Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sulfonylurea CompoundsInsulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 126.96.36.199.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).AlloxanThiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).United StatesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.JapanTriglyceridesCoronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Wolfram Syndrome: A hereditary condition characterized by multiple symptoms including those of DIABETES INSIPIDUS; DIABETES MELLITUS; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEAFNESS. This syndrome is also known as DIDMOAD (first letter of each word) and is usually associated with VASOPRESSIN deficiency. It is caused by mutations in gene WFS1 encoding wolframin, a 100-kDa transmembrane protein.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.CreatinineAtherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic: A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Diabetic Cardiomyopathies: Diabetes complications in which VENTRICULAR REMODELING in the absence of CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS and hypertension results in cardiac dysfunctions, typically LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION. The changes also result in myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, and collagen deposition due to impaired glucose tolerance.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.ArizonaConfidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Inbred OLETF: An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Gliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.IndiaLipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Chlorpropamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. 6. HLA-DR3 and. -DR4 combined. Diabetes mellitus type 1. 15. ... for DQ2 typing to be useful, it requires either high-resolution B1*typing (resolving *02:01 from *02:02), DQA1*typing, or DR ... This typing is designated as Dw types. Serotyped DR1 has cellularly defined as either of Dw1 or of Dw20 and so on for other ... People with certain HLA antigens are more likely to develop certain autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes, ankylosing ...
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2. *Diabetes mellitus type 1. *Familial renal glucosuria ... Polyphagia in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus causes a disruption in the body's ability to transfer glucose from food into ... Polyphagia is one of the most common symptoms of diabetes mellitus. It is associated with hyperthyroidism and endocrine ... Healthline.com article "What are the 3 Ps of Diabetes?" *^ MACDONALD CRITCHLEY, PERIODIC HYPERSOMNIA AND MEGAPHAGIA IN ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (fixed a typo) *22:03, 29 July 2013 (diff , hist) . . (0) . . Herbivore (Fixed a typo→Plant ...
Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas. ... 1-86054-099-6. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i Chida, Hiroshi (27 November 2003). "Odate museum honors national dog, the Akita". ... The Japanese Akita and American Akita began to diverge in type during the Post World War II era. Helen Keller ... Mature American type males measure typically 26-28 inches (66-71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100-130 lb (45-59 kg).[ ...
... such as diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis ... to this trend was the publication of several books that demonize gluten and point to it as a cause of type 2 diabetes, weight ... CD with "non-classic symptoms" is the most common clinical type and occurs in older children (over 2 years old), adolescents ... "Type 1 diabetes mellitus and gluten induced disorders". Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench (Review). 7 (4): 189- ...
... in type 2 diabetes can be more difficult to predict because the onset of diabetes is not usually well ... is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus. It is a serious complication, affecting ... beginning immediately after a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and five years after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. ... Without intervention, 20-40 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes/microalbuminuria, will evolve to macroalbuminuria. ...
There is also Neuropathy; also associated with diabetes mellitus; type 1 and 2. Holt, Richard I. G.; Cockram, Clive; Flyvbjerg ... Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide. It also the most common cause of amputation in ... As insulin is required for glucose uptake, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus does not result in a net increase in ... However, chronic dysregulated blood glucose in diabetes is toxic to cells of the vascular endothelium which passively ...
2000). "HLA-DR and -DQ associations with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a population of Turkey". Hum. Immunol. 61 (3): ... Sang Y, Yan C, Zhu C, Ni G (2001). "Relationship between HLA-DRB1 and DQ alleles and the genetic susceptibility to type 1 ... Vieira M, Caillat-Zucman S, Gajdos P, Cohen-Kaminsky S, Casteur A, Bach J (1993). "Identification by genomic typing of non-DR3 ... DQ6.2 also appears to have a protective effect in juvenile diabetes. DQ6.2 is also protective against infantile spasms in ...
"Assessment of the role of common genetic variation in the transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) region in type 2 diabetes ... Mackay DJ, Temple IK (2010). "Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1". Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 154C (3): 335-42 ... Overexpression of HYMAI and the protein-coding gene PLAG1 causes transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1 (TNDM1). Long ... a comparative genomic and tagging single nucleotide polymorphism approach". Diabetes. 55 (8): 2272-6. doi:10.2337/db06-0216. ...
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also more common. Constipation occurs in nearly half of people with Down syndrome and may result in ... Several types of early intervention can help with cognitive development. Efforts to develop motor skills include physical ... Age-related hearing loss of the sensorineural type occurs at a much earlier age and affects 10-70% of people with Down syndrome ... This includes an increased risk of a specific type of seizure called infantile spasms. Many (15%) who live 40 years or longer ...
Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas. Hypothyroidism, also known as autoimmune ... Mature American type males measure typically 26-28 inches (66-71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100-130 lb (45-59 kg).[ ... There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the ... The Japanese Akita and American Akita began to diverge in type during the Post-World War II era. It was during ...
COMMON INFECTIONS AND UNCOMMON DISEASE: ELUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF ENTEROVIRUSES AND TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS". In Knobler, Stacey ... Roberts, BW; Cech, I (2005). "Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and seroprevalence for cytomegalovirus". Southern Medical ... Negro, F; Alaei, M (2009). "Hepatitis C virus and type 2 diabetes". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (13): 1537-47. doi: ... 2004). "Enterovirus-related type 1 diabetes mellitus and antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in Japan". Journal of ...
CD is associated with some autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, ... HLA-DQ typing has a practical advantage in that it is the only diagnostic test that allows to exclude CD when a patient is ... Eliminating the possibility of CD can generally also be done by adding HLA-DQ typing. The absence of HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 has a ... CD with "non-classic symptoms" is the most common clinical found type and occurs in older children (over 2 years old), ...
Strategies and Clinical Status in Diabetes". Current diabetes reports. 17 (7): 47. doi:10.1007/s11892-017-0877-0. PMID 28523592 ... Handorf, AM; Sollinger, HW; Alam, T (April 2015). "Insulin gene therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus". Experimental and ... In the United States in 2006, JDRF (formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation) launched a multi-year initiative to ... The artificial pancreas is a technology in development to help people with diabetes automatically control their blood glucose ...
A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes-syndrome X complex". Journal of ... A well-known example of a homeostatic failure is shown in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Here blood sugar regulation is unable to ... ISBN 978-1-60406-062-1.. *^ Schmidt-Nielsen K (1981). "Countercurrent systems in animals". Scientific American. 244 (5): 118-28 ... doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-1_3. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4.. electronic-book ISBN 978-94-007-5561-1 ISSN 1559-0836 electronic-. ...
... is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus type 1 characterized by extreme hepatomegaly due to glycogen ... Abnormally high blood sugar levels are relatively common among patients with type I diabetes, but Mauriac syndrome is rare ... The father of the boy had type 1 diabetes with abnormally high blood sugar levels and the size of his liver and his growth were ... It occurs in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes as a result of abnormally high blood sugar levels and the symptoms ...
Boari A, Papa V, Di Silverio F, Aste G, Olivero D, Rocconi F (2010). "Type 1 diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in a ... 556-. ISBN 978-1-60623-115-9. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2012. Saleh FM, Niel T, Fishman MJ ... 21 (1): 248-56. doi:10.1093/humrep/dei290. PMID 16176939. Badaru A, Wilson DM, Bachrach LK, et al. (May 2006). "Sequential ... 34 (Suppl 1): S107-10. doi:10.1007/s11259-010-9369-2. PMID 20446034. Doraiswamy PM, Xiong GL (2006). "Pharmacological ...
Chessler SD, Hampe CS, Ortqvist E, Simonson WT, Bekris L (2002). "Immune reactivity to GAD25 in type 1 diabetes mellitus". ... identified as a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes. The enzyme encoded is responsible for catalyzing the ... "Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive large neuron types in the granular layer of the human cerebellar cortex". Anat. ... 208 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1007/s00429-003-0374-x. PMID 15014985. De Luca V, Muglia P, Masellis M, Jane Dalton E, Wong GW, Kennedy ...
... and type I diabetes mellitus". N Engl J Med. 318 (16): 1012-20. doi:10.1056/NEJM198804213181602. PMID 3281011. Corsellis, JA ( ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 Ab (mGluR1) syndromes are rare and recently described associated with few cases with ... 4 times as frequently as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Among ... Associated autoimmune disease: thyroiditis 21%, type 1 diabetes mellitus 11%. Immunotherapy : Steroid, Plasmapheresis, IVIG. ...
Clinical Islet Transplant Program - University of Alberta Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) Diabetes Clinical Trials Miami ... It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Once transplanted, the islets begin to produce insulin, actively ... In a summary of the 1977 Workshop on Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation in Diabetes, Lacy commented on the feasibility of " ... Robertson R (2004). "Islet transplantation as a treatment for diabetes - a work in progress". N Engl J Med. 350 (7): 694-705. ...
... (INN, trade name Starlix) is a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nateglinide was developed by Ajinomoto, a ... diabetes mellitus. are in diabetic ketoacidosis. A study funded by Novo Nordisk, the U.S. distributor for Repaglinide, compared ... Diabetes Care, American Diabetes Association, 27 (6): 1265-1270, doi:10.2337/diacare.27.6.1265, retrieved 2014-11-20 Starlix - ... are affected with type 1 (namely insulin-dependent) ...
... cases due to a known defect are classified separately. Type 2 DM is the most common type of diabetes mellitus ... Gestational diabetes. Main article: Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several ... of women with gestational diabetes are found to have diabetes mellitus, most commonly type 2. Gestational diabetes is fully ... juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, the term "type 2 diabetes" has replaced several ...
... greater pancreatic abnormalities leading to symptoms similar to diabetes. One theory proposes that type 1 diabetes is a virus- ... The 5' untranslated region contains an internal ribosomal entry site (Type I IRES). Covalently bonded to the 5' UTR is the ... Butalia S, Kaplan GG, Khokhar B, Rabi DM (Aug 18, 2016). "Environmental Risk Factors and Type 1 Diabetes: Past, Present, and ... Green J, Casabonne D, Newton R (2004). "Coxsackie B virus serology and Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of ...
"Effects of Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (17): 1575-1585 ... Diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes can be more difficult to predict because the onset of diabetes is not usually well ... beginning immediately after a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and five years after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Medical ... "Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (24): 2545-2559. 2008-06-12. ...
Chessler SD, Hampe CS, Ortqvist E, Simonson WT, Bekris L (2002). "Immune reactivity to GAD25 in type 1 diabetes mellitus". ... identified as a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes. The enzyme encoded is responsible for catalyzing the ... "Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive large neuron types in the granular layer of the human cerebellar cortex". Anat. ... "Entrez Gene: GAD1 glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa)".. *^ Dirkx R, Thomas A, Li L, Lernmark A, Sherwin RS, De Camilli P ...
... Other names. Diabetes mellitus type 2;. adult-onset diabetes;. noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( ... "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥ 11.1. ≥ 200. ≥ 7.0. ≥ 126. ≥ 48. ≥ 6.5 The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 ...
Sixteen (64%) children were newly diagnosed as diabetes while, nine (36%) children were known cases of diabetes. The most ... Keywords: awareness; diabetic ketoacidosis; insulin; Type 1 diabetes mellitus Abstract. Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA ... Proper follow up care of diabetes and community awareness programs should be emphasized to reduce the incidence of Diabetic ... Conclusion: Majority of the patients was newly diagnosed as diabetes who presented with Diabetic ketoacidosis. Omission of ...
This distinguishes type 1s origin from type 2. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, while type 1 diabetes ... 7.5% of diabetes cases. Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥11.1 (≥200). ≥7.0 (≥126). ≥48. ≥6.5 Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent ... "Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism: Merck Manual Professional". Merck.com. ...
Type 1 diabetes is an inherited condition and individuals with a first degree relative who has the condition are at an ... www.news-medical.net/health/Diabetes-Mellitus-Type-1-Inheritance.aspx. (accessed September 21, 2019). ... www.news-medical.net/health/Diabetes-Mellitus-Type-1-Inheritance.aspx. ... www.news-medical.net/health/Diabetes-Mellitus-Type-1-Inheritance.aspx,. ...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction ... Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus * Fast Five Quiz: How Well Do You Know the Risk Factors and Treatment Indications for Type 2 ... The prevention of type I diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Ann. 1999 Sep. 28(9):585-8. [Medline]. ... Guideline] Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text] ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Grant support. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... both in diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in mice that do not develop diabetes. Here, we propose that the early ... Beneficial autoimmunity in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.. Hauben E1, Roncarolo MG, Nevo U, Schwartz M. ... The trigger that leads to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is currently unknown. It is well established that the ...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction ... type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes, and other forms of diabetes is based on patient history and characteristics, as well as on ... The prevention of type I diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Ann. 1999 Sep. 28(9):585-8. [Medline]. ... Guideline] Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text] ...
Weight Gain With Intensive Diabetes Mellitus Treatment on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Atherosclerosis in Type 1 ... Diabetes MellitusClinical PerspectiveResults From the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes ... Prediction of First Cardiovascular Disease Event in Type 1 Diabetes MellitusCLINICAL PERSPECTIVEThe Steno Type 1 Risk Engine ...
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... of the total of cases of diabetes mellitus worldwide, mainly in young people and is regarded as a growing health risk. ... Tags: Blood, Cell, Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, Drugs, Glucose, Immune System, Implants, Insulin, Nanoparticles, Transplant, ... Newer Type 2 diabetes medications could reduce kidney, heart disease risks. *Diabetic ketoacidosis linked to lower IQ scores, ... Study: Greater exercise capacity is linked to decreased mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus via the Trip Database. ... inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus - Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus First ... inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus ); } ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus via the Trip Database. ... in the ABCC8 Gene Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Repaglinide Efficacy in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ... A Variation in the ABCC8 Gene Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Repaglinide Efficacy in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes ...
The prevention of type I diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Ann. 1999 Sep. 28(9):585-8. [Medline]. ... Fast Five Quiz: How Well Do You Know the Risk Factors and Treatment Indications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? ... Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus * Contrave Boosts Weight Loss in Diabetes Patients on ... Guideline] Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text] ...
Additional factors in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus include the following: Congenital absence of the pancreas or ... Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:17-32. [Medline]. ... Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Guideline] American Diabetes Association. 12. Children and Adolescents: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. Diabetes ...
2010;2(1):46-8. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.v2i1.46. Epub 2010 Feb 8. Case Reports ... in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes following the initiation of insulin therapy, and in underweight patients on large doses of ... Insulin oedema in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.. Baş VN1, Çetinkaya S, Ağladıoğlu SY, Kendirici HN, Bilgili H, ... We describe two adolescent girls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, who presented with oedema of the lower extremities ...
... András György, Levente Kovács, Péter Szalay, Dániel A. Drexler, Balázs ... "Quasi-Model-Based Control of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus," Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID ...
... also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is one of the four classified types of this disease (type 2, gestational- ... diabetes, and other types, like genetic deflections, are the other three categories of diabetes) and is characterized by ... From an engineering point of view, the treatment of diabetes mellitus can be represented by an outer control loop, to replace ... According to the data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes mellitus is predicted to be the "disease of the ...
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Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00424333 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria ...
Type 1 Diabetes MellitusStudy to Estimate the Effects of Inhaled Versus Intravenous (IV) Infusion of Human Insulin in Subjects ... Type 1 Diabetes MellitusPositron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Mass in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetic ... Type 1 Diabetes MellitusSafety And Efficacy Of Exubera Compared With Subcutaneous Human Insulin Therapy In Children And ... Type 1 Diabetes MellitusUVA Islet Cell Transplantation in Patients With Type I Diabetes NCT00605592 ...
Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes was ... Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. What Is It?. Published: December, 2018. Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make ... Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. ... Sciatica is one of the most common, yet misunderstood, types of pain. ...
Type 1: Prevention indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Breast Milk, Sulforaphane, and Palm Oil ... This topic contains 24 study abstracts on Diabetes Mellitus: ... Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1: Prevention Related Articles. Why All ... Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2: Prevention. Additional Keywords : Beta Cell Protection, Transgenerational ... Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2, Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2: Prevention ... Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1: Prevention is a Sub of the following ...
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... formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes) results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β ... The timing of pediatric immunization and the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Infect Dis Clin Pract.1997 ;6:449-454 ... Jefferson T, Demicheli V. No evidence that vaccines cause insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Epidemiol Comm Health.1998 ;52 ... Classen8 has also hypothesized an association of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination and diabetes. However, a 10- ...
Children with Type 1 Diabetes do not make enough insulin. ... What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus? People cannot live without ... Many children with diabetes can manage their own injections by the age of ten years; some children can do it even before that. ... Children with Type 1 Diabetes do not make enough insulin.. What does insulin do?. Insulin helps glucose get into your bodys ... Good control of diabetes may prevent problems of the eyes, heart, feet, nerves or kidneys. To stay in good control, your child ...
Diabetes Mellitus & Pregnancy. Type 1 diabetes, previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile- ... onset diabetes, results from a cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the β cells of the pancreas ... Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus *Pregestational Diabetes *L Type 1 Diabetes (Insulin-Dependent) *L Type 2 ... Diabetes Mellitus & Pregnancy. *Introduction *Metabolism in Normal & Diabetic Pregnancy *Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes ...
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- In most cases, celiac disease is diagnosed after onset of type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
- Distinguishing the type of diabetes can be difficult in (1) patients who are treated with insulin and who are younger but clinically appear to have type 2 DM and (2) older patients with late-onset diabetes who nonetheless take insulin and seem to share characteristics of patients with type 1 DM. (medscape.com)
- Maturity onset diabetes of the young is different from other types of diabetes and is caused by a mutation in an autosomal dominant gene that affects insulin production. (amazonaws.com)
- Changes in Retinal Microcirculation Precede the Clinical Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (tripdatabase.com)
- Type 1 diabetes, previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, results from a cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the β cells of the pancreas. (health.am)
- Type 1 diabetes has an early age of onset with deficient insulin production. (health.am)
- Epidemiological studies suggest a link between vitamin D deficiency in early life and the later onset of type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
- The study evaluates the effect of inactivation of the immune system with chemotherapy and immunotherapy and infusion of bone marrow stem cells in early onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. (bioportfolio.com)
- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Presumably, these women could be at risk for developing type 1 diabetes, since autoantibodies against pancreatic β-cells can be present many years before the clinical onset of the disease ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus is sometimes accompanied by sudden death or cardiac arrest. (springer.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for the development of these conditions at the onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
- We analyzed the clinical data at disease onset of 17 patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus who experienced sudden death or cardiac arrest, and those of 257 patients who did not develop these conditions. (springer.com)
- Severe metabolic derangement, especially a high plasma glucose level, is associated with sudden death or cardiac arrest at the onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
- Fulminant type 1 diabetes in Korea: high prevalence among patients with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
- Investigators at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have found a therapy that reverses new onset Type 1 diabetes in mouse models Investigators at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have found. (innovationtoronto.com)
- Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase reveal latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults with a non-insulin-dependent onset of disease. (springer.com)
- A form of diabetes mellitus (OMIM:601410) defined by the onset of hyperglycaemia within the first months of life. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Type 1 diabetes (also called juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is caused by an absolute insulin deficiency, the result of a loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. (aappublications.org)
- Notably, protection conferred by CD19+IgM+ cotransfers were not dependent on the presence of Tregs, as their depletion did not affect their ability to delay onset of diabetes. (jci.org)
- Age of the CD19 + cell pool affects ability to delay diabetes onset after adoptive cotransfers. (jci.org)
- Conclusion: Though diabetic neuropathy is more common in Type 1 diabetes it usually does not manifest until long after onset of diabetes. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- High plasma levels of islet amyloid polypeptide in young with new-onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (lu.se)
- Diabetes mellitus type 1 , also known as type 1 diabetes , is a form of diabetes mellitus in which very little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
- Diabetes results from the failure of the pancreas to produce a sufficient amount of insulin. (amazonaws.com)
- To be ultimately successful as an optimal treatment for diabetes, the artificial pancreas needs to prove its safety and efficacy in long-term pivotal trials in the patient's natural environment," said principle investigator Boris Kovatchev, director of the UVA Center for Diabetes Technology. (harvard.edu)
- Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease of disordered immune function involving destruction of the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin (beta cells). (healthengine.com.au)
- Gladstone scientists reprogram skin cells into insulin-producing pancreas cells A cure for type 1 diabetes has long eluded even the top experts. (innovationtoronto.com)
- Diabetes Breakthrough Young Tunisian researcher Najib Ben Brahim of the University of Virginia, USA, developed a new artificial pancreas device which became a breakthrough discovery to cure. (innovationtoronto.com)
- Aathira R, Jain V. Advances in management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
- If you have type 1 diabetes, it's almost inevitable that you will have hyperglycemia at some point. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- The aim of this study was to assess whether cardiac functional deterioration can be detected in pediatric patients with type I DM and whether or not a relatively short duration of DM and hyperglycemia influences cardiac function. (biomedsearch.com)
- An association between hyperglycemia, diabetes, and cancer has been recognized for many years. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Epidemiologists first noted the association between diabetes and cancer in the early part of the twentieth century, while the association between hyperglycemia and cancer was reported in 1885. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Thus, some degree of hyperglycemia persists in virtually all patients who have diabetes. (aappublications.org)
- Assessment and management of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with diabetes. (medscape.com)
- Frequency and timing of severe hypoglycemia affects spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes. (medscape.com)
- Intensive insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus increases the risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia. (annals.org)
- To demonstrate that splitting the evening insulin regimen reduces the risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia in intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (annals.org)
- When the goal of insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus is near-normoglycemia, splitting the evening insulin treatment regimen into short-acting insulin at dinner and NPH insulin at bedtime reduces the risks for nocturnal hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness and decreases the hemoglobin A 1c value compared with mixing short-acting insulin and NPH insulin at dinner. (annals.org)
- Development and progression of microalbuminuria in a clinic sample of patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
- Glucose Transporters in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Cells Isolated from the Urine of Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. (amazonaws.com)
- Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. (harvard.edu)
- Karvonen M, Tuomilehto J, Libman I, et al (1993) A review of the recent epidemiological data on the worldwide incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
- 1. The erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity is significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (portlandpress.com)
- Rewers M, LaPorte RE, King H, Tuomilehto J. Trends in the prevalence and incidence of diabetes: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in childhood. (springer.com)
- Baekkeskov S, Aanstoot H-J, Christgau S, Reetz A, Solimena M, Cascalho M, Folli F, Richter-Olesen H, DeCamilli P. Identification of the 64K autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes as the GABAsynthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase [published erratum appears in Nature 1990 Oct 25;347(6295): (springer.com)
- Quantification of islet-cell antibodies and prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes. (springer.com)
- Islet-cell antibodies as predictors of the later development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. (springer.com)
- The incidence of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus among Moroccan children aged (0-19 years) in The Netherlands was determined. (tudelft.nl)
- CTLA4 gene, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, A/G polymorphism. (academicjournals.org)
- In the second phase, which occurs only in diabetes-prone individuals and strains, autoreactive T cells acquire aggressive potential and destroy the majority of the pancreatic islets. (nih.gov)
- Pancreatic volume and endocrine and exocrine functions in patients with diabetes. (medscape.com)
- Pancreatic beta-cell IL-1 expression is increased and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) expression reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Epidemiologic studies continued through the twentieth century, with reports of a link between diabetes and the development of pancreatic, endometrial, breast cancer, and hematologic malignancies. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Type 1 diabetes is caused by pancreatic β-cell destruction that leads to loss of insulin secretion and absolute insulin deficiency. (springer.com)
- BACKGROUND: The expression of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist is reduced in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high glucose concentrations induce the production of interleukin-1beta in human pancreatic beta cells, leading to impaired insulin secretion, decreased cell proliferation, and apoptosis. (uzh.ch)
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affects pancreatic beta cells. (scribd.com)
- Effects of MCF2L2, ADIPOQ and SOX2 genetic polymorphisms on the development of nephropathy in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (medscape.com)
- A research study is evaluating an investigational medication for kidney disease due to diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). (centerwatch.com)
- Type 1 diabetes is known to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease in the presence of nephropathy and hypertension. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We examined retinal vessel calibers as 16-year predictors of diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and proliferative retinopathy in a young population-based Danish cohort with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Diabetic nephropathy (DNP) is a microvascular complication that occurs in 20-40% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (ajol.info)
- These results suggest a possible role of PND gene in conferring protection from nephropathy and microvascular damage in type 1 diabetes. (asnjournals.org)
- The effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic control in children andadolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
- The Role of the Kidney in Glucose HomeostasisMaria Mota1, Eugen Mota2 and Ilie-Robert Dinu2 Department of Diabetes, Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania Department of Nephrology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania1. (amazonaws.com)
- But the awareness of the renal mechanisms of glucose control is likely to increase due to the development of new types of glucose-lowering drugs that target this metabolic pathway .2. (amazonaws.com)
- To assess metabolic control in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent immunoablation followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) as a treat. (bioportfolio.com)
- Diabetes remission and relapse after metabolic surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome defined by an inability to produce insulin , a hormone which lowers blood sugar. (healthengine.com.au)
- The metabolic syndrome in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (unboundmedicine.com)
- It was the aim of the present study to elucidate whether or not clinical findings of metabolic syndrome (MS) are further increasing cardiovascular morbidity among type 1 diabetics. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the metabolic homeostasis controlled by insulin, resulting in abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (aappublications.org)
- However, the feedback control in the healthy state that allows minute-to-minute regulation of insulin secretion cannot be recapitulated with current diabetes therapies, making full metabolic normalization not yet possible. (aappublications.org)
- Advancement in our understanding about the effects of type 1 diabetes on the heat stress response, especially during different challenges to human heat balance associated with changes in both environmental heat load and metabolic heat production (physical activity), will help us to determine where the risk of heat-illness/injury actually exists. (eurekaselect.com)
- High prevalence of capillary abnormalities in patients with diabetes and association with retinopathy. (medscape.com)
- BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adult studies have reported that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) show ultrastructural and functional myocardial deterioration. (biomedsearch.com)
- There is evidence suggesting the occurrence of neurovisual abnormalities in patients with diabetes without retinopathy. (bmj.com)
- The superior segment retardation in patients with diabetes was lower than in the control group, based on the superior integral (0.19 (SD 0.06) v 0.23 (0.04) mm 2 , p=0.03) and the superior average (71.0 (11.05) v 84.27 (10.56) μm, p=0.007) parameters. (bmj.com)
- The meaning of intraretinal differences in RNFL retardation, indicating asymmetric NFL loss, in patients with diabetes is yet not understood. (bmj.com)
- Ischaemia, reduced protein synthesis, depleted myoinositol, and high sorbitol levels have been demonstrated in patients with diabetes and may result in nerve fibre loss in peripheral nerves. (bmj.com)
- 17, 18 Recently, Chihara and Zhang 19 used a three dimensional scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to study the optic nerve topography in patients with diabetes and in normal subjects. (bmj.com)
- We found degeneration and regeneration of a few myelinated axons in controls, and a well-developed neuropathy with the loss of large myelinated axons and the presence of many small ones in patients with diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
- It is not unusual for adolescents or young adults, particularly Hispanic or African-American patients, to present with DKA and subsequently be found to have type 2 DM. (medscape.com)
- Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes autoantibodies (GAD and IA2) in Sardinian children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroiditis. (medscape.com)
- The delivery of ambulatory diabetes care to children and adolescents with diabetes. (medscape.com)
- Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
- High Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From a Five-Year Prospective Cohort Study. (medscape.com)
- Left ventricular function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Nocturnal hypertension is recognized via ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (bioportfolio.com)
- Aim This study assessed the impact of illness perceptions, emotional responses to the disease and its management, and patient characteristics on the adherence to optimal insulin pump management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (rug.nl)
- Methods From May to December 2013 and May 2015 to September 2016, we investigated 90 adolescents (50% boys), 12-18 years with type 1 diabetes. (rug.nl)
- Conclusion Adherence to insulin pump self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes declined with increasing age, illustrating the challenges of transition of self-management from parents to the adolescent patient themselves. (rug.nl)
- Many type 1 diabetics are diagnosed when they present with diabetic ketoacidosis . (wikipedia.org)
- Brittle diabetes occurs no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of diabetics. (wikipedia.org)
- FHIR And SSN based Type 1 diabetes Ontology (FASTO) is an OWL 2 ontology for real time management of insulin for diabetes patients especially type 1 diabetics. (bioontology.org)
- In the present cross-sectional study, 1,241 type 1 diabetics were included. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Among 1,241 type 1 diabetics (651 men, 590 women), 226 patients (129 men, 97 women) fulfilled the criteria of MS. The risk of MS was assessed by multiple regression analysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Diabetes resources for type 1 and type 2 diabetics. (webring.org)
- Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Andreasson R, Ekelund C, Landin-Olsson M, Nilsson C. HbA1c levels in children with type 1 diabetes and correlation to diabetic retinopathy. (medscape.com)
- 27 kg/m²) with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c 7.0 to 10.0 %) will be treated with slightly supraphysiologic doses of recombinant human leptin (Amylin Pharmaceuticals). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Monitor your blood glucose, insulin, mood, HbA1c and lots more with the only diabetes app. (diabetes.co.uk)
- Rapid-acting insulin analogues have only a minor benefit over short-acting soluble insulin in most type 1 diabetes patients (Ô 0.1% HbA1C). (slideserve.com)
- Mean age was 45±11 years, 54.1% were female, mean diabetes duration was 20.3±10.8 and mean HbA1c was 7.4±1.0. (arvojournals.org)
- Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies . (wikipedia.org)
- Serum thyroid hormone autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (thyroid.org)
- Prediction of type I diabetes in first-degree relatives using a combination of insulin, GAD, and ICA512bdc/IA-2 autoantibodies. (springer.com)
- The trigger that leads to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is currently unknown. (nih.gov)
- Further discussion and research of the functional genomics of the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes will be necessary in future studies in this field. (wikipedia.org)
- Describe the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (aappublications.org)
- Treatment with recombinant IL-1Ra improves glycemia and beta-cell function and reduces inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among 70 ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and A1C and body mass index higher than 7.5% and 27, respectively, randomly assigned to receive 13 weeks of anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1Ra, or placebo, 67 completed treatment and were included in this double-blinded 39 week follow-up study. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Recombinant insulin analogs, insulin pumps, and newer devices for home monitoring have drastically improved the ability to control glucose concentrations in patients who have diabetes. (aappublications.org)
- METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group trial involving 70 patients with type 2 diabetes, we randomly assigned 34 patients to receive 100 mg of anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist) subcutaneously once daily for 13 weeks and 36 patients to receive placebo. (uzh.ch)
- Adults with Type 1 diabetes have a higher prevalance of celiac disease associated antibodies. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Are short-acting insulin analogues more useful than regular human insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes? (cochrane.org)
- To assess the effects of short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes. (cochrane.org)
- The incidence of diabetes (including type 1) appears to be rapidly rising in many parts of the world, including Australia. (healthengine.com.au)
- The incidence of diabetes in Australian Aboriginal people is even higher. (healthengine.com.au)
- At that time, in Europe and North America life expectancy was improving, rates of over-nutrition and under-exercise were increasing, there was a rise in the percentage of people that were overweight, and the incidence of diabetes began to climb . (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Researchers will soon undertake one of the largest-ever long-term clinical trials of a system designed to help regulate blood sugar levels of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (harvard.edu)
- Identify individuals with Type 1 diabetes using clinical and laboratory parameters. (cyberounds.com)
- Furthermore, there is a lack of information about whether or not individuals with type 1 diabetes are at a thermoregulatory disadvantage during strenuous physical activity especially when performed in the heat. (eurekaselect.com)
- Purpose: This review discusses the current literature pertaining to thermoregulatory responses in individuals with type 1 diabetes. (eurekaselect.com)
- We found no published studies examining thermoregulatory responses to physical activity in the heat in individuals with type 1 diabetes. (eurekaselect.com)
- About 12 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
- Around 1 in 7 people with type 1 diabetes suffer from a condition called type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome and these individuals have parathyroid and adrenal gland disorders in addition to type 1 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
- Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D. Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies. (springer.com)
- Further investigations revealed positive Islet Cell antibodies, raised Anti GAD and IA2 antibodies-which confirmed type 1 diabetes mellitus. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Rodents and humans exhibit a physiological ripple of apoptotic beta-cell death shortly after birth, which induces an adaptive autoimmune response towards islet-antigens, both in diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in mice that do not develop diabetes. (nih.gov)
- Rabin DU, Pleasic SM, Shapiro JA, Yoo-Warren H, Oles J, Hicks JM, Goldstein DE, Rae PM. Islet cell antigen 512 is a diabetes-specific islet autoantigen related to protein tyrosine phosphatases. (springer.com)
- NHS-approved evidence-based behaviour change platform for people with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, obesity and those looking to optimise their general wellbeing. (diabetes.co.uk)
- Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are prevalent all over the world. (bioportfolio.com)
- Today, in the setting of the global diabetes and obesity epidemics, understanding the epidemiologic links between diabetes and cancer and determining the mechanisms through which these conditions are linked has become a priority for research, in order to prevent and treat cancers that are more likely to occur in those with diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Expression of caveolin-1 in human adipose tissue is upregulated in obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus and related to inflammation. (cun.es)
- The association with different inflammatory markers further suggests an implication of CAV-1 in the low-grade inflammation accompanying obesity. (cun.es)
- Children born with the HLADR3/4-DQ8 genotype make up nearly 50% of all children who develop type 1 diabetes before they are 5 years of age. (news-medical.net)
- 1 % of all live born children are born with a congenital heart defect (CHD) and currently 95% reach adulthood. (tripdatabase.com)
- Neurocognitive functioning in preschool-age children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
- Compared with children who had not received hepatitis B vaccine, the OR of diabetes was 0.51 (0.23-1.15) for children vaccinated at birth and 0.86 (0.54-1.35) for those first vaccinated against hepatitis B at 2 months of age or later. (aappublications.org)
- Ours is the first epidemiologic study to evaluate the possibility that timing of vaccination is related to risk of clinical diabetes in children. (aappublications.org)
- Children with Type 1 Diabetes do not make enough insulin. (chkd.org)
- The symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults tend to develop quickly over a few weeks or few days. (diabetes.co.uk)
- LADA tends to develop more slowly than type 1 diabetes in children and young adults and people with LADA may sometimes be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. (diabetes.co.uk)
- Point of reference was the data derived from the second nationwide incidence study on Type 1 diabetes among children under 20 years of age. (tudelft.nl)
- In that study the incidence among Dutch children was 13.2 100000-1 year-1. (tudelft.nl)
- The incidence for Moroccan children was 20.0 (95% CI 14.6-26.9) and for Turkish children 4.5 (95% CI 2.2-8.0) 100000-1 year-1. (tudelft.nl)
- It is concluded that the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Moroccan children (0-19 years) is 1.5 times higher than in Dutch children and 4.5 times higher than in Turkish children. (tudelft.nl)
- We Chosen 32 cases of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
- Forty children with T1D attending the diabetes clinic at the Alexandria University Children's Hospital with a duration of diabetes of 3 years or more were included in the study and twenty apparently normal children were taken as controls. (ajol.info)