That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The absence of light.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The ability to differentiate tones.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Each of the three spectrometers was tuned to measure the absorption in a specific range of colors. Each of these ranges ... molecules of atmospheric gases absorb very specific colors of light. If the light is divided into a rainbow of colors, called a ... The amount of light absorbed in each spectral line increases with the number of molecules along the optical path. OCO's ... If the amount of carbon dioxide varies from place to place, the amount of absorption will also vary. To resolve these ...
The MLCT absorption band can be shifted, the emission wavelength can be changed, and the emission lifetime can be extended. A ... Some complexes strongly absorb light via a process called metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT). The properties of these ... This complex also exhibits photoluminescence at room temperature, and its wavelength and lifetime can be tuned by substitution ... complexes can be tuned by changes in substituents. For example, electron donation, electron withdrawal, and π-conjugating ...
An absorption-re-emission atomic line filter absorbs the desired wavelength of light and emits light that bypasses broadband ... By the Stark effect and Zeeman splitting, the base absorption lines may be split into finer lines. "Stark and Zeeman tuning... ... In absorption-re-emission ALFs, the frequency of light must be shifted in order for the filter to operate, and in a passive ... In passive absorption-re-emission ALFs, a high-pass filter blocks all low-energy incoming light. The vapor cell absorbs the ...
Moreover, the optical response of graphene/graphene oxide layers can be tuned electrically. Saturable absorption in graphene ... He-Ne laser as the light source. Such unique absorption could become saturated when the input optical intensity is above a ... Light pulses control how graphene conducts electricity. 4 August 2014 Schedin, F.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V ... Graphene's band gap can be tuned from 0 to 0.25 eV (about 5 micrometre wavelength) by applying voltage to a dual-gate bilayer ...
... upon the absorption of light. Photoacids increase in acidity upon absorbing light and thermally reassociate back into their ... Based on their size and material composition, it is possible to tune the maximum absorption peak for nanorods during their ... This absorption of light is made possible by photosensitizers' large de-localized π-systems, which lowers the energy of HOMO ... Via the absorption of light, photosensitizers can utilize triplet state transfer to reduce small molecules, such as water, to ...
Most dyes have a very short time between the absorption and emission of light, referred to as the fluorescence lifetime, which ... A prism or diffraction grating is usually mounted in the beam path, to allow tuning of the beam. Because the liquid medium of a ... The incoming light excites the dye molecules into the state of being ready to emit stimulated radiation; the singlet state. In ... The absorption centers of many dyes are very close to the emission centers. Sometimes the two are close enough that the ...
The separation of light-absorption and light-emission functions between the two parts of the nanostructure results in a large ... Attainment of that ideal depends on tuning the relevant electronic excitation energy levels to differ from the emission levels ... the absorption of light by poorly transparent materials in the transparent medium, the efficiency of light conversion by the ... Identifying materials that re-emit more input light as useful luminescence with negligible self-absorption is crucial. ...
The absorption of a photon of light results in the photoisomerization of the chromophore from the 11-cis to an all-trans ... It is important to differentiate spectral tuning sites, residues that affect the wavelength at which the opsin absorbs light, ... Cone opsins are further subdivided according to their absorption maxima (λmax), the wavelength at which the highest light ... At high pH it absorbs maximally blue (469 nm) light and at low pH it absorbs maximally UV (370 nm) light. Peropsin, a visual ...
5mm.The metal particles were tuned to high absorption and scattering, resulting in effective conversion of light into heat ... Due to the ability to tune the size and absorption of AuNPs, these molecules can vary in the colors they emit. Colors of AuNP ... The particles were tuned by varying the thickness of the Au shell and changing the size of the silica core. In exposing these ... This allows for a higher mass of the element, providing for a greater area of x-ray absorption. By acting as a contrast agent ...
Effects of reflection, polarization, scattering, diffraction and atmospheric absorption usually associated with visible light ... Open-wire and coaxial transmission lines give way to waveguides and stripline, and lumped-element tuned circuits are replaced ...
The synchrotron beam energy is tuned through the absorption edge of an element of interest, and modulations in the absorption ... By tuning the beam energy through the absorption edge of a particular element of interest, the scattering from atoms of that ... called the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) or near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS)) reveals ... Synchrotron light is an ideal tool for many types of research in materials science, physics, and chemistry and is used by ...
A deep purple is representative of clearly transformed colonies, due to light absorption. Proton gradients can be used to power ... Proteorhodopsin variants are not spread randomly, but disperse along depth gradients based on the maximal absorption-tuning of ... Members are known to have different absorption spectra including green and blue visible light. Proteorhodopsin (PR or ... where green light is still available. Karlodinium micrum, another dinolagelate, expresses a blue tuned proteorhodopsin (E109) ...
Silicon nanostructures also allow for the quantum confinement effect which can improve light absorption ranges and light- ... fibrils into a beta sheet that allows the chromophores to become arranged in such a way that is fine tuned for efficient light ... are light harvesting complex 1 and light harvesting complex 2. Light harvesting complex 2 in the purple bacteria Rhodoblastus ... The porphyrin moieties present in biological light harvesting complexes play a critical role in the efficient absorption of ...
One beam is tuned exactly on a molecular absorption line and the other beam is tuned in a nearby wavelength without molecular ... In such systems, the emitted laser light has to be precisely tuned in the resonance frequency of the studied species . The ... The HSRL directly measures the relative ratio of molecular and aerosol scattered light needed to correct the oxygen absorption ... refer to the incident laser light and the shifted backscattered light respectively (in HSRL these terms are the same thus ...
The total extinction of light at the SPR is made up of both absorption and scattering. For the smaller axial diameter nanorods ... Gold nanorods are rod-shaped gold nanoparticles whose aspect ratios tune the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band from the ... The angle of the incidence light for surface plasmon resonance, an interaction between light wave and conducting electrons in ... small diameter gold nanorods are being used as photothermal converters of near-infrared light due to their high absorption ...
The "probe" field is tuned near resonance between two of the states and measures the absorption spectrum of the transition. A ... Observation of EIT involves two optical fields (highly coherent light sources, such as lasers) which are tuned to interact with ... The art of taming light: ultra-slow and stopped light. Europhysics News Vol. 35 No. 2 M. Fleischhauer, A. İmamoğlu, and J. P. ... Stopped light, in the context of an EIT medium, refers to the coherent transfer of photons to the quantum system and back again ...
The interaction of light and nanoparticles affects the placement of charges which affects the coupling strength. Incident light ... Under absorption, photothermal ablation occurs, which heats the nanoparticles and their immediate surroundings to temperatures ... Under scattering, the gold-plated nano-particles become visible to imaging processes that are tuned to the correct wavelength ... This lower energy couples strongly to incident light, whereas the higher energy is an anti-bonding and weakly combines to ...
The resonant absorption of light for an isotope is dependent upon its mass and certain hyperfine interactions between electrons ... In this method a laser is tuned to a wavelength which excites only one isotope of the material and ionizes those atoms ... Techniques using this are most effective for light atoms such as hydrogen. Lighter isotopes tend to react or evaporate more ... Lighter isotopes also disassociate more rapidly under an electric field. This process in a large cascade was used at the heavy ...
By introducing a dielectric layer, plasmonic core (metal)-shell (dielectric) nanoparticles enhance light absorption by ... The possibility of shifting the resonance wavelengths by tuning the particle geometry is very interesting for using these ... Light scattering methods using laser light, X-rays, or neutron scattering are used to determine particle size, with each method ... Anisotropic nanoparticles display a specific absorption behavior and stochastic particle orientation under unpolarized light, ...
... are not practical as tuning elements because most media that transmit in the mid-infrared absorb or scatter some of the light, ... and because many natural and synthetic materials have strong characteristic absorption in this range. Laser wavelength can be ... The common plastic poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) absorbs IR light in the 2.8-25 μm wavelength band, so CO2 lasers have been ... Because the atmosphere is quite transparent to infrared light, CO2 lasers are also used for military rangefinding using LIDAR ...
The encoding process proceeds by application of ultraviolet light tuned to the absorption band associated with the transition ... "Light-Induced Polaronic Absorption at Low Temperature in Pure and (Fe, Ce, Cr) Doped SrxBa1−xNb2O6 or Ba1−xCaxTiO3 Crystals and ... field is used to modify the electric dipole moment of regions of the ferroelectric material that are exposed to UV light. By ...
One beam is tuned exactly on a molecular absorption line and the other beam is tuned in a nearby wavelength without molecular ... In such systems, the emitted laser light has to be precisely tuned in the resonance frequency of the studied species .[38] The ... where the subscripts "inc" and "sca" refer to the incident laser light and the shifted backscattered light respectively (in ... Light Scattering by Non-Spherical Particles *^ Dubovik, O., Smirnov, A., Holben, B. N., King, M. D., Kaufman, Y. J., Eck, T. F ...
Aside from tuning the absorption edge and emission wavelength by anion substitution, it was also observed that the A-site ... "Light Absorption Coefficient of CsPbBr 3 Perovskite Nanocrystals". The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 9 (11): 3093-3097 ... "Highly Dynamic Ligand Binding and Light Absorption Coefficient of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals". ACS Nano. 10 (2 ... With NCs, the composition can be tuned via ion exchange i.e. the ability to post-synthetically exchange the ions in the lattice ...
... involves light with frequency tuned slightly below an electronic transition in an atom. Because the light is ... The concentration must be minimal to prevent the absorption of the photons into the gas in the form of heat. This absorption ... In each absorption event, the atom loses a momentum equal to the momentum of the photon. The atom, which is now in the excited ... If the absorption and emission are repeated many times, the mean velocity, and therefore the kinetic energy of the atom will be ...
The open circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.28 V, with short circuit current (Isc) 1.12 nA·cm−2 with an incident light source of 8.8 W· ... Even though the nanoparticle bandgap can be tuned, it needs to be matched with the corresponding polymer. The 2.0 eV bandgap of ... Nanoparticle size can affect absorption. This combined with the fact that there are many possible semiconducting nanoparticles ... The fill factor is 0.3876%, and the white light conversion factor 0.775%. CNT may be used as a photovoltaic device not only as ...
The absorption of laser light by the alkali metal is the first process in SEOP. Left-circularly polarized light tuned to the D1 ... Additionally, an IR iris is placed behind the mirror, providing information of laser light absorption by the alkali metal atoms ... During this process, circularly polarized infrared laser light, tuned to the appropriate wavelength, is used to excite ... it has been improved in such a way where polarized light is not necessary to polarize the solid; instead, unpolarized light in ...
... absorption of the stimulating light or others). By shining through the plasma a laser with a wavelength, tuned to a certain ... Scattering of laser light from the electrons in a plasma is known as Thomson scattering. The electron temperature can be ... In very hot plasmas (as in magnetic fusion experiments), light elements are fully ionized and don't emit line radiation. When a ... The advantage of this approach is that the registered light from the fluorescence is with a different wavelength from the ...
... it important for absorption and emission to occur in the near-infrared region to minimize the light absorption/diffusion by ... For metals, the frequency at which LSPR can by tuned by adjusting the size of the nanocrystal, the geometry and the local ... One example is the use of CuInS2 quantum dots as fluorescent labels that emit light in the near infrared region of the visible ... Fabrication of the quantum dot LED involved a blue chip as a blue light source and a.silicon resin containing the quantum dots ...
... providing the ability to tune the absorption, conductivity, and apparent bandgap. Magnetic ion doping like manganese results in ... Generally they are white or light colored powders. They are used primarily to prepare light absorbing semiconductors for ... When complexed with other metallic iodides such as tin iodide or lead iodide it can be used as a light gathering compound in ...
In semiconductors, light absorption generally leads to an electron being excited from the valence to the conduction band, ... both absorption onset and fluorescence emission can be tuned by changing the size of the quantum dot during its synthesis. The ... The tunable absorption spectrum and high extinction coefficients of quantum dots make them attractive for light harvesting ... This light emission (photoluminescence) is illustrated in the figure on the right. The color of that light depends on the ...
... to light and to increase the absorption of carbon dioxide while at the same time controlling water loss. Their surfaces are ... A Fractal Analysis Approach to Tune Mechanical Rigidity of Scaffolding Matrix in Thin Films". Advanced Materials Research. 1141 ... or to sacrifice light-absorption efficiency in favor of protection from herbivory. For xerophytes the major constraint is not ... thereby maximising the surface area directly exposed to light and enabling the light to penetrate the tissues and reach the ...
This process significantly improves light to electricity conversion efficiency, due to increased light absorption. This texture ... QD's size quantization allows for the band gap to be tuned by simply changing particle size. They also have high extinction ... The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.. *The separation of charge carriers of opposite ... Efforts to maximize light absorption efficiency with reduced thickness have been made. Surface texturing is one of techniques ...
Frames can be tuned to address different riding styles: sprint events require stiffer frames while endurance events may require ... Although strong and light, impact, over-torquing, or improper installation of CFRP components has resulted in cracking and ... "The influence of water absorption on unidirectional and 2D woven CFRP composites and their mechanical performance". Composites ... The dry layup method has the least amount of resin waste and can achieve lighter constructions than wet layup. Also, because ...
One knew that one was in the presence of extreme seriousness, absorption, and force of intellect... Wittgenstein was a ... when two brass bands in a carnival played the same tune in different keys. But he died in mysterious circumstances in May 1902 ... but only if a light shines on it from above." His close friend Norman Malcolm would write, "Wittgenstein's mature life was ...
Older systems used a microscope optical system with a back light. Current-generation systems employ high resolution cameras and ... the contact angle of the surface can tune. The deposition of these specialty silanes[13] can be achieved in the gas phase ... or absorption). Such alterations, if slow, can also produce measurably time-dependent contact angles. ...
Someone with dark hair wishing to achieve two or three shades lighter may need a higher developer whereas someone with lighter ... "Tune Your Hair. The Hair Laboratory. Retrieved 12 February 2017.. *^ Tukker, Arnold; Buijst, Harrie; Van Oers, Lauren; Van Der ... These compounds produce broad-band absorption when they react to form dyes, allowing for more natural-looking hair colors. The ... As the result, they cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing and are less damaging to hair than their ...
Light incident on a left-handed material, or NIM, will bend to the same side as the incident beam, and for Snell's law to hold ... In other words, each cell is individually tuned to respond in a certain way, based on the desired output of the NIM. The ... The radiative losses from absorption and reflection are noted to be small, because the unit dimensions are much smaller than ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 , n1. Since the velocity is ...
Many substances, such as proteins, have significant light absorption bands in the ultraviolet that are of interest in ... finely tuned to capture certain wavelengths of light. Thus, the optimum spectral portion can be found for distinguishing ink ... A black light lamp emits long-wave UVA radiation and little visible light. Fluorescent black light lamps work similarly to ... "The Importance of UV Light for Plants Cultivated Indoors". Best LED Grow Lights Info. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.. ...
... complexes tend to be similar to those of its lighter homologue copper. Silver(III) complexes tend to be rare and very ... Ag+ binds alkenes reversibly, and silver nitrate has been used to separate mixtures of alkenes by selective absorption. The ... For example, silver is used in high quality connectors for RF, VHF, and higher frequencies, particularly in tuned circuits such ... Fresh silver chloride is pale yellow, becoming purplish on exposure to light; it projects slightly from the surface of the ...
Unlike localized ("intra-atomic") absorption of light which causes color for chromium and vanadium impurities, blue color in ... Titanium-sapphire lasers are popular due to their relatively rare capacity to be tuned to various wavelengths in the red and ... The wavelength of the energy absorbed corresponds to yellow light. When this light is subtracted from incident white light, the ... However incandescent light (including candle light) is heavily tilted to the red end of the spectrum, thus tipping the balance ...
The bandpass filter in the receiver consists of a tuned circuit which acts like a resonator, similarly to a tuning fork.[10] It ... radio waves travel at the speed of light in vacuum (and close to the speed of light in the Earth's atmosphere, which acts as ... The main effect of absorption of radio waves by materials is to heat them, similarly to the infrared waves radiated by sources ... Radio waves in a vacuum travel at the speed of light.[6][7] When passing through a material medium, they are slowed according ...
The bandgap of ZnO can further be tuned to ~3-4 eV by its alloying with magnesium oxide or cadmium oxide.[12] ... Agren, MS (2009). "Percutaneous absorption of zinc from zinc oxide applied topically to intact skin in man". Dermatologica. 180 ... Xu Sheng (2011). "Oxide nanowire arrays for light-emitting diodes and piezoelectric energy harvesters". Pure and Applied ... For instance as transparent conducting oxide layer and ZnO nanostructures provide better light outcoupling.[98] Other ...
... the amazing fluidity with which he shifted from a tremendous absorption in his audience to a tremendous absorption in his song ... released the first all-talking feature, Lights of New York, a musical crime melodrama. On September 27, The Jazz Singer became ... After singing popular tunes in a beer garden, he is punished by his father, a hazzan (cantor), prompting Jakie to run away from ... Lights of New York (all-talking)/premiered July 6, 1928: $1.252 million total (dom. & for.) ...
The light is emitted at every peak of the laser light field which is intense enough, producing a series of attosecond light ... Multi-photon absorption, simultaneous absorption of two or more photons, transferring the energy to a single electron. ... These methods are called temperature tuning and quasi-phase-matching. Temperature tuning is used when the pump (laser) ... At high peak powers the Kerr effect can cause filamentation of light in air, in which the light travels without dispersion or ...
For this reason it is a non-linear process several orders of magnitude weaker than linear absorption, thus very high light ... It was found that polarization effects in laser 3D nanolithography can be employed to fine-tune the feature sizes (and ... To enable 3D structuring, the light source must be adequately adapted to the photoresist in that single-photon absorption is ... Two-photon absorption is a third-order with respect to the third-order optical susceptibility χ. (. 3. ). {\displaystyle \chi ...
"How to tune graphene properties by introducing defects , KurzweilAI". July 30, 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-11. ... The process is surface-based rather than relying on absorption into the metal and then diffusion of carbon into graphene layers ... uses electrons to generate high-resolution images as using electrons allows to overcome limitations of visible light ... A band gap can be created and tuned by laser irradiation.[45] ...
One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half-hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed ... Absorption chillers are designed to be installed separate from the condensing unit. Cooling towers and pumps are used to supply ... of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Building Re-Tuning Training Guide: AHU Discharge-Air Temperature Control ... An example would be to turn on the parking lot lights when a photocell indicates it is dark outside. Another example would be ...
Dielectric absorption (soakage)[edit]. Main article: Dielectric absorption. Dielectric absorption occurs when a capacitor that ... Tuning capacitor - variable capacitor for intentionally and repeatedly tuning an oscillator circuit in a radio or another tuned ... Larger capacitors are used for energy storage in such applications as strobe lights, as parts of some types of electric motors ... Values of dielectric absorption for some often used capacitors Type of capacitor Dielectric Absorption ...
New plastics and other materials, such as carbon fiber, have allowed artificial limbs to be stronger and lighter, limiting the ... Providing contact to the ground, the foot provides shock absorption and stability during stance.[59] Additionally it influences ... Advancements in the processors used in myoelectric arms have allowed developers to make gains in fine-tuned control of the ... Energy absorption - minimizing the effect of high impact on the musculoskeletal system ...
Transparent for yellow and red light, used as substrate for GaAsP red/yellow LEDs. Doped with S or Te for n-type, with Zn for p ... Tin sulfide (SnS) is a semiconductor with direct optical band gap of 1.3 eV and absorption coefficient above 104 cm−1 for ... The following semiconducting systems can be tuned to some extent, and represent not a single material but a class of materials ... That is, in such transparent materials, light production is not limited to just the surface. Index of refraction is also ...
Dark matter: What is the identity of dark matter?[19] Is it a particle? Is it the lightest superpartner (LSP)? Or, do the ... Fine-tuned universe: The values of the fundamental physical constants are in a narrow range necessary to support carbon-based ... Diffuse interstellar bands: What is responsible for the numerous interstellar absorption lines detected in astronomical spectra ... Scharnhorst, K. (1998). "The velocities of light in modified QED vacua". Annalen der Physik. 7 (7-8): 700-709. arXiv:hep-th/ ...
However, the QDSCs suffer from weak absorption and the contribution of the light absorption at room temperature is marginal. ... The ability to tune the bandgap allowed the designer to select a wider variety of materials for other portions of the cell. ... The same analysis shows that a two layer cell should have one layer tuned to 1.64 eV and the other to 0.94 eV, providing a ... The ability to tune the bandgap makes quantum dots desirable for solar cells. For the sun's photon distribution spectrum, the ...
... fluorescent light diffusers, rear light covers for vehicles. It forms the basis of artistic and commercial acrylic paints when ... The molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. ... Depending on their chemical composition, plastics and resins have varying properties related to contaminant absorption and ... Typical stabilizers thus absorb UV light or function as antioxidants. Fillers. Many plastics[citation needed] contain fillers, ...
Violet CTP is "based on emulsion tuned to visible light exposure".[15] ... Cold-set inks are set simply by absorption into non-coated stocks and are generally used for newspapers and books but are also ... In this process, the ink dries by absorption into the underlying paper. A typical coldset configuration is often a series of ... Cold web offset printing dries through absorption into the paper, while heatset utilizes drying lamps or heaters to cure or " ...
The phosphor is not suitable to be used in layers thicker than 25 mg/cm², as the self-absorption of the light then becomes a ... The pale yellow emission of the Ce3+:YAG can be tuned by substituting the cerium with other rare-earth elements such as terbium ... "Vacuum light sources - High speed stroboscopic light sources data sheet" (PDF). Ferranti, Ltd. August 1958. Archived (PDF) from ... Phosphor layers provide most of the light produced by fluorescent lamps, and are also used to improve the balance of light ...
1946). "Atmospheric Absorption Measurements with a Microwave Radiometer". Physical Review. 70 (5-6): 340-348. Bibcode:1946PhRv ... The Swiss 20 francs bill lists several astronomical objects with their distances - the CMB is mentioned with 430 · 1015 light- ... Either such coherence is acausally fine-tuned, or cosmic inflation occurred.[5][6] ... 1953 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich in support of his tired light theory, derives a blackbody temperature for intergalactic space of ...
Light water also acts as a moderator, but because light water absorbs more neutrons than heavy water, reactors using light ... Deuterium's absorption cross section for thermal neutrons is 0.52 millibarns (5.2 × 10−32 m2; 1 barn = 10−28 m2), while those ... To perform their tasks, enzymes rely on their finely tuned networks of hydrogen bonds, both in the active center with their ... Semiheavy water, HDO, exists whenever there is water with light hydrogen (protium, 1. H) and deuterium (D or 2. H) in the mix. ...
In Fourier transform spectroscopy they are used to analyze light containing features of absorption or emission associated with ... since tuning is via mechanical rotation of waveplates rather than via high voltage control of piezoelectric crystals or lithium ... Figure 1. The light path through a Michelson interferometer. The two light rays with a common source combine at the half- ... Reflected light from the tissue sample is combined with reflected light from the reference. Because of the low coherence of the ...
Faisal, F. H. M. (1973). "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms". Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. 6 ... The ionization rate can also be calculated in A-gauge, which emphasis the particle nature of light (absorbing multiple photons ... Story, J.; Duncan, D.; Gallagher, T. (1994). "Landau-Zener treatment of intensity-tuned multiphoton resonances of potassium". ... This process can be understood as a process by which a bounded electron, through the absorption of more than one photon from ...
The MLCT absorption band can be shifted, the emission wavelength can be changed, and the emission lifetime can be extended. A ... Some complexes strongly absorb light via a process called metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT). The properties of these ... This complex also exhibits photoluminescence at room temperature, and its wavelength and lifetime can be tuned by substitution ... complexes can be tuned by changes in substituents. For example, electron donation, electron withdrawal, and π-conjugating ...
An absorption-re-emission atomic line filter absorbs the desired wavelength of light and emits light that bypasses broadband ... By the Stark effect and Zeeman splitting, the base absorption lines may be split into finer lines. "Stark and Zeeman tuning... ... In absorption-re-emission ALFs, the frequency of light must be shifted in order for the filter to operate, and in a passive ... In passive absorption-re-emission ALFs, a high-pass filter blocks all low-energy incoming light. The vapor cell absorbs the ...
This ride-tuned handlebar combines the ultimate blend of strength, stiffness and shock absorption. ... The ride-tuned stiffness of the Fatbar Lite Carbon results in incredible control, yet careful tuning gives the perfect level of ... The ride-tuned stiffness of the Fatbar Lite Carbon results in incredible control, yet careful tuning gives the perfect level of ... Ride Tuned. Ride Tuned. The UD (uni-directional) carbon fibres are layered and aligned to give specific flex characteristics. ...
... on a new a material that could be ideal for converting solar energy into heat by tuning the materials spectrum of absorption ... The light from the solar panel and oxygen play a part in a chemical reaction that charges the battery, according to Ohio State ... "The state of the art is to use a solar panel to capture the light, and then use a cheap battery to store the energy," Wu said ... "It should absorb virtually all wavelengths of light that reach Earths surface from the sun, but not much of the rest of the ...
Meanwhile, we find that the absorption frequency or levels can be modulated in a large scale by tuning the Fermi level of ... In almost all of the theoretical literature, high-quality ( or high carrier mobility) graphene is assumed for improving light- ... By placing a complete graphene layer above the metasurface substrates, we demonstrate that full absorption is possible even in ... In our experiment, the surface nearly fully absorbs and fully reflects light coming from two oppositely tilted directions. This ...
Boosted by the need for lighter weight, more sustainable materials, nonwovens continue to increase their role in cars worldwide ... They provide better acoustic absorption, lighter weight and improved resilience. The pads can be customized based on the ... The materials used are "fine-tuned" to ideally cover the specific frequency spectrum desired by car manufacturers. " ... At the same time, the textile battery undercovers also convince thanks to their low weight: They are up to 50 percent lighter ...
Ride Tuned The UD (uni-directional) carbon fibres are layered and aligned to give specific flex characteristics. The ride-tuned ... The light weight of this all-new Fatbar Carbon makes it ideally suited for trail bike use, where a super-wide handlebar is ... stiffness and shock absorption. ... Fatbar Lite Carbon / Fatbar Lite Carbon35. *Fatbar Lite / ... Ride Tuned. Ride Tuned. The UD (uni-directional) carbon fibres are layered and aligned to give specific flex characteristics. ...
... absorption. The amount of absorption indicates how much CO2 is present. Scotland-based GSS has developed a range of proprietary ... Most CO2 sensors work by measuring how much light is absorbed by CO2 molecules in the 4.2 to 4.4 microns range, known as Non- ... LEDs specifically tuned to emit at these wavelengths. The LEDs use very little power and turn on almost instantly, enabling ...
J. Hao, L. Zhao, and M. Qui, "Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials," Phy. Rev. B 83 ... the ITO ground plane can be configured in a CMOS configuration to tune the absorption of the metamaterial via charge injection ... The measured absorption spectrum [A(λ) = 1 − R(λ)] of the metamaterial absorber is shown in Fig. 3. Broadband absorption with a ... J. Hao, L. Zhao, and M. Qui, "Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials," Phy. Rev. B 83 ...
The CHARM® measuring process is based on the absorption of infrared light by methane as a main component of natural gas. CHARM® ... Natural gas concentrations can be determined by tuning the laser wavelength to the spectral signature and specific absorption ... Both light signals are sent out virtually at the same time as a double pulse from the helicopter to the ground, where the light ... This measuring principle is known as Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL). LIDAR stands for "Light Detection And Ranging". ...
LIGHT & NIMBLE: The new lightweight aluminum perimeter frame improves overall rigidity balance while a new swingarm (same as ... Revised linkage ratios add to increased bump absorption and improved damping performance. Suspension settings have been fine- ... tuned, optimized to match the new frame.. *REAL STOPPING POWER: The new front brake master cylinder offers a high level of ... SMOOTH & CONSISTENT: A new coned disc-spring hydraulic clutch offers direct feel and light lever action while reducing play as ...
An external cavity length tuning system of ECDL laser based on the double light path atom saturated absorption spectrum method ... length tuning system include the laser light source and optical path of saturated absorption spectrum to give a laser light ... Horizontal polarization light divided into one transmitted light drawing as a red arrow line and two reflected lights drawing ... Because one of the 4He absorption lines needs a 1083.207 nm light, so the saturated absorption spectrum device is based on a 4 ...
... relies on the on the fundamental absorption physics that different gases absorb light at different wavelengths. That is to say ... Tuning for stability and accuracy. Vaisalas version of the FPI is tunable, meaning it can be adjusted to allow different ... Each filter is fixed to transmit only a specific wavelength of light to a detector that identifies how much light has been ... The distance between two mirrors, separated by an air gap, can be tuned by passing a voltage over the air gap. This adjusts the ...
The spectrum can also be tuned within the available spectral range in order to tailor the light output to the specific ... this point source design provides exceptional spatial and spectral uniformity without wavelength-dependent angular absorption ... Leslie Lyons, business development manager for light metrology at Pro-Lite Technology, says spectral camera calibration needs a ... A tunable LED light source offers spectral reproduction. Credit: Pro-Lite Technology ...
... absorption lines. Atomic absorption spectrometers use the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas phase atoms. ... PerkinElmer Atomic Spectroscopy Sample Preparation BECAUSE PREPARATION IS EVERYTHING . Fine-tuning flame characteristics (fuel/ ... Atomic absorption spectrometers use the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas phase atoms. An atom consists ... Atomic absorption analysis involves measuring the absorption of light by vaporized ground … From it, I would like to highlight ...
As a result, sensitivity can be enhanced without changing the system-provided specific absorption rate (SAR) models. The ... The switching system shows for the first time that a metamaterial resonator can be detuned during transmission and tuned during ... tuned to the Larmor frequency) in receive mode. Since it does not require any connection to the MRI console, the switching ... light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, ...
The research team was able to control the presence of certain types of crystal defects by tuning the chemical composition of ... Small changes to the perovskite composition can tune the absorption spectrum of perovskite solar cells relatively easily, ... making it possible to create a perovskite solar cell that absorbs the higher-energy light but lets the lower-energy light pass ... A popular perovskite light absorber has been found to have defects that impede solar cell performance. The research published ...
But when you think about it, visible light sensors work on another principle, they work by absorption rather than like an ... An antenna is intended to receive only one transmission at a time so the antenna most often forms part of a tuned circuit where ... Visible light consists of photons and they are converted to electrical energy anyway when they are absorbed as you mentioned ... But like a user on Gizmodo commented, if we could actually see radio signals, they would just be flashes of light. Radio waves ...
... we show that light absorption in graphene can be manipulated by tuning plasmonic resonance. A maximum absorption of 30.3% with ... the incorporation of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays into graphene-based photodetectors to enhance and tune light absorption ... Manipulating light absorption of graphene using plasmonic nanoparticles. Full Text. Manipulating light absorption of graphene ...
Graphene: controlling absorption Flat sheets of graphite just one carbon atom thick, called graphene, display unique optical ... In particular, graphene is nearly transparent to light and other electromagnetic (EM) waves, making it useful for liquid ... and the electron energy could be tuned using voltage gates ...
"So how can I mix that so that it can absorb the orange light?" Tuning the light absorption capabilities of these materials ... "By doing this alloying, we can say, I have orange light, but I have materials that can absorb red light and yellow light," ...
Yamaha today unveiled their all-new electric start YZ450F featuring the worlds first smartphone tuning app on a production ... The all-new cylinder head is lighter, and the engine is repositioned in the new frame at a slightly more upright angle for ... The easily tuned, fully adjustable KYB spring-type forks feature speed sensitive damping that provides exceptional balance ... Put simply, the new frame is designed for the best possible balance of bump absorption, stiffness and cornering. ...
... means for enhancing the absorption cross section of nanostructured light-harvesting and -emitting materials, and opens new ... How do optoelectronic processes happen at different time scales, and can nanostructured elements be used to tune the dynamics ... 2. Nanoscale light-harvesting and -emitting device approaches. We convey how are optoelectronic processes modified when ... Can the control of matter at the nanoscale provide novel ways to create next-generation light-harvesting and -emitting devices ...
... with light in unconventional ways." By using the tuned metamaterial, he says, his team was able to slow light to less than one- ... "High-efficiency absorption has been achieved before, but this design has an extremely wide window" for colors of light, Fung ... that is tuned to a range of specific frequencies of light. Light of different wavelengths is absorbed by the material at ... The new design uses a pattern of wedge-shaped ridges whose widths are precisely tuned to slow and capture light of a wide range ...
Autocorrelators are devices for measuring the intensity or field autocorrelation function of light, mostly used for determining ... Categories: photonic devices, light detection and characterization, optical metrology, light pulses. How to cite the article; ... Autocorrelators Based on Two-photon Absorption. Particularly compact and simple autocorrelators can be constructed using ... TPA detector allows for measurements of ultrafast laser pulses with high sensitivity by eliminating the need for angle tuning ...
Ride tuned to provide an ideal combination of stiffness and shock absorption ... Renthal FatBar Lite Carbon Handlebar: 20mm Rise, 760mm Width, 35mm Clamp, Carbon. By: Renthal ... An ideal handlebar for riding anything from XC to enduro, this carbon offering of the Fatbar Lite combines a blend of strength ...
Tuned to transmit from 9 to 92% of available light, the coatings are specifically formulated for optimal balance between ... reflection, transmission and absorption. Polarization Every single pair of Oakley polarized sunglasses achieves 99.9% ... Harsh glare is caused by light waves bouncing off flat surfaces and water, and can be up to 10 times as bright as ambient light ... People no longer had to wear metal frame glasses as the Ray Ban Wayfarer RB2140 is made from plastic making it lighter. For ...
Tuned to transmit from 9 to 92% of available light, the coatings are specifically formulated for optimal balance between ... reflection, transmission and absorption. Polarization Every single pair of Oakley polarized sunglasses achieves 99.9% ... Harsh glare is caused by light waves bouncing off flat surfaces and water, and can be up to 10 times as bright as ambient light ... People no longer had to wear metal frame glasses as the Ray Ban Wayfarer RB2140 is made from plastic making it lighter. For ...
The new MIN.D is a road-focused machine, with the emphasis on light weight but also very much on comfort (because as is so ... There are no fancy KAMM tube profiles here, but every element has been tuned for maximum comfort and minimum weight. ... seatpost and newly designed seatcap keep weight to an absolute minimum whilst providing some natural shock absorption. ... Theres a new R-Turn fork, which OPEN say is the lightest disc road fork currently available, and a superslim integrated ...
Auxiliary light sources as an extension for self-absorption correction are recommended for greater accuracy. ... spectrometers and the new VTC VCSEL test camera Instrument Systems offers modular all-in-one solutions that are optimally tuned ... The need for suitable measuring systems for efficient, high-precision optical characterization of these narrow-band light ...
On the right-hand side, a pair of diffraction gratings can be seen to split the light beam into two identical spectrograph arms ... This structure has been observed in HI emission (e.g., Sancisi, Thonnard & Ekers, 1987), X-ray absorption (Irwin & Sarazin, ... A galaxy is simply imaged through a slitless spectrograph tuned to the 5007Å line. When this image is studied, the background ... The first 12 points come from the integrated light spectroscopy of Fisher, Illingworth, & Franx (1995). The last 2 points ...
Light, breathable, and comfortable enough for all-day wear, youve found the do-it-all adventure bike shoe for the road less ... Tuned grip, on and off the bike. Equal parts high-performance biking shoes and everyday sneaker, these mountain biking shoes ... The lightweight EVA midsole has a high rubber content which increases shock absorption and adds strength. The reinforced toe ... The Sleuth Slip-On features non-marking Marathon rubber outsoles that offer a tuned grip for freedom of movement on the pedal ...
  • The cavity can be tuned, for example, across a continuous spectrum, to a specific wavelength band, to a shape that increases or decreases the number of modes it has, to a series of transmission ranges each suitable for a respective light source, with a modulation that allows lock-in with photosensing for greater sensitivity, and so forth. (
  • The key is that the structures must be much smaller than the wavelength of the light of interest and that the structures must interact with the photons. (
  • Such a hyperlens would magnify objects that were below the traditional diffraction limit, about a half-wavelength of light, so that they could be imaged with conventional optics. (
  • Opsin proteins can be classified into medium/long wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) and short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) based on the wavelength of their peak light sensitivity. (
  • Comparisons of visual pigments across taxa indicate that spectral tuning and, therefore, the wavelength of peak light sensitivity (λ max ) are modulated by 5 key critical amino acid sites in M/LWS opsins ( 4 ) and at least 11-aa sites in SWS opsins ( 5 ). (
  • Despite the advancements in non-invasive medical imaging since 1895 -- the year in which Wilhelm Röntgen discovered a new, higher energy, shorter wavelength form of light able to penetrate solid objects which he called the x-ray -- 80 percent of radiology still involves the plain, old x-ray. (
  • In addition, synchrotron light can be tuned to be "monochromatic," or essentially of one wavelength or color. (
  • To make a diffraction enhanced image, x-rays from the synchrotron are first tuned to one wavelength before being beamed at an anatomical structure, such as a hand or foot. (
  • The instrument can be used to identify the material composition of individual particles by tuning the far-infrared laser to different wavelengths and collecting the visible scattered light at each wavelength. (
  • The MLCT absorption band can be shifted, the emission wavelength can be changed, and the emission lifetime can be extended. (
  • This complex also exhibits photoluminescence at room temperature, and its wavelength and lifetime can be tuned by substitution of either bipyridine or dithiolate moieties. (
  • 9. The respiratory flow component of claim 1 , wherein said luminescable composition is excited by at least one wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in the visible light range. (
  • 11. The respiratory flow component of claim 1 , wherein said luminescable composition is excited by at least a blue or green wavelength of visible light. (
  • To produce heat efficiently the nanoparticles have to be irradiated with light in the same wavelength range of the plasmon band absorption. (
  • Our results show that it is possible for an extremely thin layer of material to absorb almost 100 percent of incident light of a specific wavelength. (
  • The Stanford team, which included postdoc Carl Hagglund, found that they could tune gold nanodots to absorb 99 percent of the reddish-orange light at the 600-nm wavelength. (
  • The two-photon absorption cross-section at ∼800 nm for Ag29(DHLA)12 is higher than 10(4) GM and the hyperpolarizability is 106 × 10(-30) esu at the same excitation wavelength. (
  • Based on its wavelength-dependence, this optical signal appears to derive from changes in light scattering during neural activity. (
  • In this respect, olfactory receptors are similar to photoreceptors: each photoreceptor cell makes a single type of opsin protein, whose absorption properties determine the interaction of the cell with photons of different wavelength. (
  • The emission wavelength of the laser is tuned over a characteristic absorption line transition -- of the species within the gas being assessed," Shao explains. (
  • When the wavelength is rapidly tuned across the transition in a specific manner, it can be combined with a modulation technique called "wavelength modulation" (WM), which gives the TDLAS technique an enhanced sensitivity. (
  • a phosphor that converts at least a part of the blue light into longer-wavelength radiation, wherein the phosphor is an Al-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, a Ga-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, a Ga,Al-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, or a mixture thereof, whereby the device emits white light. (
  • a phosphor that converts at least a part of the blue light into longer-wavelength radiation, wherein the phosphor is an Al-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, a Ga-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, a Ga,Al-containing Tb-garnet phosphor, or a mixture thereof. (
  • Typical antireflective coatings are engineered to transmit light of one particular wavelength. (
  • However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. (
  • The effect of excited state depolarization is confirmed also by the fluorescence (absorption) spectra measurement in micrometric cells with different thicknesses. (
  • deviate strongly from known rhodopsin absorption spectra. (
  • Resonant absorption spectra enabled us to map the wavevector-frequency dispersion for graphene plasmons at mid-IR energies and revealed a modified plasmon dispersion as well as plasmon damping due to intrinsic optical phonons of graphene and graphene plasmon interaction with the surface polar phonons in SiO$_{2}$ substrates. (
  • Furthermore, the ancestral absorption spectra of proteorhodopsins as well as the influence of proteorhodopsin color evolution on the long-term diversification of marine phototrophs are unknown. (
  • Infrared spectroscopy is typically used to identify unknown materials because almost every material can be identified by its unique far-infrared absorption spectrum, or fingerprint. (
  • the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. (
  • Using DFT and TD-DFT calculations, we show that the substitution of heterocyclic π donor groups onto the tpy ligand scaffold leads to marked improvement of the [Fe(tpy) 2 ] 2+ absorption properties, characterized by increased molar extinction coefficients, shift of absorption energies to longer wavelengths, and broadening of the absorption spectrum in the visible region. (
  • Plasmonic NPs absorbing in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum of the light are more suitable for biological applications since the absorption of light by tissue is minimal. (
  • Not until the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum is reached, beyond visible light, beyond infrared and far, far beyond microwaves, do photons have sufficient energy to break chemical bonds. (
  • The detailed structural and spectral analysis, as well as the density functional theory simulation, further confirms the existence of donor-acceptor molecular pair structures, which could decrease the energy bandgap and increase the electron delocalization for enhancing light absorption across a broad spectrum. (
  • However, only very limited attentions have been paid to regulate its absorption spectrum because of the structural heterogeneity and disorder covalent/noncovalent interactions of PDA. (
  • Comparing to a metasurface based on solid blocks of similar size, the quadrumer-based metasurface feature significant absorption enchantment and strong change of a reflection spectrum. (
  • The colour of the eye shine is determined mainly by the reflectance spectrum of the tapetal mirror and the transmittance spectrum of the photoreceptor screening pigments, if present near the light-guiding rhabdom. (
  • Almost every material can be chemically identified by its unique infrared absorption spectrum 'fingerprint', and this can be measured through an established method called a photothermal modulation of Mie scattering (PMMS). (
  • From the optical results, samples etched for 45 min show strong absorption in the visible spectrum. (
  • Based on the observed results, 15 min etched Si with a uniform porous structure has minimum reflectance across the entire silicon UV-Vis absorption spectrum, making it worth further investigation as a candidate for use as an antireflection layer in silicon based solar cells. (
  • 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the received photons are within the visible light spectrum. (
  • The resulting signal contains beat amplitudes at microwave frequencies, and a frequency analysis of these amplitudes reveals the sample absorption spectrum. (
  • This huge gain in absorption was consistent across the entire spectrum of sunlight, from UV to visible light and infrared, and moves solar power a significant step forward toward economic viability. (
  • Color vision in birds is mediated by four types of cone photoreceptors whose maximal sensitivities (λ max ) are evenly spaced across the light spectrum. (
  • We propose an enzymatic pathway that mediates the differential production of these apocarotenoids in the avian retina, and we use color vision modeling to demonstrate how correlated evolution of spectral tuning is necessary to achieve even sampling of the light spectrum and thereby maintain near-optimal color discrimination. (
  • Fluorescence spectrum demonstrates G-type (quenching) to T-type (fluorescent) conformation conversion, which is due to activated internal rotation of the dimethylamino group under elevated storage temperature and electronic excitation in the phenyl groups under light irradiation during storage. (
  • In conventional terms, the light bulb would shift frequency to "become invisible" only if it was moving at a relativistic velocity, so that its thermal spectrum moved down into radio waves, or up into x-rays, so that distant solid materials no longer interacted. (
  • A tunable far-IR laser (QCL) or pump projects laser light (shown in this illustration as red, but actually invisible far-IR, or thermal energy) and a 532 nm laser (probe) projects green light onto the same location on a sample, which consists of microspheres deposited onto a ZnSe substrate in this experiment. (
  • We will continue developing a plasmonic metamaterial with strong absorption within a narrow band that is dynamically tunable over the 8-10 micron range. (
  • These rationally designed PDA nanoparticles with tunable absorption properties also show improved total photothermal effect and demonstrate excellent performances in solar desalination. (
  • Tunable diode laser analyzers are systems for measuring the concentration of specific species within a gas mixture using laser absorption spectrometry . (
  • We experimentally demonstrated polarization-sensitive, tunable plasmonic resonant absorption in the mid-infrared range of 5-14 um by utilizing an array of graphene nanoribbon resonators. (
  • A technique referred to as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is particularly suitable because it combines all of these properties with an ease of use and low cost," Shao says. (
  • It can be used to measure the concentration of specific gaseous species -- carbon monoxide, CO2, water, or methane, to name a handful -- within gaseous mixtures by using absorption spectrometry based on tunable diode lasers. (
  • The group's basic setup simply involves a tunable diode laser as the light source, beam shaping optics, a sample to be investigated, receiving optics, and one or more detectors. (
  • This Cerna ® microscope kit provides an optical path suited for experiments requiring either epi-fluorescence, reflected light, or brightfield imaging. (
  • The influence of the functionalization pattern on the size and optical properties of the nanoparticles is studied using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. (
  • The UV-vis absorption, single-photon excited fluorescence (SPEF) and two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) of the complexes have been systematically studied, suggesting that the three metal complexes have strong two-photon absorption (2PA) and large 2PA cross-sections. (
  • The influence of transverse magnetic fields on the amplitude and the width of the resonances, recorded in fluorescence and absorption, were investigated in the cases of excitation with linear, circular, and elliptical laser light polarization. (
  • The results indicate that the quenching G-type is converted to T-type by heat or light to become color faded and bright with enhanced fluorescence and that T-type is reverted to G-type after storage under cool and dark conditions or by vacuum distillation to lose fluorescence. (
  • the output light being within the photon energy range. (
  • Here, we applied two-photon calcium imaging to map neuronal tuning for orientation, direction, SF and TF, and speed in response to drifting gratings in V1 and PM of anesthetized mice. (
  • A conjugated polymer molecule can absorb a photon when an incident photon has energy larger than the band gap, leading to photon absorption. (
  • The photon absorption leads to an electronic transition with the outcome of generating an electron in LUMO and a hole in HOMO in an organic conjugated polymer molecule. (
  • The photon absorption-generated electron and hole can largely bond together to form an intra-molecular electron-hole pair, named as Frenkel exciton, due to Coulomb attraction. (
  • It has been found that donor-acceptor interaction, formed between two different organic molecules, can effectively dissociate photon absorption-generated excitons and generates significant photocurrent. (
  • The pigments in retinal photoreceptor cells absorb varying wavelengths of light, but the central chromophore, the molecule that actually absorbs the photon is identical. (
  • Tuning Ag29 nanocluster light emission from red to blue with one and two-photon excitation. (
  • We demonstrate that the tuning of the light emission from red to blue in dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped Ag29 nanoclusters can be trigged with one and two photon excitations. (
  • Tuning over the two-photon resonance is achieved sweeping a magnetic field around zero value. (
  • To get maximum efficiency when converting solar power into electricity, you want a solar panel that can absorb nearly every single photon of light, regardless of the sun's position in the sky," said Shawn-Yu Lin, professor of physics at Rensselaer and a member of the university's Future Chips Constellation, who led the research project. (
  • Figure 6: Light condensation with dark nanoparticles. (
  • Examples will be given in which magnetic nanoparticles are used to direct capsules with magnetic field gradients, colloidal quantum dots are used to identify capsules via the formation of optical barcodes, and gold nanoparticles are used as light-controlled heat-sources for opening capsules and releasing macromolecules from their cavity upon optical excitation. (
  • Tuning the optical properties of poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) nanoparticles as bio-imaging probes by side chain functionalization. (
  • In summary we have demonstrated the capability of preparing the optimal contrast agents for PAT by fine-tuning the size, and the composition of the nanoparticles. (
  • Plasmonic NPs such as Au or Ag NPs can be used for optical sensing or for converting light into heat. (
  • In this talk we will demonstrate how the plasmonic absorption of graphene resonators is enhanced and perturbed in controllable ways by varying the thickness and permittivity of the supporting substrate. (
  • The paper " Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Enhanced Absorption in MoS2 - Organic van der Waals Heterojunctions using Plasmonic Metasurfaces ," by C. E. Petoukhoff et al. (
  • The O'Carroll Group studies light generating and light harvesting processes in organic polymer semiconductor materials and plasmonic nanostructures. (
  • While gold and silver have conventionally been considered the most appropriate plasmonic absorbers, we demonstrate different absorbing metals like aluminum and specifically chromium, with its plasma frequency happening at 850 nm, as more efficient layers for absorption. (
  • This identification relies upon the transmission of select wavelengths of light across a volume of wound fluid to a photo detector (connected to signal processing instrumentation) capable of quantifying the absorption characteristics of the fluid. (
  • Here, the absorption process was detected using a combination of photoacoustic spectroscopy in the ultrasound region and the high pulse energy emitted by an external cavity quantum cascade laser that can be tuned across the infrared glucose fingerprint region. (
  • In the recent study, Nilsson and colleagues probed the structure of liquid water using X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. (
  • In conventional spectroscopy, these absorption lines are derived from the attenuation of infrared light. (
  • Solar Energy Harvesting with Fe(II)-polypyridines: Strategies for Tuning the Light Absorption and Interfacial Electron Transfer. (
  • In electronic devices based on organic semiconductors such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors or transistors, electronic excitations and charge transport levels are important concepts to describe their operation principles and performances. (
  • Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity," said Stacey Bent, a professor of chemical engineering at Stanford and a member of the research team. (
  • The volume of each dot is equivalent to a layer of gold just 1.6 nanometers thick, making it the thinnest absorber of visible light on record - about 1000 times thinner than commercially available thin-film solar cell absorbers. (
  • The next step is to demonstrate that the technology can be used in actual solar cells, with the ultimate goal being to develop improved solar cells and solar fuel devices by confining the absorption of sunlight to the smallest amount of material possible. (
  • Optimisation of the perovskite solar cell comes down to the design, morphology and crystal/defect chemistry of the light absorber (the semiconducting perovskite). (
  • The addition, which faces south, would include high-solar heat gain glazing with overhangs tuned for winter solar absorption. (
  • Light trapping for solar fuel generation with mie resonances. (
  • This may be an interesting and fully sustainable way to produce this interesting fuel, provided that materials efficiency becomes sufficient and solar light can be effectively harvested. (
  • In this latest work, they were able to produce nanopillars that absorb light as well or even better than commercial thin-film solar cells, using far less semiconductor material and without the need for anti-reflective coating. (
  • Theoretical and experimental works have shown that 3-D arrays of semiconductor nanopillars - with well-defined diameter, length and pitch - excel at trapping light while using less than half the semiconductor material required for thin-film solar cells made of compound semiconductors, such as cadmium telluride, and about one-percent of the material used in solar cells made from bulk silicon. (
  • The germanium nanopillars can be tuned to absorb infrared photons for highly sensitive detectors, and the cadmium sulfide/telluride nanopillars are ideal for solar cells. (
  • From an economic and efficiency perspective, this unharvested light is wasted potential and a major barrier hampering the proliferation and widespread adoption of solar power. (
  • So along with significantly better absorption of sunlight, Lin's discovery could also enable a new generation of stationary, more cost-efficient solar arrays. (
  • Both varieties, however, exhibit Van Hove singularities in their electronic band structures, allowing for resonant absorption and scattering of light ( , 18 ). (
  • Observed differences in spectral absorption are suggested to stem from sequence variability between the two proteorhodopsins. (
  • In order to explore the evolution of proteorhodopsin spectral absorption, we inferred ancestral proteorhodopsin protein sequences from phylogeny. (
  • Here we present a broad evaluation of gold-containing nanoparticle for PAT contrast agents with different sizes and optical absorption properties. (
  • By tuning the shape and geometry of highly ordered nanopillar arrays of germanium or cadmium sulfide, we have been able to drastically enhance the optical absorption properties of our nanopillars," says Ali Javey, a chemist who holds joint appointments with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California (UC) at Berkeley. (
  • This presents yet another degree of control in the optical absorption properties of nanopillars," Javey says. (
  • The findings demonstrate that the energetics in organic films can be tuned by adjusting a single molecular parameter, namely the molecular quadrupole moment in the pi-stacking direction of the molecules. (
  • For sensitive (high signal-to-noise ratio) detection of glucose molecules, the quality of the light from the laser must not be compromised for the tuning speed. (
  • Like many metabolic pathways, this process appears to be synched to a day-night light cycle through the molecules that make up the body's circadian clock, but the exact mechanisms of the transaction are poorly understood. (
  • When tested with aliphatic molecules of increasing carbon chain length, many glomeruli were sharply tuned for one or two adjacent chain lengths. (
  • Tuning the X-rays to a specific range of energies can reveal with tremendous precision the location and arrangement of the water molecules. (
  • Like many spectroscopic techniques, frequency combs track the presence of specific molecules by revealing their spectral "fingerprints"- absorption lines whose frequencies correspond to molecular vibrations or rotations. (
  • But Herman says that their setup's sensitivity could be easily improved by using better optics and combs at midinfrared wavelengths, where molecules have stronger absorption lines. (
  • Willert, Christian 2014-02-22 00:00:00 Laser-induced Rayleigh scattering makes use of the fact that elastically scattered laser light from atoms or molecules hold information on pressure, temperature and velocity inside the observed region of interest. (
  • molecules in the light bulb), you would no longer see it! (
  • A distant collection of molecules (such as a hunk of tungsten) would also "see" this light (and become heated) whenever one of the collective multi-line-frequency patterns of the light bulb happened to hit one of the the collective multi-line absorption patterns of the distant cold tungsten metal. (
  • Motorized objective and condenser focusing modules, each with 1" of travel, provide fine-tuned positioning along the optical axis. (
  • Conjugated polymers are versatile bio-imaging probes as their optical properties can be readily fine-tuned. (
  • Then we attacked the problem from a fundamental perspective, tested and fine-tuned our theory, and created a working device," Lin said. (
  • This approach revealed that blue cone sensitivity is fine-tuned through a change in the chemical structure of the light-filtering carotenoid pigments within the photoreceptor. (
  • These results suggest that both blue and violet cone cells have been fine-tuned during evolution to enhance color vision in birds. (
  • To understand the functional role of area PM requires a detailed analysis of its spatial frequency (SF) and temporal frequency (TF) tuning. (
  • Spatiotemporal frequency tuning also represents a footprint for functional characterization of higher visual areas ( Van Essen and Gallant, 1994 ). (
  • Atomic line filters use different mechanisms and designs for different applications, but the same basic strategy is always employed: by taking advantage of the narrow lines of absorption or resonance in a metallic vapor, a specific frequency of light bypasses a series of filters that block all other light. (
  • In absorption-re-emission ALFs, the frequency of light must be shifted in order for the filter to operate, and in a passive device, this shift must be to a lower frequency (i.e. red shifted) simply because of energy conservation. (
  • This means that passive filters are rarely able to work with infrared light, because the output frequency would be impractically low. (
  • A metamaterial consisting of one or more bi-layers of thin metal and dielectric films will trap, concentrate and absorb a narrow frequency band while strongly reflecting out-of-band light. (
  • Optical antennas ( 1 - , 4 ) are the analogs for light of radio frequency dipole antennas. (
  • Here we present an EIT-like behavior in AB stacking bilayer graphene nanoribbons, where the destructive interference of an infrared active phonon mode and a plasmon mode induces an absorption transparency in the vicinity of the phonon frequency. (
  • Specialized light beams called frequency combs could help detect greenhouse-gas emissions from livestock with greater precision than existing methods. (
  • The concept is extended by frequency tuning a narrow line-width continuous wave laser light source along the absorption filter's transmission profile. (
  • A distant single atom with zero linewidth would still "see" this light every time the frequency swept across the atom's absorption freq. (
  • Therefore, the efficiency of OSC is determined by the following three individual processes: light absorption, exciton dissociation, and charge collection. (
  • Absorption of the infrared laser energy by the particles increases their temperatures, causing them to expand and slightly altering their visible-light optical properties. (
  • The properties of these complexes can be tuned by changes in substituents. (
  • The observed changes in the light absorption properties are due to destabilization of ligand-centered occupied π orbital energies, thus increasing the interactions between the metal t 2g (HOMO) and ligand π orbitals. (
  • HOMO inversion) and additional improvement of the light absorption properties. (
  • These results open up a new strategy to tuning the light absorption properties of Fe( II )-polypyridines. (
  • On the other hand, organic semiconducting materials have easy property tuning, are mechanically flexible, and have large-area thin film formation properties. (
  • We tuned the optical properties of our system to maximize the light absorption," said Hagglund, lead author of a study on the work. (
  • Their photoconductive properties could be tuned through varying halide components to achieve different spectral responses. (
  • Glomeruli with similar tuning properties were located near each other, producing a systematic map of molecular chain length on the surface of the olfactory bulb. (
  • In addition, the strong adhesive and light absorption properties of PDA are beneficial for interface engineering in water remediation ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • A light classic ski with exceptional stability, explosive acceleration and even faster gliding properties. (
  • The wax absorption properties make this a fast ski. (
  • During this time, he coined the term "Plasmonics" for a new device technology that exploits the unique optical properties of nanoscale metallic structures to route and manipulate light at the nanoscale. (
  • We will show the results of recent experiments where 17.5{\%} absorption is achieved in a sheet of graphene resonators by carefully selecting the properties of an underlying silicon nitride substrate. (
  • Optical properties including absorption and emission are characterized and related to growth and annealing conditions. (
  • Emission properties, in particular emission bandwidth, are subsequently tuned and spectrally widened by annealing fibers in a gradient furnace. (
  • Atmospheric lidar is a class of instruments that uses laser light to study atmospheric properties from the ground up to the top of the atmosphere . (
  • [3] Advanced techniques to study cloud properties using scattered light with different wavelengths were also proposed. (
  • Fine-tuning of the optical properties of hollow-core light cages using dielectric nanofilms. (
  • Their conducting properties can be tuned by insulating them from semiconducting to conducting as well as by adjusting their transparency. (
  • An inhomogeneous optical cavity is tuned by changing its shape, such as by changing reflection surface positions to change tilt angle, thickness, or both. (
  • Small differences in spacing and bonding between elements result in varying degrees of light absorption, transmission, reflection and scattering. (
  • Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, [1] [2] shape and material, giving rise to many applications. (
  • A design criterion that permits truly omnidirectional reflectivity for all polarizations of incident light over a wide selectable range of frequencies was used in fabricating an all-dielectric omnidirectional reflector consisting of multilayer films. (
  • The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process is based on the fact that 235 U atoms and 238 U atoms absorb light of different frequencies (or colors). (
  • Although the absorption frequencies of these two isotopes differ only by a very small amount (about one part in a million), the dye lasers used in AVLIS can be tuned so that only the 235 U atoms absorb the laser light. (
  • The ECDL is microwave (MW) sideband tuned using an electro-optical phase modulator (EOM) driven by an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and filtered using a confocal cavity to generate a sequence of 123 frequencies separated by 300 MHz. (
  • The scan sequence of single sideband frequencies of 600 ns duration covers a 37 GHz region across absorption lines of CO2, CH4, and H2O at a spectral scan rate of 10 kHz (100 ms/scan). (
  • Upon irradiation with visible light, { V 5 } undergoes a light induced reduction reaction resulting in the formation of a 2-electron reduced { V 10 } cluster. (
  • Excitons are bound pairs of an electron and a hole that are formed in the semiconductor material by light absorption. (
  • We examined normal retinal pigment epithelium using three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction from images obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light microscopy (LM) and confocal microscopy. (
  • Images were captured on a digital camera system attached to the microscope for both the transmission electron and light microscopy. (
  • Generally, the process utilizes wavelengths from about one light second to about ten electron volts, or wavelengths with energy levels less than that of ionization. (
  • With the absorption of sufficient energy, a 235 U atom will eject an electron and become a positively charged ion. (
  • The eye-safe transmitter of a ground-based, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR (light detection and ranging) system is described and specified in detail. (
  • However, there have been no specific molecular design guidelines for color tuning. (
  • Organic semiconducting materials have demonstrated attractive light-absorption and photocurrent-generation functions due to their delocalized pi electrons as well as intra-molecular and inter- molecular charge separation processes. (
  • Systems currently under study in the group include functionalization of semiconductor surfaces, mechanisms and control of atomic layer deposition, molecular layer deposition, nanoscale materials for light absorption, interface engineering in photovoltaics, catalyst and electrocatalyst deposition. (
  • [4] With the first experiments, light scattering patterns were observed in the troposphere that were not compatible with a pure molecular atmosphere. (
  • The image-based technique of filtered Rayleigh scattering makes use of the absorption bands of atomic or molecular gases to remove strong elastic scattering effects from the measured signal. (
  • An important next step is to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate the modification of the carotenoid pigments and the tuning of light-sensitive proteins in a wide range of bird species. (
  • Physicists from the Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and the Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed) at the TU Dresden, together with researchers from Tübingen, Potsdam and Mainz were able to demonstrate how electronic energies in organic semiconductor films can be tuned by electrostatic forces. (
  • The three types of coatings they applied - tin sulfide, zinc oxide and aluminum oxide - are not light-absorbing, Hagglund said, "But it has been shown theoretically that if you apply a semiconductor coating, you can shift the absorption from the metal particles to the semiconductor materials. (
  • The connections are important, however, since they may shed light on why humans with disrupted clocks -- those who work the night shift or often travel internationally, for example -- may be at increased risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. (
  • Encapsulation of gold nanospheres using liposomes provides increased enhancement and shift in optical absorption to above 600nm. (
  • Furthermore, step-function mutations greatly enhanced the cellular operational light sensitivity due to a slowed-down photocycle. (
  • This ability results from a change in the light-sensitive protein within the violet cone photoreceptor that shifts its sensitivity towards UV light. (
  • characterized the light-filtering carotenoid pigments from bird species with violet or UV sensitivity, and used computational models of bird vision to predict how these pigments affect the number of colors a bird can see. (
  • These oil droplets are located in the path of light through the receptor and act as long-pass cutoff filters matched to the visual pigment sensitivity of each cone subtype. (
  • We have also synthesized gold nanorods with optical absorption in the near-IR region. (
  • Some complexes strongly absorb light via a process called metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT). (
  • Most surfaces and coatings are designed to absorb light - i.e., be antireflective - and transmit light - i.e., allow the light to pass through it - from a specific range of angles. (
  • conventional dielectric filters based on the spacing of reflective or refractive layers change their effective spacing when light enters at an angle. (
  • We also demonstrate how additional absorption pathways can be created by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment to have optical resonances that can couple to the graphene plasmons. (
  • The Renthal Fatbar Lite Carbon is the ultimate light-weight, trail-proof handlebar. (
  • The Renthal Fatbar Lite Carbon is the handlebar of choice for Enduro racers. (
  • In general, conjugated polymers have large light absorption coefficients due to facile electrical polarization of delocalized pi electrons. (
  • Bilayer design of the bolometer provides very high absorption coefficients compared to the same thickness of a single ZnO layer. (
  • Genetic-algorithm-aided meta-atom multiplication for improved absorption and colouration in nanophotonics. (
  • The plasmon band of such NPs can be tuned easily by changing size or shape. (
  • Plasmon-resonant nanostructures have been employed to effectively enhance light absorption in the near-surface region of photocatalysts, but this approach suffers from intrinsic optical losses in the metal. (
  • By tuning resonator width and charge density, we probed graphene plasmons with $\lambda_{\mathrm{p}}$ $\le \lambda $/100 and plasmon resonance energy as high as 0.26 meV (2100 cm$^{-1})$ for 40 nm wide nanoresonators. (
  • We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. (
  • Optical materials that combine chirality and magnetism are essential for spintronics, magneto-optics, magnetochemistry, and chiral catalysts ( 1 , 2 ) because they allow modulation of light beams, excited states, and chemical processes by means of a magnetic field. (
  • A theoretical model is proposed to analyze the physical processes behind the EIA resonance sign reversal with light intensity. (
  • The corresponding energetics, however, are more difficult to access and to tune than in conventional inorganic semiconductors like silicon chips, which stands as a general challenge. (
  • Here we report on the approach to externally tune a magnitude and spectral position of high-Q resonances, associated with not symmetry-protected BIC state in silicon nitride (Si3N4) photonic crystals. (
  • Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab. (
  • Now, thanks to researchers working at Brookhaven Lab, x-rays from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) are being employed for the first time in a new, low-dose experimental technique to visualize not only bone, but also soft tissue in a way that not is possible using conventional x-rays. (
  • These techniques use powerful X-rays, generated by a synchrotron light source, to excite electrons within a water molecule's single oxygen atom. (
  • Here, we describe a disordered nanostructured material that shows an almost ideal black-body absorption of 98-99% between 400 and 1,400 nm that is insensitive to the angle and polarization of the incident light. (
  • Incident light that has travelled through the rhabdom without being absorbed is mirrored by the tapetum. (
  • This dual-diameter structure absorbed 99-percent of incident visible light, compared to the 85 percent absorbtion by our earlier nanopillars, which had the same diameter along their entire length. (
  • The interface may be a block of transmissive materials having different indices of refraction for receiving a light beam of normal incidence from an optical. (
  • The interface may be a block of transmissive materials having different indices of refraction for receiving a light beam of normal incidence from an optical fiber and directing the beam into the optical path. (
  • For the first time, fast and broad tuning, Continuous Wave (CW) or pulsed output, high spectral repeatability, high power and power stability, and high beam quality are available from a compact, robust mid-IR laser. (
  • Simply put, a laser beam, tuned to identify a particular gas species, passes through the gas to a detector. (
  • The transmission unit consists of a laser source, followed by a series of mirrors, and a beam expander which sends the collimated light beam vertically up to the open atmosphere. (
  • Controlling the light transmission through the lenses for precisely tuned colors and maximized contrast, Prizm technology fine-tunes your vision for sports and outdoor environments. (
  • The vapor stream flows through the collector, where it is illuminated by the precisely tuned laser light. (
  • Birds precisely tune their violet-, blue-, green- and red-sensitive cones by coupling light-sensitive proteins with light-filtering pigments called carotenoids. (
  • As the 235 U atom absorbs the laser light, its electrons are excited to a higher energy state. (
  • Post-fabrication anneals reveal two characteristic optical absorption edges at similar to 2.3 and similar to 3.15 eV that were associated with direct band gaps of cubic CdO and thermodynamically stable wurtzite ZnCdO, respectively. (
  • Deformable components such as elastomer spacers can be connected so that, when deformed, they change relative positions of structures with light-reflective. (
  • The density of the structures being pictured and, hence, their x-ray absorption determine what the radiograph looks like. (
  • Instead of making use of absorption, DEI, as its name says, relies upon diffraction, which is the variation in the intensities of light after it scatters off structures of different densities and organization. (
  • Because DEI relies upon diffraction instead of absorption to produce contrast among various structures, the x-ray dose is lower, while the image quality is higher. (
  • The IQ unit can provide sufficient conjugated structures within PDA for a wide range of absorption ( 4 ). (
  • Because absorption is necessary to produce contrast in the image, the radiation dose received from traditional x-rays comes from the x-rays that are absorbed by the body," explains Zhong. (
  • But in DEI, we do not need to use absorption as a contrast mechanism because we are only following the x-rays that pass through the tissue. (
  • Premium Prizm™ lenses, built on many years of color research, increase contrast by controlling light transmission in bright conditions, for crisp, true-color viewing at all angles. (
  • Gold nanospheres with diameters of 2-60nm generated PAT contrast enhancement at visible-light region. (
  • 4. The method of claim 2 in which the act of tuning changes the number of modes in which the optical cavity provides output light. (
  • More importantly, this phonon-induced transparency can be tuned by electrostatic or chemical doping. (
  • A visible-light camera fitted with a 16× microscopic lens images the particles directly. (
  • The green laser light is then scattered by these heated particles. (
  • The ability to excite particles with infrared light and then look at their scattering with visible wavelengths - a process called photothermal modulation of Mie scattering - has been used since the 1980s. (
  • The feasibility to generate scattered beams of light with a high-intensity main lobe, a weak sub-diffracting waist, and a very low divergence angle, named Photonic nanojets, was demonstrated traditionally with spherical particles. (
  • Absorption of the pump laser by the particles results in direct modulation of the scatter field of the probe laser. (
  • The probe light scattered from the interrogated region is imaged onto a visible camera, enabling simultaneous probing of spatially-separated individual particles. (
  • Almost a decade before scientists learned how to control neutral particles at a distance with laser light, they achieved some of the same tasks using magnetic fields. (
  • After learning how to trap atoms with laser light, they turned to the vast arsenal of laser techniques to gain precise control over neutral particles. (
  • Light can exert forces on atoms and other neutral particles because it carries momentum. (
  • [13] During their experiments they observed light scattered in the upper atmosphere that they attributed to dust particles. (
  • Being several orders of magnitude weaker than other elastic light scattering effects such as Mie scattering from larger particles or laser flare from surfaces, the accuracy of Rayleigh scattering measurements strongly depends on the attenuation of these unwanted but omnipresent noise effects. (
  • By pumping a dye optical amplifier with nanosecond pulses of ∼ 100 mW power, we harness the structural darkness of the material and create a new type of light source, which generates monochromatic emission ( ∼ 5 nm wide) without the need for any resonance. (
  • Atomic line filters work via the absorption or resonance lines of atomic vapors and so may also be designated an atomic resonance filter (ARF). (
  • We report on a novel behavior of the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) resonance observed on the D 2 line of Cs for atoms confined in cells with micrometric thickness. (
  • As has been shown in [ 1 , 2 ], in absence of depolarizing collisions of the excited state, depending on the degeneracy ratio of the two levels involved in the optical transition, subnatural width resonance of both electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT or dark) resonance and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA or bright) resonance can be observed. (
  • In case of optical cell with thickness of several centimeters and transversal dimensions of few centimeters (called further conventional cell), the open hyperfine transitions are depleted due to the hyperfine optical pumping to the ground hyperfine level noninteracting with the laser light and do not play significant role in the formation of the CPT resonance. (
  • Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces. (
  • Alkali atoms, imposed on variable magnetic field B , are irradiated by monochromatic laser field in a way that different light polarization components couple Zeeman sublevels of one hyperfine ground state to a common excited state. (
  • So we've substantially pushed the limits of what can be achieved for light harvesting by optimizing these ultrathin, nanoengineered systems," Hagglund said. (
  • However, to design a laser with a high tuning speed, one has to compromise in other areas. (
  • Daylight Solutions' new Hedgehog™ laser system delivers the high-quality laser light and the high-speed tuning essential for non-invasive glucose monitoring techniques. (
  • they are used in scientific applications requiring the effective detection of a narrowband signal (almost always laser light) that would otherwise be obscured by broadband sources, such as daylight. (
  • These are ideal for covering the full Ti:sapphire laser tuning range of 680-1080 nm. (
  • As a result of the IBS coating manufacturing process, these mirrors have very low absorption and scattering losses and will withstand high laser intensities. (
  • Laser combs give you the best of both worlds," probing vast spectral ranges with coherent light, Herman says. (
  • Atoms can also be trapped by laser light. (
  • Soon afterwards, engineers at Hughes Aircraft Company developed a laser rangefinder using ruby laser light. (
  • Cloud-base height can be identified by the time difference between the transmittance of the laser pulse to the sky and the detection of the backscattered light by the telescope. (
  • TDLAS is by far the most common laser-based absorption technique for quantitative assessments of species within a gas phase. (
  • The AVLIS laser system is a pumped laser system comprised of one laser used to optically pump a separate dye laser, which produces the light used in the separation process. (
  • The laser light emerging from the dye master oscillator laser is increased in power by passage through a dye laser amplifier. (
  • These bi-stable eACRs can be reversibly toggled between open and closed states with brief light pulses of different wavelengths. (
  • They are also referred to as artificial atoms because the density of their electronic states can be widely and easily tuned by adjusting the crystal composition, size, shape, and so on. (
  • My research group and others have cooled atoms to temperatures near absolute zero-conditions that allow us to examine quantum states of matter and unusual interactions between light and ultra-cold atoms. (
  • Proposals for next-generation quantum- and spin-based electronics also rely on the tuning of the charge, spin, and interactions of dopant atoms with local electric fields. (
  • NFIL3, in turn, controls the circadian fluctuations of a metabolic pathway that regulates fat absorption and export into the cells that line the intestine. (
  • The external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of perovskite quantum dot light-emitting diodes have reached 8% and 43 cd A −1 , respectively, and their nanowire lasers show ultralow-threshold room-temperature lasing with emission tunability and ease of synthesis. (
  • The overrepresentation of cardinal tuned neurons was particularly strong in PM showing narrow tuning bandwidths for horizontal and vertical orientations. (