Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Rhinitis, Atrophic: A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Rhinitis, Vasomotor: A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.Dermotoxins: Specific substances elaborated by plants, microorganisms or animals that cause damage to the skin; they may be proteins or other specific factors or substances; constituents of spider, jellyfish or other venoms cause dermonecrosis and certain bacteria synthesize dermolytic agents.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Ethmoid Sinus: The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Pneumovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE) where the human and bovine virions have neither hemagglutinin nor neuraminidase activity. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN is the type species.Cheirogaleidae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Leukocyte Reduction Procedures: The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Current Procedural Terminology: Descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures performed by PHYSICIANS. It is produced by the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and used in insurance claim reporting for MEDICARE; MEDICAID; and private health insurance programs (From CPT 2002).Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (1/191)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Anatomical structure and surface epithelial distribution in the nasal cavity of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). (2/191)

To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies.  (+info)

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (3/191)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Oxidative stress in cells infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus: a crucial step in the induction of apoptosis. (4/191)

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Both a noncytopathic (ncp) and an antigenically related cytopathic (cp) BVDV can be isolated from persistently infected animals suffering from mucosal disease. In every case studied so far, the genomic changes leading to the cp biotype correlate with the production of the NS3 nonstructural protein, which, in the ncp biotype, is present in its uncleaved form, NS23. This report shows that, in contrast to ncp BVDV, the cp biotype induces apoptosis in cultured embryonic bovine turbinate cells. Early in the process of apoptosis, cells show a rise in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, which is indicative of oxidative stress. This precedes two hallmarks of apoptosis, caspase activation as shown by cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA fragmentation. Cells were protected from apoptosis only by certain antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole and ebselen), whereas others (N-acetylcysteine, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, lipoic acid, dihydrolipoic acid and tiron) turned out to be ineffective. Antioxidants that protected cells from apoptosis prevented oxidative stress but failed to block virus growth. These observations suggest that oxidative stress, which occurs early in the interaction between cp BVDV and its host cell, may be a crucial event in the sequence leading to apoptotic cell death. Hence, apoptosis is not required for the multiplication of the cp biotype of BVDV.  (+info)

Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia. (5/191)

How eosinophils are preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites remains elusive, but increasing evidence suggests that chemokines that bind to the CCR3 participate in this process. In this study, we investigated the transcript levels and chemotactic activity of CCR3-binding chemokines in nasal polyps, a disorder often showing prominent eosinophilia. We found that mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 was significantly increased in nasal polyps compared with turbinate mucosa from the same patients, or histologically normal nasal mucosa from control subjects. Interestingly, the novel CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin-2, showed the highest transcript levels. Consistent with these mRNA data, polyp tissue fluid exhibited strong chemotactic activity for eosinophils that was significantly inhibited by a blocking Ab against CCR3. When patients were treated systemically with glucocorticosteroids, the mRNA levels in the polyps were reduced to that found in turbinate mucosa for all chemokines. Together, these findings suggested an important role for CCR3-binding chemokines in eosinophil recruitment to nasal polyps. Such chemokines, therefore, most likely contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related disorders; and the reduced chemokine expression observed after steroid treatment might reflect, at least in part, how steroids inhibit tissue accumulation of eosinophils.  (+info)

Inflammatory and epithelial responses during the development of ozone-induced mucous cell metaplasia in the nasal epithelium of rats. (6/191)

Rats repeatedly exposed to high ambient concentrations of ozone develop mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal transitional epithelium (NTE). The present study was designed to determine the temporal relationships of ozone-induced inflammatory and epithelial responses and their correlation with subsequent MCM in the NTE of rats. Male F344/N rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone, 8 h/day for 1, 2, or 3 days. Two h prior to sacrifice, all the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label epithelial cells undergoing DNA synthesis. Rats exposed to ozone for 1 or 2 days were killed 2 h after the exposure. Rats exposed to ozone for 3 days were killed 2 h or 1, 2, or 4 days after the exposure. Control rats were killed after a 7-day exposure to filtered air. One nasal passage from the anterior nasal cavity of each rat was fixed and processed for light microscopy to morphometrically determine the numeric densities of epithelial cells, neutrophils, and mucous cells, and the amount of intraepithelial mucosubstances in the NTE. The maxilloturbinate from the other nasal passage was processed for analysis of an airway mucin-specific gene (i.e., rMuc-5AC mRNA). Acute ozone exposure induced a rapid increase in rMuc-5AC mRNA levels prior to the onset of MCM, and the increased levels of rMuc-5AC mRNA persisted with MCM. Neutrophilic inflammation coincided with epithelial DNA synthesis and upregulation of rMuc-5AC, but was resolved when MCM first appeared in the NTE. The results of the present study suggest that upregulation of mucin mRNA by acute ozone exposure may be associated with the concurrent neutrophilic inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia in the NTE. Ozone-induced MCM may be dependent on these important pre-metaplastic responses (i.e., mucin mRNA upregulation, neutrophilic inflammation, and epithelial proliferation).  (+info)

Polyglutamylation and polyglycylation of alpha- and beta-tubulins during in vitro ciliated cell differentiation of human respiratory epithelial cells. (7/191)

Tubulins are the major proteins within centriolar and axonemal structures. In all cell types studied so far, numerous alpha- and beta-tubulin isoforms are generated both by expression of a multigenic family and various post-translational modifications. We have developed a primary culture of human nasal epithelial cells where the ciliated cell differentiation process has been observed and quantified. We have used this system to study several properties concerning polyglutamylation and polyglycylation of tubulin. GT335, a monoclonal antibody directed against glutamylated tubulins, stained the centriole/basal bodies and the axonemes of ciliated cells, and the centrioles of non-ciliated cells. By contrast, axonemal but not centriolar tubulins were polyglycylated. Several polyglutamylated and polyglycylated tubulin isotypes were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis, using GT335 and a specific monoclonal antibody (TAP952) directed against short polyglycyl chains. Immunoelectron microscopy experiments revealed that polyglycylation only affected axonemal tubulin. Using the same technical approach, polyglutamylation was shown to be an early event in the centriole assembly process, as gold particles were detected in fibrogranular material corresponding to the first cytoplasmic structures involved in centriologenesis. In a functional assay, GT335 and TAP952 had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ciliary beat frequency. TAP952 had only a weak effect while GT335 treatment led to a total arrest of beating. These results strongly suggest that in human ciliated epithelial cells, tubulin polyglycylation has only a structural role in cilia axonemes, while polyglutamylation may have a function both in centriole assembly and in cilia activity.  (+info)

Analysis of ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using digital high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods. (8/191)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the power and recovery stroke of respiratory cilia using digital high speed video imaging. Beat frequency measurements made using digital high speed video were also compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques. METHOD: Ciliated epithelium was obtained by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate of 20 healthy subjects. Ciliated edges were observed by microscopy and the deviation of cilia during their recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during their power stroke was measured. Beat frequency measurements made by digital high speed video analysis were compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode. RESULTS: Cilia were found to beat with a forward power stroke and a backward recovery stroke within the same plane. The mean angular deviation of the cilia during the recovery stroke from the plane of the forward power stroke was only 3.6 degrees (95% CI 3.1 to 4.1). There was a significant difference in beat frequency measurement between the digital high speed video (13.2 Hz (95% CI 11.8 to 14.6)) and both photomultiplier (12.0 Hz (95% CI 10.8 to 13.1), p = 0.01) and photodiode (11.2 Hz (95% CI 9.9 to 12.5), p<0.001) techniques. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement for the digital high speed video were -2.75 to 5.15 Hz with the photomultiplier and -2.30 to 6.06 Hz with the photodiode. CONCLUSION: Respiratory cilia beat forwards and backwards within the same plane without a classical sideways recovery sweep. Digital high speed video imaging allows both ciliary beat frequency and beat pattern to be evaluated.  (+info)

  • This study will examine whether treatment of inferior turbinates in patients with continued symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, sleep related breathing disorder, snoring, disturbed sleeping, open mouth breathing, and upper airway resistance syndrome after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy will improve these symptoms and should be included in the treatment paradigm for treatment of sleep related breathing disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The question proposed by this study is one of treatment: To what extent does treatment of nasal obstruction from enlarged inferior turbinates with cold ablation inferior turbinate reduction in infants, children, and adolescents improve symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, sleep related breathing disorder, snoring, disturbed sleeping, open mouth breathing, and upper airway resistance syndrome in patients that continue to have symptoms after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The trial seeks to provide evidence that the treatment of inferior turbinates in patients with continued symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, sleep related breathing disorder, snoring, disturbed sleeping, open mouth breathing, and upper airway resistance syndrome after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy will improve these symptoms and should be included in the treatment paradigm for treatment of sleep related breathing disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A bent septum which allows the inferior turbinate to grow into the space left in the wider airway. (drjasonroth.com.au)
  • This provides an excellent airway but maintains the ability of the turbinates the humidify and filter air. (drjasonroth.com.au)
  • This involves leaving sufficient support for the turbinate but removing the component blocking the airway. (drjasonroth.com.au)
  • Swollen turbinates - you can see how they have swollen and are bulging out across the airway to the nasal septum. (family.blog)
  • The air space within the turbinate is susceptible to the same pathologies as other sinuses, and may thus become infected, obstructed (mucocoele), or be the site of malignancy. (radiopaedia.org)
  • To do this, a surgeon uses a special needle-like device that heats the turbinates using a heat source or energy waves. (healthline.com)