in all of the chambers of the mouse heart, but was highest in left ventricle, where expression was observed in ,90% of the cells and was localized to the sarcolemma and T-tubules. Heightened PLCβ1b expression caused a rapid loss of contractility and down-regulation of Phospholamban expression. The loss of contractility induced by PLCβ1b was reversed by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). PLCβ1a did not affect contractile function or phospholamban expression. Mechanistic analysis ...
Wright, Michelle H., Farquhar, Michelle J., Aletrari, Mina-Olga , Ladds, Graham and Hodgkin, Matthew N.. (2008) Identification of caspase 3 motifs and critical aspartate residues in human Phospholipase D1b and Phopsholipase D2a. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.369 (No.2). pp. 478-484. ISSN 0006-291x ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A prediction of the tertiary structure of human phospholipase A2 from synovial fluid and a model of substrate binding. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Phospholipase C Phospholipase Cδ-1 Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C Identifiers Symbol PI-PLC-X Pfam PF00388 InterPro IPR000909 SMART PLCXc SCOP
Calcineurin has functions in T cell activation, activation-induced cell death (AICD), T cell tolerance, ion channel regulation, cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, sperm motility, synaptic endocytosis, and Alzheimers disease (17-20). In lymphocytes, antigen engagement of lymphocyte receptors promotes the activation of phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) (Figure 10). Activated PLC-γ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. IP3 then binds to receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum and drives Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm, which triggers opening of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels. Calcineurin is activated by binding of CaM in response to sustained increased levels of intracellular calcium (11;21). Upon calcineurin activation, it dephosphorylates members of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family, promoting their translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and subsequent induction of the ...
Complete information for PLCXD3 gene (Protein Coding), Phosphatidylinositol Specific Phospholipase C X Domain Containing 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
PubMed lists over 1,500 papers with U73122 in the abstract. The large majority use the inhibitor simply as a tool to check that some signaling pathway requires PLC. However, numerous papers report additional unexpected effects, raising question whether this agent can be used as a pharmacological tool without serious side effects. We select results from just four early papers. The initial brief announcement of U73122 from Upjohn reports that it inhibits partially purified PLC in vitro when the molar ratio of Ca2+:PI in the assay was ,2, but increased PLC activity when the molar ratio was 4-12 (Bleasdale et al., 1989). There are no data or experimental details in that book chapter. A careful study in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells and in dorsal root ganglion cells shows that U73122 blocks bradykinin-induced Ca2+ transients irreversibly with a steep dose-response curve and a half-effective dose IC50 of 200 nM for 20-min preincubations and that U73343 is without effect (Jin et al., 1994). ...
Certainly, 6 ME did not have an impact on VEGF induced phosphorylation of AKT, one of the key cascades that confer endothelial cell survival, Likewise, six ME did not have an impact on VEGF induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, a signaling cascade that mediates the induction selleck chemicalWZ4003 of endothelial cell migration by VEGF, These success, along with the truth that six ME isnt going to inhibit PLC activation, as VEGF induced calcium release in not impacted, exclude the kinase exercise of VEGFR2 KDR of becoming the target of six ME. In confirmation, six ME plainly inhibited, at 10uM concentration, the phosphorylation of MEK1 two and its downstream target ERK1 two, parts from the mitotic MAPK pathway that VEGF triggers by means of PLC activation. Numerous growth factors acti vate the ERK1 two MAPK pathway in a Ras dependent manner, Without a doubt, 6 ME inhibited also FGF2 induced phosphorylation of ERK1 2 absolutely compatible together with the undeniable fact that 6 ME inhibited also ...
1P5X: Using X-ray crystallography of the Asp55Asn mutant of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus to support the mechanistic role of Asp55 as the general base.
Plasmid TrkB Acceptor from Dr. Ryohei Yasudas lab contains the insert Phospholipase C gamma 1 and is published in Nature. 2016 Sep 28;538(7623):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature19766. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Yue, Caiping and Ku, Chun-Ying and Liu, Mingyao et al. (2000) Molecular Mechanism of the Inhibition of Phospholipase C β3 by Protein Kinase C. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275 (39). pp. 30220-30225. ISSN 0021-9258. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:YUEjbc00 ...
a receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin); activates phospholipase C signaling pathway; involved in promoting cellular transformation
Orome1 writes Many prisons and jails use SCADA systems with PLCs to open and close doors. Using original and publicly available exploits along with evaluating vulnerabilities in electronic and physical security designs, researchers discovered significant vulnerabilities in PLCs used in correctional...
1SPATIAL PLC SPA Fundamentals - Search stock, chart, recent trades, company information, trading information, company news, fundamentals
Screening of inhibitors of porcine dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in aqueous extracts from marine organisms, Pascual, Isel, Lopéz Alí, Gómez Hansel, Chappé Mae, Saroyán Angélika, Gonzalez Yamile, Cisneros Miguel, Charli Jean Louis, and Chávez María de los Ang , Enzyme Microb. Technol., Volume 40, Number {3, SI}, {360 PARK AVE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USA}, p.414-419, (2007) ...
Sartipy P, Johansen B, Camejo G, Rosengren B, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1996). "Binding of human phospholipase A2 type II to ... Sartipy P, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1999). "Phospholipase A2 type II binds to extracellular matrix biglycan: modulation of ... The C-terminal (G3) globular domain consists of one or two Epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats, a C-type lectin domain and ... Aspberg A, Miura R, Bourdoulous S, Shimonaka M, Heinegârd D, Schachner M, Ruoslahti E, Yamaguchi Y (1997). "The C-type lectin ...
It is hydrolyzed by sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin specific type-C phospholipases). The phosphocholine head group is released ... Children with this type rarely live beyond 18 months. Type B involves an enlarged liver and spleen, which usually occurs in the ... Of the two types involving sphingomyelinase, type A occurs in infants. It is characterized by jaundice, an enlarged liver, and ... Due to the specific types of lipids in these microdomains, lipid rafts can accumulate certain types of proteins associated with ...
These types of agents will function to lower candida species' phospholipases activities. Flucytosine (5FC) is another type of ... echinocandin are a type of non-competitive inhibitors of cell wall 1,3-b-D-glucan synthase complex mainly used to treat fungal ... Conidia is a type of simple and unicellular body that could take the form of multicellular cell with different shapes, sizes, ... Types of disease caused by C. tropicalis will vary depending on the location where the species colonizes. With an infection in ...
Phospholipase A2 is one specific type of phospholipases found in snake venom. Snake example: Okinawan habu (Trimeresurus ... For instance, phospholipases type A2 (PLA2s) from the Tunisian vipers Cerastes cerastes and Macrovipera lebetina have been ... Phospholipases Phospholipase is an enzyme that transforms the phospholipid molecule into a lysophospholipid (soap) → the new ... Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and ...
... is a type of poison, especially one secreted by an animal. Venom has evolved in a wide variety of animals, both predators ... The venom of most viper species contains phospholipase and trypsin-like serine proteases. Neurotoxins, which primarily affect ... Gila monster venom contains exenatide, used to treat type 2 diabetes. Solenopsins extracted from fire ant venom has ... some venoms are complex mixtures of toxins of differing types. Among the major classes of toxin in venoms are: Necrotoxins, ...
... is a type of phospholipase that acts upon lecithin. It can be produced by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus ...
Dennis EA (Jun 1994). "Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G4A phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)". Sheridan AM, Force T, Yoon HJ, O'Leary E, ... 1995). "Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene in human and rat: chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers". Genomics. 26 (1): ...
1996). "Binding of human phospholipase A2 type II to proteoglycans. Differential effect of glycosaminoglycans on enzyme ... Phospholipase A2, membrane associated is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G2A gene. Phospholipase A2 GRCh38: ... 1995). "The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G2A Phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)". Kramer RM, Johansen B, Hession C, Pepinsky RB ( ...
Sartipy P, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1999). "Phospholipase A2 type II binds to extracellular matrix biglycan: modulation of ... Phospholipase A2, group 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G1B gene. Phospholipase A2 (EC catalyzes ... Dennis EA (Jun 1994). "Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2". J Biol Chem. 269 (18): 13057-60 ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G1B phospholipase A2, group IB (pancreas)". Sæle O, Nordgreen A, Olsvik PA, Hamre K (2010). "Characterisation ...
The peptide acts better on RyR type 1 than on type 3. RyR type 2 seems to be insensitive to IpTxa. The part of the peptide that ... Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity on the large subunit. The molecular weight of the toxin is 15 kDa. Like IpTxa, IpTxi acts on ...
Bektas A, Hughes JN, Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Doria A (January 2001). "Type 2 diabetes locus on 12q15. Further mapping and ... "Release of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored carboxypeptidase M by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ... presence of the enzyme in alveolar type I cells". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 9 (2): 221-9. doi ...
Several other types of lipase activities exist in nature, such as phospholipases and sphingomyelinases; however, these are ... Phospholipase A Phospholipase C Triglyceride lipase Phospholipase A2 Outer membrane phospholipase A1 Patatin-like phospholipase ... "The VP1 capsid protein of adeno-associated virus type 2 is carrying a phospholipase A2 domain required for virus infectivity". ... 2003). "Phospholipase A(2)". Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 69 (2-3): 87-97. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00069-3. PMID ...
Beck LH, Bonegio RG, Lambeau G, Beck DM, Powell DW, Cummins TD, Klein JB, Salant DJ (July 2009). "M-type phospholipase A2 ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated. Testing for these ... the thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) system that might account for an additional 5-10% of membranous ... "Thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24 ...
The phospholipase activity can be separated by affinity chromatography, using a phospholipid analog (PC-Sepharose). The alpha- ... Taicatoxin acts on the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels from the heart, and on the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ ... It has been seen that the 16-kDa subunit exhibits phospholipase activity, inducing a release of acyl CoA and acyl carnitine, ... Taicatoxin (TCX) is a snake toxin that blocks voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ ...
have virulence factors such as extracellular enzymes, type III secretion systems, and phospholipases (Zhou, et al., 2015). ... can attack the host, the type III secretion system can code for hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes. In some ... Media related to Dickeya solani at Wikimedia Commons Type strain of Dickeya solani at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
This gene is a member of the phospholipase D family and contains two PLD phosphodiesterase domains. Mutations in this gene are ... topoisomerase I-DNA complexes by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond between the tyrosine residue of Type I ... Interthal H, Pouliot JJ, Champoux JJ (2001). "The tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase Tdp1 is a member of the phospholipase D ...
Type II, membrane-damaging toxins, destroy cell membranes in order to enter and includeF hemolysins and phospholipases. Type ... These are divided into three types. Type I, cell surface-active toxins, disrupt cells without entering, and include ...
The enzyme phospholipase C produces diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate, which increases calcium ion permeability into ... Calcium ions are one type of second messengers and are responsible for many important physiological functions including muscle ... The other product of phospholipase C, diacylglycerol, activates protein kinase C, which assists in the activation of cAMP ( ... There are three basic types of secondary messenger molecules: Hydrophobic molecules: water-insoluble molecules such as ...
M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, inhibition of voltage-gated ... Like the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptor, M5 receptors are coupled with G proteins of class Gq that upregulate phospholipase C ... In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter, and the receptor is of the nicotinic type. The somatic ... Muscarinic receptors vary in the G protein to which they are bound, with some correlation according to receptor type. G ...
... receptor type α, phospholipase Cβ3, and IP3 receptors. Signalization in platelets is very sensitive in cAMP levels. Nitric ... Both receptors mediate phospholipase C stimulation causing an increase of intracellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate ... This kinase inhibits Gαq-phospholipase C-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate signaling and the mobilization of calcium inside the cell ...
It is a type 2 activity PAP, which localizes to the plasma membrane, and is one of four known LPP isoforms. As an integral ... Sciorra VA, Morris AJ (November 1999). "Sequential actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 2b ... Substrate specificity of the type 2a, 2b, and 2c enzymes and cell surface activity of the 2a isoform". The Journal of ... Substrate specificity of the type 2a, 2b, and 2c enzymes and cell surface activity of the 2a isoform". The Journal of ...
... is the only enzyme that has a type of phospholipase C activity against sphingomyelin. ENPP7 is the key enzyme in the gut ... ENPP7 is a new name for an old enzyme whose activity was originally identified in 1969 by Nilsson as a type of sphingomyelinase ... Liu F, Cheng Y, Wu J, Tauschel HD, Duan RD (April 2006). "Ursodeoxycholic acid differentially affects three types of ... The activity of ENPP7 depends specifically on two types of primary bile salts, taurocholate (TC) and taurochenodeoxycholate ( ...
The recommended name for the gene product is patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3. It is a Single-pass type ... Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) also known as adiponutrin (ADPN), acylglycerol O- ... "Entrez Gene: PNPLA3 patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3". Stickel F, Hampe J (January 2012). "Genetic determinants ... acyltransferase or calcium-independent phospholipase A2-epsilon (iPLA2-epsilon) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "Thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24 ... second autoantigen was discovered, the thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) system that might account for an ...
ψ-Tectorigenin is an O-methylated isoflavone, a type of flavonoid. It can be isolated from Belamcanda chinensis, Dalbergia ... Imoto, M; Shimura, N; Umezawa, K (1991). "Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C by psi- ...
The fate of internalized choline depends on the cell type. In pre-synaptic neurons the majority of choline will be acetylated ... Phosphatidylcholine can be acted upon by phospholipases to form different metabolites. Mammalian cells are unable to synthesize ...
Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2R1 gene. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... "Structural comparison of phospholipase-A2-binding regions in phospholipase-A2 receptors from various mammals". European Journal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2R1 phospholipase A2 receptor 1, 180kDa". Beck LH, Bonegio RG, Lambeau G, Beck DM, Powell DW, Cummins TD, Klein ...
2001). "A novel group of phospholipase A2s preferentially expressed in type 2 helper T cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (21): 18321-6 ... Group XIIA secretory phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G12A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G12A phospholipase A2, group XIIA". Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, et al. (1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- ... 2003). "Cellular arachidonate-releasing function of novel classes of secretory phospholipase A2s (groups III and XII)". J. Biol ...
M. globosa uses eight different types of lipase, along with three phospholipases, to break down the oils on the scalp. Any of ... Malassezia is among the many mycobiota undergoing laboratory research to investigate whether it is associated with types of ...
Gq proteins couple to G protein-coupled receptors to activate beta-type phospholipase C (PLC-β) enzymes. PLC-β in turn ... Gq/11/14/15 proteins all activate beta-type phospholipase C (PLC-β) to signal through calcium and PKC signaling pathways. PLC-β ... 5-HT2 serotonergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Vasopressin type 1 receptors: 1A and 1B Angiotensin II receptor type 1 ... Second messenger system G protein-coupled receptor Heterotrimeric G protein Phospholipase C Calcium signaling Protein kinase C ...
Type Epithelium capsule Crypts Location Adenoid (also termed "pharyngeal tonsil"). Ciliated pseudostratified columnar ( ... 2012). "Circulating phospholipase-A2 activity in obstructive sleep apnea". International Journal of Pediatric ... Humans are born with four types of tonsils: the pharyngeal tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils and the lingual ...
This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... LYPLA3: encoding enzyme Group XV phospholipase A2. *MC1R: melanocortin 1 receptor. *MCOPCT1: Microphthalmia with cataract 1 ... This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the ...
Results showed no correlation between the wild-type or mutant N-ras p21's GTPase activity and transforming potential. These ... their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching through exocyst complex and phospholipase ...
The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult ... resulting in the activation of Phospholipase C (PLC). PLC indirectly causes the release of calcium from the hepatocytes' ... Moller DE (Dec 2001). "New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome". Nature. 414 (6865): 821-7. doi:10.1038 ... The inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase has been proposed as one method for treating type 2 diabetes.[10] Since glucose ...
... perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha toxin. This alpha toxin is a lethal toxin and also known as phospholipase C ( ... Myonecrosis differs slightly from other types of necrosis. While the underlying causes are almost identical, the type of ... This is due to the lysis of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, caused by the lecithinases and other toxins released by ... diabetes type II), tumours that block or hoard blood supply, and disseminated intravascular coagulation or other thromboses. ...
activation of phospholipase C activity. • neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of non-membrane ... Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a ... Blockading BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor or a PKC inhibitor in wild type mice produced significant reductions ... "Wheel running and environmental enrichment differentially modify exon-specific BDNF expression in the hippocampus of wild-type ...
This type of nest founding is not seen in any other living bee genus, though several groups of vespid wasps also found new ... "Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases". Journal of Lipid Research. 56 (9 ... As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee, a fertile female; seasonally up to a few ... Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, ...
phospholipase binding. • GTPase regulator activity. • SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • ... Type 1/2. (Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
The main component of mucus is a glycoprotein called mucin and the type secreted varies according to the region involved. Mucin ... The pancreas also secretes phospholipase A2, lysophospholipase, and cholesterol esterase. The precursor zymogens, are inactive ...
Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus". Toxicon. 107 (Part ... though it does occur in other habitat types. ...
By phospholipase D (PLD), via the hydrolysis of the P-O bond of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to produce PA and choline.[4] ... Although some lipid-binding proteins are able to insert themselves into membranes and could hypothetically recognise the type ... Role of phospholipase D alpha in freezing-induced lipid changes in Arabidopsis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (35 ... PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs)[6][7] or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA ...
Types of interfaces[edit]. Synapses can be classified by the type of cellular structures serving as the pre- and post-synaptic ... The egl-8 gene encodes a homolog of phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), an enzyme that cleaves PIP2. When ttx-7 mutants also had a mutant ... There are two fundamentally different types of synapses: *In a chemical synapse, electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron ... Stanley, EF (1992). "The calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion as a model of fast cholinergic transmission". ...
Aberrant expression of LOX5 is seen in various types of human cancer tumors in vivo as well as in various types of human cancer ... The cytosolic PLA2 set (i.e. cPLA2s) of PLA2 enzymes (cPLA2; see Phospholipase A2#Cytosolic phospholipases A2) in particular ... Alox5 overexpression may decrease the damage caused by some types yet increase the damage caused by other types of invasive ... Alox5 and presumably human ALOX5 functions may vary widely depending on the agents stimulating their and types of metabolites ...
Types by cell attractedEdit. *Monocytes / macrophages: the key chemokines that attract these cells to the site of inflammation ... Activation of G proteins, by chemokine receptors, causes the subsequent activation of an enzyme known as phospholipase C (PLC ... They are released by many different cell types and serve to guide cells of both innate immune system and adaptive immune system ... Types by functionEdit. Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups:[2] ...
De Jonghe P, Jordanova AK (2011-10-27). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type 2E/1F. NBK1187.. In GeneReviews ... phospholipase binding. • structural constituent of postsynaptic intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Cellular component. • ... Bird TD (30 January 2014). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type 2. PMID 20301462. NBK1285.. In GeneReviews ... "Further evidence that neurofilament light chain gene mutations can cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E". Annals of ...
Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC families.[4] Two types of chemokines that bind to ... The subunit called Gα activates an enzyme known as Phospholipase C (PLC) that is associated with the cell membrane. PLC cleaves ... Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells that interact with a type of cytokine called a ... a rise in intracellular calcium activates the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) that goes on to initiate an intracellular signaling ...
Type of fat derived from glycerol and two fatty acids. .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column ... by the enzyme phospholipase C (PLC) (a membrane-bound enzyme) that, through the same reaction, produces inositol trisphosphate ...
"The VP1 capsid protein of adeno-associated virus type 2 is carrying a phospholipase A2 domain required for virus infectivity". ... 2003). "Phospholipase A(2)". Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2-3 (2-3): 87-97. PMID 12895591. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278( ... Withers-Martinez C, Carriere F, Verger R, Bourgeois D, and C Cambillau (1996). "A pancreatic lipase with a phospholipase A1 ... "Pancreatic lipase-related protein type I: a specialized lipase or an inactive enzyme". Protein Eng 11 (2): 135-42. PMID 9605548 ...
LSD also has enamine-type reactivity because of the electron-donating effects of the indole ring. Because of this, chlorine ... receptors in that it activates the signal transduction enzyme phospholipase A2 instead of activating the enzyme phospholipase C ... More than 200 types of LSD tablets have been encountered since 1969 and more than 350 blotter paper designs have been observed ... in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. ...
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • salivary gland cavitation. • negative regulation of ... tTG is upregulated in cancer cells and tissues in many cancer types, including leukemia, breast cancer, prostate cancer, ... positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled signaling ... tTG catalyzes other types of reactions including deamidation, GTP-binding/hydrolyzing, and isopeptidase activities.[7] Unlike ...
LIPE, AOMS4, FPLD6, HSL, LHS, lipase E, hormone sensitive type. External IDs. OMIM: 151750 MGI: 96790 HomoloGene: 3912 ...
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • neuropeptide signaling pathway. • leukotriene ... depending or the cell type. Acting through these G proteins and their subunits, ligand-bound CysLTR1 activates a series of ... "Differential signaling defects associated with the M201V polymorphism in the cysteinyl leukotriene type 2 receptor". The ... "Expression of the type 2 receptor for cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT2R) by human mast cells: Functional distinction from ...
Phospholipase C activity of purified beta-hemolysin". J. Bacteriol. 94 (5): 1313-9. doi:10.1128/JB.94.5.1313-1319.1967. PMC ... Depending on the type of hemolysin and the microorganism that produces it, manifestation of symptoms and diseases may differ ... β-hemolysin (hlb; Q2FWP1) is a Phospholipase C toxin secreted by S. aureus. Upon investigating sheep erythrocytes, its toxic ...
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ...
15-lipoxygenase type 2 (ALOX15B) strongly prefers arachidonic acid over linoleic acid and in consequence is relatively poor in ... is taken up by the cell and then acted on by phospholipases to release the HODEs which in turn directly activate PPARβl.[40] ... type of disease, and/or progression of disease when combined with other disease markers.[19][93] ... to a far greater extent than any other type of leukocyte.[64] The mechanism responsible for 13-HODE's impact on airway ...
When both types of cells were injected into mouse tail veins, control cells spread out more on the vessel endothelium within ... Walker SJ, Wu WJ, Cerione RA, Brown HA (May 2000). "Activation of phospholipase D1 by Cdc42 requires the Rho insert region". ... immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cdc42 expression in three types of tissues: normal cervical tissues, cervical ...
"Demonstration of functionally different interactions between phospholipase C-gamma and the two types of platelet-derived growth ...
Penetration into the cytoplasm is mediated by a phospholipase A2 activity carried on the amino-terminal peptide of the capsid ... Because the viruses require actively dividing cells to replicate, the type of tissue infected varies with the age of the animal ...
"Changes in Ca2+ affinity upon activation of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus phospholipase A2". Biochemistry. 40 (11): 3264- ... and the type of a destination membrane for each protein. The coordinate files with calculated membrane boundaries are ...
References for Abcams Anti-Secretory phospholipase A2 Type V antibody (ab97847). Please let us know if you have used this ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ... By product type. Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA, Matched Antibody Pairs and Multiplex Immunoassays. Cell and ...
Periodic Reporting for period 1 - T6SS-PSEUDO-LIP (Type VI-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa phospholipases and host ... More recently the type VI secretion system (T6SS) was shown to secrete anti-bacterial toxins and thus help outcompeting and ... Invasion assays (=gentamicin protection assay) in 2 types of non-phagocytic cells (HeLa and A459 cells). No difference in term ... However, it has also been demonstrated that T6SS-effectors, such as PldA and PldB phospholipases, are injected into eukaryotic ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Mass Level Is Increased in Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J. Fortunato ... D. Y. Hui, "Phospholipase A2 enzymes in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases," Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 23, no. 3, ... P. B. Gorelick, "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of stroke," The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 101, no ...
Indole-2 carboxamides as selective secreted phospholipase A2 type X (sPLA2-X) inhibitors. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb5OW8/pdb ... Group 10 secretory phospholipase A2. A, B. 123. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PLA2G10. EC: ... Discovery of a Series of Indole-2 Carboxamides as Selective Secreted Phospholipase A2Type X (sPLA2-X) Inhibitors.. Knerr, L., ... novel sPLA 2 inhibitors with improved type X selectivity are required. To achieve the objective of identifying such compounds, ...
Glucocorticoids induce cytosolic phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin H synthase type 2 but not microsomal prostaglandin E ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... mRNA were expressed at similar levels in both cell types, whereas a greater prostaglandin H synthase type 2 (PGHS-2) mRNA ... Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cytosolic PGES (cPGES), and microsomal PGES (mPGES) ...
Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity ... Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity ... Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity ... Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity ...
Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation of Neuronal Delayed-Rectifier Potassium Current Involves Phospholipase A2 and ... Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation of Neuronal Delayed-Rectifier Potassium Current Involves Phospholipase A2 and ... Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation of Neuronal Delayed-Rectifier Potassium Current Involves Phospholipase A2 and ... Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation of Neuronal Delayed-Rectifier Potassium Current Involves Phospholipase A2 and ...
Cholesterol relieves the inhibitory effect of sphingomyelin on type II secretory phospholipase A2. Kamen S. KOUMANOV, Peter J. ... Secretory type II phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is inhibited by sphingomyelin (SPH); cholesterol either mixed with the model ... Cholesterol relieves the inhibitory effect of sphingomyelin on type II secretory phospholipase A2 ... Cholesterol relieves the inhibitory effect of sphingomyelin on type II secretory phospholipase A2 ...
We show that the amino-terminal tryptic peptide of human type II phospholipase A2 forms a noncovalent complex with the tryptic ... This native peptide inhibition also occurred with type II enzymes from Crotalus durissus and Crotalus atrox, which have ... These experiments demonstrate a new method for specific inhibition of phospholipase A2 which, in principle, would be applicable ... The binding of low molecular weight type II phospholipase A2 (EC) to membrane surfaces and hydrolysis of phospholipid are ...
Increased expression of human type IIa secretory phospholipase A2 antigen in arthritic synovium. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: To ... Increased expression of human type IIa secretory phospholipase A2 antigen in arthritic synovium ... Increased expression of human type IIa secretory phospholipase A2 antigen in arthritic synovium ... determine the localisation and level of expression of human type IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in the synovium of ...
... with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels and 30.9 months in patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 ... M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. N Engl J Med 361: 11-21, 2009pmid: ... Proteinuria and M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody levels at the time of reaching the study end point or the end of ... M-type Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies and Renal Function in Patients with Primary Membranous Nephropathy. Elion Hoxha ...
Type A2 phospholipase (PLA2) activity has been observed in integral membrane protein extracts of Schistosoma japonicum. ... that a 16-kilodalton integral membrane protein antigen from Schistosoma japonicum adult worms is a type A2 phospholipase.. M V ... that a 16-kilodalton integral membrane protein antigen from Schistosoma japonicum adult worms is a type A2 phospholipase. ... that a 16-kilodalton integral membrane protein antigen from Schistosoma japonicum adult worms is a type A2 phospholipase. ...
The Small GTPase Ral Couples the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor to the Activation of Phospholipase C-δ1. Christina M. Godin, ... The Small GTPase Ral Couples the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor to the Activation of Phospholipase C-δ1. Christina M. Godin, ... The Small GTPase Ral Couples the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor to the Activation of Phospholipase C-δ1. Christina M. Godin, ... The Small GTPase Ral Couples the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor to the Activation of Phospholipase C-δ1 ...
Publications] Sakata,T.: Presence of pancreatic type phospholipase A2 mRNA in rat gastric mucosa and lung Biochim.Biophys. ... Publications] Tatsumi,H.: Immunocytochemical studies on the localization of pancreatic type phospholipase A2 in rat stomach ... A Role of Pancreatic-type Phospholipase A2 in Gastric Acid Secretion. Research Project ... Pancreatic phospholipase / Group II Phospholipase A2 / Chief Cell / parietal Cell / Phospholipid Metabolism / 消化管 / 胃酸分泌. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Domain-induced activation of human phospholipase A,sub,2,/sub, type IIA: Local ... Domain-induced activation of human phospholipase A2 type IIA: Local versus global lipid composition. ...
Bacillus cereus Phospholipase C, Crotalus durissus terrificus venom Phospholipase A2 and Epstein-Barr Virus (LMP) ... Eliminar este artículo Patógeno/Antígeno: Collagen Type IV * Eliminar este artículo Patógeno/Antígeno: Bacillus cereus ... Eliminar este artículo Patógeno/Antígeno: Crotalus durissus terrificus venom Phospholipase A2 * Eliminar este artículo Patógeno ...
... phospholipase C-beta2, phospholipase C-beta3, and adenylyl cyclase type II. beta(4)gamma(2) and beta(1)gamma(2) activated all ... Among the five G protein beta subunits known, the beta(4) subunit type is the least studied. We compared the ability of ... these results show that the beta subunit type plays a direct role in the receptor activation of a G protein. ... Protein beta subunit types differentially interact with a muscarinic receptor but not adenylyl cyclase type II or phospholipase ...
Crotalus durissus terrificus venom Phospholipase A2, Enterobacter aerogenes Pullulanase and Epstein-Barr Virus (LMP) ... Eliminar este artículo Patógeno/Antígeno: Collagen Type IV * Eliminar este artículo Patógeno/Antígeno: Crotalus durissus ...
Publication types * Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural MeSH terms * 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase / genetics ... Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 activity, apolipoprotein C3 loss-of-function variants and cardiovascular disease: The ... Objective: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) activity was associated with higher CHD risk in a meta-analysis, ...
Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Blood Proteins / metabolism ... We have used the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of phospholipase delta(1) (PLCdelta(1)), narrowly specific for PtdIns(4,5)P(2 ... Subcellular localization of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate using the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C ...
... outer membrane phospholipase A from the Escherichia coli bacterium. Phospholipases are enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of ... Outer membrane phospholipase A. Molecular model of the integral membrane protein, ... Phospholipases are enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of phospholipids into fatty acids. In E. coli phospholipase A is ... Outer membrane phospholipase A. Molecular model of the integral membrane protein, outer membrane phospholipase A from the ...
... kinase C mediates delayed inhibitory feedback regulation of human neurokinin type 1 receptor activation of phospholipase C in ... Item Type:. Article Subjects:. University of Westminster , Science and Technology , Life Sciences, School of (No longer in use) ... kinase C mediates delayed inhibitory feedback regulation of human neurokinin type 1 receptor activation of phospholipase C in ... Delayed inhibitory feedback by PKC may be mediated by phosphorylation of phospholipase C, although an additional site of action ...
Browse our Phospholipase A2 X Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Phospholipase A2 X Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. ... Phospholipase A2 X Lysates. We offer Phospholipase A2 X Lysates ... Our Phospholipase A2 X Lysates can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the Phospholipase ... Alternate Names for Phospholipase A2 X Lysates. Phospholipase A2 X lysate, PLA2G10 lysate, EC lysate, group 10 ...
Competition between Anion Binding and Dimerization Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase ... Type. PDB Residue Nr.. Description. Click the links to view interactions in Jmol ...
This phospholipase C is intended to be used in fats and oils processing for degumming. The residual amounts of total organic ... The food enzyme phospholipase C (EC is produced with a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia ... Safety evaluation of the food enzyme phospholipase C from a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (strain PRF) ... food enzyme, phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase, EC, Komagataella phaffii, genetically ...
... of amount and types of dietary fat on intestinal bacterial 7α-dehydroxylase and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ... Reddy, B. S., Simi, B., Patel, N., Aliaga, C., & Rao, C. V. (1996). Effect of amount and types of dietary fat on intestinal ... Reddy, BS, Simi, B, Patel, N, Aliaga, C & Rao, CV 1996, Effect of amount and types of dietary fat on intestinal bacterial 7α- ... Reddy, Bandaru S. ; Simi, Barbara ; Patel, Neha ; Aliaga, Cesar ; Rao, Chinthalapally V. / Effect of amount and types of ...
Document Type: Research Article. Affiliations: Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Munster, ... ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the ... From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this ... secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. ...
Resource Type:. Journal Article. Resource Relation:. Journal Name: Journal of Biological Chemistry; (USA); Journal Volume: 264: ... Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta- ... Title: Activation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle by phospholipase C and phorbol ester. Evaluation of the regulatory ... Journal Article: Activation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle by phospholipase C and phorbol ester. Evaluation of the ...
Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new ... Article Type all. Addendum. Article. Book Review. Case Report. Comment. Commentary. Communication. Concept Paper. Conference ... Keywords: acidic myotoxic phospholipase A2; Bothrops asper; edema; myotoxicity; snake venom acidic myotoxic phospholipase A2; ... Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new ...
Study Type :. Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment :. 70 participants. Allocation:. Randomized. Intervention Model ... Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Progenitor Cells and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Humans. The safety and ...
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the localisation and level of expression of human type IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and non-arthritic (NA) patients and to examine the relation between sPLA2 and histological features of inflammation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA 2 -IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. (rsc.org)
  • The AT 1 R has traditionally been considered to be coupled to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) β via its association with Gα q/11 , leading to increases in intracellular inositol phosphate (IP) and release of calcium from intracellular stores. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, the cholinergic activation of phospholipase D in SH-SY5Y cells is. (lu.se)
  • Thus, the cholinergic activation of phospholipase D in SH-SY5Y cells is probably mediated via a direct receptor-G-protein coupling but an involvement of protein kinase C cannot be excluded. (lu.se)
  • This modulation is mediated by G β γ activation of phospholipase C, mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ stores, and activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. (jneurosci.org)
  • These observations suggest that the activation of phospholipase C by bradykinin may be mediated through a bradykinin B2 receptor population, whereas bradykinin-stimulated phospholipase D may be activated via a distinct population of bradykinin receptors that do not appear to be either B1 or B2 receptor types, based upon pharmacological specificity. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The mechanism of the activation of phospholipase D by bradykinin and the role of the putative B3 bradykinin receptor are discussed. (strath.ac.uk)
  • R. S. Rosenson, "Phospholipase A 2 inhibition and atherosclerotic vascular disease: prospects for targeting secretory and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 enzymes," Current Opinion in Lipidology , vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 473-480, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • This native peptide inhibition also occurred with type II enzymes from Crotalus durissus and Crotalus atrox, which have different amino acid sequences at the amino terminus as well as different 70-74 regions of the molecules. (garvan.org.au)
  • Phospholipases are enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of phospholipids into fatty acids. (sciencephoto.com)
  • These results indicate that the modifying effect of dietary fat on colonic bacterial enzymes, secondary bile acids, colonic mucosal and tumor DAG kinase, and PKC that may play a role in colon carcinogenesis depends on the types and amount of fat given. (elsevier.com)
  • These different enzymes are related to various types of aggressive and defensive actions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Emerging roles for phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc-metallophospholipases C: Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin, Bacillus cereus PLC (BC-PLC) Sphingomyelinases: B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus Phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, L. monocytogenes (PLC-A) Pseudomonad phospholipases C: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PLC-H and PLC-N) In mammals, PLCs share a conserved core structure and differ in other domains specific for each family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. (medworm.com)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (EC are group of enzymes, which specifically recognizes the sn-2 acyl bond of membrane bound phospholipids and hydrolyzes the bond releasing arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. (omicsonline.org)
  • The secreted PLA2(s) were the first type of PLA 2 enzymes discovered. (omicsonline.org)
  • A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. (curehunter.com)
  • Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2) s) are lipolytic enzymes present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes but their origin and emergence are poorly understood. (ualg.pt)
  • These results represent the first molecular cloning of a cDNA for the lysosomal type Ca 2+ -independent phospholipase A 2 group of enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • Scanu, A.M. Mouse Plasminogen Has Oxidized Phosphatidylcholine Adducts That Are Not Metabolized by Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A 2 under Basal Conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Edelstein C, Pfaffinger D, Reichert EC, Stafforini DM, Scanu AM. Mouse Plasminogen Has Oxidized Phosphatidylcholine Adducts That Are Not Metabolized by Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A 2 under Basal Conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The toxic phospholipases C are capable of interacting with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyzing phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, ultimately leading to cell lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type A2 phospholipase (PLA2) activity has been observed in integral membrane protein extracts of Schistosoma japonicum. (asm.org)
  • 1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from rat gastric mucosa and its NH-2-terminal amino acid sequence, peptide maps obtained on lysylendopeptidase digestion, and immunochemical properties were identical to those of rat pancreatic PLA2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and immunochemical propertries were identical to those of pancreatic type PLA2 in the supernatant fraction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Pancreatic-type PLA2 was mainly present in the chief cell fractions and parietal cells contained a small, but significant amount of pancreatic PLA2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids by phospholipases A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development. (medworm.com)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (EC is the initial enzyme of arachidonic acid cascade, has key role in inflammation and cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • The Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2/PLAC) test is typically used to assess a person's risk for certain types of cardiovascular disease as well as events like a heart attack . (requestatest.com)
  • A candidate molecule that could serve as a common or converging mediator for the secondary SCI is phospholipase A2 (PLA2). (docme.ru)
  • Here, PLA2 activity is shown in the unique region of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) VP1 when expressed as an isolated domain in bacteria. (elsevier.com)
  • However, it has also been demonstrated that T6SS-effectors, such as PldA and PldB phospholipases, are injected into eukaryotic host cells and promote bacterial internalization or activation of several essential eukaryotic processes, such as triggering of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway or autophagy. (europa.eu)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study," Circulation , vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 837-842, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence that a 16-kilodalton integral membrane protein antigen from Schistosoma japonicum adult worms is a type A2 phospholipase. (asm.org)
  • G Protein beta subunit types differentially interact with a muscarinic receptor but not adenylyl cyclase type II or phospholipase C-beta 2/3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among the five G protein beta subunits known, the beta(4) subunit type is the least studied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Outer membrane phospholipase A. Molecular model of the integral membrane protein, outer membrane phospholipase A from the Escherichia coli bacterium. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The mechanisms by which the high fat content of the diet promotes colon carcinogenesis may include the production of secondary bile acids in the colon and the modulation of colonic luminal bacterial 7α-dehydroxylase that is involved in generating secondary bile acids, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and mucosal PI-PLC, as well as diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase and protein kinase C (PKC). (elsevier.com)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, it has been proposed that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are important for the coupling of PTH receptors (PTHRs) to phospholipase C (PLC) and the activation of the protein kinase C pathway. (uzh.ch)
  • Activation of the protein kinase C- and A-dependent pathways with 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol or 8-bromo-cAMP induced normal internalization of NaP(i)-IIa in wild-type, as well as Nherf1-deficient, mice. (uzh.ch)
  • Liu, Mingyao and Simon, Melvin I. (1996) Regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinease of a G-protein-mediated phospholipase C. Nature, 382 (6586). (caltech.edu)
  • Phospholipase C catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP_2) to generate diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP^3), leading to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the mobilization of intracellular calcium. (caltech.edu)
  • A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. (curehunter.com)
  • Expression and Characterization of Rat Brain Phospholipase D. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Regulation of Phospholipase D. Analysis and Quantitation of Ceramide. (elsevier.com)
  • Determination of Strength and Specificity of Membrane-Bound G Protein-Phospholipase C Association Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we used HEK293T cells to produce recombinant human wild-type PLC zeta (PLC zeta(WT)) protein which, upon microinjection into mouse oocytes, induced Ca(2+) oscillations characteristic of oocyte activation. (ugent.be)
  • Background and Purpose- High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) are hypothesized to be biomarkers of systemic inflammation and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Systemic inflammatory biomarkers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (LpPLA 2 ), predict risk of first and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and, possibly, stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (sPLA2-IIA), a proinflammatory protein, binds to integrins αvβ3 and α4β1 (site 1), and this interaction initiates a signaling pathway that leads to cell proliferation and inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • The unique region of the VP1 protein of parvoviruses was proposed to contain a parvoviral phospholipase A2 (pvPLA2) motif. (elsevier.com)
  • Mutations in this region of the capsid protein strongly reduced the infectivity of mutant virions in comparison to wild-type AAV-2. (elsevier.com)
  • The deduced protein sequence of 224 amino acids contained a putative motif (GXSXG) for the catalytic site of a serine hydrolase, but showed no significant homology to known phospholipases. (elsevier.com)
  • One major type of inflammasome consists of the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor NLRP3, the adaptor protein ASC, and procaspase-1 ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Human recombinant sPLA2 (Type IIa). (abcam.com)
  • Aims: Secretory phospholipase A 2 is associated with ischaemic injury in the human heart, but the distribution of type V secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA2-V) remains unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Human sPLA2-IIA does not bind to M-type receptor very well. (elsevier.com)
  • Decreased circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 levels are associated with coronary plaque regression in patients with acute coronary syndrome," Atherosclerosis , vol. 219, no. 2, pp. 907-912, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Relations of lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein with serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , paraoxonase and homocysteine thiolactonase activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus," Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice , vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 117-123, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Lysophosphatidylcholine contents in plasma LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: relation with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 and effects of simvastatin treatment," Atherosclerosis , vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 931-936, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Effect of improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on low-density lipoprotein size, electronegative low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 distribution," The American Journal of Cardiology , vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 67-71, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) activity was associated with higher CHD risk in a meta-analysis, which was partly dependent on circulating lipid levels. (nih.gov)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) activity. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to determine whether mouse Plg also harbors linked oxPtdPCs and whether these molecules are metabolized by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 /PAF acetylhydrolase (Lp-PLA 2 /PAF-AH), an enzyme specific for hydrolysis of oxPtdPCs. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) and future risk of subclinical disease and cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Cardiovascular Health Study. (qxmd.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. (qxmd.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic cohort: The multi ethnic study of atherosclerosis. (qxmd.com)
  • Dual activity of serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) yielding positive and inverse associations with cardiometabolic risk. (qxmd.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and risk of dementia in the Cardiovascular Health Study. (qxmd.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, ferritin levels, metabolic syndrome, and 10-year cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality: results from the Bruneck study. (qxmd.com)
  • As the rate-limiting enzyme of arachidonic acid production, group IVA phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in gastric tumorigenesis as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). (springer.com)
  • Leslie CC. Regulation of the specific release of arachidonic acid by cytosolic phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • Phospholipase A2 - cleaves the SN-2 acyl chain, releasing arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity and attenuates virule. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is a recently identified PLD family member that was originally found by searching the cerebellar development transcriptome database (CDT-DB) for characteristic spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during mouse cerebellar development. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The top ranking association was found for a nonsynonymous polymorphism of the phospholipase C-β3 (PLCB3) gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphism in M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) gene and membranous nephropathy (MN) in a Chinese Han population. (cdc.gov)
  • To study the association between variants of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) gene with susceptibility to idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) and levels of anti-PLA2R antibodies in the Russian population. (clinpharm-journal.ru)
  • We genotyped 70 patients with IMN, 100 healthy donors and 40 patients with other histological types of chronic glomerulonephritis for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4664308 in the PLA2R1 gene. (clinpharm-journal.ru)
  • During the course of this study, we observed that a mutation in the no-receptor-potential-AP41 (norpAP41 ) gene, which encodes phospholipase-C, generated an extremely high level of 3′ splicing. (le.ac.uk)
  • One such study in mouse embryos involved the knock-in of a mutant receptor gene back into the wild-type (wt) locus of PDGFRα-null mice. (pnas.org)
  • Our experiments results suggest that pacing-induced AF in angiotensin II (Ang II) treated mice are significantly reduced in mice lacking the TRPC3 gene (TRPC3 −/− mice) compared to wild type controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glucocorticoids induce cytosolic phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin H synthase type 2 but not microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and cytoso. (nih.gov)
  • Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cytosolic PGES (cPGES), and microsomal PGES (mPGES) mRNA were expressed at similar levels in both cell types, whereas a greater prostaglandin H synthase type 2 (PGHS-2) mRNA expression was observed in amnion fibroblasts than in epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Linkous A, Yazlovitskaya E. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 as a mediator of disease pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • In the current study, we set out to explore whether adipose tissue infiltration by neutrophils that occurs early (3 days) after initiating a high-fat diet (HFD) could contribute to the early occurrence of hepatic insulin resistance and to determine the role of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 α (cPLA 2 α) in this process. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that stimulation of apical and basolateral receptors with PTH-(1-34) led to internalization of NaP(i)-IIa in wild-type and Nherf1-deficient mice. (uzh.ch)
  • The heterotrimeric G proteins mediate a variety of cellular processes by coupling transmembrane receptors to different effector molecules, including adenylyl cyclases and inositol-phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC). (caltech.edu)
  • Because the best-described effect of striatal D 2 receptors is inhibition of adenylyl cyclase ( Sibley, 1995 ), D 2 receptor activation should, in principle, reduce L-type currents. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bradykinin and adenosine triphosphate, ligands of phospholipase C-coupled membrane receptors, increased the content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in dorsal root ganglia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Because the sequence surrounding the N-terminal tyrosine fulfills the requirement of ITIM, identified in the cytoplasmic region of immunoinhibitory receptors such as IgG Fc receptor type IIB (FcγRIIB), killer Ig-like receptor (KIR), CD22, and the paired Ig-like receptor B, it is quite natural to speculate that PD-1 mediates its negative signal by means of this tyrosine residue. (pnas.org)
  • In order to assess the potential of sPLA 2 -X as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, novel sPLA 2 inhibitors with improved type X selectivity are required. (rcsb.org)
  • Can Inhibitors of Snake Venom Phospholipases A 2 Lead to New Insights into Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Humans? (mdpi.com)
  • These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that sPLA(2) s in eukaryotes shared common origins with two types of bacterial sPLA(2) s, and their persistence during evolution may be related to their role in phospholipid metabolism, which is fundamental for survival. (ualg.pt)
  • The C-terminus of the alpha-toxin has been reported as a "C2-like" domain, referencing the C2 domain found in eukaryotes that are involved in signal transduction and present in mammalian phosphoinositide phospholipase C. The primary catalyzed reaction of PLC occurs on an insoluble substrate at a lipid-water interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipase Cs play a central role in signal transduction, releasing the second messenger inositol triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipases C and D seem not to have a function in auxin signal transduction whereas the indications for a role of phospholipase A 2 in auxin signal transduction accumulated recently. (springer.com)
  • The book illustrates that the activation of phospholipases is of fundamental importance in signal transduction affecting cell function. (springer.com)
  • Overall, this book discusses the diverse mechanisms of phospholipase mediated signal transduction in different pathophysiological conditions and raises the possibility of specific forms of phospholipases serving as novel targets for drug development. (springer.com)
  • The complexity of the adipocytokines and inflammatory cell types involved in adipose inflammation is constantly increasing, and today, most myeloid cell types have been implicated in the process, including macrophages, B cells, various T-cell classes, and even eosinophils and mast cells ( 4 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among the many different classes of phospholipases, fungal phospholipase B (Plb) proteins show the broadest range of substrate specificity and hydrolytic activity, hydrolyzing acyl ester bonds in phospholipids and lysophospholipids and further catalyzing lysophospholipase-transacylase reactions. (nih.gov)
  • These experiments demonstrate a new method for specific inhibition of phospholipase A2 which, in principle, would be applicable to other biologically active polypeptides and proteins. (garvan.org.au)
  • beta: PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, PLCB4 gamma: PLCG1, PLCG2 delta: PLCD1, PLCD3, PLCD4 epsilon: PLCE1 eta: PLCH1, PLCH2 zeta: PLCZ1 phospholipase C-like: PLCL1, PLCL2 Most of the bacterial variants of phospholipase C are characterized into one of four groups of structurally related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For PDGFRα, pYBs bind effectors, including Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), the adapter proteins Crk (CrkII and CrkL) and Shf, and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. (pnas.org)
  • Function and inhibition of intracellular calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 . (springer.com)
  • Rather, D 2 receptor stimulation mobilizes intracellular Ca 2+ stores via G β γ activation of a phospholipase Cβ1 pathway, leading to a calcineurin-dependent reduction in L-type currents. (jneurosci.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Mammalian oocyte activation occurs via a series of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) oscillations thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLC zeta). (ugent.be)
  • Our study reports inhibition of myocardial intracellular calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA 2 ) activity by clinically relevant concentrations of the drug. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The binding of low molecular weight type II phospholipase A2 (EC) to membrane surfaces and hydrolysis of phospholipid are thought to involve the formation of a hydrophobic channel into which a single substrate molecule diffuses before cleavage. (garvan.org.au)
  • From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly regulated by receptor-stimulated mechanisms (calcium influx and phosphorylation). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate generates diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and protons, all of which can regulate TRPV1 activity via different mechanisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. (kpubs.org)
  • To study the molecular mechanism for negative regulation of lymphocytes through the PD-1 receptor, we generated chimeric molecules composed of the IgG Fc receptor type IIB (FcγRIIB) extracellular region and the PD-1 cytoplasmic region and expressed them in a B lymphoma cell line, IIA1.6. (pnas.org)
  • Phospholipase D - cleaves after the phosphate, releasing phosphatidic acid and an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipase that hydrolyzes preferentially phosphatidic acid, including 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine. (uniprot.org)
  • There are thirteen kinds of mammalian phospholipase C that are classified into six isotypes (β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η) according to structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays and Characterization of Mammalian Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-Sensitive Phospholipase D. Characterization and Purification of Phosphatidylinositol Trisphosphate 5-Phosphatase from Rat Brain Tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Twenty three articles in this book are organized in four sections that are designed to emphasize the most characterized forms of the phospholipases in mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • This effect of Ang II was blocked by inhibition of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) and by PTX. (jneurosci.org)
  • The discovery of an autoantibody for the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) was a landmark breakthrough in understanding the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). (asnjournals.org)
  • Anti-phospholipase A 2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies are specific to the diagnosis of primary membranous nephropathy (pMN). (figshare.com)
  • Background and aims Autoantibodies to M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are specific markers of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN). (bmj.com)
  • 1 , 2 Previous studies have shown that serum phospholipase A2 receptor antibody (SAb) level is a good marker for IMN diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, prognosis, and treatment decision making. (asnjournals.org)
  • Objective To investigate the different expressions of plasma M type phospholipase A2 receptor antibody and IgG subtypes deposition of kidney tissues in idiopathic membranous nephropathy and hepatitis B virus -associated membranous nephropa-thy,and to evaluate the significance of plasma M type phospholipase A2 receptor antibody and IgG subtypes in diagnosis of hepatitis B virus -associated membranous nephropathy . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the relationships of circulating Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus have not been examined. (qxmd.com)
  • causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (kpubs.org)
  • The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. (kpubs.org)
  • No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected ( p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) ( p = 0.000). (kpubs.org)
  • Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • These mechanisms are not limited to an apoptotic process only, which is characteristic of the immune-mediated insulitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a system for inducible PC-PLC expression in L. monocytogenes , we provide evidence that phospholipase activity can be increased by elevated expression of PC-PLC or Mpl, the enzyme required for proteolytic activation of PC-PLC. (asm.org)
  • Expression and localization of apical PTHRs were similar in wild-type and Nherf1-deficient mice. (uzh.ch)
  • How does the expression of phospholipase B influence the host pathogen relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans and the macrophage? (bham.ac.uk)
  • Seilhamer JJ, Pruzanski W, Vadas P, Plant S, Miller JA, Kloss J, Johnson LK: Cloning and recombinant expression of phospholipase A2 present in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid. (hmdb.ca)
  • mRNA expression of the GABA A receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits in the spinal cord of PRIP-1 -/- mice and wild-type mice . (biomedcentral.com)
  • B) Semiquantitative analysis of GABA A receptor α1, β2, and γ2 subunit mRNA expression in the dorsal horn (DH), intermediate gray matter (IG) and ventral horn (VH) of the spinal cord in PRIP-1 -/- mice (black) and wild-type mice (white). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The food enzyme phospholipase C (EC is produced with a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris ) (strain PRF) by DSM. (europa.eu)
  • Part one of this thesis will detail the first research project which sought to characterise the contribution of the enzyme phospholipase B to the intercellular lifecycle employed by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans which has the ability to survive within the phagolysosome of immune cell macrophages. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Therefore the known phospholipases of C. albicans are described in detail under clinical aspects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The phenotypes expressed by null mutant and revertant strains of CaPLB5 indicate that this lipid hydrolase plays an important role for cell-associated phospholipase A(2) activity and in vivo organ colonization. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. (osti.gov)
  • Phospholipase A2 activity is increased in guinea pig uterine cervix in late pregnancy and at parturition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been reported that U73122 activates the phospholipase activity of purified PLCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity with type 2 diabetes among older adults. (qxmd.com)
  • At baseline, the top two quintiles of Lp-PLA(2) activity were significantly associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes with a multivariable relative risk = 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.63] for quintile 4, and relative risk = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.07-1.66) for quintile 5. (qxmd.com)
  • In prospective analyses, the risk of incident type 2 diabetes was significantly higher among those in the highest quintile of Lp-PLA(2) activity [multivariable hazard ratio = 1.45 (95% CI = 1.01-2.07)] compared with the lowest quintile. (qxmd.com)
  • Lp-PLA(2) activity is positively associated with insulin resistance and predicts incident type 2 diabetes among older adults independent of multiple factors associated with diabetes pathogenesis. (qxmd.com)
  • 5. The phospholipase A1 according to claim 1 which has an optimum temperature for activity of from about 50.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • The regulation of phospholipase D was studied in human neuroblastoma cells using phosphatidylethanol as a marker of the enzyme activity. (lu.se)
  • Carbachol induced phospholipase D activity in SH-SY5Y cells. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, glycosylPtdIns-specific phospholipase D activity was detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons and brain. (uzh.ch)
  • This project used cell culture and microscopy techniques as well as whole cell lipidomic analysis and found that many aspects of Cryptococcus neoformans parasitism of macrophages are modified by phospholipase B activity. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The bradykinin B1 agonist, desArg9-bradykinin (1 microM) was without effect upon phospholipase C or phospholipase D activity. (strath.ac.uk)
  • However, bradykinin-stimulated (10 nM, EC100) [3H]-PtdBut accumulation was poorly inhibited and with low potency by each B2 receptor antagonist and bradykinin-stimulated phospholipase D activity persisted at concentrations of antagonist that completely blocked bradykinin-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation (30 microM). (strath.ac.uk)
  • This activation did not require catalytic activity or M-type receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Significant lysophospholipase, phospholipase A 2 , or 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetylhydrolase activity was not observed. (elsevier.com)
  • Phospholipase assays indicated that EL is a primary contributor to phospholipase activity in mouse. (jci.org)
  • Phospholipase activity in genetic models. (jci.org)
  • Phospholipase activity in different genetic lines was compared between pre- and postheparin injection samples. (jci.org)
  • Regulation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in macrophages. (lu.se)
  • Phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) isoforms are thought to be activated by both tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PtdIns 3,4,5 P(3)), the product of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase). (lu.se)
  • Serum phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies (SAbs) and glomerular phospholipase A2 receptor antigen (GAg) deposits have been observed in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). (asnjournals.org)
  • 1 , 3 - 8 Patients with SAb (SAb+) often also have glomerular phospholipase A2 receptor antigen (GAg+) deposits. (asnjournals.org)
  • PD-1-deficient mice exhibit splenomegaly, selective augmentation of IgG3 Ab response to a T-independent type II antigen, and enhanced proliferative responses of B cells and myeloid cells by anti-IgM and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulation, respectively (ref. 7 and unpublished data). (pnas.org)
  • M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with changes in proteinuria. (asnjournals.org)
  • Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this prospective, open, multicenter study, the potential role of M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels on the increase of serum creatinine in 118 consecutive patients with membranous nephropathy and positivity for serum M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies was analyzed. (asnjournals.org)
  • The clinical end point was reached in 69% of patients with high M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels (tertile 3) but only 25% of patients with low M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels. (asnjournals.org)
  • The average time to reach the study end point was 17.7 months in patients with high M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels and 30.9 months in patients with low M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels. (asnjournals.org)
  • A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels-in addition to men and older age-are an independent predictor for progressive loss of renal function. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusions High M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies levels were associated with more rapid loss of renal function in this cohort of patients with primary membranous nephropathy and therefore, could be helpful for treatment decisions. (asnjournals.org)
  • The discovery that M-type phospholipase A 2 receptor autoantibodies (PLA 2 R-Abs) are detectable in about 70% of patients with primary MN allows us to assess their potential role as a pathogenetic mechanism on the clinical outcome of patients with primary MN ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Like many other Gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa manipulates eukaryotic host cells using secreted effectors and notably the type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent exoenzymes ExoS, ExoT, ExoY and ExoU. (europa.eu)
  • More recently the type VI secretion system (T6SS) was shown to secrete anti-bacterial toxins and thus help outcompeting and manipulating the resident microbiota in the host. (europa.eu)
  • Accordingly, we investigated in details how Pseudomonas aeruginosa was able to induce histone modification upon infection, with the hypothesis that these epigenetic modifications might result from the type VI secretion system (T6SS). (europa.eu)
  • In E. coli phospholipase A is involved in the secretion of toxins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. (kpubs.org)
  • The phospholipase A2 superfamily and its group numbering system. (springer.com)
  • Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme present in the venom of bees and viper snakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nigexine is a basic phospholipase A2 from the venom of the spitting cobra Naja nigricollis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Functional Analyses of Type V Adenylyl Cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • Construction of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase from Human Membrane-Bound Type 7 Adenylyl Cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of phospholipase A2 receptor 1 polymorphisms with idiopathic membranous nephropathy in Chinese patients in Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • We have used the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of phospholipase delta(1) (PLCdelta(1)), narrowly specific for PtdIns(4,5)P(2), to map the distribution of the lipid in astrocytoma and A431 cells. (nih.gov)
  • It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN. (curehunter.com)
  • The neuronal cell-adhesion molecule axonin-1 is specifically released by an endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase. (uzh.ch)
  • Our results show that intact 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 1-arachidonoylglycerol are endogenous TRPV1 activators, contributing to phospholipase C-dependent TRPV1 channel activation and TRPV1-mediated antinociceptive signaling in the brain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Publications] Sakata,T.: 'Presence of pancreatic type phospholipase A2 mRNA in rat gastric mucosa and lung' Biochim.Biophys.Acta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We show that the amino-terminal tryptic peptide of human type II phospholipase A2 forms a noncovalent complex with the tryptic peptide from residues 70-74 of the enzyme. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our Phospholipase A2 X Lysates can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the requirement of the Listeria monocytogenes broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC) during infection of human epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • There is now strong evidence to indicate that certain types of human male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte in an appropriate manner. (ugent.be)
  • This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. (kpubs.org)
  • Activation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle by phospholipase C and phorbol ester. (osti.gov)
  • Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes ( SAP1 to SAP8 ) and phospholipase genes ( PLB1 , PLB2 ) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. (kpubs.org)
  • Delayed inhibitory feedback by PKC may be mediated by phosphorylation of phospholipase C, although an additional site of action on the NK1 receptor cannot be ruled out. (wmin.ac.uk)
  • Coligation of the cytoplasmic region of PD-1 with the B cell receptor (BCR) in IIA1.6 transformants inhibited BCR-mediated growth retardation, Ca 2+ mobilization, and tyrosine phosphorylation of effector molecules, including Igβ, Syk, phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2), and ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylation of Lyn and Dok was not affected. (pnas.org)
  • L. monocytogenes can infect a variety of cell types, including macrophages, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes ( 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic inhibition of TrkB-mediated phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) signaling suppressed seizures induced by a chemoconvulsant, leading to design of a peptide (pY816) that inhibited the interaction of TrkB with PLC gamma 1. (duke.edu)
  • Isolation of Phospholipase A_2 Activating Peptide From Inflamed Gingival Tissues. (nii.ac.jp)