A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS and pancreatic sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (1/4851)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by protein kinase C decreases catalytic activity of avian phospholipase C-beta. (2/4851)

The potential role of protein kinase C (PKC)-promoted phosphorylation has been examined in the G-protein-regulated inositol lipid signalling pathway. Incubation of [32P]Pi-labelled turkey erythrocytes with either the P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) or with PMA resulted in a marked increase in incorporation of 32P into the G-protein-activated phospholipase C PLC-betaT. Purified PLC-betaT also was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro to a stoichiometry (mean+/-S. E.M.) of 1.06+/-0.2 mol of phosphate/mol of PLC-betaT. Phosphorylation by PKC was isoenzyme-specific because, under identical conditions, mammalian PLC-beta2 also was phosphorylated to a stoichiometry near unity, whereas mammalian PLC-beta1 was not phosphorylated by PKC. The effects of PKC-promoted phosphorylation on enzyme activity were assessed by reconstituting purified PLC-betaT with turkey erythrocyte membranes devoid of endogenous PLC activity. Phosphorylation resulted in a decrease in basal activity, AlF4(-)-stimulated activity, and activity stimulated by 2MeSATP plus guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate in the reconstituted membranes. The decreases in enzyme activities were proportional to the extent of PKC-promoted phosphorylation. Catalytic activity assessed by using mixed detergent/phospholipid micelles also was decreased by up to 60% by phosphorylation. The effect of phosphorylation on Gqalpha-stimulated PLC-betaT in reconstitution experiments with purified proteins was not greater than that observed on basal activity alone. Taken together, these results illustrate that PKC phosphorylates PLC-betaT in vivo and to a physiologically relevant stoichiometry in vitro. Phosphorylation is accompanied by a concomitant loss of enzyme activity, reflected as a decrease in overall catalytic activity rather than as a specific modification of G-protein-regulated activity.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (3/4851)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (4/4851)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways. (5/4851)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms.  (+info)

Resolution of a signal transfer region from a general binding domain in gbeta for stimulation of phospholipase C-beta2. (6/4851)

Signaling by guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) involves sequential protein-protein interactions. G protein-betagamma subunit (Gbetagamma) interactions with phospholipase C-beta2 (PLC-beta2) were studied to determine if all Gbeta contacts are required for signaling. A peptide encoding Gbeta amino acid residues 86 to 105 stimulated PLC-beta2. Six residues (96 to 101) within this sequence could transfer signals and thus constitute a core signal transfer region. Another peptide, encoding Gbeta amino acid residues 115 to 135, did not substantially stimulate PLC-beta2 by itself but inhibited Gbetagamma stimulation, indicating that residues 115 to 135 constitute a general binding domain. Resolution of signal transfer regions from general binding domains indicates that all protein-protein contacts are not required for signal transfer and that it may be feasible to synthesize agonists and antagonists that regulate intracellular signal flow.  (+info)

Carbamazepine-induced upregulation of adenosine A1-receptors in astrocyte cultures affects coupling to the phosphoinositol signaling pathway. (7/4851)

The anticonvulsant and antibipolar drug carbamazepine (CBZ) is known to act as a specific antagonist at adenosine A1-receptors. After a 3-week application of CBZ, A1-receptors are upregulated in the rat brain. We have investigated the consequences of this upregulation for the A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in primary astrocyte cultures from different regions of the rat brain. CBZ treatment for 10 days had no effect on adenosine A1-receptor mRNA expression in cultures with high basal A1-receptor mRNA levels, but increased A1-receptor mRNA in cultures exhibiting low basal A1-receptor mRNA levels. This upregulation of A1-receptor mRNA was accompanied by an upregulation or induction of A1-receptor-mediated potentiation of PLC activity, a property that was not found in these cultures before CBZ treatment. Thus, CBZ treatment for 10 days induces a new quality of adenosine A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells that express low basal A1-receptor numbers.  (+info)

Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea. (8/4851)

1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement of phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) for dectin-1-induced antigen presentation and induction of TH1/TH17 polarization. AU - Tassi, Ilaria. AU - Cella, Marina. AU - Castro, Iris. AU - Gilfillan, Susan. AU - Khan, Wasif N.. AU - Colonna, Marco. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - DC recognize microbial components through an array of receptors known as PRR. PRR initiate intracellular signals, which engender DC with the capacity to stimulate T-cell responses. Dectin-1 is a PRR that recognizes β-glucan, a major constituent of many fungis outer cell wall. Here we show that Dectin-1 activates DC through phospholipase (PLC)γ2 signaling. PLCγ2-deficient DC were unable to expand antigen-specific T cells and induce TH1 and TH17 differentiation in response to β-glucan. Mechanistically, PLCγ2-deficiency impaired the capacity of DC to secrete polarizing cytokines following exposure to β-glucan. Dectin-1 required PLCγ2 to activate MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB, which induce cytokine gene ...
Phospholipase C-(gamma) (PLC-(gamma)) is activated in many cell types following growth factor stimulation. Our understanding of the role of PLC-(gamma) in cell growth and differentiation has been severely limited by the dearth of mutations in any organism. In this study, we show that the Drosophila gene small wing (sl), identified by Bridges in 1915, encodes a PLC-(gamma). Mutations of sl result in extra R7 photoreceptors in the compound eye, consistent with overactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that control R7 development. The data presented here provide the first genetic evidence that PLC-(gamma) is involved in Ras-mediated signaling and indicate that PLC-(gamma) acts as a negative regulator in such pathways in Drosophila.. ...
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enhancer (PIKE) is small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that associates with nuclear-localized PI3K and increases its lipid kinase activity and its ability to promote cellular proliferation. Activated phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) can also promote mitogenesis, but this effect does not require the phospholipase activity of PLC-γ1. Now Ye et al. have found that PLC-γ1 might act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for PIKE. The Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of PLC-γ1 (PLCγ1-SH3) bound to PIKE in glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Increasing concentrations of the PLCγ1-SH3 incubated with PIKE stimulated GTP binding to and GDP dissociation from PIKE. These data suggest that PLCγ1-SH3 functioned like a GEF with PIKE as its substrate. PC12 cells that expressed PLCγ1-SH3 exhibited increased nuclear PI3K activity, suggesting a link between PLC-γ1 and increased PI3K activity, and a possible explanation of how PLC-γ1 can promote ...
AB - Phospholipases C play a role in the pathogenesis of several bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, possesses four genes encoding putative phospholipases C, plcA, plcB, plcC and plcD. However, the contribution of these genes to virulence is unknown. We constructed four single mutants of M. tuberculosis each inactivated in one of the plc genes, a triple plcABC mutant and a quadruple plcABCD mutant. The mutants all exhibited a lower phospholipase C activity than the wild-type parent strain, demonstrating that the four plc genes encode a functional phospholipase C in M. tuberculosis. Functional complementation of the Delta plcABC triple mutant with the individual plcA, plcB and plcC genes restored in each case about 20% of the total Plc activity detected in the parental strain, suggesting that the three enzymes contribute equally to the overall Plc activity of M. tuberculosis. RT-PCR analysis of the plc genes transcripts showed that the expression of these ...
The data presented in this study demonstrate that activation of PKC-ε on stimulation of the A1R in the rat or mouse heart elicits the translocation of the kinase to a RACK2 protein of the cardiomyocyte. Previously, we reported A1R activation promotes the translocation of PKC-ε, but not PKC-δ, to the t-tubules of the cardiomyocyte (30). The present data indicate that RACK2 was the target protein for this translocation. Our present observations include the measurement of contractile activity of isolated cardiomyocytes and the visualization with imaging (rat) and coimmunoprecipitation of the kinase and RACK2 (rat and mouse). Translocation of PKC-ε to RACK2 occurred whether the PKC-ε was activated nonspecifically by a phorbol ester, or by A1R activation with PIA, or with the selective agonist CCPA. The action induced by CCPA was selective for the A1R, as indicated by the inhibition elicited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX. Furthermore, PKC-ε translocation most likely results from an A1R-induced ...
An unpaired ANOVA was utilized in the examination from the protein tyrosine kinase read full report information in Figure 8. For all other data, a paired ANOVA was made use of. Prism four for the Macintosh was made use of for all graphing and statistical calculations. Effects Characterization of GM M Monocytes are typically matured into M in vitro utilizing M CSF. On the other hand, AM are uncommon in they need GM CSF, but not M CSF, for his or her improvement in vivo. As a result, we followed the GM CSF based mostly differentiation protocol of Akagawa, et al., made to provide mono cyte derived M by using a distinctly AM like phenotype. The two AM and GM M happen to be proven to provide decrease levels of H2O2, express higher ranges of catalase and therefore are a lot more resistant to H2O2 toxicity when in comparison to M CSF derived M. Furthermore, AM and GM M express HLA DQ and are resistant to HIV infection, but prone to Myco bacterium tuberculosis infection. Finally, we are confident that ...
Similarly, splenic B cells from one to 4 month old premalignant iMycEu mice exhib ited highly elevated NFB and STAT3 DNA binding exercise, at as early as one month of age, relative to splenic B cells from age matched, typical BL6 mice. These data show that constitutive activation of the two NFB and STAT3 happens months before tumors are current, and at an early age, in iMycEu mice. We also evaluated the degree of Myc protein in splenic B cells of premalignant and malignant iMycEu mice, likewise as in iMycEu one cells. Its broadly accepted the cellular level of Myc must continue to be exquisitely titrated to induce neoplastic growth but steer clear of apoptosis. Consistent with this particular, only a marginal elevation of Myc protein was repeat edly observed in premalignant iMycEu B splenocytes. Myc protein was, however, drastically elevated in malignant B cells and in iMycEu one cells. Despite the fact that NFB and STAT3 are acknowledged to drive Myc expression, constitutive exercise of NFB and ...
Phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to form the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Recently, PLC-L2, a PLC-like protein that lacks lipase activity, has been identified in skeletal muscle, as well as in B and T lymphocytes. Takenaka et al. generated PLC-2-deficient mice to investigate the possible role of PLC-2 signaling in B lymphocytes. PLC-L2-deficient mature B cells showed an enhanced proliferative response and increased expression of the activation marker CD69 after B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation in vitro, and mice displayed increased production of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG3 in response to antigen treatment in vivo. The authors used fura-2 imaging to show that Ca2+ influx after BCR stimulation was enhanced in PLC-2-deficient cells; moreover, translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (which is regulated by calcineurin, which is itself calcium-dependent) was enhanced. Finally, PLC-2-deficient cells showed ...
This study reports the successful purification of the P2Y12-R to near homogeneity. The purified receptor, when stimulated by 2MeSADP, functionally activates reconstituted purified G proteins, promoting GTPase activity that is greatly augmented by RGS4. This reconstitution system provides the most unambiguous means available to date to assess the pharmacological selectivity of the P2Y12-R and to directly determine its Gα-subunit selectivity.. The P2Y12-R was one of the first receptors illustrated to inhibit adenylyl cyclase and the first P2Y receptor studied biochemically (Cooper and Rodbell, 1979). Subsequent investigations revealed the P2Y12-R to be a unique member of the P2Y receptor family in that it coupled to Gαi rather than Gαq (Hollopeter et al., 2001). The eventual cloning of the P2Y12-R revealed a sequence with very low homology to the five previously cloned Gq/phospholipase C-coupled P2Y receptors (Foster et al., 2001; Hollopeter et al., 2001; Takasaki et al., 2001; Zhang et al., ...
PLC activity is required for directional protrusion in response to an EGF source. (A) The response of a control (U73343) cell (top) and of a PLC-inhibited (U731
U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ increases in platelets and PMN. U73122 potently inhibits human ... Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
Together, the results from this study provide evidence for B1 receptor homo-oligomerization and the importance of this mechanism in the expression of the receptor on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. This mechanism directly translates into the presentation of a constitutive mechanism for cellular signaling through Gq/11-mediated phospholipase Cβ activity. Such homo-oligomers may be a regulatory point in B1 receptor maturation, and their disruption could provide a unique way for silencing signaling through this and other B1 receptor-stimulated pathways during inflammation.. Multiple methods were used to investigate whether B1 receptors form homo-oligomers in HEK293 cells. Although neither of these methods alone is sufficient to prove oligomerization, together they are consistent with such a mechanism. Higher order oligomeric receptor forms were readily apparent on immunoblots of SDS-PAGE gels. Such complexes were also indicated by coimmunoprecipitation of differentially tagged receptors. ...
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To investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in inflammatory processes, we tested 1-(6-((17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), a widely used PLC inhibitor, in several in vitro and in vivo assays. We first examined the effects of U73122 on human phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) isozymes and found that U73122 significantly inhibited recombinant human PLC-β2, with an IC50 of ∼6 μM. U73122 had little effect on PLC-β1, PLC-β3, or PLC-β4. Consistent with its ability to inhibit PLC-β2 enzymatic activity, U73122 reduced interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4-induced Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, U73122 blocked carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats, carrageenan-induced macrophage and lymphocyte accumulation into subcutaneous chambers in dogs, lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage, lymphocyte infiltration and prostaglandin E2 production in a mouse peritonitis model, and ...
0004]The present invention comprises the method of treating host organisms (i.e. human or animal) in need of a drug having anti-neoplastic activity comprising the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of venom anti-serum either alone or preferably in combination with a Phospholipase C inhibitor of non-toxic nature or monoclonal or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme or a vaccine containing in whole or in part venom and/or other components of animal, insect or plant origin showing Phospholipase A2 and/or Phospholipase C activity. This patent presents pharmaceutical formulations containing snake and/or insect venoms, or extracts from such venoms which may contain, total or partial, Phospholipase A2 enzyme activity alone or in combination with animal or plant Phospholipase A2 with or without Phospholipase C inhibiting compounds or Phospholipase C mono or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme as therapeutic vaccine candidate for all neoplastic diseases. This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct CCK-2 Receptor Conformations Associated with β-Arrestin-2 Recruitment or Phospholipase-C Activation Revealed by a Biased Antagonist. AU - Magnan, Rémi. AU - Escrieut, Chantal. AU - Gigoux, Véronique. AU - De, Kavita. AU - Clerc, Pascal. AU - Niu, Fan. AU - Azema, Joelle. AU - Masri, Bernard. AU - Cordomi, Arnau. AU - Baltas, Michel. AU - Tikhonova, Irina G. AU - Fourmy, Daniel. PY - 2013/2/20. Y1 - 2013/2/20. N2 - Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), form the largest class of cell surface membrane receptors, involving several hundred members in the human genome. Near 30% of marketed pharmacological agents target 7TMRs. 7TMRs adopt multiple conformations upon agonist binding. Biased agonists, in contrast to non-biased agonists, are believed to stabilize conformations preferentially activating either G-protein- or ß-arrestin-dependent signalling pathways. However, proof that cognate conformations of receptors display ...
Phylogenetic analysis of PLC-γ proteins: The PLC-γ homolog encoded by sl is the only one present in the now almost-complete D. melanogaster genome sequence, and only a single gene has been identified in the other invertebrate genomes sequenced to date. By contrast, a gene duplication event produced separate γ1 and γ2 subtypes at some point in the vertebrate lineage; each subtype has identical domain structure and similar sequence, but distinct functions. To reveal the relationships between PLC-γ homologs, we produced a translation of the putative ORFs from both D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis and compared them to all other complete PLC-γ homologs in the GenBank database, including D. melanogaster, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the sponge E. fluviatilis, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the cow Bos taurus (γ1), the rat Rattus rattus (γ1 and γ2), and Homo sapiens (γ1 and γ2). The best tree from this comparison is shown in Figure 1A. The tree divides the taxa unambiguously into a ...
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Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a minor phospholipid in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 via phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis leads to a decrease in exocytosis and alters electrical excitability in neurons. Restoration of PI(4,5)P2 is ess …
Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting β-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCδ1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 β-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with ...
Dermal fibroblasts from human, rhesus macaque, mouse and rat with and without dsRNA (poly I:C) stimulation (1ug/mL for 4 hours). The innate immune response - the expression programme that is initiated once a pathogen is sensed - is known to be variable among responding cells, as well as to rapidly evolve in the course of mammal evolution. To study the transcriptional divergence and cell-to-cell variability of this response, we stimulated dermal fibroblast cells from two primates (human and macaque) and two rodents (mouse and rat) with dsRNA - a mimic of viral RNA that elicits a rapid innate immune response. Subsequently, we profiled the response using bulk RNA-seq, scRNA-seq and ChIP-seq across the four species and across different time points.
최근 외부자극에 대한 생체 신호전달체계에서 중요한 효소로 알려진 phospholipase C(PLC) 동위효소(isozyme)들의 발현은 조직의 종류와 발달과정에 따라 특이한 양상을 보이며 PLC동위효소 중 PLC-γ1은 세포의 성장, 분화 및 증식에 중추적 요소로 알려져 있다. 또한 ras 암유전자단백도 세포의 성장을 유도하는 것으로 알려져 있어 방사선 조사 후 PLC 동위효소와 ras암유전단백이 관여하는지를 규명하고, 이러한 재생과정에 방사선감작약물로 널리 알려져 있는 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)투여방법이 미치는 영향을 보고자 본 연구를 계획하였다. 흰쥐를 실험동물로 하여 정상대조군(I), 방사선조사 단독군(II), 방사선과 5-FU 12시간 지속성 정주병행군(III), 방사선조사 단독군 (II), 방사선과 5-FU12시간 지속성 정주단독군 (V), 5FU 일시정주단독군 (VI)로 나누어 관찰하였다. 방사선은 흰쥐 ...
these data suggest that at least two pathways can mediate 2). The magnitude of IP production produced in the Y934F PDGF ␤-receptor-induced chemotaxis, i.e. PI3-kinase and PLC- mutant cell line was about 3-fold higher than in wild-type ␥1. It is possible that the expression levels of PI3-kinase and receptor-expressing cells. The difference in response is not due PLC-␥1, and their magnitude of activation, determines which to differences in receptor number or ligand affinity between the cell lines, as indicated by Scatchard analyses of PDGF-BB Activation of PLC-␥1 leads to production of two second mes- sengers, IP and diacylglycerol (DAG). Binding of IP to recep- The importance of PLC-␥1 in chemotactic signaling was tors on the endoplasmic reticulum leads to release of calcium, pointed out by Kundra et al. (15, 16). However, PAE cells while DAG is an activator of the classical PKCs (18). Further- expressing a PDGF ␤-receptor mutant, with the association more, DAG has been implicated in ...
Gemphire Therapeutics (NASDAQ: GEMP) and GW Pharmaceuticals PLC- (NASDAQ:GWPH) are both medical companies, but which is the superior business? We will compare the two companies based on the strength of their risk, valuation, earnings, dividends, institutional ownership, profitability and analyst recommendations. Analyst Ratings This is a summary of current ratings and price targets for Gemphire […]
Plasmid pGEX PLCg1(NC)-SH2 from Dr. Bruce Mayers lab contains the insert PLCg1(NC) and is published in Mol Cell. 2007 Jun 22;26(6):899-915. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
We are interested in learning how small molecules in the blood stream can cause cells to react in specific ways, such as growing, dividing or migrating. While there are many agents that can stimulate or inhibit cell behavior, we are most interested in the ability of certain hormones and neurotransmitters to activate a family of proteins called G Proteins. G proteins can simulate an enzyme called phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta). Activation of PLCbeta raises the level of calcium in the cell, which changes the activity of many other proteins. Additionally, PLCbeta can also affect the ability of a cell to control the transcription of specific genes into proteins by changing the stability of their messenger RNA. ...
1 to 8 Demultiplexer PLC This is PLC Program to implement 1:8 De-multiplexer. Problem Description Implement 1:8 Demultiplexer in PLC. ...
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Overexpression on plasma membrane of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is reported in 25% to 30% of breast cancers. Heterodimer formation with cognate members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, such as HER3 and EGFR, activates abnormal cell-signalling cascades responsible for tumorigenesis and further transcriptional HER2 gene upregulation. Targeting the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression and recycling may effectively deactivate this feedback-amplification loop. We recently showed that inactivation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) may exert a pivotal role in selectively modulating the expression on the membrane of specific receptors or proteins relevant to cell function. In the present study, we investigated the capability of PC-PLC inhibition to target the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression on the membrane of breast cancer cells by altering the rates of its endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. Localization
This study was undertaken to define pathways by which LPS might activate the ERK kinases in alveolar macrophages. We hypothesized that LPS activates a PC-PLC, leading to production of DAG, an activator of sphingomyelinase activity. This, in turn, results in increased amounts of ceramide, an important effector molecule, which activates PKC ζ. PKC ζ activates MEK, which subsequently leads to ERK kinase activation. To test this hypothesis, we showed that LPS activates the ERK 2 kinase in alveolar macrophages and that this activation is inhibited by D609, a relatively specific inhibitor of PC-PLC. We next showed that LPS increases amounts of DAG and ceramide and that both of these effects of LPS are inhibited by D609. Our present studies indicate that LPS induction of DAG in alveolar macrophages is derived, at least in part, from a PC-containing phospholipid. Thus, we conclude from these experiments that the LPS-induced DAG is derived from hydrolysis of PC via activation of PC-PLC. In separate ...
Interferon (IFN) therapy comes with an important role in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and chronic hepatitis C contamination. severe PAH after exposure to IFN therapy. The patient experienced significant clinical and hemodynamic improvement with CI-1033 normalization of her pulmonary pressures after the initiation of combination therapy for PAH. At 28 months after diagnosis she remains CI-1033 asymptomatic with no hemodynamic evidence of PAH and has been off all PAH therapy for 10 months. Keywords: Diagnosis Interferon treatment Multiple sclerosis Pulmonary artery hypertension Résumé Linterféron (IFN) joue un r?le important dans le traitement de la sclérose en plaques et de linfection par le computer virus de lhépatite C chronique. Quelques rapports de cas ont décrit une association entre le traitement à lIFN et lapparition dune hypertension artérielle pulmonaire (HAP) irréversible. La plus récente classification de lhypertension pulmonaire linclut dans les causes ...
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. Required for secondary responses to abscisic acid signals.
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes.
PLCB1 (phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)), Authors: Matilde Y. Follo, Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco, Giovanni Martinelli, Giandomenico Palka, Lucio Cocco. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipase β4-knockout mouse exhibits retinal phenotype. AU - Jiang, Huiping. AU - Lyubarsky, A.. AU - Vardi, N.. AU - Pugh Jr, Edward N. AU - Chen, J.. AU - Xu, J.. AU - Simon, M. I.. AU - Wu, Dianqing. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose: Determine if PLC-β4 has a retinal function by making/assessing a mouse knockout. Rationale: PLC-β4 is one of the four PLC-β isoforms that have been cloned and can be activated by the Gα subunits of G-proteins of the Gq class, but not by the Gβγ subunits. PLC-β4 shares a closer homology to the NorpA protein (which mediates phototransduction in Drosopnila) than to the isoforms PLC-β1-β3. Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown that PLC-β4 is expressed in cone photoreceptors, and in bipolar and ganglion cells1. Method: A mouse line was generated in which the PLC-β4 genes are disrupted. Retinal rod function was assessed with single-flash a- and b-wave electroretinography. Anatomical analysis of rod density, rod ...
PH-PLCdelta1 [the PH domain (pleckstrin homology domain) of PLCdelta1 (phospholipase C-delta1)] is among the best-characterized phosphoinositide-binding domains. PH-PLCdelta1 binds with high specificity to the headgroup of PtdIns(4,5)P2, but little is known about its interfacial properties. In the p …
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase delta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCD1 gene. PLCd1 is essential to maintain homeostasis of the skin. Phospholipase C GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187091 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000010660 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Ishikawa S, Takahashi T, Ogawa M, Nakamura Y (Nov 1997). Genomic structure of the human PLCD1 (phospholipase C delta 1) locus on 3p22→p21.3. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 78 (1): 58-60. doi:10.1159/000134629. PMID 9345909. Entrez Gene: PLCD1 phospholipase C, delta 1. Yagisawa H (2006). Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of phospholipase C-delta1: a link to Ca2+. J. Cell. Biochem. 97 (2): 233-43. doi:10.1002/jcb.20677. PMID 16240320. Cefai D, Debre P, Kaczorek M, et al. (1991). Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor phosphoinositide transduction pathway. ...
The activity of the early signaling enzyme, phospholipase Cβ1b (PLCβ1b), is elevated in diseased myocardium and activity increases with disease progression. PLCβ1b and the alternative splice variant, PLCβ1a, were expressed in mouse hearts using adeno-associated viral constructs (rAAV6-FLAG-PLCβ1b, rAAV6-FLAG- PLCβ1a) delivered intravenously. Functional responses were assessed in vivo and confirmatory mechanistic studies were conducted in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). FLAG-PLCβ1b was expressed in all of the chambers of the mouse heart, but was highest in left ventricle, where expression was observed in ,90% of the cells and was localized to the sarcolemma and T-tubules. Heightened PLCβ1b expression caused a rapid loss of contractility and down-regulation of Phospholamban expression. The loss of contractility induced by PLCβ1b was reversed by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). PLCβ1a did not affect contractile function or phospholamban expression. Mechanistic analysis ...
Wright, Michelle H., Farquhar, Michelle J., Aletrari, Mina-Olga , Ladds, Graham and Hodgkin, Matthew N.. (2008) Identification of caspase 3 motifs and critical aspartate residues in human Phospholipase D1b and Phopsholipase D2a. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.369 (No.2). pp. 478-484. ISSN 0006-291x ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A prediction of the tertiary structure of human phospholipase A2 from synovial fluid and a model of substrate binding. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Phospholipase C Phospholipase Cδ-1 Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C Identifiers Symbol PI-PLC-X Pfam PF00388 InterPro IPR000909 SMART PLCXc SCOP
Calcineurin has functions in T cell activation, activation-induced cell death (AICD), T cell tolerance, ion channel regulation, cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, sperm motility, synaptic endocytosis, and Alzheimers disease (17-20). In lymphocytes, antigen engagement of lymphocyte receptors promotes the activation of phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) (Figure 10). Activated PLC-γ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. IP3 then binds to receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum and drives Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm, which triggers opening of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels. Calcineurin is activated by binding of CaM in response to sustained increased levels of intracellular calcium (11;21). Upon calcineurin activation, it dephosphorylates members of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family, promoting their translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and subsequent induction of the ...
Complete information for PLCXD3 gene (Protein Coding), Phosphatidylinositol Specific Phospholipase C X Domain Containing 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
PubMed lists over 1,500 papers with U73122 in the abstract. The large majority use the inhibitor simply as a tool to check that some signaling pathway requires PLC. However, numerous papers report additional unexpected effects, raising question whether this agent can be used as a pharmacological tool without serious side effects. We select results from just four early papers. The initial brief announcement of U73122 from Upjohn reports that it inhibits partially purified PLC in vitro when the molar ratio of Ca2+:PI in the assay was ,2, but increased PLC activity when the molar ratio was 4-12 (Bleasdale et al., 1989). There are no data or experimental details in that book chapter. A careful study in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells and in dorsal root ganglion cells shows that U73122 blocks bradykinin-induced Ca2+ transients irreversibly with a steep dose-response curve and a half-effective dose IC50 of 200 nM for 20-min preincubations and that U73343 is without effect (Jin et al., 1994). ...
Certainly, 6 ME did not have an impact on VEGF induced phosphorylation of AKT, one of the key cascades that confer endothelial cell survival, Likewise, six ME did not have an impact on VEGF induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, a signaling cascade that mediates the induction selleck chemicalWZ4003 of endothelial cell migration by VEGF, These success, along with the truth that six ME isnt going to inhibit PLC activation, as VEGF induced calcium release in not impacted, exclude the kinase exercise of VEGFR2 KDR of becoming the target of six ME. In confirmation, six ME plainly inhibited, at 10uM concentration, the phosphorylation of MEK1 two and its downstream target ERK1 two, parts from the mitotic MAPK pathway that VEGF triggers by means of PLC activation. Numerous growth factors acti vate the ERK1 two MAPK pathway in a Ras dependent manner, Without a doubt, 6 ME inhibited also FGF2 induced phosphorylation of ERK1 2 absolutely compatible together with the undeniable fact that 6 ME inhibited also ...
1P5X: Using X-ray crystallography of the Asp55Asn mutant of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus to support the mechanistic role of Asp55 as the general base.
Plasmid TrkB Acceptor from Dr. Ryohei Yasudas lab contains the insert Phospholipase C gamma 1 and is published in Nature. 2016 Sep 28;538(7623):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature19766. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Yue, Caiping and Ku, Chun-Ying and Liu, Mingyao et al. (2000) Molecular Mechanism of the Inhibition of Phospholipase C β3 by Protein Kinase C. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275 (39). pp. 30220-30225. ISSN 0021-9258. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:YUEjbc00 ...
a receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin); activates phospholipase C signaling pathway; involved in promoting cellular transformation
Orome1 writes Many prisons and jails use SCADA systems with PLCs to open and close doors. Using original and publicly available exploits along with evaluating vulnerabilities in electronic and physical security designs, researchers discovered significant vulnerabilities in PLCs used in correctional...
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Screening of inhibitors of porcine dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in aqueous extracts from marine organisms, Pascual, Isel, Lopéz Alí, Gómez Hansel, Chappé Mae, Saroyán Angélika, Gonzalez Yamile, Cisneros Miguel, Charli Jean Louis, and Chávez María de los Ang , Enzyme Microb. Technol., Volume 40, Number {3, SI}, {360 PARK AVE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USA}, p.414-419, (2007) ...
The bacterial variant Clostridium perfringens type A produces alpha-toxin. The toxin has phospholipase C activity, and causes ... PLCZ1 phospholipase C-like: PLCL1, PLCL2 Most of the bacterial variants of phospholipase C are characterized into one of four ... Zinc-dependent phospholipase C family of bacterial enzymes EC that includes the alpha toxins of C. perfringens (also ... Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see ...
Types C and D are considered phosphodiesterases. Endothelial lipase is primarily a phospholipase. Phospholipase A2 acts on the ... Phospholipase A Phospholipase A1 - cleaves the sn-1 acyl chain (where sn refers to stereospecific numbering). Phospholipase A2 ... Phospholipase B - cleaves both sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains; this enzyme is also known as a lysophospholipase. Phospholipase C - ... Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme present in the venom of bees, blennies and viper snakes. Patatin-like phospholipase Infantile ...
There are four classes, separated according to the type of reaction they catalyze. In particular, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) ... Outer membrane phospholipase A1 Phospholipase+A1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) DeSilva ... Unlike other phospholipases such as PLA2, there is much that is unknown about PLA1 due to the lack of any efficient way to ... Phospholipase A1 (EC; systematic name: phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase) encoded by the PLA1A gene is a ...
Additional types of phospholipases include phospholipase A1, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D. ... There are atypical members of the phospholipase A2 family, such as PLA2G12B, that have no phospholipase activity with typical ... "Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (18): 13057- ... "Localization of structural elements of bee venom phospholipase A2 involved in N-type receptor binding and neurotoxicity". The ...
PLD-type activity was first reported in 1947 by Donald J. Hanahan and I.L. Chaikoff. It was not until 1975, however, that the ... Stimulation of phospholipase D is independent of activation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase ... Mammalian cells encode two isoforms of phospholipase D: PLD1 and PLD2. Phospholipase D is an important player in many ... Phosphatidyl choline Phosphatidate Choline Phospholipase cleavage sites Jenkins GM, Frohman MA (October 2005). "Phospholipase D ...
"Bimodal regulatory effect of melittin and phospholipase A2-activating protein on human type II secretory phospholipase A2". ... Phospholipase A-2-activating protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLAA gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: PLAA phospholipase A2-activating protein". Clark MA, Ozgür LE, Conway TM, et al. (1991). "Cloning of a ... Ruiz A, Nadal M, Puig S, Estivill X (1999). "Cloning of the human phospholipase A2 activating protein (hPLAP) gene on the ...
One example is the α toxin of C. perfringens, which causes gas gangrene; α toxin has phospholipase activity. Type III exotoxins ... toxic effectors of type VI secretion system) By tissue target type susceptible to the toxin (neurotoxins affect the nervous ... Toxins of this type include cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, Shiga toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli. Once in the ... Type I toxins bind to a receptor on the cell surface and stimulate intracellular signaling pathways. Two examples are described ...
... or zootoxin is a type of toxin produced by an animal that is actively delivered through a wound by means of a bite, sting ... The venoms of vipers and bees contain phospholipases; viper venoms often also contain trypsin-like serine proteases. ... Venoms are often complex mixtures of toxins of differing types. Toxins from venom are used to treat a wide range of medical ... Gila monster venom contains exenatide, used to treat type 2 diabetes. Solenopsins extracted from fire ant venom has ...
Type II Diabetes: the protein PED/PEA15 is often elevated in type II diabetic patients, thus enhancing PLD1 activity, and in ... October 2000). "Interaction of the type Ialpha PIPkinase with phospholipase D: a role for the local generation of ... March 1997). "Phospholipase D2, a distinct phospholipase D isoform with novel regulatory properties that provokes cytoskeletal ... April 2002). "alpha-Synuclein interacts with phospholipase D isozymes and inhibits pervanadate-induced phospholipase D ...
Sartipy P, Johansen B, Camejo G, Rosengren B, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1996). "Binding of human phospholipase A2 type II to ... Sartipy P, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1999). "Phospholipase A2 type II binds to extracellular matrix biglycan: modulation of ... The C-terminal (G3) globular domain consists of one or two Epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats, a C-type lectin domain and ... Aspberg A, Miura R, Bourdoulous S, Shimonaka M, Heinegârd D, Schachner M, Ruoslahti E, Yamaguchi Y (1997). "The C-type lectin ...
180 Kd secretory phospholipase A2 receptor; DEC-205 receptor; 72 Kd and 92 Kd type IV collagenase (EC; and ... Type II domains occur two times in fibronectin. Type II domains have also been found in a range of proteins including blood ... The major part of the sequence of fibronectin consists of the repetition of three types of domains, which are called type I, II ... Fibronectin type II domain is a collagen-binding protein domain. Fibronectin is a multi-domain glycoprotein, found in a soluble ...
It is hydrolyzed by sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin specific type-C phospholipases). The phosphocholine head group is released ... Children with this type rarely live beyond 18 months. Type B involves an enlarged liver and spleen, which usually occurs in the ... Of the two types involving sphingomyelinase, type A occurs in infants. It is characterized by jaundice, an enlarged liver, and ... Due to the specific types of lipids in these microdomains, lipid rafts can accumulate certain types of proteins associated with ...
These types of agents will function to lower candida species' phospholipases activities. Flucytosine (5FC) is another type of ... echinocandin are a type of non-competitive inhibitors of cell wall 1,3-b-D-glucan synthase complex mainly used to treat fungal ... Conidia is a type of simple and unicellular body that could take the form of multicellular cell with different shapes, sizes, ... Types of disease caused by C. tropicalis will vary depending on the location where the species colonizes. With an infection in ...
Phospholipase A2 is one specific type of phospholipases found in snake venom. Snake example: Okinawan habu (Trimeresurus ... For instance, phospholipases type A2 (PLA2s) from the Tunisian vipers Cerastes cerastes and Macrovipera lebetina have been ... Phospholipases Phospholipase is an enzyme that transforms the phospholipid molecule into a lysophospholipid (soap) → the new ... Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and ...
have virulence factors such as extracellular enzymes, type III secretion systems, and phospholipases. Dickeya spp. have cell ... can attack the host, the type III secretion system can code for hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes. In some ... Media related to Dickeya solani at Wikimedia Commons Type strain of Dickeya solani at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
... is a type of phospholipase that acts upon lecithin. It can be produced by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus ...
Dennis EA (Jun 1994). "Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G4A phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)". Sheridan AM, Force T, Yoon HJ, O'Leary E, ... 1995). "Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene in human and rat: chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers". Genomics. 26 (1): ...
1996). "Binding of human phospholipase A2 type II to proteoglycans. Differential effect of glycosaminoglycans on enzyme ... Phospholipase A2, membrane associated is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G2A gene. Phospholipase A2 GRCh38: ... 1995). "The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G2A Phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)". Kramer RM, Johansen B, Hession C, Pepinsky RB ( ...
Sartipy P, Bondjers G, Hurt-Camejo E (1999). "Phospholipase A2 type II binds to extracellular matrix biglycan: modulation of ... Phospholipase A2, group 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G1B gene. Phospholipase A2 (EC catalyzes ... Dennis EA (Jun 1994). "Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2". J Biol Chem. 269 (18): 13057-60 ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G1B phospholipase A2, group IB (pancreas)". Sæle O, Nordgreen A, Olsvik PA, Hamre K (2010). "Characterisation ...
Bektas A, Hughes JN, Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Doria A (January 2001). "Type 2 diabetes locus on 12q15. Further mapping and ... "Release of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored carboxypeptidase M by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ... presence of the enzyme in alveolar type I cells". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 9 (2): 221-9. doi ...
The peptide acts better on RyR type 1 than on type 3. RyR type 2 seems to be insensitive to IpTxa. The part of the peptide that ... Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity on the large subunit. The molecular weight of the toxin is 15 kDa. Like IpTxa, IpTxi acts on ...
Beck LH, Bonegio RG, Lambeau G, Beck DM, Powell DW, Cummins TD, Klein JB, Salant DJ (July 2009). "M-type phospholipase A2 ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated. Testing for these ... the thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) system that might account for an additional 5-10% of membranous ... "Thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (24 ...
The phospholipase activity can be separated by affinity chromatography, using a phospholipid analog (PC-Sepharose). The alpha- ... Taicatoxin acts on the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels from the heart, and on the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ ... It has been seen that the 16-kDa subunit exhibits phospholipase activity, inducing a release of acyl CoA and acyl carnitine, ... Taicatoxin (TCX) is a snake toxin that blocks voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ ...
... since NAPE-PLD knockout mice have been reported to have wild-type levels or very reduced levels of anandamide. The N- ... NAPE-PLD was found to have no homology to the known phospholipase D genes, but can be classed by homology to fall into the zinc ... N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the release of N-acylethanolamine (NAE) ... NAPE-PLD is an enzyme activity - a phospholipase, acting on phospholipids found in the cell membrane. It is not homology but ...
This gene is a member of the phospholipase D family and contains two PLD phosphodiesterase domains. Mutations in this gene are ... topoisomerase I-DNA complexes by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond between the tyrosine residue of Type I ... Interthal H, Pouliot JJ, Champoux JJ (2001). "The tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase Tdp1 is a member of the phospholipase D ...
Type II, membrane-damaging toxins, destroy cell membranes in order to enter and include hemolysins and phospholipases. Type III ... These are divided into three types. Type I, cell surface-active toxins, disrupt cells without entering, and include ... However, too high of a rate of fluid infusion can be more risky; the particular type of fluid's flow rate must be closely ...
The enzyme phospholipase C produces diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate, which increases calcium ion permeability into ... Calcium ions are one type of second messengers and are responsible for many important physiological functions including muscle ... The other product of phospholipase C, diacylglycerol, activates protein kinase C, which assists in the activation of cAMP ( ... There are three basic types of secondary messenger molecules: Hydrophobic molecules: water-insoluble molecules such as ...
M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, inhibition of voltage-gated ... Like the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptor, M5 receptors are coupled with G proteins of class Gq that upregulate phospholipase C ... In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter, and the receptor is of the nicotinic type. The somatic ... Muscarinic receptors vary in the G protein to which they are bound, with some correlation according to receptor type. G ...
The subspecies D. jamesoni kaimosae is endemic to East Africa and chiefly found in western Kenya, where its type locality is ... Unlike that of many snake species, the venom of mambas has little phospholipase A2. Although cardiotoxins have been isolated in ... In 1848, German naturalist Hermann Schlegel created the genus Dendroaspis, designating Jameson's mamba as the type species. The ... Dendrotoxins are akin to kunitz-type protease inhibitors that interact with voltage-dependent potassium channels, stimulating ...
Luquain C, Singh A, Wang L, Natarajan V, Morris AJ (October 2003). "Role of phospholipase D in agonist-stimulated ... Lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6 is an acid phosphatase enzyme that is encoded in humans by the ACP6 gene. It acts as a ... "Crystal structures and biochemical studies of human lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6". Protein & Cell. 4 (7): 548-61. ...
There are two types of ischemia: focal ischemia, which is confined to a specific region of the brain; and global ischemia, ... focal brain ischemia induce cyclooxygenase-2 in cortical neurons through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-receptors and phospholipase ... It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. Ischemia leads to alterations in ... Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ...
These types of transmission represent how generations or life stages of infected ticks are maintained. Once infected, the tick ... To escape from the phagosome, the bacteria secrete phospholipase D and hemolysin C. This causes disruption of the phagosomal ... The disease is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a type of bacterium that is primarily spread to humans by American dog ticks, ... but this type of rash occurs in only 35 to 60% of patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The rash involves the palms or ...
The elaborate structural studies of proteins from several important systems as potential drug targets such as phospholipase A2 ... "Crystal structures of a type-1 ribosome inactivating protein from Momordica balsamina in the bound and unbound states". ... "Structures and binding studies of the complexes of phospholipase A2 with five inhibitors". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ...
The capsid is non-enveloped, and composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which ... Like other parvoviruses, the VP1 unique region contains a phospholipase A(2) motif with a conserved Histidine-Aspartic acid-XXY ... "Phospholipase A2-like activity of human bocavirus VP1 unique region". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 365 ...
In many types of tissue, ATP consumption by the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases have been related to glycolysis. This was first discovered in ... Yuan Z, Cai T, Tian J, Ivanov AV, Giovannucci DR, Xie Z (September 2005). "Na/K-ATPase tethers phospholipase C and IP3 receptor ... This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and ... All mammals have four different sodium pump sub-types, or isoforms. Each has unique properties and tissue expression patterns. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to phosphorylate phospholipase ...
Eight different types of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 to mGluR8 (GRM1 to GRM8), are divided into groups I, II, and III. Receptor ... Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the ... Different types of mGluRs are distributed differently in cells. For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located ... Most recently, Group I mGluRs, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fragile X, a type of autism, and a number of studies ...
The neurotoxic component of the type A venom is referred to as canebrake toxin, and is a phospholipase A2. It is analogous to ... Type B is hemorrhagic and proteolytic, and is found consistently in the north and in parts of the southeast. Type A + B is ... Four venom patterns have been described for this species: Type A is largely neurotoxic, and is found in various parts of the ... Type C venom has none of the above components and is relatively weak. ...
... either in a non-specific fashion or only in certain types of living cells: Ricin, from castor beans Apitoxin, from honey bees T ... spider Most rattlesnakes and vipers produce phospholipase and various trypsin-like serine proteases Puff adder Necrotizing ... poison dart frog and plants producing toxins Some of the more well known types of biotoxins include: Cyanotoxins, produced by ... box jellyfish Elapid snakes The cone snail The Blue-ringed octopus Venomous fish Frogs Palythoa coral Various different types ...
TH2-type lymphocytes are activated, with an increase in T cells expressing CD25 (IL-2R), and B cells expressing CD 23, causing ... that in turn will activate the phospholipase C pathway, that will end in an increase of intracellular calcium concentrations ... The underlying cause of this type of bronchoconstriction appear to be the large volume of cool, dry air inhaled during ... During an episode of this type of bronchoconstriction, the levels of inflammatory mediators, particularly leukotrienes, ...
2012). "Circulating phospholipase-A2 activity in obstructive sleep apnea". International Journal of Pediatric ... Humans are born with four types of tonsils: the pharyngeal tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils and the lingual ...
Four types of find-me signals released from apoptotic cells have been discovered: Lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) ... The enzyme calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is most likely responsible for the apoptotic cell releasing LPC as it ...
... phospholipase D2, light chain 8 of dynein, erythrocyte anion exchanger Band 3 protein, ryanodine receptor, Cytohesin-2, and V- ... ATPase (vacuolar-type H+-ATPase). ALDOB ALDOC Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000149925 - ... "Phospholipase D2 directly interacts with aldolase via Its PH domain". Biochemistry. United States. 41 (10): 3414-21. doi: ...
... type 1 HIRIP3: encoding protein HIRA-interacting protein 3 HN1L: encoding protein Hematological and neurological expressed 1- ... encoding enzyme Group XV phospholipase A2 MC1R: melanocortin 1 receptor MCOPCT1: Microphthalmia with cataract 1 METRN: encoding ...
One type of design that does not use a dielectric to limit the current is two planar electrodes with a gas flow running between ... "Singlet-Oxygen-Induced Phospholipase A2 Inhibition: A Major Role for Interfacial Tryptophan Dioxidation". Wiley. Retrieved 2021 ... Dielectric-barrier discharges are a type of plasma source that limits the current using a dielectric that covers one or both ... Successful plasma treatment of actinic keratosis was repeated by a different group in Germany using a different type of plasma ...
Results showed no correlation between the wild-type or mutant N-ras p21's GTPase activity and transforming potential. These ... their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching through exocyst complex and phospholipase ...
Gq proteins couple to G protein-coupled receptors to activate beta-type phospholipase C (PLC-β) enzymes. PLC-β in turn ... Gq/11/14/15 proteins all activate beta-type phospholipase C (PLC-β) to signal through calcium and PKC signaling pathways. PLC-β ... 5-HT2 serotonergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Vasopressin type 1 receptors: 1A and 1B Angiotensin II receptor type 1 ... Second messenger system G protein-coupled receptor Heterotrimeric G protein Phospholipase C Calcium signaling Protein kinase C ...
C1P activate phospholipase A2 and is found, along with CK, to be a mediator of arachidonic acid released in cells in response ... Treatment of HL60 cells (a type of leukemia cell line) by a plant-derived organic compound called phorbol ester increased Sph ... See main article on G-protein coupled receptors LPA is the result of phospholipase A2 action on phosphatidic acid. The SN-1 ... The G-protein coupled receptors for the PIP2 messenger system produces two effectors, phospholipase C (PLC) and ...
The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult ... resulting in the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). PLC indirectly causes the release of calcium from the hepatocytes' ... Since glucose production in the liver has been shown to increase in type 2 diabetes patients, inhibiting the release of glucose ... Mutations in the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM) are associated with glycogen storage disease type V (GSD V, ...
... after phospholipase A2 (PLA2) action, or a two-step process, after phospholipase C and DAG lipase actions. Arachidonic acid is ... A member of the animal-type heme peroxidase family, it is also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase. The specific reaction ... The classical COX inhibitors are not selective and inhibit all types of COX. The resulting inhibition of prostaglandin and ...
1955). "Proposed use of the plenary powers to designate for the genus "Scolopendra" Linnaeus (Class Myriapoda) a type species ... The venom of certain Scolopendra species were found to contain compounds such as serotonin, haemolytic phospholipase, a ... as the type species. The genus Scolopendra contains these species: Scolopendra abnormis Lewis & Daszak, 1996 Scolopendra afer ( ... the latter was chosen to be the type species by Opinion 454 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, ...
The most common class of this type of protein is the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). GPCRs are responsible for much of the ... A combined study using phospholipases and freeze-etch electron microscopy". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 323 (2): 178-93. doi: ... In both cases, these types of cargo can be moved across the cell membrane through fusion or budding of vesicles. When a vesicle ... Certain types of very small artificial vesicle will automatically make themselves slightly asymmetric, although the mechanism ...
Upon restoration of Sec14p function in these mutant strains, the wayward lipid raft proteins localized to their wild-type ... Sec14p and its homologs, some of which exhibit activation of phospholipase D1 and B1, aid in phospholipid metabolism regulation ... transport the phospholipids PtdIns and PtdCho between membranes as well as the inhibition of phospholipase D1 and phospholipase ...
Weissman and Koe recalled that the group did not set up to produce an antidepressant of the SSRI type-in that sense their ... Lass-Flörl et al., 2003 finds it significantly inhibits phospholipase B in the fungal genus Candida, reducing virulence. ... There are both negative and positive clinical trial results for sertraline, which may be explained by the types of ... a comparative analysis by antidepressant type". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 4 (4): 238-50. doi:10.1007/BF03161207. PMC ...
These individuals have skin tumors that tend to cluster into MFT1, BSS, and/or FC types that differ form each other in their ... using enantiomeric acylamino analogues of phospholipids as potent competitive inhibitors of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 ... Nonetheless, members of a single family with CCS can manifest either a FC-, MFT1- or BSS-type pattern. Furthermore, these ...
Second is the arachidonic acid mobilization via phospholipase A2 and third is the cAMP accumulation via stimulation of ... thyroid gland and different types of immune cells. The binding of SP to the NK1 receptor has been associated with the ... One of those three well-defined, independent second messenger systems is stimulation, via phospholipase C, of phosphatidyl ...
This type of cataract reduces the path of light from reaching the eye, which interferes with your reading vision. Consumption ... As well as phospholipase A2, which in turn lessens arachidonic acid derivative genesis. When used in low doses, corticosteroids ... Topical prednisolone is a type of glucocorticoid, mainly used in the ophthalmic pathway as eye drops in numerous eye conditions ...
Using fine structural distinctions, it is possible to recognize and differentiate between the types of cell death, Acid ... There are also mitochondrial changes which include calcium overload and activation of phospholipases leading to membrane ...
... though it does occur in other habitat types. Zoologist and pharmacist Edward Blyth described the many-banded krait as a new ... Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus". Toxicon. 107 (Part ...
A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Animals * Anura ... The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ... A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated ...
Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation. IRENE ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ...
Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. VALIDATED. Organism. Homo sapiens Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; ... phospholipase A2 group IIFprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:30040 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000158786 MIM:616793; ... group IIF secretory phospholipase A2. Names. GIIF sPLA2. phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 2F. NP_001347798.1. *EC ... Knockdown of phospholipase A2, group IIF (PLA2G2F) by siRNA enhances the early stages of HIV-1 replication in HeLa-CD4 cells ...
Structure of the complex of phospholipase A2 with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- acetamide at 2.1 A resolution ... Type: Initial release. *Version 1.1: 2008-04-30. Changes: Version format compliance ... Phospholipase A2 VRV-PL-VIIIa. A. 121. Daboia russelii pulchella. Mutation(s): 0 EC: ... Phospholipase A2 as a target protein for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Crystal structure of the complex ...
U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ increases in platelets and PMN. U73122 ... By product type. New Products. InVivo Antibodies. Therapeutic Antibodies. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients. Natural Products. ... Other Phospholipase (e.g. PLA) Products. * Liproxstatin-1New. Liproxstatin-1 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 of ... Assay Type. Concentration. Incubation Time. Formulation. Activity Description. PMID. human Jurkat cells. M3XaOmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{ ...
LP172674-6Phospholipase A2 receptor IgGActive. Description. LP172674-6 Phospholipase A2 receptor Ab.IgG. The M-type ... Phospholipase A2 receptor Ab.IgG. Type. Component. Created On. 2013-02-18. LOINC FHIR® API Example - CodeSystem Request Get ... phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) stimulates the production of phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies. The PLA2R antibodies ... LOINC Code LP172674-6 Phospholipase A2 receptor IgG ...
Fabgennix Anti-Phospholipase A2 Polyclonal, Catalog # PLAP2-212-BIOTIN. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC ... cookie.CK_DISPLAY_TYPE.value:. pageContext.request.scheme:http(not used). syndicationProtocol:https. syndicationExtensionPrefix ... cookie.CK_DISPLAY_TYPE.value:. pageContext.request:[email protected] Request ...
Type C Phospholipases Medicine & Life Sciences 83% * Acetylcholinesterase Medicine & Life Sciences 82% ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. / TOUTANT, Jean‐Pierre ‐P; ROBERTS, William L.; MURRAY, Nicole R. et al. ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. European Journal of Biochemistry. 1989 Apr;180(3):503-508. doi: 10.1111/j. ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. In: European Journal of Biochemistry. 1989 ; Vol. 180, No. 3. pp. 503-508. ...
DESIGN: Phospholipase C zeta was cloned from the hamster, an important model organism for studying fertilization. Next, we used ... Phospholipase C zeta was localized in acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions of sperm. The post-acrosomal localization, which ... CONCLUSION(S): Phospholipase C zeta is localized to acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions and undergoes dynamic changes during ... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Phospholipase C zeta localization in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. RESULT ...
M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 2. 361(1):11-21 ... M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies are found in about 70% of patients who have idiopathic membranous ... One or more of these mechanisms may be seen in any one type of nephrotic syndrome. Albuminuria alone may occur or, with greater ... Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies correlate with clinical status in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc ...
Phospholipase C. Type C Phospholipases. Phosphoprotein Phosphatase. Phosphoprotein Phosphatases. Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase. ... Unpublished Works [Publication Type]. Unpublished Works. V03 - Study Characteristics. Case Reports [Publication Type]. Case ... Published Erratum [Publication Type]. Published Erratum. Retraction of Publication [Publication Type]. Retraction of ... Multicenter Study [Publication Type]. Multicenter Study. Randomized Controlled Trial [Publication Type]. Randomized Controlled ...
... of phospholipase C activation by the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type ... MacKenzie C, Lutz E, Johnson MS, Robertson DN, Holland PJ, Mitchell R. Mechanisms of phospholipase C activation by the ... The data suggest that the VPAC2 receptor may couple to phospholipase C through both Ptx-insensitive and Ptx-sensitive G ... MacKenzie, C., Lutz, E., Johnson, M. S., Robertson, D. N., Holland, P. J., & Mitchell, R. (2001). Mechanisms of phospholipase C ...
phosphatidylglycerol phospholipase Feature Type. ORF , Verified Resources. AlphaFold Protein Structure , Gene/Sequence ...
Name: phospholipase A2 receptor 1. Synonyms: PLA2-I receptor, M-type receptor, Pla2g1br ... When maintaining a live colony, heterozygous mice may be bred together, bred with wild-type siblings, or bred with C57BL/6J ...
Type. Journal article. Journal. Cell Communication and Signaling. Publisher. Springer Nature. Publication Date. 2012 ... Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ): diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology ... Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ): diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology ...
The PLA2G6 gene provides instructions for making a type of enzyme called an A2 phospholipase. Learn about this gene and related ... The PLA2G6 gene provides instructions for making a type of enzyme called an A2 phospholipase. This type of enzyme is involved ... Specifically, the A2 phospholipase produced from the PLA2G6 gene, sometimes called PLA2 group VI, helps to regulate the levels ... PLA2G6, encoding a phospholipase A2, is mutated in neurodegenerative disorders with high brain iron. Nat Genet. 2006 Jul;38(7): ...
PDB Description: agkistrotoxin, a phospholipase a2-type presynaptic neurotoxin from agkistrodon halys pallas ... Superfamily a.133.1: Phospholipase A2, PLA2 [48619] (4 families) *. Family a.133.1.2: Vertebrate phospholipase A2 [48623] (3 ... PDB Compounds: (G:) phospholipase a2. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1a2ag_:. Sequence; same for both SEQRES and ATOM records: ( ... Fold a.133: Phospholipase A2, PLA2 [48618] (1 superfamily). common core: 2 helices, disulfide-linked, and a calcium-binding ...
The wild type and the VP1u mutants with the PLA2 activity also activated TNF-α promoter and upregulated the transcription ... Although a secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) motif has been identified in the unique region of the B19V minor capsid protein VP1 ... The Determinants for the Enzyme Activity of Human Parvovirus B19 Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Its Influence on Cultured Cells ... The Determinants for the Enzyme Activity of Human Parvovirus B19 Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Its Influence on Cultured Cells ...
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a new crystal form of human secretory type IIA phospholipase A2. ... Comparison of the wild-type and the mutant structures shows that removal of the charged group from the protein core, and its ... F. pennivorans Ven5 pullulanase type I was crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor β-cyclodextrin. The crystals belong to ... Preliminary crystal data have been obtained for a new crystal form of human secretory phospholipase A2 IIA crystallized with ...
... was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2). VPL ... was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2). VPL ... Consequently, other types of antivenoms, e.g., anti-Bothrops serum and anti-Bothrops/Crotalus serum, have been inaccurately ... Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Activity. PLA2 activity was assayed essentially as described elsewhere (Carregari et al., 2013). The ...
... also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA2 receptors. N-terminal sequencing of myotoxin I revealed a different primary ... Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; group II) account for most of the muscle-tissue damage that results from envenomation by ... Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different ... Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different ...
Metabolism of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids by a mammalian phosphodiesterase of the phospholipase D type. J Biol Chem. 1983; ... Sheskim T, Hanus L, Slager J, Vogel Z, Mechoulam R. Structural requirements for binding of anandamide-type compounds to the ... Further research is needed to determine which receptor types are expressed in the different sub-populations of each immune cell ... The cannabimimetic actions of oleamide, however, cannot have been mediated though any of the known cannabinoid receptor types. ...
Pay and Contract Types * Personal Development Review * Grading and Regrading Procedure * Reward and Recognition ... The combination of insulin resistance and the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) 148M (G allele ... The combination of insulin resistance and the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) 148M (G allele ...
RESULT(S): Phospholipase C zeta-EYFP was successfully expressed in epididymal sperm when analyzed 40 days after gene transfer ... INTERVENTION(S): Phospholipase C zeta (PLCzeta), the putative mammalian egg activation factor, was fused to enhanced yellow ... Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Spermatozoa, Testis, Tissue Distribution, Type C Phospholipases ... RESULT(S): Phospholipase C zeta-EYFP was successfully expressed in epididymal sperm when analyzed 40 days after gene transfer ...
Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-δ1 regulates its enzymatic activity. Author Fujii, M., et al.. ...
Comparison of the effects of dendrimer, micelle and silver nanoparticles on phospholipase A2 structure Maria Terehova Volha ... micelle and silver nanoparticles on phospholipase A2 structure. Journal of Biotechnology, 2021, 331, pp.48-52. ⟨10.1016/j. ...
Role of Thalamic Phospholipase Cβ4 Mediated by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 1 in Inflammatory Pain Mariko Miyata, ... Genetic Disruption of Cortical Interneuron Development Causes Region- and GABA Cell Type-Specific Deficits, Epilepsy, and ...
  • The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) stimulates the production of phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies. (loinc.org)
  • The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 (VPAC2) receptor was shown to induce both [3H]inositol phosphate ([3H]InsP)and cAMP production in transfected COS7 cells and in GH3 cells where it is natively expressed. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The data suggest that the VPAC2 receptor may couple to phospholipase C through both Ptx-insensitive and Ptx-sensitive G proteins (Gq/11 and Gi/o, respectively) to generate [3H]InsP. (strath.ac.uk)
  • M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) has been identified as the major target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy in adults. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, patients with phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) epitope spreading were more frequently exposed to asbestos and organic solvents than patients without epitope spreading (32% versus 7%, P =0.02 and 74% versus 43%, P =0.02, respectively), with a dose-dependent effect. (asnjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, activation of TRPM7 by phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptor agonists caused a further increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels and augmented cell adhesion and spreading in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner (1). (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Associations between m-type phospholipase A2 receptor,human leukocyte antigen gene polymorphisms and idiopathic membranous nephropathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Cellular arachidonate-releasing function and inflammation-associated expression of group IIF secretory phospholipase A2. (nih.gov)
  • Varespladib (LY315920) is a potent and selective human non-pancreatic secretory phospholipase A2 (hnsPLA) inhibitor with IC50 of 7 nM. (selleckchem.com)
  • Secretory phospholipase A(2)-IIA and cardiovascular disease: a mendelian randomization study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are two major families of histolytic enzymes produced by Candida species: the secretory aspartyl proteinases (SAP) and phospholipases (PL). Proteinases are central virulence factors that facilitate the colonization and invasion of host tissues via degradation of physiological substrates, such as albumin, immunoglobulins and skin proteins, and inhibition of phagocytosis-inducing inflammatory reactions 4-6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca 2+ increases in platelets and PMN. (selleckchem.com)
  • Darapladib (SB-480848) is a reversible lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM. (selleckchem.com)
  • EDHF responses in these mouse arteries were inhibited by an intracellular calcium blocker, TMB-8, and the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor AACOCF(3), suggesting a role for lipid metabolites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 attenuated the response. (silverchair.com)
  • Due to their ability to emulsify, phospholipase-type enzymes have the ability to destroy animal tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. (bvsalud.org)
  • C. albicans is the most virulent species, and it has virulence factors that allow it to adhere to oral tissues, invade tissue, escape host defenses, form germ tubes and hyphae, and produce histolytic enzymes such as proteinases and phospholipases 2-3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • One such potential target is phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), a family of enzymes that has been studied extensively for over three decades. (medscape.com)
  • sPLA 2 s are a low-molecular-weight (average 14 kD) group of enzymes (16 isoforms, denoted types IA-XIV), characterized by at least six disulfide bonds, an absolute requirement for histidine in the active site and a dependence on mM Ca 2+ concentration. (medscape.com)
  • Halobetasol propionate is thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory proteins. (selleckchem.com)
  • N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the two inhibitors revealed that CgMIP-I is similar to γ-type inhibitors, which share a pattern of cysteine residues present in the Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, whereas CgMIP-II shares sequence identity with α-type inhibitors that contain carbohydrate-recognition-like domains, also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA 2 receptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Specifically, the A2 phospholipase produced from the PLA2G6 gene, sometimes called PLA2 group VI, helps to regulate the levels of a compound called phosphatidylcholine, which is abundant in the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN-) induced type-2 model colitis. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously reported that TU-100 ameliorated TNBS-induced type-1 colitis in mice via enhancement of intestinal release of ADM [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Finally, we found that running mice, as opposed to sedentary animals, showed significantly enhanced cortical expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ) protein, a signaling molecule required in the production of both AA and DHA. (cdc.gov)
  • Although serum anchor‐specific phospholipase D (PLD) cleaves the intact human erythrocyte AChE anchor, this treatment, as judged by nondenaturing electrophoresis, did not release hydrophilic AChE. (elsevier.com)
  • Varespladib (VPL) was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the types of cytokines and abnormalities in level of sTNF-R1 in serum samples from DHF coagulation may cause an increase in the patients. (who.int)
  • Phospholipase C zeta undergoes dynamic changes in its pattern of localization in sperm during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the localization of phospholipase C zeta (PLC zeta) in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DESIGN: Phospholipase C zeta was cloned from the hamster, an important model organism for studying fertilization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Phospholipase C zeta localization in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phospholipase C zeta was localized in acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions of sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION(S): Phospholipase C zeta is localized to acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions and undergoes dynamic changes during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, indicating a potential role regulating not only egg activation but other sperm functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Expression of a fluorescent recombinant form of sperm protein phospholipase C zeta in mouse epididymal sperm by in vivo gene transfer into the testis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • INTERVENTION(S): Phospholipase C zeta (PLCzeta), the putative mammalian egg activation factor, was fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), and in vivo gene transfer by electroporation was used to introduce this transgene (PLCzeta-EYFP) into mouse testis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULT(S): Phospholipase C zeta-EYFP was successfully expressed in epididymal sperm when analyzed 40 days after gene transfer and was localized to the head and midpiece regions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HIV and SIV envelope glycoproteins induce phospholipase A2 activation in human and macaque lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipases also play a role in Candida pathogenesis, as they may damage the host cell membranes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our understanding of fungal virulence factors is limit- tory aspartic protease [SAP] and phospholipase). (cdc.gov)
  • AB then compared adhesion ability, biofilm production, and where E is the number of bands common to both strains, a secretion of SAP and phospholipase B of the outbreak iso- is the number of bands unique to strain A, and b is the lates and our clinical strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Using biochemical experiments combined with the construction of deletion and overexpression mutant strains in Mycobacterium smegmatis, we found that LipGMTB is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated enzyme that displays both phospholipase and thioesterase activities. (omicsdi.org)
  • All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain. (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast to erythrocyte AChEs in other mammalian species, the human enzyme is resistant to direct cleavage by phosphatidylinositol‐specific phospholipase C (PtdIns‐specific PLC). (elsevier.com)
  • Cloning and recombinant expression of human group IIF-secreted phospholipase A(2). (nih.gov)
  • The structures of recombinant wild-type human acetylcholinesterase and of its E202Q mutant, as complexes with fasciculin-II, a `three-finger' snake neurotoxin, have been determined to 2.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. (iucr.org)
  • We previously reported that activation of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) modulates polarization of macrophages (MΦ). (jci.org)
  • Notably, a virulence factor named TesG, which is controlled by the vital quorum-sensing system and secreted by the downstream type I secretion system, can suppress the host inflammatory response and facilitate the development of chronic lung infection. (nature.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), an inflammatory enzyme expressed in atherosclerotic plaques, is a therapeutic target being assessed in trials of vascular disease prevention. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This is consistent with the possibility that not only G{alpha}q/11-responsive and G{beta}{gamma}-responsive isoforms of phospholipase C but also Ca2+-responsive forms may contribute to the overall [3H]InsP response. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Various Candida species produce proteinases and phospholipases, although in lower amounts than C. albicans 6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipase A1 and lipase preparations released fatty acids from both positions of the substrate molecule and as a result glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline was formed. (vtt.fi)
  • Isolates from the canines and their owners presented similar behavior in biochemical and phospholipase activity tests, 100% molecular sequence identities, and close proximity in the phylogenetic trees. (scirp.org)
  • A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. (nih.gov)
  • Two commercial fungal lipase preparations from Aspergillus niger and Penicillium cyclopium, two fungal phospholipases from A. niger (A1 and A2) and one phospholipase from porcine pancreas (A2, Lecitase) were compared in the hydrolysis of soybean phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • The isoelectric points, pH and temperature optima and temperature stabilities of the phospholipases in these enzyme preparations were also determined. (vtt.fi)
  • Lipase preparations which also contained phospholipase and lysophospholipase activities were more efficient than phospholipase preparations in the hydrolysis of soybean phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • Both the A2 phospholipase preparations tested produced lysophospholipids through partial selective hydrolysis of phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • Therefore, the identification of TesG in this study reveals a type I secretion apparatus of P. aeruginosa that functions during the host-pathogen interaction, and may open an avenue for the further mechanistic study of chronic respiratory diseases and the development of antibacterial therapy. (nature.com)
  • Phospholipases (e.g., phospholipase B) and proteases (e.g., he yeast Candida is the fourth most common cause of secreted aspartyl proteases [SAPs]) are two of the best- hospital-related bloodstream infections (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Although phospholipase B expression has cent of patients who have had Candida isolated from their been well studied in C. albicans (18), the relationship intravenous catheters have underlying fungemia (2), and between C. parapsilosis virulence and phospholipase phe- the case-fatality rate for catheter-related candidemia notype is unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this proposal is to identify calcium influx factor (CIF), a novel second messenger that is ubiquitously produced by all the cell types tested so far (from yeast to human), and is involved in activation of the store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway, one of the major mechanisms that determine Ca2+ homeostasis in health and disease. (grantome.com)
  • Adhesion (15) and biofilm formation (14) may assay was used to quantitate phospholipase. (cdc.gov)
  • Clofazimine (NSC-141046) is a rhimophenazine dye, originally developed for the treatment of tuberculosis, it has both antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity, postulated mechanisms of action include intercalation of clofazimine with bacterial DNA and increasing levels of cellular phospholipase A2. (selleckchem.com)
  • Enables calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • It shows phospholipase activity and interaction with type I transglutaminase. (rndsystems.com)
  • 0.2 and 0.3 v/v %) of phospholipase A(2)(PLA) enzyme-modified liquid egg albumen (LEA) on color, water activity, specific volume, textural profile analysis, and sensorial characteristics of cooked meringues for 90 days storage period at room temperature. (comu.edu.tr)
  • Intro Inositol phosphate kinases (IP3K, IPMK, ITPK1, IP5K, IP6K and PPIP5K) perform several biological procedures through their involvement inside a carefully-regulated, metabolic network that changes phospholipase C-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3 into a range of even more extremely phosphorylated cell-signaling substances [1C3]. (immune-source.com)
  • LipG a bifunctional phospholipase/thioesterase involved in mycobacterial envelope remodeling. (omicsdi.org)
  • After 200 years of research, it was determined that arginine synthesis was controlled by phospholipase D (PLD) and as a result, arginine could not be considered an essential amino acid - however it was also found that arginine levels increased in the brain of animals with mental disorders and that it had no adverse effects on fertility, cardarine dosage and timing. (profhim.kz)
  • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a consequence of autoimmune β cell destruction, but the role of lipids in this process is unknown. (jci.org)
  • We had discovered the physiological target for CIF (a specific plasma membrane bound Ca2+ independent phospholipase A2), and demonstrated its crucial role in SOCE, which was confirmed by other investigators. (grantome.com)
  • Comparison of the wild-type and the mutant structures shows that removal of the charged group from the protein core, and its substitution by a neutral isosteric moiety, does not disrupt the functional architecture of the active center. (iucr.org)
  • In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. (who.int)
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased greatly in the past few years, and an even greater increase is foreseen in the next few years [1]. (who.int)
  • Multi-ancestry genetic study of type 2 diabetes highlights the power of diverse populations for discovery and translation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM) enhancement. (hindawi.com)