Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.CarboxyhemoglobinBronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.SmokeRats, Inbred F344Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.HydrocarbonsAnthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.FiresAromatherapy: The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedKerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.WeldingDichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedToxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedRacepinephrine: A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Burn Units: Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Asbestos, Crocidolite: A lavender, acid-resistant asbestos.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.EthersRespiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Respiratory Tract DiseasesProcaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)PaintToxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.AcroleinXenon Isotopes: Stable xenon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element xenon, but differ in atomic weight. Xe-124, 126, 128-131, 134, and 136 are stable xenon isotopes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Amyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Inhalation of the pollutants produced from burning plastics have been shown to result in poor health outcomes. It is important ... Chemicals used for making some types of bottles have been shown to be detrimental to the health of humans. Inhalation of ... Rural residents of developing countries who burn plastic as a disposal method are not protected from the chemical inhalation ... This type of bottle is often BPA-Free and more commonly uses carbon (activated charcoal) filtration. UV light can also be used ...
Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... Another type of endotracheal tube has four small openings just above the inflatable cuff, which can be used for suction of the ... Many different types of tracheal tubes are available, suited for different specific applications. An endotracheal tube is a ... A tracheostomy tube is another type of tracheal tube; this 2-3-inch-long (51-76 mm) curved metal or plastic tube is inserted ...
Saudia Flight 163
All perished from smoke inhalation and not burns, which indicated that they had died long before the R2 door was opened. One ... Saudi reports stated that the crew could not get the plug-type doors to open in time. It is assumed that most passengers and ... The fire was intense enough to burn through the cabin floor, causing passengers seated in that area of the cabin to move ... The thrust lever for the number two engine (center engine) later became stuck as the fire burned through the operating cable, ...
2000 Phillips explosion
The explosion occurred at the K-Resin facility and involved a type of plastic made with butadiene. At the time of the explosion ... smoke inhalation, and cuts from debris. It took search crews five hours to locate the body of a missing employee in the rubble ... while 32 Phillips Petroleum employees and 39 subcontractors were taken to local hospitals for sustaining burns, ...
The U.S. Department of Defense claims that no human cancer of any type has been seen as a result of exposure to either natural ... Violently burning uranium droplets produce a gaseous vapor comprising about half of the uranium in their original mass. Uranyl ... According to a report issued summarizing the advice of the doctors, "Inhalation of insoluble uranium dioxide dust will lead to ... When depleted uranium munitions penetrate armor or burn, they create depleted uranium oxides in the form of dust that can be ...
Blast injury - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quaternary injuries, include flash burns, crush injuries from falling debris and inhalation injuries, which may make existing ... The type and severity of injuries caused by an explosion depends on a variety of factors including type of explosion, force of ... as well as burns of varying degrees and inhalation injuries. Injuries from more than one category are common and are referred ... Types of blast injuries. A person may suffer multiple injuries and from more than one category of blast injury. They may have ...
An opium pipe is a pipe designed for the evaporation and inhalation of opium. True opium pipes allow for the drug to be ... Pipe-bowls were typically a type of ceramic, such as blue and white porcelain. Sometimes opium pipe-bowls were carved from more ... opium began in the seventeenth century when a special pipe was developed that vaporized opium instead of burning it. The ...
Vaporizer (inhalation device)
The three main types of e-cigarettes are cigalikes, eGos, and MODs. Their use is commonly called "vaping". The user activates ... An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer which simulates the feeling of smoking, but without burning tobacco. ... Grotenhermen F (June 2001). "Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of ... or other herbs or blends for the purpose of inhalation. However, they can also be filled with a mixture of propylene glycol, ...
Acute inhalation injury
... heated smoke inhalation. It has been established that combined burn and smoke inhalation injury impairs hypoxic pulmonary ... There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... victims suffering body surface burn and smoke inhalation are the most susceptible. Thermal injury combined with inhalation ... Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced ...
This prevents wind from increasing the burn rate and temperature of the coal, and prevents ash and burning embers from being ... The foil or screen separates the coal and the tobacco, which minimizes inhalation of coal ash with the smoke and reduces the ... Also at this time, reservoirs were made of glass, pottery, or a type of gourd. Because of the unsatisfactory quality of ... Deeper water will only increase the inhalation force needed to use it. Tobacco or tobacco-free molasses are placed inside the ...
Underage smoking in Australia
There are two types of cigarettes, one being shredded or ground tobacco that is wrapped in paper, or another substance that ... The shisha is heated using charcoal that releases the flavours when burnt in the water pipe, while inhaling. The smoke as ... result of the inhalation is passed through a water basin first (often glass-based) before being inhaled and exhaled. Hookah ... Several types of cancer and infectious diseases are linked with smoking shisha. Health risks including: lung cancer, ...
Other typesEdit. From burning coalEdit. *Flue gas. *Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion ... Inhalation of NO species increases the risk of lung cancer and colorectal cancer. and inhalation of such particles may ... 5 Types *5.1 Internal-combustion engines *5.1.1 Spark-ignition and Diesel engines *188.8.131.52 Nitromethane additive ... According to the type of engine, it is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe, flue gas stack, or propelling ...
Inhalation exposure symptoms include: cough, burning sensation, sore throat, and shortness of breath. Ingestion exposure ... While other types of acids can be used, phosphorus is a nutrient used by plants, especially during flowering, making phosphoric ... Inhalation and ingestion can also have serious effects. See exposure symptoms below: Eye exposure symptoms include: pain, ... Alternatively, the P and CO off-gases can be burned with air to produce phosphorus pentoxide and carbon dioxide. A ...
Two related types of cancer of the larynx, namely squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma, are strongly associated with ... A cough is initiated by a deep inhalation through the vocal folds, followed by the elevation of the larynx and the tight ... Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a condition in which acid from the stomach irritates and burns the larynx. Similar damage can occur ... This is achieved by a deep inhalation followed by the adduction of the vocal folds. Grunting while lifting heavy objects is the ...
At higher concentrations the vapour has an odour resembling horseradish sauce and can burn the nose and throat on inhalation. ... This type of reaction is called a Riley oxidation. It is also renowned as a reagent for "allylic" oxidation, a reaction that ... It is found in only a very few burning coal dumps. SeO2 is an important reagent in organic synthesis. Oxidation of paraldehyde ... H2O Selenium dioxide is prepared by oxidation of selenium by burning in air or by reaction with nitric acid or hydrogen ...
Steam can cause burns through direct contact or by inhalation of vapors. Steam boilers also present an explosion hazard due to ... This type of piston steam engine harnesses the steam that has been used to drive a piston within the engine and uses it to ... The boiler burns fuel and then transfers the heat produced into circulating boiler water. Once the water is heated sufficiently ... Some types of steam turbine driven military vessels are long range submarines and aircraft carriers, although these ships can ...
Chemical burns follow standard burn classification and may cause extensive tissue damage. The main types of irritant and/or ... Chemical burns may occur through direct contact on body surfaces, including skin and eyes, via inhalation, and/or by ingestion ... These burns are severe enough to be life-threatening. Soldier with mustard gas burns, circa 1918. Severe skin burns with ... Additionally, chemical burns can be caused by some types of chemical weapons, e.g., vesicants such as mustard gas and Lewisite ...
A fire burning in an enclosed room with poor ventilation presents a very dangerous hazard, since it can create a build-up of ... Jan Janský is credited with the first classification of blood into the four types (A, B, AB, and O) in 1907, which remains in ... Carbon monoxide, for example, is extremely dangerous when carried to the blood via the lungs by inhalation, because carbon ... It is also found in the Bible that when the Angel of Death came around to the Hebrew house that the first-born child would not ...
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. ... If inhalation injury is suspected, early intubation may be required. This is followed by care of the burn wound itself. People ... and major burns are managed by a burn center. Historically, about half of all burns were deemed preventable. Burn prevention ... While superficial burns are typically red in color, severe burns may be pink, white or black. Burns around the mouth or singed ...
Larynx - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Two related types of cancer of the larynx, namely squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma, are strongly associated with ... Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a condition in which acid from the stomach irritates and burns the larynx. Similar damage can occur ... The soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing the airway to be (partly) blocked. ...
2009 Greek forest fires
Surviving animals may suffer from burns and smoke inhalation. Re-colonisation of burnt areas will be slow, commencing with ... After the fires of August 2009, the grazing of other types of animals in forest areas, such as sheep and cattle, was also ... About half the burnt woodlands should be able to recover because they are mature pine forests. The other half, are low in ... The burnt areas of forest appear to be unmonitored by forest patrols. There are only 49 forest guards in Attica, which means ...
Inference from carbon monoxide. Smoke is incompletely burned fuel, carbon monoxide is incompletely burned carbon, therefore it ... Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, ... Ionization chamber type smoke detectors detect particles of combustion that are invisible to the naked eye. This explains why ... Burning of hydrogen-rich fuel produces water; this results in smoke containing droplets of water vapor. In absence of other ...
British Airtours Flight 28M
He was alive, suffering only superficial burns to his hands. He was the last of 27 survivors to escape through that exit, and ... Toxic smoke and fire caused the deaths of 53 passengers and two cabin crew, 48 of them from smoke inhalation. 78 passengers and ... However, the repair did not include solution heat treatment, which was a required procedure for this type of repair. The AAIB ... Of those unable to escape, 48 died as a result of incapacitation and subsequently lethal toxic gas and smoke inhalation, some ...
Occupational hazards in dentistry
Case reports suggest a risk to dental professionals of chemical burns to the eyes as a result of sodium hypochlorite exposure. ... Takkar D, Rao A, Shenoy R, Rao A, Saranya BS (July 2015). "Evaluation of nitrous oxide inhalation sedation during inferior ... which can be calculated by considering the type and number of radiographs that will be taken by the worker. According to the ... Nitrous oxide is commonly used in dentistry as a method of conscious inhalation sedation, particularly for children. This has ...
If the radiation type is not known then it can be determined by differential measurements in the presence of electrical fields ... Examples are: radiation burns, acute radiation syndrome, chronic radiation syndrome, and radiation-induced thyroiditis. ... This can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or injection. Below are a series of examples of internal exposure. The exposure ... He published his observations concerning the burns that developed, though he misattributed them to ozone, a free radical ...
These types of situations, in combination with exposure to contaminated material, create opportunity for infection. In many ... For this reason, disease is seen in burn patients, injured persons, and injection-drug users. The infection may take clinical ... Mucormycosis is commonly contracted via inhalation of spores resulting in rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycoses but ... The species were differentiated based on the sporangiospore shape, sporangiophore type, and apophyseal shape. As well, carbon ...
... neuronal dendrites are bound by neurotransmitters which cause the cell to become permeable to a specific type of ion; the type ... Smell allows the body to recognize chemical molecules in the air through inhalation. Olfactory organs located on either side of ... These receptors conduct slow, burning, diffuse pain. The absolute threshold for touch is the minimum amount of sensation needed ... Two main types of nociceptors exist, A-fiber nociceptors and C-fiber nociceptors. A-fiber receptors are myelinated and conduct ...
Most types of oral candidiasis are painless, but a burning sensation may occur in some cases. Candidiasis can therefore ... Where it is associated with inhalation steroids (often used for treatment of asthma), erythematous candidiasis commonly appears ... The pseudomembranous type rarely causes any symptoms apart from possibly some discomfort or bad taste due to the presence of ... Signs and symptoms are dependent upon the type of oral candidiasis. Often, apart from the appearance of the lesions, there are ...
Lethal dose through inhalation typically ranges from 100 to 150 milligrams (1.5 to 2.3 grains). Inhalation of 900 ppm over a ... with most of the carbon atoms being of sp2 type and localized domains of π conjugation. ... when it burns in oxygen. ... Inhalation can lead to headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, nausea ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... making the case fatality rate among patients with inhalation anthrax 45% (5/11). The six other individuals with inhalation ... While significantly resistant to heat and radiation, endospores can be destroyed by burning or by autoclaving at a temperature ... The main types within the cell are terminal, subterminal, and centrally placed endospores. Terminal endospores are seen at the ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
In the USA, these categories are associated with insurance classification from Type I down to Type IV. Reimbursement rules ... Poor growth occurs for two reasons: the work of breathing is intense enough that calories are burned at high rates even at rest ... a higher one during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation. This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the ...
Diesel engines are lean burn engines, burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. They thus use ... TypesEdit. Diesel fuel is produced from various sources, the most common being petroleum. Other sources include biomass, animal ... Inhalation of such particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases, such as emphysema or bronchitis, or may also aggravate ... To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a ...
Burns JJ, Evans C (December 1956). "The synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the rat from D-glucuronolactone and L-gulonolactone". ... The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin. The U.S. Institute ... Yamada H, Yamada K, Waki M, Umegaki K (October 2004). "Lymphocyte and plasma vitamin C levels in type 2 diabetic patients with ... Burns JJ, Moltz A, Peyser P (December 1956). "Missing step in guinea pigs required for the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid". ...
Some types of oxygen masks have a breathing bag made of plastic or rubber attached to the mask or oxygen supply hose to store a ... The first successful creation for the oxygen mask was by Armenian born Dr. Arthur Bulbulian, in the field of facial prosthetics ... Anesthesia masks are face masks that are designed to administer anesthetic gases to a patient through inhalation. Anesthesia ... Because they seal tightly, pressure-demand-type oxygen masks are also used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers and for oxygen ...
This type of migration is normally associated with food availability. Species may also travel shorter distances over part ... Helpless chicks are termed altricial, and tend to be born small, blind, immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and ... Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups. Upon inhalation, 75% of the fresh air bypasses ... Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation. Sound production is ...
Fuel type[clarification needed] Gross MJ/l MJ/kg Gross BTU/gal. (imp) Gross BTU/gal. (U.S.) Net BTU/gal (U.S.) RON ... Hollrah, Don P.; Burns, Allen M. "MMT INCREASES OCTANE WHILE REDUCING EMISSIONS". www.ogj.com. Archived from the original on 17 ... Inhalation for intoxication. Inhaled (huffed) gasoline vapor is a common intoxicant. Users concentrate and inhale ... Most of the retail gasoline now sold in the United States contains about 10% fuel ethanol (or E10) by volume. Burning a ...
Born, D; Barron, ML (May-June 2005). "Herb use in pregnancy: what nurses should know". MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 30 (3): 201- ... Inhalation, as in aromatherapy, can be used as a treatment. ... Different types of Indonesian jamu herbal medicines held in bottles.. In Indonesia, especially among the Javanese, the jamu ... Many essential oils can burn the skin or are simply too high dose used straight; diluting them in olive oil or another food ...
Occupational hazards of human nail dust
Exposure to nail dust and the associated risk will vary with the policies and practices in place, the type of podiatry drill ... surveyed podiatrists and found that 41% of them complained of eye problems, particularly soreness, burning, itching and excess ... "Inhalation of nail dust: A podiatric hazard". In McCarthy DJ, Abramson C, Rupp MJ (eds). Infectious Diseases of the Lower ... "Inhalation of nail dust aerosols during reduction of onychomycotic toenails: I. Characterization of nail dust particles". JAPMA ...
Typical REE enriched deposits types forming in rift settings are carbonatites, and A- and M-Type granitoids. Near ... Digging for rare earths: The mines where iPhones are born , Apple - CNET News, September 26, 2012 ... through inhalation of dust/smoke particles either as an occupational hazard or due to proximity to contaminated sites such as ... types; NYF types are enriched in rare-earth minerals. Examples of rare-earth pegmatite deposits include Strange Lake in Canada ...
Normal saline will not burn or sting when applied. Saline is also used in I.V. therapy, intravenously supplying extra water to ... Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to help in other respiratory problems, specifically bronchiolitis. ... In medicine, common types of salines include: *Lactated Ringer's solution. *Acetated Ringer's solution ... Vivian McAlister, Karen E. A. Burns, Tammy Znajda, and Brian Church. "Hypertonic Saline for Peri-operative Fluid Management" ...
... with semi-confluent and confluent types of smallpox may have therapeutic issues similar to patients with extensive skin burns.[ ... Transmission occurred through inhalation of airborne Variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, or ... Hemorrhagic and flat types have the highest fatality rates. The fatality rate for flat or late hemorrhagic type smallpox is 90 ... The overall case-fatality rate for ordinary-type smallpox is about 30 percent, but varies by pock distribution: ordinary type- ...
Instrument types. A number of commonly used detection instrument types are listed below, and are used for both fixed and ... H.D. Hawks, a graduate of Columbia College, of his suffering severe hand and chest burns in an x-ray demonstration, was the ... Internal dose, due to the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive substances, can result in stochastic or deterministic effects ... Dosimeters can be worn to obtain a whole body dose and there are also specialist types that can be worn on the fingers or ...
When the coal is burned, most of these metals become concentrated in the ash (the principal exception being mercury). Coal ash ... There is little published evidence on this type of contamination largely because of restrictions placed by governments of many ... At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants can cause death by exposure via direct contact, inhalation or ... Contaminated or polluted soil directly affects human health through direct contact with soil or via inhalation of soil ...
... burning of crop residues, and sugarcane fire-cleaning). The burning of fossil fuels also contributes to carbon monoxide ... Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. Carbon monoxide is colorless, ... implicate carbon monoxide as a physiological contributor to limiting inflammation and suggest that its delivery by inhalation ... Aristotle (384-322 BC) first recorded that burning coals produced toxic fumes. An ancient method of execution was to shut the ...
Heat-not-burn tobacco products heat rather than burn tobacco to generate an aerosol that contains nicotine. ... These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of ... Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer. Levels of AGEs are dependent on the ... Eric Burns, The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco (2006), A popular history focused on the US. ...
Office for Human Research Protections
IRB, institutional review board, is a type of committee that reviews human based bio-research. Under 45 C.F.R 46, Each IRB that ... Additionally, 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had been born with congenital syphilis. A common misconception of the ... Hopkins University and its associated research facilities following the death of a participant in a hexamethonium inhalation ...
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds
Open burning of waste (backyard barrel burning) has not decreased effectively, and in the U.S. it is now the most important ... Inhalation was clearly demonstrated in Missouri in the 1970s, when waste oils were used as dust suppressant in horse arenas. ... If the dose-response is of a threshold-type or J-shape, there is little or no risk at the present concentrations. Understanding ... Uncontrolled combustion, particularly open burning of waste ("backyard barrel burning"), accidental fires, wildfires. ...
TypesEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. ... Also, higher viscosity causes foods to burn more easily during cooking. As an alternative to adding more thickener, recipes may ... or of inhalation of liquids or food particles, which can lead to aspiration pneumonia. ... these thickeners are extremely versatile and specific in function-each has a series of grades or types which behave differently ...
Treatments that succeeded in one cancer type can be tested against other types. Diagnostic tests are under development to ... It is possible that repeated burns on the same part of the body, such as those produced by kanger and kairo heaters (charcoal ... such as through inhalation) and require years of exposure to produce cancer. ... For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer, it may be used alone. For painful bone metastasis, it has ...
Different types of mesenchymal stem cells and other additives are still being researched to find the best type of cell and ... and administered it back to the person by inhalation, intravenously, or infusion into their spinal cords; the company said the ... Medicines Agency recommended approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in ... People with Type 1 diabetes lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. In recent experiments, ...
Health effects of tobacco
Burns DM (1998). "Cigar smoking: overview and current state of the science" (PDF). In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffmann D, ... Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and blood vessels. Within one minute the heart ... Kuper H, Boffetta P, Adami HO (September 2002). "Tobacco use and cancer causation: association by tumour type". Journal of ... Shanks TG, Burns DM (February 1988). "Disease Consequences of Cigar Smoking" (PDF). In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffmann D, ...
N. tabacum is sensitive to temperature, air, ground humidity and the type of land. Temperatures of 20-30 °C (68-86 °F) are best ... In fire curing, smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor permeates the leaves. This gives the leaves a distinctive smoky ... These are readily absorbed into the user's body following smoke inhalation. ... The curing method used depends on the type of tobacco and its intended use. Air-cured tobacco is sheltered from wind and sun in ...
Exposure by inhalation should not exceed 0.1 mg/m3 in an 8-hour time-weighted average (40-hour work week). Thallium will ... The chemical reactivity of the Tl-C bond is also the lowest in the group, especially for ionic compounds of the type R2TlX. ... coal-burning power plants, and metal sewers. The main source of elevated thallium concentrations in water is the leaching of ... as cutaneous absorption can exceed the absorbed dose received by inhalation at the permissible exposure limit (PEL). ...
... be corrosive to mucous membranes and cause burning sensation to the skin. Chemical burns can commonly occur whilst ... Different types of energy can be used in this procedure, with the most common being halogen, LED, or plasma arc. Use of light ... metal containing dust inhalation, or oral administration of drugs. Metals can be penetrated into the tooth causing permanent ... Amelogenesis imperfecta: The appearance of amelogenesis imperfecta depends on the type of amelogenesis, there are 14 ...
Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring...
Systemic levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma were not different from those in control patients. On ... Pulmonary levels of suPAR are elevated in burn patients with inhalation trauma, and they correlate with pulmonary inflammation ... suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma ... The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn ...
Direct delivery of low-dose 7-nitroindazole into the bronchial artery attenuates pulmonary pathophysiology after smoke...
Bronchial circulation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury. A 10 ... Acute lung injury was induced by 40% total body surface area third-degree cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation (48 breaths of ... Type: Journal Article Journal Detail: Title: Shock (Augusta, Ga.) Volume: 36 ISSN: 1540-0514 ISO Abbreviation: Shock ... ABSTRACT: Bronchial circulation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung ...
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition attenuates cardiopulmonary dysfunctions after combined burn and smoke inhalation...
Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition attenuates cardiopulmonary dysfunctions after combined burn and smoke inhalation ... is responsible for much of the injury resulting from skin burn and smoke inhalation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects ... a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from combined burn and smoke inhalation ...
Halogen inhalation-induced lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome - Zhou T, Song WF, Shang Y, Yao SL, Matalon S.
Chlorine is highly toxic by inhalation, leading to dyspnea, hypoxemia, airway obstruction, pneumonitis, pulmonary e...... ... Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news ... Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news ... Extensive burn injury causes bone collagen network alteration and growth delay related to RANK-L immunoexpression change. ...
Burns Flashcards by Elina Hovzun | Brainscape
May cause carbon monoxide poisoning; Indicated by facial burns and hoarseness - burn type ... 1/2 of the volume over first 8 hours ( begins at the time of the burn ) 1/2 over remaining 16 hrs ... Most frequent cause of death at burn scene 1. Has greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen. 2. Binds as carboxyhemoglobin 3 ... acute gastroduodenal ulcer that occurs with the stress or injury; Burn ( ulcer develops within 24 hrs) - reduced GI blood flow ...
Burn | First Degree Burn | Second Degree Burn | MedlinePlus
A burn is damage to your bodys tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Read about the ... Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by breathing smoke.. There are three types of burns:. *First-degree burns damage ... Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S. (American Burn Association) * Fire and Burn Injuries Among Children in 2018 (Safe Kids ... Chemical burn or reaction (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Minor burns - aftercare (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
Burns Attribute of Death Smoke inhalation Type of Duty Search and rescue operations ... Brown was badly burned in the subsequent flashover and died from his injuries. ... he and two other firefighters raced into the burning house in search of the children. During his search, Brown opened a bedroom ...
Art Safety · Connecticut College
Long term inhalation of sawdust can cause chronic respiratory diseases. Depending on the type of wood, short-term sawdust ... Welding - There are numerous hazards associated with welding, such as burns, eye damage from ultra violet rays and inhalation ... Depending on the type of art materials used, artists can develop the same types of occupational diseases as industrial workers ... Long-term inhalation of asbestos can cause cancer and respiratory diseases. When mixing clay dust or breaking up dry grog, use ...
Understanding a Burn Injury (MSKTC) | Phoenix Society
... how burn injuries are treated, and how burn patients can get resources and support. ... This fact sheet from Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center explains how to determine the severity of a burn injury, ... Clinicians call this an inhalation injury. This type of injury often occurs when the injured person is trapped in an enclosed ... First degree burns are the mildest type of burn. They are also called superficial burns. First degree burns damage only the ...
Physiotherapy Management for Burns Injury - PORTAL MyHEALTH
Burns are injuries to the skin caused by material which are exposed to heat, chemicals, friction, ice, electric shock or ... Inhalation injuries are divided into 3 types:. i. upper respiratory tract (larynx and vocal cord) ... Inhalation injuries refer to respiratory tract injury caused by inhalation such as smoke inhalation ... Respiratory care is very important especially for cases of inhalation injury and burns to the chest. Chest physiotherapy is ...
Questions From Pritchard and Freeman Flashcards by Craig Fitzgerald | Brainscape
What type of cylinder should be allowed to burn off before extinguishing the fire? ... The type and scale of the incident. Weather and wind direction. Drainage. Slope of ground. Ease of access for oncoming vehicles ... Type of incident. Hazards. Access and egress. Number of casualties. Emergency services. ... Inhalation. Ingestion. Chemical or heat burns. Absorption. Injection 24 What are the different types of radiation ...
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Burns.dq.notes - Daniela Quinn Burns Etiology/Pathophysiology Normal skin physiology as it relates to burns Layers of skin...
Daniela Quinn Burns. Etiology/Pathophysiology Normal skin physiology as it relates to burns. Layers of skin: Epidermis, ... Burns.dq.notes from NRN 22 at Riverside City College. ... Types of burn a. Thermal: Caused by flame, flash, scald, or ... c. Smoke and inhalation Injury : Result from inhalation of hot air or noxious chemicals. Cause damage to respiratory tract/ ... Daniela Quinn Burns. Etiology/Pathophysiology Normal skin physiology as it relates to burns. Layers of skin: Epidermis, non- ...
Chemical Inhalation Burn Lawsuit
If you have a chemical inhalation burn, you may have a lawsuit against a company. Attorney Eric Hageman helps people like you ... The size of the particles inhaled also affects the type of injury. Larger particles remain in the nasopharynx and major airways ... Effects of Chemical Inhalation Burns. Because each toxin is different, each chemical burn is unique. But there are certain ... Your chemical inhalation burn lawsuit needs to seek enough money to compensate you for all of the harm that you have suffered ...
Oahu Child Burned While Welcoming in the New Year | Davis Levin Livingston
Thermal burns. This type of burn injury is the most common type of burn seen by medical professionals. It includes any burn ... Inhalation burns. Another common injury is inhalation burns. These burns occur when individuals inhale smoke from either a ... Another common type of burn is the chemical burn. This can affect a persons eyes and skin. Usually, this type of burn is a ... Although on the skin burns, or contact burns, are thought of as most severe, an inhalation burn is actually more serious in ...
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Water bottle - Wikipedia
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Early hypoalbuminemia is associated with 28-day mortality in severely burned patients: A retrospective cohort study
Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news ... The major factor of fire deaths is due to excessive smoke inhalation. Therefore, early detection of fire is crucial in fire ... Epidemiological trends of severe burns, 2009-2019: A study in the service of burns near university hospital center "Mother ... Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news ...
NFPA Journal - U.S. Firefighter Injuries in 2014, Nov Dec 2015
... smoke or gas inhalation, which account for 3.1 percent; and burns, which account for 1.6 percent. These results were fairly ... INJURIES BY TYPE OF DUTY. The type of duty firefighters were performing when injured is divided into five categories: ... The major types of injuries that occurred during fireground operations were strains and sprains, which account for 52.6 percent ...
Burn Injury Lawsuits - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey
Our burn injury lawyers in New Jersey, Philadelphia and Pennsylvania work hard to get you maximum compensation. Call about your ... The number of burn injuries annually to receive some type of medical treatment is about 486,000. ... Roughly 3,240 people die annually from smoke or fire inhalation. These fires occurred in homes, vehicles and elsewhere. ... Your Burn Injury Lawyers. If you or someone you care about suffered a serious burn injury that should have been prevented, ...
Nitrogen Oxides | Medical Management Guidelines | Toxic Substance Portal | ATSDR
Inhalation of very high concentrations can rapidly cause burns, spasms, swelling of tissues in the throat, upper airway ... Exposure to certain chemicals can lead to Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS), a chemically- or irritant-induced type ... If the skin was in contact with liquid nitrogen oxides or their solutions, chemical burns may occur; treat as thermal burns. ... Inhalation. Nitrogen oxides (NO2, N2O4, N2O3 and N2O5) are irritating to the upper respiratory tract and lungs even at low ...
Upper airway mucus deposition in lung tissue of burn trauma victims
... in lung autopsy tissues of burn-only injury and in victims of S + B injury. We … ... Previous study in an ovine model of smoke inhalation and burn (S + B) injury has shown distal migration of upper airway mucus. ... Previous study in an ovine model of smoke inhalation and burn (S + B) injury has shown distal migration of upper airway mucus. ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Adolescent * Bronchi / injuries ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
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... burns, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, coma, and death (3,4,6). Of the types of responders usually on site first, police ... Hazardous substances released during and after an event usually enter the body by inhalation and skin absorption (3); acute ... one person sustained chemical burns and was taken to a hospital emergency department. The source of the burns was not revealed ... In 33 (91.7%) of the 36 events for which the type of release was known, 19 (57.6%) involved air emissions, 10 (30.3%) involved ...
Long survival of congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia patient with NO inhalation and epoprostenol: effect of sildenafil,...
The newborn girl was born at a gestational age of 36 weeks and weighed 1926 g. One min after delivery the Apgar score was 4. Th ... Publication types * Case Reports MeSH terms * Administration, Inhalation * Bosentan * Bronchodilator Agents / administration & ... The newborn girl was born at a gestational age of 36 weeks and weighed 1926 g. One min after delivery the Apgar score was 4. ... Long survival of congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia patient with NO inhalation and epoprostenol: effect of sildenafil, ...
This Ain't Your MaMa's Monday Diner
CNN.com - Transcripts
Does smoke inhalation injuries are a bigger concern after -- I just talked to some of the doctors at the burn center. They say ... But the types of injuries theyre seeing are cardiopulmonary problems in addition to the burns, in addition to just lacerations ... Thats why when we say whats burning now? Whats burning now, Wolf, is whats going to be burning for the next century if ... I am watching my country burn to the ground. Now I have to watch Bush steal my money and give it to Mexico. What a joke." If ...
Can You Claim Damages Outside Of Employees' Compensation Insurance Due To Workplace Injuries?
InjuriesExposureIngestionLungsComplicationsFiresSmoke inhalation and burnChemical BurnsChemicalsVictimsParticlesThermal BurnsTrauma requiring mechanical vAmerican Burn AssociationExplosionsVictimRequire hospitalizationElectricalPartial ThicknessObstructiveWoundsSymptomsOxygenRespiratory tractPulmonary pathophysiologyAirway obstructionSkin graftsMechanical2016Severe burnsDustLungTissueSubstancesAcute respiratNitricScald burnThird DegreSteamMortalityPatientsFaultyCutaneousThickness burnsDiagnosisAcidsSecond DegrePlasminogen activatorOccurDegreesMeSHSeverelySuperficialEpidermisDamagesFirefightersFull thickness
- Brown was badly burned in the subsequent flashover and died from his injuries. (illinois.edu)
- What are the main causes of burn injuries? (phoenix-society.org)
- Burn injuries can happen in many ways. (phoenix-society.org)
- Burns are injuries to the skin caused by material which are exposed to heat, chemicals, friction, ice, electric shock or radiation. (myhealth.gov.my)
- If you have a chemical inhalation burn, you may have a lawsuit against the company responsible for your injuries. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- What are Chemical Inhalation Injuries? (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Chemical inhalation injuries are highly varied and completely dependent on the toxin causing the injury, the concentration inhaled, and the length of exposure. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Chemical inhalation injuries can be caused by fires and explosions. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Most inhalation injuries result in direct damage to the respiratory epithelium (tissue similar to skin). (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Unfortunately, burn injuries are a fairly common occurrence. (davislevin.com)
- Thankfully, those burn injuries are often times minor such as the incident listed above. (davislevin.com)
- Occasionally, explosions occur in a workplace environment, which leads to burn injuries, but thankfully, they are also not that common. (davislevin.com)
- Burn accidents and injuries also inflict psychological and emotional trauma on victims as well as their loved ones. (klinespecter.com)
- Nonetheless, burn injuries and their extensive treatment are serious business for medical professionals in Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and nationwide. (klinespecter.com)
- These types of injuries are excruciating, and often lead to permanent disabilities or disfigurement. (klinespecter.com)
- The number of burn injuries annually to receive some type of medical treatment is about 486,000. (klinespecter.com)
- Far too often, severe burn injuries that necessitate litigation to establish responsibility for the incident and any subsequent damages, are in fact caused by human error. (klinespecter.com)
- But that truth fails to negate the fact that a significant portion of severe burn injuries and deaths from burns are caused by negligence or carelessness. (klinespecter.com)
- The CDC has noted that deaths from fires and burns is the fifth most common cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, and the third-leading cause of fatal injuries in the home. (klinespecter.com)
- Physiological distress is almost always associated with burn injuries. (klinespecter.com)
- Acute and latent are two types of toxic chemical injuries. (blogswow.com)
- Burn injuries are serious business, but you can make a difference to someone who has suffered an injury. (bannerhealth.com)
- Direct contact with the solid or with concentrated solutions causes thermal and chemical burns leading to deep-tissue injuries. (cdc.gov)
- Burns accounted for over half of all injuries. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Most of these injuries were from burns. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Fireworks can cause painful injuries that can leave burn scars and in extreme cases, cause permanent damage or disability. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Serious burns can have injuries that last a lifetime. (johnfoy.com)
- John Foy & Associates takes burn injuries seriously. (johnfoy.com)
- What are some of the most common types of accidents that you see that involve burn injuries? (johnfoy.com)
- What are the different types of burn injuries? (johnfoy.com)
- What are some of the serious complications from burn injuries? (johnfoy.com)
- According to the American Burn Association (ABA), every year over 450,000 serious burn injuries occur in the United States that require medical treatment. (ameriburn.org)
- The ABA reported "in 2014 alone, there were 3,275 recorded deaths from fire and smoke inhalation injuries. (ameriburn.org)
- A high potential exists for burns, acute trauma, and musculoskeletal injuries. (cdc.gov)
- This module highlights the distinctive and overlapping roles and actions of practitioners from nursing, dietetics, respiratory therapy, clinical laboratory technology, occupational therapy, and physical therapy as they work together to care for Theo, an older adult who is suffering from adjustment to recent losses as well as an acute burn injury with thermal airway injuries brought on by smoke inhalation. (continuingeducation.com)
- Burn injuries are the second most common work-related injuries after fall accidents. (willenslaw.com)
- If we combine both on-the-job and off-the-job burn injuries that are reported every year, we are looking at a figure of over a million. (willenslaw.com)
- Work-related burn injuries can have serious and long-term consequences for an injured worker and may leave him or her unable to go back to work for an extended period of time. (willenslaw.com)
- Some serious burn injuries may even lead to permanent disability . (willenslaw.com)
- According to statistics, every year almost 40,000 work-related burn injuries occur in the United States . (willenslaw.com)
- An estimated 50%-80% of fire deaths are the result of smoke inhalation injuries rather than burns . (emedicinehealth.com)
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome often complicates disaster-related injuries, such as crush syndrome, thoracic trauma, hemorrhagic shock, and burns. (springer.com)
- Objective estimates of the probability of death from burn injuries. (springer.com)
- The type and severity of injuries caused by an explosion depends on a variety of factors including type of explosion, force of the explosion, environment in which the explosion occurs, and how close to the explosion the person is. (wikipedia.org)
- They may have ruptured ear drums, wounds from penetrating fragments (shrapnel), fractured legs or traumatic amputation, as well as burns of varying degrees and inhalation injuries. (wikipedia.org)
- If victims survive the blast trauma and thermal burns, they are at risk for radiation injuries. (mhmedical.com)
- Beta particles are small particles that can penetrate the superficial skin and cause mild-burn-type injuries. (mhmedical.com)
- The occurrence of burn injuries are more common then you might think in personal injury cases . (gottrouble.com)
- Given the life-changing injuries burn victims face, prosecuting such cases requires an experienced personal injury attorney who is familiar with developing life-plan studies and has a high level of medical knowledge in the treatment and recovery options available to burn victims. (gottrouble.com)
- Thousands of people annually suffer injuries in home fires in the U.S. The majority of fire-related deaths (about 70%) are caused by smoke inhalation of the toxic gases produced by fires. (rochester.edu)
- Burns are among the most painful and devastating injuries to a person. (rochester.edu)
- Burn Injuries - Deaths resulting from burn injuries usually arise from complications, not the actual burn itself. (injury-attorneys.com)
- 1 The specific types and causes of childhood injuries vary according to age and development. (bmj.com)
- An essential part of the case finding out who is responsible for the injuries you have sustained as a result of a fire and is one of the many things that the burn lawyers at Carabin Shaw will do for you. (carabinshaw.com)
- Bacterial infection causes partial thickness burns to become full thickness in many second-degree injuries. (carabinshaw.com)
- Carbon monoxide causes the most common source of fire-caused inhalation injuries by an asphyxiant. (carabinshaw.com)
- Burn injuries are associated with high personal and financial costs, 1 and acute care costs for severely injured burn patients may represent as little as 20% of the long term financial burden of burn injury. (mja.com.au)
- 2 Despite the devastating consequences of burn injuries and the complexity and resource-intensive nature of burn care, the evidence base for burn management practice is severely inadequate. (mja.com.au)
- Further, the quality of reporting in this small number of trials was poor, and it was noted that the heterogeneity of patients, injuries, interventions and outcome measures were significant impediments to conducting trials in burns patients. (mja.com.au)
- Although the vast majority of injuries do not require hospitalization, severe burns can lead to significant morbidity and death. (uptodate.com)
- Reassessment of thermal burn size and depth is important, particularly early in the management of patients with severe injuries, as the extent of injury often increases. (uptodate.com)
- The primary evaluation includes assessing for evidence of respiratory distress and smoke inhalation injury, evaluating cardiovascular status, looking for other injuries, and determining the depth and extent of burns. (uptodate.com)
- Early transfer to a burn center should be arranged when injuries meet the criteria for major burns ( table 1 ). (uptodate.com)
- He has no injuries.Jameson was treated and released for smoke inhalation and slight burns. (wlwt.com)
- Burns are one of the most harmful and is non-invasive but only detects bacteria complex physical injuries [ 2 ]. (who.int)
- The old 'first, second, and third degree' naming system is still common with the public, but doctors now use the terms partial thickness and full thickness to describe burn injuries. (quickcare.org)
- Frekhtman & Associates are New York burn injury lawyers that victims of fires and other burn injuries can turn to in their time of need. (866attylaw.com)
- Toxic or hazardous chemicals may cause fires, explosions, and severe burn injuries at work or at home. (866attylaw.com)
- This event resulted in significant damage to two Type One engines, two light duty vehicles, and minor injuries to fire personnel. (wildfiretoday.com)
- Also, in the most severe inflammation ofnoninfectious aetiology, no PCT elevations could be observed, except in severe acute pancreatitis 14 and inhalation injuries in burns 16 . (ersjournals.com)
- Damage depends on the type of gas and smoke particles inhaled and on length of exposure. (phoenix-society.org)
- The primary route of exposure to nitrogen oxides is by inhalation, but exposure by any route can cause systemic effects. (cdc.gov)
- Inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact are the basic exposure pathways. (blogswow.com)
- In February 1999, a firefighter sustained chemical burns after exposure to hydrochloric acid and ephedrine during a fire at an illicit methamphetamine laboratory in a house in a residential neighborhood. (cdc.gov)
- Frostbite burns are caused by freezing of tissues by environmental exposure. (bannerhealth.com)
- The likelihood of developing adverse effects following exposure depends on such variables as: toxin type and purity, dose, and duration of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Dermal exposure in some situations could lead to burning pain, redness, and blisters, and oral exposure may lead to vomiting and diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
- Systemic symptoms can develop with all routes of exposure (especially inhalation) and might include weakness, ataxia, hypotension, coagulopathy, and death (1). (cdc.gov)
- Thermal burns caused by exposure to heat. (willenslaw.com)
- Chemical burns caused by exposure to acidic chemicals. (willenslaw.com)
- Exposure to caustic chemicals, corrosives, and solvents can cause burns. (willenslaw.com)
- Radiation exposure that causes eye and skin burns. (willenslaw.com)
- Features Topical - Topical zinc chloride causes ulceration and burns and chronic exposure has been associated with anorexia, fatigue and weight loss. (intox.org)
- Exposure to eyes can irritate and burn or cause swelling, tearing, blurred vision, sensitivity to light and blindness. (healthfully.com)
- But minor exposure (short term, in small concentrations) to corrosive chemicals may only damage the top one or two layers of skin, causing first- or second-degree burns, many of which will heal on their own, according to the National Institutes of Health. (healthfully.com)
- The other individual plaintiffs also agreed to not sue A&B for health damages suffered as a result of cane smoke inhalation or exposure to pesticides. (mauinews.com)
- The effect that radiation will have on the body depends on the type of radiation, the amount of exposure, and the body system involved. (mhmedical.com)
- Burns from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun, or to other sources of radiation, such as X-ray. (rochester.edu)
- In fact, it only takes seconds of exposure to hot tap water to burn a young child. (rochester.edu)
- The length of exposure, type of chemical causing the damage and the concentration substance all have an effect on the severity of the injury. (carabinshaw.com)
- Injury in smoke inhalation is the result of three separate assaults: exposure to heat (thermal injury), exposure to asphyxiants, and pulmonary irritation (toxin-induced lung injury). (prolekare.cz)
- The CDC also has tips for how effective different types of masks can be , depending on your exposure. (q13fox.com)
- Second degree burns can result with only brief exposure when your skin is sensitized by these drugs. (quickcare.org)
- Several environmental factors are key determinants of the clinical consequences of acute smoke inhalation: the source of the fire and resulting combustion products, the duration of the exposure, and ventilation of the environment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Ingestion - Antimony trichloride ingestion will cause burning of the mouth and throat with retrosternal and abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. (inchem.org)
- Toxicity Zinc chloride is corrosive by ingestion and highly irritant by inhalation. (intox.org)
- Ingestion - Zinc chloride is highly corrosive and ingestion of only 10 mL of a 35 per cent solution has caused oropharyngeal and gastric burns, epigastric tenderness, pharyngeal oedema, haematemesis and melaena (Chew et al, 1986). (intox.org)
- Internal contamination, from the inhalation or ingestion of contaminated particles, may cause local tissue injury. (mhmedical.com)
- Hydrochloric acid is toxic by ingestion or inhalation and is severly corrosive to skin and eyes. (flinnsci.com)
- inhalation or ingestion of a corrosive substance can damage the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Chemicals can enter the body any number of ways inhalation, ingestion, injection and absorption. (ehstoday.com)
- Can lungs be burned? (phoenix-society.org)
- Inhaling or breathing into the lungs is inhalation. (blogswow.com)
- Inhalation of any type of smoke is bad for the body, especially the lungs. (bodyrock.tv)
- The burnt particles can form tar, which can stick to the lungs and cause all types of lung disorders & diseases, including asthma, emphysema, & cancer. (bodyrock.tv)
- The mucus may be either clear or black depending on the degree of burned particles deposited in the lungs and trachea. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Dogs that chew on these wires can sustain severe burns to the mouth, injury to the brain and lungs, and death from electrocution. (vetsecure.com)
- The active inhalation follows directly after the air has flowed out of the lungs. (adrianabreukink.com)
- The muscles of the stomach and sides stay as relaxed as possible during inhalation leaving more room for the lungs to expand. (adrianabreukink.com)
- Inhalation lasts 3 to 4 times as long as the release of the air from the lungs. (adrianabreukink.com)
- Smoke inhalation blocks oxygen from your lungs and also releases toxic chemicals into the body. (injury-attorneys.com)
- Respiratory distress syndrome type I is a decrease production of surfactant, a noncelluar chemical produced in the type II alveolar in the lungs that's primary function is to decrease the surface tensions and attraction between the type I alveolar walls. (brightkite.com)
- Dust masks actually trap large particles and don't protect your lungs from smoke inhalation, but a mask that uses a filtering respirator can offer some protection. (q13fox.com)
- Remember, even first degree burns that affect just the outer layer of the skin can cause serious complications at a later stage. (willenslaw.com)
- Confusion, fainting , seizures , and coma are all potential complications following smoke inhalation. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Respiratory complications rank as the major cause of death in burns patients. (prolekare.cz)
- Despite the frequency of pulmonary complications and abnormal lung function, most studies evaluate the immediate post-burn period (2). (prolekare.cz)
- These types of burns can have unusual complications despite mild symptoms at first. (quickcare.org)
- Scalds from hot liquids and steam, building fires and flammable liquids and gases are the most common causes of burns. (medlineplus.gov)
- Brown typically worked at the fire hydrant during fires, and was usually the last firefighter from his engine to enter a building, but as one of the first firefighters on scene, he and two other firefighters raced into the burning house in search of the children. (illinois.edu)
- In 33 (91.7%) of the 36 events for which the type of release was known, 19 (57.6%) involved air emissions, 10 (30.3%) involved fires, and seven (21.2%) involved explosions. (cdc.gov)
- The number one cause of death related to fires is smoke inhalation. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Fires and burns are a leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths among children ages 14 and younger. (rochester.edu)
- Smoke Inhalation - This is the leading cause of death due to fires. (injury-attorneys.com)
- Each year, thousands of people are injured in home fires in the U.S. Most fire-related deaths (about 70%) are caused by smoke inhalation of the toxic gases produced by fires. (uhhospitals.org)
- According to the National Interagency Fire Center, 13 large wildfires have burned more than 211 square miles in Washington state this year, while in Oregon, 10 large fires have scorched over 256 square miles the Seattle Times reported. (q13fox.com)
- The smoke could have been coming from anywhere - there were more than 60 fires burning across NSW that week. (themonthly.com.au)
- Places thought to be impervious to fire, such as rainforest and coastal swamps, were burning, and the scale of the fires was immense - at one point, the fire front was 6000 kilometres long. (themonthly.com.au)
- For example, the community of Wytaliba, in north-east NSW, had experienced two harrowing months of destructive fires, with not much left to burn, before a westerly wind one afternoon brought in a roaring canopy fire for a final bite, killing two people and destroying half of the tiny hamlet. (themonthly.com.au)
- Ceramic cookstoves in sub-Saharan Africa are proving effective at easing some health symptoms associated with inhalation of smoke and other pollutants from traditional cooking fires. (scientificamerican.com)
Smoke inhalation and burn3
- Direct delivery of low-dose 7-nitroindazole into the bronchial artery attenuates pulmonary pathophysiology after smoke inhalation and burn injury in an ovine model. (biomedsearch.com)
- Our data strongly suggest that local airway production of NO contributes to pulmonary dysfunction following smoke inhalation and burn injury. (biomedsearch.com)
- Previous study in an ovine model of smoke inhalation and burn (S + B) injury has shown distal migration of upper airway mucus. (nih.gov)
- Around 3 percent are chemical burns. (klinespecter.com)
- Acute are apparent immediately-chemical burns. (blogswow.com)
- one person sustained chemical burns and was taken to a hospital emergency department. (cdc.gov)
- Chemical burns may be caused by acids or bases often found in household cleaning agents. (bannerhealth.com)
- Chemical burns from acids and alkaloids in lab settings. (willenslaw.com)
- Chemical burns follow standard burn classification and may cause extensive tissue damage. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- The most immediate treatment for both thermal and chemical burns is to stop the burn from progressing. (quickcare.org)
- Chemical burns caused by contact with chemicals including battery acid, oils, and gases. (866attylaw.com)
- Whenever products are not labelled correctly, given a misleading warning, placed in an improper container, or when products are used improperly, they can cause chemical burns. (866attylaw.com)
- Everyday products used in a home can cause chemical burns: detergent, bleach, mix for concrete, drain cleaners, cleaners for toilet bowls or bathrooms, pool chlorinators, and household products containing lye. (866attylaw.com)
- The majority of chemical burns occur at work in industrial locales where chemicals are manufactured or during the cleaning process where chemicals are often utilized. (866attylaw.com)
- A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity , sunlight , or radiation . (medlineplus.gov)
- Result from inhalation of hot air or noxious chemicals. (coursehero.com)
- Usually, this type of burn is a result of a workplace accident where individuals were exposed to hazardous chemicals. (davislevin.com)
- When burned, they create more than 4,000 chemicals. (bodyrock.tv)
- Nearly all workers today are exposed to some sort of chemical hazard since chemicals are used in every type of industry. (ehstoday.com)
- Since nearly all burns are accidental, prevention is mostly a matter of basic safety --- avoiding extreme heat, caustic chemicals, etc. (quickcare.org)
- Inhalation burns caused by inhaling or breathing in chemicals or other dangerous or toxic substances which can cause severe lung damage. (866attylaw.com)
- Gases and particulates liberated from these burning materials often contain toxic, reactive and otherwise unhealthy chemicals that are both inhalation hazards and skin absorption hazards. (firerescue1.com)
- Comparison of clinical findings in adult and paediatric burn victims - Tiryaki C, Haksal MC. (medworm.com)
- Cause damage to respiratory tract/ major predictor of mortality in burn victims. (coursehero.com)
- At Kline & Specter, PC, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, our personal injury attorneys believe that burn victims should never have to worry about their financial security, access to medical care or their ability to cover the significant healthcare expenses related to their wounds. (klinespecter.com)
- This study examines the localization of an upper airway gland specific mucus, mucin 5B (MUC5B) in lung autopsy tissues of burn-only injury and in victims of S + B injury. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesize that victims with S + B injury would exhibit increased distal migration of MUC5B than that seen in victims of burn-only injury. (nih.gov)
- Autopsy lung tissue from victims of burn injury alone (n = 38) and combined S + B injury (n = 22) were immunostained for MUC5B. (nih.gov)
- Mucin 5B was seen in the parenchyma except in two burn victims. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, virtually all pediatric burn victims, regardless of concomitant inhalation injury, showed MUC5B in their bronchioles and parenchyma. (nih.gov)
- We're one of Atlanta's largest personal injury firms, and we've helped many burn victims over the years. (johnfoy.com)
- And because we've been in Atlanta for more than 20 years we've built strong relationships with our city's many surgeons and specialists to treat burn victims. (johnfoy.com)
- Burn victims often must live with a lot of pain, and scarring adds another dimension of emotional and physical pain, especially for female and younger clients. (johnfoy.com)
- According to the American Burn Association, in 2013 alone there were 450,000 burn victims requiring emergency treatment. (gottrouble.com)
- The treatment and prognosis of burn victims correlates with this classification. (uptodate.com)
- Bacterial colonization and invasive as extent and depth of injury, patient age, bacterial infection are still major problems associated conditions and the presence of in the treatment of burn victims. (who.int)
- Commonly employed building products have shifted from wood and organic substances to synthetics and petrochemicals, materials that burn more intensely and faster than wood and other natural products, increasing the likelihood that fire victims will inhale toxic materials in smoke before being able to escape the environment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- After the Chernobyl reactor meltdown, 10% of 237 victims exposed to radiation received thermal burns [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The size of the particles inhaled also affects the type of injury. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Aldehydes, resulting from the burning of wood, acrylics, cotton, and rubber, easily bind to small particles and penetrate deep into small airways. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Excess cancer risk due to inhalation of Lead particles (mean = 0.159 µg/m 3 ) associated with PM 10 was 0.16 × 10 −6 , which is well below the safe limit (1 × 10 −6 ) framed by the United States Environment Protection Agency. (springer.com)
- The belief is that you need much more efficient burning, with a reduction in small particles [of less than 2.5 microns] of 50 percent or more, to really observe the health benefits. (scientificamerican.com)
- For example, thermal burns often occur when individuals come into contact with fire, steam, hot surfaces or hot liquids. (davislevin.com)
- Thermal burns are usually sustained in the home. (davislevin.com)
- 6. Burns should be treated conventionally as thermal burns. (inchem.org)
- Thermal burns are caused by flame, steam, hot liquids or a hot surface. (bannerhealth.com)
- Contact burns are thermal burns where the person has come into direct contact with hot objects. (ameriburn.org)
- The initial assessment and management of the patient with moderate and severe thermal burns will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
- CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS - The American Burn Association (ABA) has classified thermal burns into minor, moderate, and major, largely based upon burn depth and size ( table 1 and table 2 and figure 1 ). (uptodate.com)
Trauma requiring mechanical v1
- The purpose of this international multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial is to determine the effect of nebulized heparin, compared to placebo, on the number of ventilator-free days at day 28, in burn patients with confirmed inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
American Burn Association5
- The American Burn Association estimates that a half million people seek medical treatment for burns each year. (johnfoy.com)
- This is why the American Burn Association has designated February 2nd, 2020 to February 8th, 2020 as National Burn Awareness Week. (ameriburn.org)
- For shareable burn prevention resources, follow the American Burn Association on Facebook , Twitter , LinkedIn , and Instagram . (ameriburn.org)
- Membership information, as well as information about National Burn Awareness Week, can be found on the American Burn Association website, www.ameriburn.org . (ameriburn.org)
- The National Burn Repository of the American Burn Association 4 and the United Kingdom National Burn Injury Database 5 are two examples. (mja.com.au)
- After a serious burn, a victim will need much more than physical care and rehabilitation. (klinespecter.com)
- What Should I Do for a Burn Victim? (bannerhealth.com)
- If the smoke inhalation victim has no signs or symptoms, home observation may be appropriate. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Punitive is an amount awarded to a burn victim as a means of punishing the person responsible. (carabinshaw.com)
- Around 4 percent are electrical burns . (klinespecter.com)
- Electrical burns are often caused by bad electrical plugs, faulty electrical wiring and lightning. (bannerhealth.com)
- Electrical burns caused by electrocution. (willenslaw.com)
- Electrical burns caused by fire in faulty wiring. (willenslaw.com)
- Electrical burns. (rochester.edu)
- Burns from electrical current, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). (rochester.edu)
- Electric shocks from appliances and electrical outlets and cords can burn the skin and cause tissue and nerve damage. (rochester.edu)
- Any electrical, steam, or inhalation burn (such as smoke, chemical, or extremely hot air or vapors) must be evaluated by a physician right away. (quickcare.org)
- Electrical burns occur when a person suffers electric shock from a faulty outlet or similar problem. (866attylaw.com)
- Differentiate the effects of internal bleeding and chest and pelvic wounds and demonstrate specific first aid steps for each type of wound. (straighterline.com)
- Aggressive resuscitation, nutritional support, thorough surgical excision of infected wounds, early wound closure, grafting and the development of effective topical and systemic chemotherapy have largely improved morbidity and mortality rates of burn patients. (who.int)
- various species of organisms from the It is important to ascertain the cause surface burn wounds were roughly pro- of the burn because this may be helpful portional to those from blood specimens or in determining burn depth. (who.int)
- Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE 2 in serum after radiation. (hindawi.com)
- What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Smoke Inhalation? (emedicinehealth.com)
- Numerous signs and symptoms of smoke inhalation may develop. (emedicinehealth.com)
- A mixture of essential oils by inhalation was used with a group of 3-4 year old children to prevent acute respiratory diseases and alleviate the symptoms of rhinitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
- And some inhalation symptoms, such as stinging eyes and runny noses, were less pronounced when the stoves were used. (scientificamerican.com)
- The symptoms and signs of smoke inhalation can be divided into general findings in inhalational injury and those attributable to specific toxins, the most common of which are carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The products being burned, the temperature of the fire, and the amount of oxygen available to the fire all make a difference in the type of smoke produced. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Smoke inhalation damages the body by simple asphyxiation (lack of oxygen), chemical irritation, chemical asphyxiation, or a combination of these. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Inhalation of sodium hydroxide dust, mist, or aerosol may cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, and respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
- Respiratory Tract Burns, Traumatic Pulmonary Contusions, Crushing Death, and Crush Syndrome: What Kinds of Lung Injury Occur by Respiratory Tract Burn, Traumatic Contusion, and Crush Syndrome? (springer.com)
- In addition, we will use these principles to examine conditions that have a tangential relationship to inhalation toxicology, such as aspiration pneumonia and the effects of cold air on the equine respiratory tract. (ivis.org)
- In the current prospective study, the utility of pretreatment PCT levels in discriminating between infectious and noninfectious lung diseases as well as between different types of lower respiratory tract infection (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) and tuberculosis (TB)) was investigated. (ersjournals.com)
- Skin grafts are thin layers of skin that surgeons take from an unburned area and then surgically place on the burned area. (phoenix-society.org)
- What are the different types of skin grafts? (phoenix-society.org)
- Autografts are permanent skin grafts that replace burned skin. (phoenix-society.org)
- Severe burns can require long periods of treatment, including rehabilitation, skin grafts, and physical therapy. (rochester.edu)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The samples were obtained on the day of inhalation trauma and on alternate days thereafter until patients were completely weaned from the mechanical ventilator. (biomedcentral.com)
- Further, we hypothesized suPAR to have a prognostic value for the duration of mechanical ventilation in burn patients with inhalation trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inhalation injury or mechanical ventilation: which is the true killer in burn patients? (springer.com)
- All patients were treated with standard fluid resuscitation (3ml/kg/%TBSA), intubation (from 1 hour to 24 hours post burn) and mechanical ventilation from 12 to 37 days. (prolekare.cz)
- According to a 2016 report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the total costs for the treatment of burns in 2010 was $1.5 billion, with another $5 billion in costs associated with lost work. (ameriburn.org)
- Throughout 2016, we will continue to work actively with DOH to adhere to the state's burn procedures, which we implement field by field, to minimize the impact to our community. (mauinews.com)
- Sodium hydroxide does not produce systemic toxicity, but is very CORROSIVE and can cause severe burns in all tissues that it comes in contact with. (cdc.gov)
- Very strong solutions of sodium hydroxide can hydrolyze proteins in the eyes, leading to severe burns and eye damage or, in extreme cases, blindness. (cdc.gov)
- Initial interventions - Assessment and initial treatment of severe burns is performed simultaneously with trauma resuscitation ( algorithm 1 ). (uptodate.com)
- And don't forget proper media blasting safety equipment to protect against dust inhalation and burns. (eastwood.com)
- The frequently found particle types were investigated for the atomic percentage contribution, which revealed vehicular exhaust, industrial emission, biomass burning, and crustal/dust re-suspension as the chief source of PM 10 . (springer.com)
- suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
- As suPAR has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation, we hypothesized levels of suPAR to be elevated in lung-lavage fluid of burn patients with inhalation trauma and to correlate with markers of inflammation and coagulopathy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, we measured levels of suPAR in nondirected lung-lavage fluid and plasma of burn patients with confirmed inhalation trauma and compared them with those in patients without burns or inhalation trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
- ABSTRACT: Bronchial circulation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury. (biomedsearch.com)
- Because an increased release of neuropeptides from the airway has been implicated in smoke inhalation injury, we hypothesized that direct delivery into the bronchial artery of low-dose 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a specific neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, would attenuate smoke/burn-induced acute lung injury. (biomedsearch.com)
- Halogen inhalation-induced lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome - Zhou T, Song WF, Shang Y, Yao SL, Matalon S. (medworm.com)
- Inhalation of toxic fumes can cause lung or airway burns. (willenslaw.com)
- Deeper burn injures may damage tissue (fat and muscle), or even bone. (phoenix-society.org)
- It can severely burn throat, stomach, nasal and skin tissue when inhaled, swallowed or spilled. (healthfully.com)
- In extreme cases, it can trigger frostbite, kill tissue or deeply ulcerated burns, the North Carolina Department of Health warns. (healthfully.com)
- Third-degree burns (which penetrate all skin layers and the tissue underneath) can cause massive, permanent damage, tissue death and scarring. (healthfully.com)
- A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- It includes any burn sustained from direct contact with burn-inducing surfaces or substances. (davislevin.com)
- Lesson 1: Types of psychoactive substances. (who.int)
- Name the types of substances street children use and the ways in which street children take them. (who.int)
- The types of psychoactive substances street children use can be many and varied and it may be difficult to determine what substances they are using. (who.int)
- Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of selective neuronal NOS inhibition on cardiopulmonary functions and cellular injury in sheep with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. (nih.gov)
- The present study provides evidence that neuronal NOS-derived nitric oxide plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. (nih.gov)
- A 10-fold increase in bronchial blood flow is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) following smoke inhalation and cutaneous burn. (biomedsearch.com)
- Neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition attenuates cardiopulmonary dysfunctions after combined burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that nitric oxide derived from the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for much of the injury resulting from skin burn and smoke inhalation. (nih.gov)
- The patient had persistent pulmonary hypertension (PH) and needed nitric oxide inhalation and i.v. epoprostenol all through her life. (nih.gov)
- Third degree burns are also called full thickness burns. (phoenix-society.org)
- Third degree burns don't heal by themselves, so skin grafting is often necessary (discussed later). (phoenix-society.org)
- Third-degree burns reach the fat layer beneath the skin. (johnfoy.com)
- Third-degree burns can destroy nerves, causing numbness. (johnfoy.com)
- With third-degree burns, a worker is often considered permanently disabled . (willenslaw.com)
- When someone is suffers third-degree burns because of someone else's negligence, that person can sue the negligent party and others who are liable under the law. (carabinshaw.com)
- Mechanically ventilated patients without burns and without pulmonary disease served as controls. (biomedcentral.com)
- Systemic levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma were not different from those in control patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- On admission and follow up, pulmonary levels of suPAR in patients with inhalation trauma were significantly higher compared with controls. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pulmonary levels of suPAR are elevated in burn patients with inhalation trauma, and they correlate with pulmonary inflammation and coagulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although pulmonary levels of suPAR may have diagnostic value in burn-injury patients, systemic levels of suPAR have prognostic value. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of suPAR in the assessment of inhalation trauma in burn patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Outpatient Burn Clinic at University of Utah Hospital provides comprehensive care for burn patients who have been recently discharged from our inpatient unit. (utah.edu)
- We also care for patients who have more mild burns and don't need to be hospitalized. (utah.edu)
- Patients are typically followed in clinic for at least one year post burn. (utah.edu)
- Lori Mickelson, RN, Program Manager for the University of Wisconsin Hospital Burn Center, reported that between July 1st, 2018 and June 30th, 2019, there were a total of 402 patients admitted to the burn center. (ameriburn.org)
- Aromatherapy massage and inhalation aromatherapy has positive effects in reducing both anxiety and pain of burn patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Patients with burn injury who fulfil pre-defined criteria are transferred to and managed in designated burn units. (mja.com.au)
- There are 17 adult and paediatric units in Australia and New Zealand that manage almost all patients with significant burn injury. (mja.com.au)
- Despite the highly centralised delivery of care to patients with severe or complex burn injury, and the relatively small number of specialist burn units, we found significant variation between units in clinical management and in outcomes. (mja.com.au)
- Based on these results, the focus of ongoing research is to improve understanding of the reasons for variations in practice and of their effect on outcomes for patients, and to develop evidence-informed clinical guidelines for burn management in Australia and New Zealand. (mja.com.au)
- Burn patients may sustain single or multisystem trauma and should be evaluated accordingly. (uptodate.com)
- We report our clinical experience with large-burn patients with inhalation injury and late complication in the 51 patients studied. (prolekare.cz)
- During this two-year period 147 patients were admitted to ICU with serious burns. (prolekare.cz)
- 51 of them had bronchoscopy-proven different types of inhalation injury, and all patients with acute inhalation injury had ventilatory support. (prolekare.cz)
- In 11 patients tracheostomy was performed between the 5th and 21st post-burn day. (prolekare.cz)
- 11 patients had severe inhalation injury diagnosed by bronchoscopy,and in all 11 patients tracheostomy was performed between the 5th and 21st post-burn day. (prolekare.cz)
- La réanimation agressive, la prise en charge nutritionnelle, l'excision chirur- gicale complète des plaies infectées, la fermeture rapide des plaies, les greffes et la mise au point d'une chimiothérapie locale et systémique efficace ont permis d'améliorer grandement le taux de morbidité et de mortalité chez les patients brûlés. (who.int)
- Second degree burns are painful. (phoenix-society.org)
- Second-degree burns affect the outer and second layer of skin (dermis). (johnfoy.com)
- Everyone knows about premature skin aging and increased cancer risks, but you may not know that second degree burns with blistering and sometimes infection and scarring are very common with sunburn. (quickcare.org)
- Below is a standard burn dressing/treatment protocol for blistering second degree burns. (quickcare.org)
- Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recent studies have shown that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play important roles in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
- These burns occur when individuals inhale smoke from either a house or vehicle fire. (davislevin.com)
- This information will help you understand how side effects, such as Thermal Burn, can occur, and what you can do about them. (patientsville.com)
- Various types of respiratory system injury can occur in a disaster setting, including traumatic thoracic injury, traumatic asphyxia, and inhalation injury. (springer.com)
- Because the Health Department's inspector finishes work at 3:30 p.m. and never works on Sundays, no cane burning will occur after 3:30 p.m. or on Sundays. (mauinews.com)
- A burn injury may occur due many different types of accidents. (866attylaw.com)
- What are the different degrees of burn injury? (phoenix-society.org)
- Sparklers, considered of the safest fireworks and given to small children burn at 1200 degrees, 300 degrees higher than what is needed to melt glass. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Compare and contrast types of burns and their effects, assess the severity of a burn, and demonstrate ways to provide first aid for various degrees and types of burns. (straighterline.com)
- First degree burns damage only the epidermis, which is the first layer of skin. (phoenix-society.org)
- This type of burn damages the epidermis and the dermis. (phoenix-society.org)
- This type of burn goes through the epidermis and dermis and affects deeper tissues, which may also be damaged or destroyed. (phoenix-society.org)
- Split-thicknes s skin graft involves removing the epidermis and a shallow layer of the dermis and then placing it on the burned area. (phoenix-society.org)
- Full-thickness skin graft involves removing the epidermis and dermis and placing it on the burned area. (phoenix-society.org)
- This minor burn affects only the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). (gottrouble.com)
- This type of burn affects both the epidermis and the second layer of skin (dermis). (gottrouble.com)
- We were aware of the one in which firefighters took refuge in a structure and suffered burns. (wildfiretoday.com)
- But it turns out that there were four burn over incidents that involved firefighters sheltering in structures or their vehicles. (wildfiretoday.com)
- Three Firefighters were transported to the Grossman Burn Center in Sherman Oaks where the Firefighters were admitted for burns and smoke inhalation. (wildfiretoday.com)