Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
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Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An inland sea between Europe and Asia. It is connected with the Aegean Sea by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE) where the human and bovine virions have neither hemagglutinin nor neuraminidase activity. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN is the type species.
A genus of ASTROVIRIDAE infecting avian species and often involving extra-intestinal manifestations. The type species is Turkey astrovirus.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of BORDETELLA isolated from the respiratory tracts of TURKEYS and other BIRDS. It causes a highly contagious bordetellosis.
A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting turkeys.
The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A subfamily of PARAMYXOVIRIDAE containing two genera: PNEUMOVIRUS; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (1/1246)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by protein kinase C decreases catalytic activity of avian phospholipase C-beta. (2/1246)

The potential role of protein kinase C (PKC)-promoted phosphorylation has been examined in the G-protein-regulated inositol lipid signalling pathway. Incubation of [32P]Pi-labelled turkey erythrocytes with either the P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) or with PMA resulted in a marked increase in incorporation of 32P into the G-protein-activated phospholipase C PLC-betaT. Purified PLC-betaT also was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro to a stoichiometry (mean+/-S. E.M.) of 1.06+/-0.2 mol of phosphate/mol of PLC-betaT. Phosphorylation by PKC was isoenzyme-specific because, under identical conditions, mammalian PLC-beta2 also was phosphorylated to a stoichiometry near unity, whereas mammalian PLC-beta1 was not phosphorylated by PKC. The effects of PKC-promoted phosphorylation on enzyme activity were assessed by reconstituting purified PLC-betaT with turkey erythrocyte membranes devoid of endogenous PLC activity. Phosphorylation resulted in a decrease in basal activity, AlF4(-)-stimulated activity, and activity stimulated by 2MeSATP plus guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate in the reconstituted membranes. The decreases in enzyme activities were proportional to the extent of PKC-promoted phosphorylation. Catalytic activity assessed by using mixed detergent/phospholipid micelles also was decreased by up to 60% by phosphorylation. The effect of phosphorylation on Gqalpha-stimulated PLC-betaT in reconstitution experiments with purified proteins was not greater than that observed on basal activity alone. Taken together, these results illustrate that PKC phosphorylates PLC-betaT in vivo and to a physiologically relevant stoichiometry in vitro. Phosphorylation is accompanied by a concomitant loss of enzyme activity, reflected as a decrease in overall catalytic activity rather than as a specific modification of G-protein-regulated activity.  (+info)

Enhanced adhesion of Pasteurella multocida to cultured turkey peripheral blood monocytes. (3/1246)

Capsular hyaluronic acid (HA) mediates adhesion of serogroup A strains of Pasteurella multocida to elicited turkey air sac macrophages (TASM). In contrast, freshly isolated turkey peripheral blood monocytes (TPBM) do not bind serogroup A strains. Following culture of TPBM for 6 days in chamber slides, adhesion of the bacteria to TPBM increased gradually. Incubation in chamber slides coated with entactin-collagen IV-laminin (ECL) attachment matrix or exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) further enhanced the adhesion of P. multocida to TPBM. Addition of HA, but not Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, to TPBM culture inhibited bacterial adherence similarly to the inhibition previously reported for TASM. Exposure of TPBM to monoclonal antibody directed against HA-binding cell surface proteoglycan (CD44) decreased binding of P. multocida. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. multocida adhesion to TPBM is mediated by capsular HA and can be increased by culture on ECL attachment matrix or PMA exposure. Additionally, the findings suggest that the capsular mucopolysaccharide of serogroup A strains of P. multocida recognizes an isoform of CD44 expressed on cultured TPBM.  (+info)

Morphology of the epididymal region and ductus deferens of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). (4/1246)

The ductal system of the reproductive tract of the male domestic turkey was studied by gross dissection and light microscopy of paraffin and Epon embedded tissues. The succession of ductules as one passes caudally from the testis was as follows: seminiferous tubules; rete testis; ductuli efferentes; connecting ductules; ductus epididymidis; ductus deferens; receptaculum ductus deferentis; papilla ductus deferentis. Non-ciliated cells of the male tract consisted of squamous and low cuboidal cells of the rete testis, granulated columnar cells lining the ductuli efferentes and connective ductules; agranulated columnar cells which formed the epithelium of the ductus epididymidis, ductus deferens, receptaculum and papilla ductus deferentis; and basal cells which were found in increasing number from the ductuli efferentes to the papilla. The basal cells had a reduced amount of cytoplasm and stained more intensely than the other cell types. Ciliated cells were apparent in the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules, and these consistently stained lighter than the non-ciliated cells. Non-ciliated columnar cells of the ductuli efferentes and connecting ductules contained chromatophilic granules. Cytoplasmic blebbing into the ductal lumina was found associated with these non-ciliated cells as well as the agranular cells of the ductus epididymidis and deferens. Evidence obtained from this study suggests that the non-ciliated cells of the ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens have a contribution to make to the seminal plasma by apocrine secretion.  (+info)

Ca2+-dependent interaction of the inhibitory region of troponin I with acidic residues in the N-terminal domain of troponin C. (5/1246)

Ca2+ regulation of vertebrate striated muscle contraction is initiated by conformational changes in the N-terminal, regulatory domain of the Ca2+-binding protein troponin C (TnC), altering the interaction of TnC with the other subunits of troponin complex, TnI and TnT. We have investigated the role of acidic amino acid residues in the N-terminal, regulatory domain of TnC in binding to the inhibitory region (residues 96-116) of TnI. We constructed three double mutants of TnC (E53A/E54A, E60A/E61A and E85A/D86A), in which pairs of acidic amino acid residues were replaced by neutral alanines, and measured their affinities for synthetic inhibitory peptides. These peptides had the same amino acid sequence as TnI segments 95-116, 95-119 or 95-124, except that the natural Phe-100 of TnI was replaced by a tryptophan residue. Significant Ca2+-dependent increases in the affinities of the two longer peptides, but not the shortest one, to TnC could be detected by changes in Trp fluorescence. In the presence of Ca2+, all the mutant TnCs showed about the same affinity as wild-type TnC for the inhibitory peptides. In the presence of Mg2+ and EGTA, the N-terminal, regulatory Ca2+-binding sites of TnC are unoccupied. Under these conditions, the affinity of TnC(E85A/D86A) for inhibitory peptides was about half that of wild-type TnC, while the other two mutants had about the same affinity. These results imply a Ca2+-dependent change in the interaction of TnC Glu-85 and/or Asp-86 with residues (117-124) on the C-terminal side of the inhibitory region of TnI. Since Glu-85 and/or Asp-86 of TnC have also been demonstrated to be involved in Ca2+-dependent regulation through interaction with TnT, this region of TnC must be critical for troponin function.  (+info)

Enzyme kinetic characterization of the smooth muscle myosin phosphorylating system: activation by calcium and calmodulin and possible inhibitory mechanisms of antagonists. (6/1246)

A native-like smooth muscle filamentous myosin system was characterized from an enzyme kinetic point of view. The system contains endogenous myosin light chain kinase (MLCKase) and calmodulin (CM) (A. Sobieszek, J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 11 (1990) 114-124) and is, therefore, well suited for testing the action of CM-antagonists or other inhibitory compounds. However, this has not been done due to its complexity. The characterization of the system includes: (1) derivation of a relationship for rate of myosin phosphorylation in terms of total CM, free Ca2+ and total MLCKase concentrations, which includes only three binding constants; and (2) derivation of relationships between fractional inhibition rate (vi/vo) and total inhibitor concentration (It) which cover most of the inhibitory mechanisms applicable to the myosin system or to other CM-dependent enzymes. The three binding constants were subsequently evaluated from experimental data for filamentous myosin and for its isolated regulatory light chain (ReLC) using a non-linear regression software. They indicated differences in the interaction of myosin filament with the active CM-MLCKase complex in comparison to that of the isolated ReLC. The derived vi/vo versus It relationships, together with the software, make it possible to evaluate the inhibition constants and binding stoichiometries of CM-antagonists and other compounds inhibiting myosin phosphorylation. This approach was successfully applied to experimental data on inhibition of MLCKase by amiloride, cadmium, or CM-binding peptide (M-12) for simple mechanisms. For more complex mechanisms, inhibition by calmidozolium, trifluoperazine or melittin, the analysis showed that only calmidozolium acted specifically at the CM level in a multiple-site activator-depletion mechanism. Melittin and trifluoperazine inhibited the phosphorylation rate by a novel substrate-and-activator depletion mechanism, in which additional inhibition of the substrate resulted in the removal of the inhibition at lower range of the antagonists' concentration.  (+info)

Interactions of alpha- and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamines with hen and turkey lysozymes. (7/1246)

The binding constants of alpha- and beta-GlcNAc to hen and turkey lysozymes [EC 3.2.1.17] were determined at various pH's using the method proposed by Ikeda and Hamaguchi (1975) J. Biochem. 77, 1-16). The pH dependence of the binding of beta-GlcNAc to hen lysozyme was essentially the same as that for turkey lysozyme. The pH dependence curves of the binding constants of beta-GlcNAc to hen and turkey lysozymes were interpreted in terms of the participation of Glu 35 (pK 6.0), Asp 52 (pK 3.5), Asp 48 (pK 4.5), and Asp 66 (pK 1.5). The binding constants of alpha-GlcNAc to hen and turkey lysozymes were the same below pH 3.5 but were different above this pH. The main participant residues in the binding of alpha-GlcNAc were Glu 35, Asp 48, and Asp 66 for hen lysozyme and Glu 35 and Asp 66 for turkey lysozyme. The results obtained here were well explained by the following assumptions: (1) above about pH 4, alpha-GlcNAc binds to hen lysozyme in both alpha- and beta-modes, which correspond to the binding orientation of alpha-GlcNAc and that of beta-GlcNAc, respectively, as determined by X-ray crystallographic studies, but it binds predominantly in the beta-mode below about pH 4, (2) beta-GlcNAc binds to hen and turkey lysozymes predominantly in the beta-mode above about pH 4 and in both alpha- and beta-modes below pH 4, and (3) alpha-GlcNAc binds to turkey lysozyme predominantly in the beta-mode over the whole pH range studied.  (+info)

D1 and D2 dopamine receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in brain and pituitary during the reproductive cycle of the turkey hen. (8/1246)

The regulation of prolactin secretion during the reproductive cycle of seasonal breeding birds appears to be largely under the stimulatory influence of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). However, the factors influencing VIP secretion, and hence prolactin release, in birds remain largely unexplored. Recent evidence has demonstrated that dopamine and dopamine receptors may affect VIP and prolactin release in birds. The differential expression of dopamine receptors on hypothalamic VIP-releasing neurons may affect the degree of prolactinemia observed during the reproductive cycle of birds. In order to examine this hypothesis, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to quantitate the levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtype mRNAs in the brain of the domestic turkey hen during the reproductive cycle. No significant difference in hypothalamic expression of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor subtypes during the reproductive cycle was observed. However, pronounced differences in D1D and D2 mRNAs were detected in cortex and cerebellum. Interestingly, there was a dramatic increase in pituitary D1D receptor mRNA during the reproductive stages of laying and incubation of eggs, which paralleled the hyperprolactinemic state of the turkey reproductive cycle. In addition, pituitary D2 receptor mRNA steadily increased throughout the reproductive cycle. In light of these observations, a modified hypothesis regarding the effects of dopamine on prolactin secretion is discussed.  (+info)

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Ovomucin is a glycoprotein found in the egg white (albumen) of birds. It is one of the major proteins in egg white, making up about 10-15% of its total protein content. Ovomucin is known for its ability to form a gel-like structure when egg whites are beaten, which helps to protect the developing embryo inside the egg.

Ovomucin has several unique properties that make it medically interesting. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antiviral activities, and may help to prevent microbial growth in the egg. Additionally, ovomucin is a complex mixture of proteins with varying molecular weights and structures, which makes it a subject of interest for researchers studying protein structure and function.

In recent years, there has been some research into the potential medical uses of ovomucin, including its possible role in wound healing and as a potential treatment for respiratory infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of this interesting protein.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

The Black Sea is not a medical term or concept. It is a body of water located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. The name "Black" Sea may refer to the historical maritime routes that connected this region with other parts of the world, as well as possible darker coloration of its waters due to the presence of organic matter.

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

Pneumovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Pneumoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It includes several species that can cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. The most well-known species that infect humans is Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV), which is a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Other human pneumoviruses include Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) and Avian Metapneumovirus subtype C (AMPV-C). These viruses can cause similar respiratory symptoms, ranging from mild to severe.

Pneumoviruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. They have a nonsegmented genome and encode several structural proteins, including an attachment protein, fusion protein, matrix protein, and nucleocapsid protein. The virions are typically pleomorphic, with a diameter of 150-250 nm.

Transmission of pneumoviruses occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated surfaces. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as hand washing and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. There are currently no vaccines available for human pneumoviruses, but several candidates are in development. Treatment is primarily supportive and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and antiviral medications in severe cases.

Avastrovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Astroviridae, which cause gastrointestinal illness in various animals, including birds and mammals. These viruses are non-enveloped and have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Avastroviruses are named after the asterisk-like structure seen in their viral particles under an electron microscope. They can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In animals, avastrovirus infections can lead to significant economic losses in the agricultural industry due to decreased growth rates and increased mortality in infected animals. However, it's important to note that avastroviruses are not known to infect humans.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

"Bordetella avium" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae. It is a respiratory pathogen that primarily affects birds, particularly pigeons and other Columbiformes. The bacterium can cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases in these birds.

In humans, "Bordetella avium" has been rarely reported as a causative agent of respiratory infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions. However, its clinical significance in human disease is not well established, and further research is needed to determine the true extent of its pathogenicity in humans.

Herpesvirus 1, also known as Gallid herpesvirus 2 or Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), is a species of the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae. This virus is the causative agent of infectious laryngotracheitis, an acute respiratory disease affecting birds, particularly turkeys. The disease is characterized by severe lesions in the upper respiratory tract, including the larynx and trachea, leading to symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and difficulty breathing.

The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected birds or their secretions, as well as through aerosols. Infection with Herpesvirus 1 can result in high mortality rates in turkey flocks, making it a significant concern for the poultry industry. Vaccines are available to help control the spread of the virus and reduce the severity of clinical signs in infected birds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in the terminology you provided. There is no virus known as "Herpesvirus 2, Gallid." However, I can provide some information on a related topic.

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), also known as Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is a significant pathogen in chickens. It causes Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disorder that results in various clinical manifestations such as T-cell lymphomas, neurological disorders, and immunosuppression. GaHV-2 is not known to infect or cause disease in humans or other mammalian species.

If you meant to ask about human herpesviruses, please let me know and provide the correct name so I can offer an accurate definition.

Herpesviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The herpesviruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency in infected host cells, allowing them to persist for the lifetime of the host and leading to recurrent episodes of disease.

The family Herpesviridae is divided into three subfamilies: Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae. Each subfamily includes several genera and species that infect various hosts, including humans, primates, rodents, birds, and reptiles.

Human herpesviruses include:

* Alphaherpesvirinae: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
* Betaherpesvirinae: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7)
* Gammaherpesvirinae: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as HHV-8)

These viruses are responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin lesions to life-threatening diseases. Primary infections usually occur during childhood or adolescence and can be followed by recurrent episodes due to virus reactivation from latency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

Pneumovirinae is a subfamily of viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this subfamily is the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in young children and infants worldwide.

Other important members of the Pneumovirinae subfamily include:

* Human metapneumovirus (HMPV): This virus is also a significant cause of respiratory tract infections in people of all ages, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup.
* Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV): This virus primarily affects birds, causing upper respiratory tract infections and decreased egg production in poultry. However, it can also infect humans who have close contact with infected birds.
* Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): This virus is a major cause of respiratory disease in cattle, leading to significant economic losses for the livestock industry.

Pneumovirinae viruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the host cell's cytoplasm. They have a nonsegmented genome and encode several structural proteins, including an attachment protein, fusion protein, matrix protein, and nucleocapsid protein. The viruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals or animals.

Preventive measures for Pneumovirinae infections include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with sick individuals or animals. Vaccines are available for some members of the subfamily, including BRSV, but there are currently no approved vaccines for HRSV or HMPV. Antiviral therapies may be used to treat severe infections, although their effectiveness varies depending on the specific virus and the patient's immune status.

Zeolites are not typically a subject of medical definition, as they are naturally occurring or synthetically produced minerals used in various industrial applications. They are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals with a crystal-like structure, composed of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen tetrahedra. These minerals have a negative charge and can exchange positively charged ions, making them useful for water purification, odor control, and as catalysts in chemical reactions.

However, there is some research into the potential use of zeolites in medical applications, such as drug delivery systems or as adsorbents to remove toxins from the body. In these contexts, the definition of zeolites would be similar to their industrial definition.

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The Hotel Turkey is a historic hotel located in Turkey, Texas, United States that originally opened in 1927. The building was ... In July 2015, the Hotel Turkey was purchased and re-established by Pat and Tina Carson of Turkey. They have made numerous ... The hotel traditionally hosts the musicians who come to Turkey for the annual Bob Wills Day celebration on the last Saturday in ... "Hotel Turkey" Texas Historic Sites Atlas. Retrieved Oct 4, 2009. (Articles using NRISref without a reference number, Webarchive ...
... a town Turkey, Texas, a city Turkey Brook, Hertfordshire, England Turkey Mountain (Georgia) Turkey Mountain (New York) Turkey ... Look up Turkey or turkey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Turkey is a country between Asia and Europe. Turkey may also refer ... "The Turkey", a short story by Flannery O'Connor The Turkey (film), a 1951 French film Turkeys (film) or Free Birds Turkey ( ... Little Turkey (1758-1801), a Cherokee leader Turkey moray, an eel found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans Turkey vulture or ...
Education in Turkey, Standardized tests in Turkey, All stub articles, Turkey education stubs). ... YÖS exam Education in Turkey List of high schools in Turkey v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... The OKS (Ortaöğretim Kurumları Giriş Sınavı) was the high school entrance examination in Turkey until 2007. It had 100 ... questions which were to be solved within 120 minutes and was mandatory for getting a place in a good high school in Turkey. In ...
... (MasterChef Türkiye) is a Turkish competitive cooking game show based on the original British MasterChef. Its ...
Ewell "Turkey" Gross once completed an unassisted triple play at third base. He caught the hit, tagged the man coming from ... Ewell "Turkey" Gross (February 21, 1896 - January 11, 1936) was a shortstop in Major League Baseball who played briefly for the ... "Ewell "Turkey" Gross". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2019-02-19. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Boston Red Sox all-time roster List of baseball nicknames "Turkey Gross Stats". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2019-02-19. " ...
... thus changed its course, there to go north-east, through what is defined as a water gap. As a result, Turkey Brook ... Downstream of where Turkey Brook goes under the M25, there are alluvium and sand and gravel deposits on the Turkey Brook valley ... Turkey Brook thus extended its course eastwards from Forty Hill, across the valley floor of the lower Lea, past Turkey Street, ... Turkey Brook is a river in the northern outskirts of London. It rises in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, and flows broadly ...
Charles Talton "Turkey" Hughes (April 22, 1902 - August 31, 1985) was an American college football, basketball and baseball ... The baseball field at Eastern Kentucky, Turkey Hughes Field, is named in his honor. "Charles Hughes". Kentucky Hall of Fame. ...
... s on eNature.com "Turkey vulture media". Internet Bird Collection. Uncommon light morph turkey vulture photo ... Turkey vultures have also been observed eating coyote and domestic animal dung. The turkey vulture can often be seen along ... Furthermore, turkey vultures are dominant over crows at carrion, but not over common ravens. The turkey vulture is sometimes ... Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). raptorrehab.org "Turkey Vulture: Nero". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on ...
Tut is a town of Adıyaman Province of Turkey, to the north-west of the city of Adıyaman in the range of the Taurus Mountains ... İlçe Belediyesi, Turkey Civil Administration Departments Inventory. Retrieved 22 December 2022. "Adıyaman Tut Seçim Sonuçları ... District municipalities in Turkey, All stub articles, Adıyaman Province geography stubs). ...
The turkey moray is a medium size moray which can reach a maximum length of 120 cm, but specimens usually encountered are much ... The turkey moray seems to be equally active day and night and feeds on small fish and occasionally crustaceans. Smith, D.G.; ... The turkey moray (Gymnothorax meleagris),also known as the guineafowl moray or as the white-mouth/whitemouth moray is a species ... Photos of Turkey moray on Sealife Collection fish portal (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Turkey lies on Terry Fork, a tributary to Turkey Creek, which is itself a tributary to the Middle Fork Kentucky River. The fork ... Turkey is an unincorporated community in Breathitt County, Kentucky. It is located on Kentucky Route 30, between the ... "Physical Feature: Stream - Turkey Creek". US Gazetteer. HomeTownLocator. Retrieved February 18, 2012. "N 37° 28' 44' W 83° 30' ... "Turkey in Breathitt County KY". US Gazetteer. HomeTownLocator. Retrieved February 18, 2012. "Physical Feature: Stream - Terry ...
"Norman "Turkey" Stearns". Negro League Baseball Museum. Retrieved July 31, 2023. Bak, p. 95. "Turkey Stearnes". Baseball Hall ... Turkey had a batting stance that you'd swear couldn't let anybody hit a baseball at all. He'd stand up there looking like he ... Richard Bak (1994). Turkey Stearnes and the Detroit Stars. Wayne State University Press. p. 12. Bak, p. 97. Bak, p. 134. David ... "Turkey's day". Detroit Free Press. July 21, 2007. p. B1 - via Newspapers.com. "Head of the class". Detroit Free Press. February ...
... Foundation UK Heritage Turkey Experts Heritage Turkey Breeds (Articles with short description, Short ... Heritage turkeys are closer in taste to wild turkeys, but are several pounds larger. Part of this stated increase in flavor is ... A heritage turkey is one of a variety of strains of domestic turkey which retains historic characteristics that are no longer ... Heritage turkeys can be differentiated from other domestic turkeys in that they are biologically capable of being raised in a ...
... , born in 1758, was elected First Beloved Man by the general council of the Cherokee upon the re-establishment of ... Little Turkey (1758-1801) was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee people, becoming, in 1794, the first Principal Chief of the ... recognized Little Turkey as leader. Following the end of the Cherokee-American wars (1794) and the subsequent organization that ...
"2002 Turkey Flat Grenache, Barossa Valley, Australia" Vinography, 17 July 2004 Wine Pros "Turkey Flat Barossa Valley Shiraz ... or even older than Turkey Flat. Founded by Johann Frederick August Fiedler who planted Shiraz on the property, Turkey Flat was ... It was named Turkey Flat because of the flocks of Australian Bustard that lived along the creek flats. In 1865 the Schulz ... Turkey Flat produces a number of wines including a GSM blend from their old vine Shiraz, Mataro and Grenache. They also produce ...
... is a Christmas-themed album released in 1997 by the Canadian comedy music group The Arrogant Worms. It ...
"Ozdemir, Turkey". Fallingrain.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Köy, Turkey Civil Administration Departments ... Panik (Armenian: Բանիկ, romanized: Banik) is a köy (village) in the Iğdır District of Iğdır Province, Turkey. Its population is ... Kurdish settlements in Turkey, Villages in Iğdır District, Former Armenian communities in Iğdır Province). ...
In 2002 Sümerbank merged into Oyak Bank, which had over 300 branches around Turkey. The bank has a branch in Ireland and ... US-based First National Bank of Boston opened a branch in Istanbul, Turkey in 1984. The bank has operated independently since ... It provides retail and commercial banking services to individuals and businesses in Turkey, together with related financial ... Banks of Turkey, ING Group, Banks established in 1984, Turkish companies established in 1984, All stub articles, Asian bank ...
The facade puns on two meanings of "turkey", with a vaguely Eastern exotic style of architecture and three large turkey birds ... The history and architecture of the Turkey Café, Sedgebrook, 1987 "Story": "The Turkey Cafe", in The Story Of Leicester, on ... The Turkey Cafe was opened in September 1901 and was later renumbered 24 Granby Street. As a tea room, the cafe was popular ... The Turkey Cafe is a building with a flamboyant Modern Style (British Art Nouveau style) facade in Granby Street, Leicester, ...
... may refer to: The Australian brushturkey, a mound-building bird from the family Megapodiidae found in eastern ... bustard The orange-footed scrubfowl Brushturkey This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bush turkey. ...
Bronze turkeys are the product of crossing domestic turkeys brought from England, with the wild turkey. These matings produced ... List of turkey breeds Heritage turkey albc-usa.org (Ekarius 2007, p. 230) (Ekarius 2007, pp. 230-231) (Ekarius 2007) (Ekarius ... a bird that was larger and more robust than the European turkeys, and tamer than wild turkeys. Though the Bronze turkey type ... The Bronze is a breed of domestic turkey. The name refers to its plumage, which bears an iridescent bronze-like sheen. The ...
Seitz, Colleen (2019-11-27). "TURKEY DROP: WKRPs Turkeys Away is Thanksgiving tradition (No, turkeys cant fly)". WFLA. ... Based on an actual promotion for a radio station that tossed live turkeys off the back of a truck, Turkeys Away has been ... "That was about the whole story... To my knowledge, the turkey drop was never repeated." Other aerial turkey drops have also ... recounted that the episode was inspired by a similar live turkey giveaway promotion by Blum, who tossed turkeys out of a pick- ...
Turkeys atrocitiesRegarding the editorial Unsplendid Little War, April 3: The recent developments in Kurdish Northern Iraq ... Turkey has been permitted the latest invasion because of its strategic location next to Iraq, which the United States values ... Turkeys atrocities. Regarding the editorial Unsplendid Little War, April 3: The recent developments in Kurdish Northern ... It is the fourth time during this century that Turkey has committed atrocities against its neighbors and its peoples. ...
The sheer range of engagements Turkey has sustained is impressive, and the results produced deserve attention. ... And now, Turkey is extending considerable support to Ukraine in its standoff with Russia. The sheer range of engagements Turkey ... Turkeys defense budget is just a little over $20 billion a year, but what they have achieved with this small budget is eye- ... Consider that Turkey countered a Kurdish insurgency, supported Qatar in its standoff with KSA and UAE, engaged in support of ...
This one pot Turkey Stroganoff is a lighter version of an old classic. Give this easy recipe a try for a stress-free weeknight ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipes/turkey-stroganoff/ Turkey Stroganoff. ...
Background on the Kurdish conflict and the arrest of Abdullah Ocalan by Turkey. ... Ocalan (pronounced OH-ja-lan) had been captured in Nairobi on February 16, after spending more than a decade on Turkeys "most ... It is concentrated in the parts of eastern Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Iraq that make up the region known as Kurdistan. About 12 ... Twenty percent of Turkeys population is Kurdish. Iraq is 15-20 percent Kurdish; Syria, less than 10 percent; and Iran, 7 ...
Turkey has been the scene of mass protests since June, sparked by a government decision to turn a central Istanbul park into a ... Turkeys army has ousted four governments since 1960. Government spokesman Bulent Arinc urged the public Monday to respect the ... This is a menace to the army of the Republic of Turkey. This is not acceptable, he said. If you are trying someone who has ... Discontent is boiling anew in Turkey after a court convicted senior army officers, politicians, writers and others of plotting ...
... report on its ad hoc visit to Turkey, which took... ... has published today the report on its ad hoc visit to Turkey, ...
Both Israel and Turkey are key U.S. regional allies. Obama in a statement welcomed the call and stressed the need to restore ... Analysts say the mending of relations between Israel and Turkey could help contain a possible spillover of violence from Syria ... Israel has previously expressed regret for the deaths, but rejected Turkeys demand for an apology saying that would be ... Turkey withdrew its ambassador from Israel and froze military cooperation after the incident. ...
Switzerland and Turkey Close Bilateral relations Switzerland-Turkey. An overview of Swiss diplomacy and involvement on the ... Travel advice for Turkey. This page has not been translated into English. Please select a language from the following list. * ... Embassy of Switzerland in Turkey. The Swiss embassy represents Switzerlands interests in the country ...
Explore Turkey within the LIFE photography vault, one of the most prestigious & privately held archives from the US & around ...
Stories about architecture and design related to the Turkey-Syria earthquake on 6 February 2023. ... Turkey-Syria earthquake *. Turkey-Syria earthquake rebuild "most sophisticated urban problem in the world" says Mehmet Kalyoncu ... Authorities in Turkey have issued arrest warrants to more than 100 people with ties to buildings destroyed by the devastating ... Architects should play a major role in the recovery after disasters like the recent earthquake in Turkey and Syria, but ...
Never thaw your turkey by leaving it out on the counter. A turkey must thaw at a safe temperature. When a turkey stays out at ... Use one of these methods to thaw your turkey.. *Thaw your turkey in the refrigerator. *Keep your turkey in its original ... Thaw your turkey in cold water. *Be sure your turkey is in a leakproof plastic bag before you place it in the sink. *The bag ... 5. Cook Turkey to a Safe Temperature. To roast a turkey in your oven, set the oven temperature to at least 325°F. Place the ...
... Geo Kloppel Tue, 06 Jun 2023 05:16:37 -0700 ... It does seem like a PERFECT place for a Turkey Vulture nest, except perhaps for the range of mammalian predators in the ... Geo , On Jun 6, 2023, at 7:34 AM, Donna Lee Scott ,[email protected], wrote: , , My experience with timing of Turkey vulture ... but after discovering the Turkey Vulture scraping in the debris on the floor there on April 29-30, I avoided the place for ...
These are the qualities the Turkey Awards seek to honor. Here are the Turkeys who will be sitting at the head table when the ... In recent history, the Grand Turkey has started to surface closer to Minnesota, the birthplace of the Turkey Awards. The ... The members of the Turkey Committee gathered in emergency session, scratched their chins - the Turkey Chairman scratched his ... If the Grand Turkey steps down for any reason over the next 12 months, Dr. Frank, the first runner-up, will be called on to ...
... on how to fold napkins into the shape of turkeys for Thanksgiving decor. ... Your turkey is now ready for the tabletop! Why not make cloth turkey napkins for each adult and paper napkin turkeys in fun ... This step-by-step, DIY turkey-napkin-folding method requires two napkins per turkey, but after the gut-busting feast youre ... Press in the sides of the neck to give it a wattle (you know, that dangly bit on the front of a turkeys neck). Once it looks ...
Turkey, on Wednesday, March 15, according to the Ministry of National Defense.The ministry said on Wednesday that 113 people ... fallen in Sanliurfa over a 24-hour period.Sanliurfa and Adiyaman provinces were affected by the earthquakes that stuck Turkey ... Soldiers helped evacuate people affected by flooding in Sanliurfa, Turkey, on Wednesday, March 15, according to the Ministry of ... Sanliurfa and Adiyaman provinces were affected by the earthquakes that stuck Turkey in early February. Credit: Turkish Ministry ...
Ankara seems happy with the EU Commissions latest Progress Report on Turkey ... Turkeys EU caravan trundles on. Ankara seems happy with the EU Commissions latest Progress Report on Turkey. EU minister ... Cynics in Turkey believe the move was a political one as the Merkel government headed for general elections. The general view ... It is equally interesting to note Germany is preparing to lift its veto on the opening of one of the chapters in Turkeys EU ...
there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey 2011. ... there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey 2008. ...
Can you put the Thanksgiving turkey back together? ...
Sylloge nummorum Graecorum Turkey / 11 : The C̜etin Erdem collection : Lydia and Phrygia / by Oğuz Tekin amd Arif Yacı by: ... Sylloge nummorum Graecorum Turkey / 7, Ödemiş Museum, 1 : Roman provincial coins of Ionia, Lydia and etc. / by Oǧuz Tekin & ... Sylloge nummorum Graecorum Turkey / 10 : The Yavuz Tatış Collection : Part 1 : Ionia and Lydia / by Oğuz Tekin Published: (2016 ...
Turkey voted for a rash of constitutional changes last month in a referendum that will strip powers from Parliament and give ... once bastions of free thought and expression in Turkey. Academics and journalists considered critics of the government have ... to congratulate Erdogan on his referendum win and refrained from raising concerns about human rights violations in Turkey, as ...
Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
The Internet Society on Turkeys Internet Traffic Growing the Internet 31 March 2014 The Internet Society on Turkeys Internet ... Over the weekend there were extremely disturbing reports out of Turkey of escalations in the attempts by the Turkish... ... While we may be tired of hearing about blocked Internet access, the most recent move in Turkey should make... ...
Turkey tour with Ada Vegas Travel by jenny24. Travel to Turkey with Ada Vegas Travel.. Posted: 7 years ago, June 18th 2016 ... Self-drive rental car in Turkey? by Mangolinda. What is your experience of renting a car in Turkey?. Posted: 13 years ago, ... Turkey trip need tips and advice by TorGuy. Turkey in April. Posted: 8 years ago, January 14th 2016 ... Dont hesitate to ask me any questions you may have about Turkey.. [Edited: 2011 May 08 02:23 - The Travel Camel:11053 - No ...
Order butterball turkey online for pickup or delivery. Find ingredients, recipes, coupons and more. ... Find butterball turkey at a store near you. ... Kroger® Turkey Breast Honey Smoked Deli Thin Sliced Family Size ... Oscar Mayer Lean Oven Roasted White Turkey Sliced Lunch Meat. 16 oz ...
Turkey. ‡. · United Kingdom. ‡: partly located in Europe. Dansk: Denne kategori inkluderer fotos af mænd fra Turkey taget i ... English: This category includes photos of men of Turkey taken in 1919 and images of men of Turkey in 1919. ... 日本語: このカテゴリには、1919年に撮影されたTurkeyの男性の写真や画像が含まれています。 ... Media in category "Men of Turkey in 1919". The following 6 files
... Contributors: Tessa Nguyen, RD, LDN ... 1 pound ground white meat turkey (93% lean, 7% fat). 1 lemon, juice and zest (or 1 tablespoon chopped lemongrass). 2 green ... In a medium-sized bowl, thoroughly mix together the ground turkey, lemon juice and zest (or lemongrass), green onions, cilantro ...
... chair of the board of Amnesty Internationals Turkey section. ... "Turkey should release Taner Kılıç, who is a tireless defender ... emphasize his Amnesty International Turkey affiliation. Kılıç is a founding member of AI Turkey and has been chair of its board ... Turkeys government labels the followers of the United States-based Sunni cleric a terrorist organization and accuses Gülen of ... Lawyer and human rights defender Taner Kılıç, chair of the board of Amnesty Internationals Turkey section. © 2017 Amnesty ...
Loop TPOI in Turkey Point at Melvern Lake with Recreation.gov. ...
Listing of physics and astronomy departments in Turkey. Contact information, faculty and students info, research areas, ...

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