A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Other tumors increased in frequency include; osteomas, adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, thyroid tumors and desmoid tumors. The ... carcinoid tumors; diffuse gastric cancer; fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer; leiomyosarcoma; medullary thyroid cancer; ... Hepatic tumors and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, oropharynx and uvula are solid tumors commonly linked to FA. ... The most common tumors in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); Parathyroid adenomas (benign [noncancerous] tumors ... Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) (which affects 5% to 35% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma only ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma; Mucosal neuromas (benign tumors of nerve tissue on the tongue and lips); ... "Genomic Tumor Assessment". Cancer Treatment Centers for America. Rising Tide. Retrieved 18 November 2016.. ...
I was interested in an inherited form of thyroid cancer, called medullary thyroid carcinoma." He published his findings in ... In 1991, he was appointed chief of tumor biology. He and Peter Laird were the original investigators of the epigenetic portion ...
... of HIN-1 methylation defines specific breast tumor subtypes including medullary carcinoma of the breast and BRCA1-linked tumors ... breast tumors". Cancer Research. 63 (9): 2024-7. PMID 12727813. Bin LH, Nielson LD, Liu X, Mason RJ, Shu HB (July 2003). " ... Cyclin D2 and Twist in in situ and invasive lobular breast carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 107 (6): 970-5. doi: ... "DNA methylation profiling of ovarian carcinomas and their in vitro models identifies HOXA9, HOXB5, SCGB3A1, and CRABP1 as novel ...
... such as carcinoid tumor, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. With immunohistochemistry, the chief ... They are highly vascular tumors and may have a deep red color.[citation needed] On microscopic inspection, the tumor cells are ... Micrograph of a carotid body tumor Glomus jugulare tumor Ectopic functional paraganglioma (glomus jugulare) in a patient with ... When the same type of tumor is found in the adrenal gland, they are referred to as a pheochromocytoma. They are rare tumors, ...
... triple-negative breast tumors mostly fall into the categories of secretory cell carcinoma or adenoid cystic types (both ... medullary cancers and grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas with no specific subtype; and highly aggressive metastatic cancers. ... BRCA-deficient TNBC tumors have a higher rate of clonal mutation burden, defined as more clonal tumors with a higher number of ... demonstrated significantly reduced levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and decreased tumor size at two-week and five-week ...
... is not produced by medullary or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroglobulin levels are tested via a simple blood ... "ACS :: Tumor Markers". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 2009-03-28. Ferracci F, Moretto G, Candeago RM, Cimini N, Conte F, ... Hence, thyroglobulin levels in the blood are mainly used as a tumor marker for certain kinds of thyroid cancer (particularly ... and a greater percentage of patients with thyroid carcinoma. The presence of these antibodies can result in falsely low (or ...
... loss of expression of candidate tumor suppressor gene SFRP1 in most invasive carcinomas except of the medullary type". Oncogene ... The role of SFRP1 as a tumor suppressor has been proposed in many cancers, based on its loss in patient tumors. Its frequent ... Regions of the short arm of chromosome 8 are frequently deleted in a range of solid tumors, indicating that tumor suppressor ... "Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 loss contributes to tumor phenotype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Clin. Cancer Res. ...
The initial manifestation of MEN2 was medullary thyroid carcinoma in 60% of patients, medullary thyroid carcinoma synchronous ... Diagnosis is suspected when a patient with family history of two of the three classical tumors (medullary thyroid cancer, ... In familial isolated medullary thyroid carcinoma the other components of the disease are absent.[citation needed] In a review ... As noted, all types of MEN2 include pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. MEN2A is additionally characterized by ...
... medullary thyroid cancer, bladder carcinoma, and estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer and contributes to tumor ... Jiang P, Shen K, Wang X, Song H, Yue Y, Liu T (June 2014). "TPX2 regulates tumor growth in human cervical carcinoma cells". ... contributes to malignant phenotype in bladder carcinoma". Tumour Biology. 34 (6): 4089-100. doi:10.1007/s13277-013-1000-z. PMID ... "TPX2 overexpression in medullary thyroid carcinoma mediates TT cell proliferation". Pathology Oncology Research. 20 (3): 641-8 ...
The eventual diagnosis was "ductal carcinoma with medullary features".[failed verification] Due to somewhat early detection and ... In 1991, Wadler was diagnosed with breast cancer and had a malignant tumor "the size of a robin's egg" removed from her left ...
... in 23 samples of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma has revealed that CTAG1B expression significantly correlates with tumour ... Anti-CTAG1B antibodies were present in 35.7%, demonstrating that medullary thyroid carcinoma is associated with humoral immune ... "Analysis of cancer/testis antigens in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: expression and humoral response to NY-ESO-1". The ... is expressed in normal fetal and adult testes and in spermatocytic tumors and testicular carcinoma in situ". Laboratory ...
... is typically seen in endocrine tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumours ... Chetty R, Asa SL (October 2004). "Pancreatic endocrine tumour with cytoplasmic keratin whorls. Is the term "rhabdoid" ...
Familial cases of neuroblastoma Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor Adult and pediatric renal cell carcinomas Esophageal ... "ALK rearrangement in sickle cell trait-associated renal medullary carcinoma". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 50 (3): 146-53. doi: ... The standard test used to detect this gene in tumor samples is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) by a US FDA approved ... Debelenko LV, Raimondi SC, Daw N, Shivakumar BR, Huang D, Nelson M, Bridge JA (March 2011). "Renal cell carcinoma with novel ...
described medullary (solid) thyroid carcinoma. In 1961 Sipple described a combination of a pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid ... Benign or malignant tumors of nonendocrine tissues occur as components of some of these tumor syndromes. MEN syndromes are ... described the combination of mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. In 1968 Steiner et al. ... medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple neuromas. A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N ...
The tumor then becomes fixed. Anaplastic carcinoma spreads mostly by direct spread, while papillary carcinoma spreads so the ... Some include Hürthle cell carcinoma as a variant and others list it as a separate type. Medullary thyroid cancer (5 to 8% of ... Cervical lymph nodes become palpable in papillary carcinoma even when the primary tumor is unpalpable. Deep cervical nodes, ... Blood spread is also possible in thyroid cancers, especially in follicular and anaplastic carcinoma. The tumor emboli do ...
Chromophobe RCC Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini Renal medullary carcinoma Xp11 translocation carcinomas Carcinoma ... The primary tumor of renal cell carcinoma is categorized in the table below, as according to the AJCC 8th Edition Cancer ... The majority of kidney cancers reported in children are Wilms' tumors. These tumors can begin to grow when a fetus is still ... "Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019. "Cancer of ...
Medium-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Medrano Roldan syndrome Medullary cystic disease Medullary thyroid carcinoma ... susceptibility type 5 Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 6 Malignant mesenchymal tumor Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor ... Meretoja syndrome Merkle tumors Merlob-Grunebaum-Reisner syndrome Merlob syndrome Mesangial sclerosis, diffuse Mesenteric ... X linked Mitral valve prolapse Miura syndrome Mixed connective tissue disease Mixed Müllerian tumor Mixed receptive-expressive ...
... tumor (nephroblastoma) Carcinoma and sites of primary lesions Blood Leukemia Lymphoma Breast Colon Kidney Lung Genital organs ... Lowe's syndrome Medullary cystic disease Nephrotic syndrome (acute glomerulonephritis, diabetic kidney, system lupus ... syndromes Muscular dystrophy disorders Myasthenia gravis Osteogenesis imperfecta Paget's disease Asthma Bronchogenic carcinoma ...
Syringomyelia Multiple sclerosis Encephalitis Brain tumors Lateral medullary syndrome Preganglionic (anhidrosis of face) ... Cervical rib traction on stellate ganglion Thyroid carcinoma Thyroidectomy Goiter Bronchogenic carcinoma of the superior ... such as a Pancoast tumor (tumor in the apex of the lung) or thyrocervical venous dilatation). Causes can be divided according ... Third-order neuron disorder: Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous ...
The ichor from the discharging medullary carcinoma was not destroyed by soap and water. … Thus, childbed fever is caused not ... for instance secretions from an infected knee or from a cancer tumor. In a case of discharging cancer of the innermost part of ... a patient was admitted with discharging medullary carcinoma [cancer of the innermost part] of the uterus. She was assigned the ...
"Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 differentially affect proliferation in vitro of the human medullary thyroid carcinoma ... "111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide binding and somatostatin receptor subtypes in thyroid tumors". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 41 (4 ... "Expression of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in 81 cases of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors. A correlative ...
... therapy in bone-confined painful metastatic disease in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and neuroendocrine tumour: can ... "Dual tracer imaging approach in assessing tumor biology and heterogeneity in neuroendocrine tumors: its correlation with tumor ... ISBN 978-953-51-0359-2. Sandip Basu; Wei Chen (22 April 2013). PET Imaging of Brain Tumors, An Issue of PET Clinics. Elsevier ... ISBN 978-953-51-0359-2. Sandip Basu; Wei Chen (22 April 2013). PET Imaging of Brain Tumors, An Issue of PET Clinics. Elsevier ...
CEA levels may also be raised in gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and medullary ... varies directly with tumor stage. Left-sided tumors generally tend to have higher CEA levels than right-sided tumors. Tumors ... It varies inversely with tumor grade; well-differentiated tumors secrete more CEA. CEA is elevated more in tumors with lymph ... Aneuploid tumors produce more CEA than diploid tumors. Liver dysfunction increases CEA levels as the liver is the primary site ...
Medullary thyroid cancer Medullary carcinoma of the breast Medullary carcinoma may also refer to tumors of the: Ampulla of ... a medullary tumor usually arises from the "mid-layer tissues" of the relevant organ. Medullary carcinoma most commonly refers ... Medullary carcinoma may refer to one of several different tumors of epithelial origin. As the term "medulla" is a generic ... Renal medullary carcinoma) Large intestine Pancreas Stomach v t e. ...
... also produced by medullary thyroid carcinoma, is released into the blood and it is useful as a serum or blood tumor marker. In ... of all medullary thyroid carcinomas. Seventy-five percent of medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in individuals without an ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma may also produce a thyroid nodule and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Sites of spread of medullary ... Medullary tumors are the third most common of all thyroid cancers and together make up about 3% of all thyroid cancer cases. ...
Koenig divided the tumors into scirrhous, steatomatous, fungoid and medullary forms. Following the classification of the tumour ... "Renal clear cell carcinoma (Grawitz tumor)". Atlas of Pathology. January 30, 2009. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009 ... "Clear-cell Carcinoma, Hypernephroid Tumour, or Hypernephroma". Archived from the original on 2010-05-07. Retrieved 2010-03-31. ... in 1959 who studied the ultrastructure of clear cells from eight renal carcinomas. They found that the tumour cell cytoplasm ...
Histopathology studies show a distinctive pattern that can be distinguished from other renal tumors. Renal medullary carcinoma ... of primary kidney tumors in childhood. Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. ... "Renal medullary carcinoma: Clinical and therapeutic aspects of a newly described tumor". Cancer. 78 (1): 128-32. doi:10.1002/( ... "Response to Radiation in Renal Medullary Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". Rare Tumors. 3 (3): 1156-61. ...
... in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ cell tumors.[6] ... CD30, also known as TNFRSF8, is a cell membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and tumor marker. ... "Entrez Gene: TNFRSF8 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8".. *^ Teng LH, Lu DH, Xu QZ, Fu YJ, Yang H, He ZL ( ... tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral ...
In fact, they more closely resemble exocrine than endocrine tumors. The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and ... Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing[1] type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ... Carcinoid tumors are the most common malignant tumor of the appendix, but they are most commonly associated with the small ...
Phyllodes tumor. Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ... The tumors are highly angiogenic and vascular, with high levels of VEGF and bFGF expression. ... Caveolin is paradoxically tumour promoting. NF-κB pathway activation overexpression may contribute to the inflammatory ... caveolin-1 and -2 are overexpressed and may contribute to tumour cell motility[13] ...
... of unknown primary[edit]. The term carcinoma has also come to encompass malignant tumors composed of transformed ... Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable ... These tumors are referred to as anaplastic or undifferentiated carcinomas.. Large cell carcinoma. Composed of large, monotonous ...
"Expression of CD97 and CD55 in human medullary thyroid carcinomas". Int. J. Oncol. 24 (2): 285-94. PMID 14719104. Cite uses ... "Expression and Regulation of CD97 in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Tumor Tissues". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (5): 1657-67. PMC ... 1997). "CD97: a dedifferentiation marker in human thyroid carcinomas". Cancer Res. 57 (9): 1798-806. PMID 9135025. Cite uses ... growth factor seven-transmembrane member CD97 correlates with grading and staging in human oral squamous cell carcinomas". ...
Douglas Symmers, FROM THE PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORIES OF BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, Malignant Tumors and Tumor-like Growths of the Thymic ... VICTOR C. JACOBSON, M.D., PRIMARY CARCINOMA OF THE THYMUS, juuni 1923, 31. väljaanne, nr 6, Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1923;31(6): ... Karl J. Shier MD, The thymus according to Schambacher: Medullary ducts and reticular epithelium of thymus and thymomas, Cancer ... Kyung-Jae Jung, Kyung Soo Lee, Joungho Han, Jhingook Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Eun A. Kim, Malignant Thymic Epithelial Tumors: CT- ...
Phyllodes tumor. Other. *Medullary carcinoma. *Male breast cancer. *Inflammatory breast cancer. *Precursor lesions *Atypical ... A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes. Hundreds of different ... Both BRCA genes are tumor suppressor genes that produce proteins that are used by the cell in an enzymatic pathway that makes ... The BRCA genes are tumour suppressor genes pictured here on their respective chromosomes. BRCA 1 has the cytogenetic location ...
medullary sponge kidney. *hypercalciuria or hyperuricosuria. *vigorous exercise. *cancer or tumor of the bladder or prostate ... "Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma". Journal ... radiation or surgical resection of the tumor or organ involved.[21][22] ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... Somatostatinoma is a malignant tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin. Increased levels ... Ellison TA, Edil BH (2012). "The current management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors". Adv Surg (46): 283-296. PMID 22873046 ... Tumors: endocrine gland neoplasia (C73-C75/D34-D35, 193-194/226-227) ...
... tumour *Wilms tumor. *Renal cell carcinoma. *Lupus nephritis. *Minimal change disease ... This is followed by a renal tubule that passes from the cortex deep into the medullary pyramids. Part of the renal cortex, a ... The renal sinus collectively contains the renal pelvis and calyces and separates these structures from the renal medullary ... Kidney morphology, often indexed as the relative medullary thickness, is associated with habitat aridity among species of ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... Chapter 92 (benign liver tumors). ISBN 978-0071466332. .. *^ Hussain S, van den Bos I, Dwarkasing R, Kuiper J, den Hollander J ... Hepatocellular adenoma (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor. It most commonly occurs in ... Given that several liver tumors appear similarly on these imaging modalities, a multi-phase contrast-enhanced imaging study ...
Micrograph of urethral cancer (urothelial cell carcinoma), a rare problem of the urethra. ... the inability to definitively identify low-grade cancer cells and urine cytology is used mostly to identify high-grade tumors. ...
Medullary carcinoma(英语:Medullary carcinoma). *Medullary carcinoma of the breast(英语:Medullary carcinoma of the breast) ... Complex epithelial(英语:Complex and mixed tumor) (8560-8589). *Warthin's tumor(英语:Warthin's tumor) ... Lobular carcinoma(英语:Lobular carcinoma). *Lobular carcinoma in situ(英语:Lobular carcinoma in situ) ... Ductal carcinoma(英语:Ductal carcinoma). *Mammary ductal carcinoma(英语:Mammary ductal carcinoma) ...
Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. This protease ... "Cathepsin D expression levels in nongynecological solid tumors: clinical and therapeutic implications". Clinical & Experimental ... Hepatocellular carcinoma. *Alpha-fetoprotein/AFP-L3. Reproductive/. urinary/. breast. Ovarian tumor. *Surface epithelial- ...
... and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC).[15] There is a high degree of correlation between the position of the point ... Nikiforov YE (2002). "RET/PTC rearrangement in thyroid tumors". Endocr. Pathol. 13 (1): 3-16. doi:10.1385/EP:13:1:03. PMID ... including medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A and 2B, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid ... Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B (2005). "[RET mutations and preventive treatment of medullary thyroid cancer]". Ann. Endocrinol ...
Cabozantinib is US FDA approved for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (as Cometriq) and renal cell carcinoma (as Cabometyx). ... ROS1 fusions have been detected in multiple other tumor histologies, including ovarian carcinoma, sarcoma, cholangiocarcinomas ... Gene rearrangements involving the ROS1 gene were first detected in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines.[13][14] In 2007 a ROS1 ... Some patients have a response that lasts for years.[30] Crizotinib is available to patients with solid tumors other than NSCLC ...
Medullary carcinoma. *Male breast cancer. *Phyllodes tumor. *Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Endocrine system[edit]. * ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ... Not all tumors or lumps are cancerous; benign tumors are not classified as being cancer because they do not spread to other ... spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ...
... undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a ... Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors *^ Tejani MA, Saif MW (2014). "Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Does chemotherapy work?". ...
Microscopic appearance is signet ring cell carcinoma, which is tumor cells with mucin droplet that displaces the nucleus to one ... Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... Diffuse stomach cancer is characterized by the presence of poorly differentiated tumor cells. ... particularly breast and lung carcinoma.[1] It is not associated with H. pylori infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... Disorders of the thyroid are functional-caused by dysfunction in the production of hormones, and nodes and tumors either benign ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMC 2032150 ... medullary, and thyroid lymphoma.[64][65] Because of the prominence of the thyroid gland, cancer is often detected earlier in ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... Pineocytoma, is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland. Unlike the similar condition pineal gland cyst, it is ... Tumors: endocrine gland neoplasia (C73-C75/D34-D35, 193-194/226-227) ...
Phyllodes tumor. Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ... Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node. ... Stage 0 is a pre-cancerous or marker condition, either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). ... Radiotherapy is given after surgery to the region of the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes, to destroy microscopic tumor cells ...
"Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma". Thyroid. 25 (6): 567-610. ... Thyroid cancer accounts for less than 1% of all cancer in the UK, though it is the most common endocrine tumor and makes up ... Elevated calcitonin levels in the blood have been shown to be associated with the rare medullary thyroid cancer. However, the ... Additionally, hyperthyroidism and thyroid tumors may be treated with radioactive iodine. Ethanol injections for the treatment ...
carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (medullary), ICD-O 8512/3). *rak gruczołowy hepatoidny (ang. hepatoid adenocarcinoma, ICD-O 8576 ... Prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 in gastric carcinoma. „Tumour Biol". 22 (5). s. 318-322. DOI ... high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8246/3) *z dużych komórek (ang. large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8013/3) ... signet ring cell carcinoma and other variants; poorly cohesive carcinoma, ICD-O 8490/3) ...
Phyllodes tumor. Other. *Medullary carcinoma. *Male breast cancer. *Inflammatory breast cancer. *Precursor lesions *Atypical ... conditions like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Despite the now-regretted decision to use the word carcinoma in these ... Early detection efforts result in overdiagnosis of precancerous and cancerous tumors that would never risk the woman's life ( ... non-cancerous conditions like lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and pre-cancerous or "stage 0" ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... Note: Not all brain tumors are of nervous tissue, and not all nervous tissue tumors are in the brain (see brain metastasis).. ... A tumor in the chest may cause breathing problems.. *A tumor pressing on the spinal cord may cause weakness, thus an inability ... Symptoms depend on primary tumor locations and metastases if present:[6] *In the abdomen, a tumor may cause a swollen belly and ...
Multifocal bronchial carcinoid tumour should not be accepted as a primary diagnosis without first excluding medullary carcinoma ... Multifocal bronchial carcinoid tumour was diagnosed initially, but at necropsy metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid ...
Abstract: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the thyroid gland, is known to be poorly ... fraction of Stemona tuberosa Lour inhibits tumor cell growth and induces apoptosis of human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. ... Keywords: apoptosis, chemoresistance, medullary thyroid carcinoma, plant-derived compounds, Stemona tuberosa Lour. ... so suggesting a new candidate for chemotherapy of the so far chemo-resistant medullary thyroid carcinoma.. ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon thyroid cancer subtype which accounts for ,10% of all thyroid neoplasms. ... Characterized by an intense expression of CEA, MTC represents a relevant tumor model for immuno-PET. High sensitivity of ... Recently, an innovative clinical study reported high tumor uptake and contrast using pretargeted anti-CEA immuno-PET in ... Pretargeted immuno-PET has been developed against different antigens, and promising results have been reported in tumor ...
... colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, despite being poorly differentiated by traditional morphological criteria,... ... Aim Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) ... Strict criteria were employed to diagnose medullary carcinoma requiring both MMRd and greater than 90 % of the tumor to ... Typical morphology and immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma. A,B,C - The tumour demonstrates a solid architecture ...
Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms ... All cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma.. *No iodine-uptake on a post- radioactive iodine treatment scan (in presence of low ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Thyroid Cancer, Medullary Carcinoid Tumor Neuroepithelioma ... and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are ...
Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Thyroid Cancer, Medullary Carcinoid Tumor Neuroepithelioma ... Previously confirmed histological diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma without ... Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Endocrine System Diseases. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Head and Neck ...
Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Thyroid Cancer, Medullary Carcinoid Tumor Neuroepithelioma ... Cabozantinib in progressive medullary thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Oct 10;31(29):3639-46. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.48.4659. ... Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Endocrine System Diseases. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Head and Neck ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Thyroid Cancer, Medullary Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Neuroendocrine ... Phase 1/2 Study of LOXO-292 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, RET Fusion-Positive Solid Tumors, and Medullary Thyroid ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Medullary Thyroid Cancer Colon Cancer Any Solid Tumor Drug: LOXO-292 Phase 1 Phase 2 ... Including RET Fusion-Positive Solid Tumors, Medullary Thyroid Cancer, and Other Tumors With RET Activation (LIBRETTO-001). ...
Neuroendocrine Tumors. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary. ... Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Renal Cell. Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Neoplasms, Glandular and ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Renal Cell Carcinoma Thyroid Cancer, Medullary Renal Medullary ... Kidney Medullary Carcinoma Stage III Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v8 Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v8 Drug: Doxorubicin Drug: ...
... for all patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma whose tumor... more ... for all patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma whose tumor is 1 cm or greater or who have bilateral thyroid disease, as well ... encoded search term (What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?) and What are the NCCN ... What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?. Updated: May 09, 2018 ...
Relationship of tissue carcinoembryonic antigen and calcitonin to tumor virulence in medullary thyroid carcinoma. An ... Concurrence of a symptomatic encapsulated follicular carcinoma, an occult papillary carcinoma and a medullary carcinoma in the ... Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid : a previously unrecognized variant of thyroid carcinoma ALBORES-SAAVEDRA J ... and amyloid as tumor markers in the histopathological diagnosis of medullary (C-cell) thyroid carcinoma HARACH HR ...
Other tumors increased in frequency include; osteomas, adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, thyroid tumors and desmoid tumors. The ... carcinoid tumors; diffuse gastric cancer; fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer; leiomyosarcoma; medullary thyroid cancer; ... Hepatic tumors and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, oropharynx and uvula are solid tumors commonly linked to FA. ... The most common tumors in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, ...
... we studied 11 cases of medullary carcinoma for allelic losses in a panel of known tumor suppressor genes. The tumor suppressor ... of allelic loss in tumor suppressor genes may provide a useful adjunctive prognostic test in medullary thyroid carcinoma. ... The average frequency of allelic loss across all tumors was 44% and was higher in tumors that recurred. A combination of ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma can have an aggressive behavior, and little is known about the molecular basis for clinical outcome ...
Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS). This is a rarer form of non-invasive tumor. It usually does not develop into invasive cancer ... Medullary carcinoma. This forms around 15% of all breast cancers. It affects middle aged women more commonly and the cellular ... This tumor responds well to treatment. Mucinous carcinoma or colloid. This is rare type of invasive breast cancer that rarely ... Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC). This is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. The ...
PRL inhibitor bromocriptine (Br) could mitigate OXTR-driven mammary tumor growth. The study demonstrates Oxtr is an oncogene ... OXTR-induced mammary tumors showed ERBB2 upregulation and mixed histological subtypes with predomination of papillary and ... medullary carcinomas. OXTR overexpression led to an activation of prolactin (PRL)/p-STAT5 pathway and created a ... Medullary carcinomas. d. Glandular carcinomas. e. Poorly differentiated carcinoma. f. Clear cell carcinoma. Scale bar: 100 μm. ...
... represented by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) samples and by the TT cell line. Methods: TT ... represented by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) samples and by the TT cell line. Methods: TT ... Abstract: Background: Pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is over-expressed in a variety of endocrine-related tumours ... Abstract: Background: Pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is over-expressed in a variety of endocrine-related tumours ...
Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer. ... Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. ... A tumour that starts in an adrenal gland (the glands on top of ... Treatments for medullary carcinoma. The following are treatment options for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Your healthcare ... If medullary carcinoma spreads to the bone, external beam radiation therapy is sometimes used as a palliative treatment to ...
Histopathology studies show a distinctive pattern that can be distinguished from other renal tumors. Renal medullary carcinoma ... of primary kidney tumors in childhood. Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. ... "Renal medullary carcinoma: Clinical and therapeutic aspects of a newly described tumor". Cancer. 78 (1): 128-32. doi:10.1002/( ... "Response to Radiation in Renal Medullary Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". Rare Tumors. 3 (3): 1156-61. ...
... medullary carcinoma; pheochromocytoma; mucosal neuronms; intestinal ganglioneuromas; hyperplastic corneal nerve tumor; ... marfanoid habitus tumor; Wilms tumor; seminoma; ovarian tumor; leiomyomater tumor; cervical dysplasia and in situ carcinoma; ... giant cell tumor; small-cell lung tumor; gallstones; islet cell tumor; primary brain tumor; acute and chronic lymphocytic and ... basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma of both ulcerating and papillary type; metastatic skin carcinoma; osteo sarcoma; ...
Make research projects and school reports about Tumor markers easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Tumor markers at Encyclopedia.com. ... Medullary carcinoma can secrete calcitonin . Pheochromocytomas ... They are either produced by tumor cells (tumor-derived) or by the body in response to tumor cells (tumor-associated). They are ... They are either produced by tumor cells (tumor-derived) or by the body in response to tumor cells (tumor-associated). They are ...
Malignant rhabdoid tumour. *Synovial sarcoma. *Renal medullary carcinoma. *Desmoplastic small round cell tumor ... The team then used the experimental models to test 156 cancer drugs and examined their effect on the tumour and the tumour ... This study is important because not all tumour cells in a tumour are genetically identical. "Its a mixture of different cells ... Tumour cells left behind after treatment are often responsible for cancer coming back. But treatment can change their genetic ...
My diagnosis was Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the parotid gland. My tumor was aggressive and required a complex medical plan. I ... Thyroid Cancer, Familial Medullary. *Thyroid Cancer, Hurthle Cell. *Tongue Cancer. *Tonsil Cancer ...
Learn about the types of tumors that make up this group of rare cancers. Find out about symptoms, causes, diagnosis and ... Medullary thyroid cancer. *Merkel cell carcinoma, also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin ... Mayo Clinic experts are skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, including:. *Neuroendocrine tumors of ... Innovative Therapy Improves Lives of People With Neuroendocrine Tumors. When Jay Elstens neuroendocrine tumors no longer were ...
If the tumor has all of these features, it is considered to be a "true" medullary carcinoma. Sometimes the tumor has only some ... Most medullary carcinomas are small - less than 2 cm in size. Medullary carcinoma also may cause pain, swelling, redness, or ... Diagnosing medullary carcinoma can be challenging. It may be hard to tell the difference between medullary carcinoma cells and ... There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. * Hormone-receptor-negative: Medullary carcinoma usually tests ...
Using molecular markers of medullary carcinoma Series editor comments:. "Benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid are ... Overview of Management of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients with Negative Whole Body Radioiodine Scans and Elevated ...
Carcinoma. (b) Adrenal medullary tumors. Pheochromocytoma. Ganglioneuroma/neuroblastoma. (c) Other adrenal tumors. ... In contrast to adrenal metastasis and adrenocortical carcinoma they do not enhance with contrast and therefore have a very low ...
... melanotroph carcinogenesis leads to accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas ... carcinogenesis results in accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A ... melanotroph carcinogenesis leads to accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas ... melanotroph carcinogenesis leads to accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas ...
A Medullary carcinoma of thyroid B Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor C Pheochromocytoma D Gastrointestinal stromal tumor . Here ... This is the card info for the flashcard For which one of the following tumors Gastrin is a biochemical marker? (AIPG 2010) ... A Medullary carcinoma of thyroid B Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor C Pheochromocytoma D Gastrointestinal stromal tumor ... For which one of the following tumors Gastrin is a biochemical marker? (AIPG 2010) A. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid ...
Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma. Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been ... Brain tumor Brain metastases Calcitonin Thyroid carcinoma Medullary carcinoma Pituitary tumor This is a preview of subscription ... All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid. Pituitary tumor was positive for calcitonin. ... Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma. Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been ...
... we infer that the breast tumor PC infiltrates of the medullary carcinoma subtype are compatible with an autogenic tumor ... medullary carcinoma; NOS, not otherwise specified; TMC, typical medullary carcinoma; Ig, immunoglobulin; Hc, heavy chain; Lc, ... As the index study group, two primary medullary carcinoma tumors were examined. Immunophenotyping confirmed a large number of ... Tumor was estrogen receptor negative.. Patient 2 (PT): Primary tumor cells were poorly differentiated, and the tumor was ...
  • However, families affected by FMTC rarely develop hyperparathyroid tumors or pheochromocytoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Family history of a pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, or other manifestations of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-2 (MEN-2) increases the likelihood of medullary thyroid cancer. (ndnr.com)
  • The cardinal feature of this hereditary cancer syndrome is the development of multiple vascular tumors called hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina combined with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and pheochromocytoma. (rupress.org)
  • Sipple syndrome has 1) bilateral medullary carcinoma or C cell hyperplasia, 2) pheochromocytoma , and 3) hyperparathyroidism . (endocrineweb.com)
  • MEN II-B. With this syndrome, patients may also have 1) medullary carcinoma and 2) pheochromocytoma, but only rarely will they have hyperparathyroidism. (endocrineweb.com)
  • In type IIB, there is medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas and skeletal abnormalities. (upmc.edu)
  • Involvement of the adrenal gland is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the thyroid gland, is known to be poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy. (dovepress.com)
  • NET = neuroendocrine tumor. (auntminnie.com)
  • Micrograph of a neuroendocrine tumor . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Micrograph of a small intestine neuroendocrine tumor (bottom third of image), showing the typical intramural location, with an intact epithelium above it. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Tumor With Elevated Serum Calcitonin: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge. (frontiersin.org)
  • At first imaging, a laryngeal lesion with lateral cervical lymphadenopathies was found, and it resulted as a moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (G2), Ki67 = 5%, positive for calcitonin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2006 and 2007, the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) proposed a staging scheme same as for most other types of epithelial neoplasms for GEP NENs, alongwith a histologic grading system applicable to all disease stages . (wikidoc.org)
  • Biochemical Response Calcitonin (CTN) % [ Time Frame: Serum tumor markers CTN evaluated from blood samples collected at screening and every 12 weeks (±5 days from randomization) until date of first documented progression or date of death from any cause, whichever came first, assessed for up to 34 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further evaluation revealed medullary carcinoma thyroid, cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, elevated serum calcitonin levels, and lobulated pituitary tumor. (springer.com)
  • Pituitary tumor was positive for calcitonin. (springer.com)
  • Preoperative calcitonin correlated with tumor size (P (ovid.com)
  • Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma or calcitonin-secreting carcinoid tumor of lung? (amedeo.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • These tumors secrete calcitonin, a tumor marker that is helpful in diagnosis and follow-up and also in screening relatives of those affected, since this tumor may occur on a familial, or inherited, basis. (healthcentral.com)
  • Laryngeal NENs with calcitonin hypersecretion and lymph node metastases represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a hormone-producing malignant tumor that synthesizes calcitonin. (intechopen.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry staining showed calcitonin in the tumor cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Diarrhea is caused by increased gastrointestinal secretion and hypermotility due to the hormones secreted by the tumor (calcitonin, prostaglandins, serotonin, or VIP). (endocrineweb.com)
  • Medullary carcinomas often stain positive for calcitonin, which is a highly sensitive marker. (upmc.edu)
  • This tumor was as previously noted cytokeratin, CEA, calcitonin positive strongly supporting the diagnosis. (upmc.edu)
  • Anti-thyroglobulin, combined with anti-calcitonin, can identify medullary carcinomas of the thyroid. (fishersci.com)
  • The cancers in the patient population included 229 histopathologically proven metastases and 54 primary tumors. (auntminnie.com)
  • Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been reported. (springer.com)
  • Abrams HL, Spiro R, Goldstein N (1950) Metastases in carcinoma: analysis of 1000 autopsied cases. (springer.com)
  • In 53.9% of patients with lymph node metastases, expression in primary tumour and lymph node metastases differed.ConclusionSSTR2A expression is correlated with longer OS in MTC, especially for stage IV patients, suggesting that SSTR2A expression might be a useful prognostic factor in MTC. (rug.nl)
  • Breast metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. (ebscohost.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma spreads to lymph nodes and may invade blood vessels with metastases to the liver. (healthcentral.com)
  • A better prognosis can be expected with a pure papillary carcinoma in younger patients (women under 50 and men under 40), a tumor smaller than 3/4 inch (2 cm.) small diffuse metastases, female sex, and low-grade lesions. (healthcentral.com)
  • A worse prognosis is related to age over 40, the degree of invasion (vascular and thyroid capsule) in follicular carcinoma, distant metastases, a large tumor (especially over 1 1/2 inch (5cm), large nodular metastases, male sex and high-grade lesions (aneuploid). (healthcentral.com)
  • Poor prognostic factors include mean older than 50 years old, distant spread (metastases), and when seen in patients with other endocrine tumors due to MEN II-B syndrome. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The majority of neuroendocrine tumors can give rise to metastases with time if they are left untreated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the aerodigestive tract is the most common cause of cervical metastases. (medscape.com)
  • Mayo Clinic pathologists are respected for their experience and expertise in diagnosing rare cancers, including neuroendocrine tumors. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The lymph node ratio (LNR), which represents the proportion of metastatic lymph nodes resected, has been found to be a prognostic variable in several cancers, but data for Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are sparse. (nih.gov)
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer (70-80 percent of all breast cancers) [ 19-20 ]. (komen.org)
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma is the next most common type (about 5-10 percent of breast cancers) [ 20-21 ]. (komen.org)
  • Medullary cancers and lymphomas of the thyroid were excluded from the study. (bmj.com)
  • This study investigates the prognostic value of cyclin E in relation to tumour growth pattern by analysing stage II primary breast cancers from premenopausal women not subjected to any further adjuvant treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors , or more properly gastro-entero-pancreatic or gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ( GEP-NETs ), are cancers of the interface between the endocrine (hormonal) system and the nervous system. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery. (scielo.br)
  • Aim of the study: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBC) are a rare group of cancers, accounting for about 1% of all breast cancers. (ebscohost.com)
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) constitutes 70% of all thyroid cancers in the United States (Becker, 2001). (ndnr.com)
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers in the United States (Becker, 2001). (ndnr.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) constitutes 10% of all thyroid cancers (Becker, 2001). (ndnr.com)
  • Three percent of thyroid cancers are undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas. (healthcentral.com)
  • Medullary carcinomas make up almost 5 percent of thyroid cancers. (healthcentral.com)
  • Medullary tumors are the third most common of all thyroid cancers. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors therefore represent a large class of cancers that can occur wherever neuroendocrine cells are found throughout the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors are rather rare cancers with an incidence of 1-2 cases per 100, 000 people. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike other cancers that are located in a specific organ, the hormone-releasing action of these tumors causes other symptoms to appear in many other organs of the body as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells are strongly associated with patient survival in a wide variety of human cancers. (jimmunol.org)
  • The field of tumor immunology is strongly focused on CD8 + T cells, owing to their ability to directly kill tumor cells and the strong association between tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells and patient survival in many cancers ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This picture shows ductal carcinoma in situ. (news-medical.net)
  • This is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. (news-medical.net)
  • Medullary carcinoma pushes against the surrounding healthy tissue, but doesn't grow into it in the same way invasive ductal carcinoma usually does. (breastcancer.org)
  • Sometimes the tumor has only some of these features but not others, or there may be some invasive ductal carcinoma cells mixed in. (breastcancer.org)
  • It may be hard to tell the difference between medullary carcinoma cells and cells that make up a usual invasive ductal carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • This finding has been considered characteristic of the medullary ductal carcinoma (MC) subtype, but PC-infiltrates are also present in a fraction of nonmedullary (NOS) infiltrating ductal carcinomas that may reflect similar etiologies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A pathologist looks at the tissue removed during a biopsy under a microscope to determine whether a tumor is non-invasive (ductal carcinoma in situ) or invasive breast cancer. (komen.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive breast cancer. (komen.org)
  • It may also be called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, invasive carcinoma of no special type or invasive carcinoma not otherwise specified. (komen.org)
  • First, there is a rapid increase in incidence until age 50 years, then a slower increase for ductal, tubular, and lobular carcinomas, as for ER-positive tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other histologies, such as atypical medullary carcinoma or carcinoma with ductal and lobular features, must be classified as ductal. (mskcc.org)
  • This breast cancer slide show features mammograms, ultrasound images, and CT scans of ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, and other early-stage disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma has been regarded as a type of ductal carcinoma with a relatively favorable prognosis despite its high nuclear grade and mitotic index. (ebscohost.com)
  • Synchronous bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma is known but medullary carcinoma is rare. (ebscohost.com)
  • The most common histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • Synchronous medullary carcinoma of thyroid and ductal carcinoma of breast: A report of a rare case with immunohistochemical study. (ebscohost.com)
  • This slide show on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma features images of cellular pleomorphism, large atypical cells, myxoid degeneration, and bizarre giant cells. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Anaplastic carcinoma. (helsinki.fi)
  • Those with undifferentiated or anaplastic tumors do not. (healthcentral.com)
  • Anaplastic carcinoma usually extensively invades surrounding tissue. (healthcentral.com)
  • Activation of anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) is involved in the pathogenesis of several carcinomas, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Palliation or Treatment. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • The familial variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma allows an early detection by biochemical and genetic testing. (exlibris.ch)
  • Surgery for metastasis could be used to treat medullary carcinoma that has spread to other organs and is causing symptoms. (cancer.ca)
  • In contrast to adrenal metastasis and adrenocortical carcinoma they do not enhance with contrast and therefore have a very low washout percentage [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We report a case of intrapituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid in a 38-year-old male, who had been operated for pituitary adenoma 5 years earlier. (springer.com)
  • Primary tumor growth, dissemination, and metastasis of RMA-S lymphoma cells and E0771 breast cancer cells were evaluated. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that NKLAM plays a role in tumor development in vivo , especially in controlling tumor dissemination and metastasis to distant sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synchronous bilateral medullary carcinoma of breast: Is it metastasis or second primary? (ebscohost.com)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastasis to the Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes. (ebscohost.com)
  • These tumors spread through the bloodstream with metastasis occurring more often to bone. (healthcentral.com)
  • American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) later on endorsed this grading proposal for the tumor , node , metastasis ( TNM ) staging classification of digestive system NENs, after modifying the staging parameters of the ENETS proposal . (wikidoc.org)
  • This is a Phase 1/2, open-label, first-in-human study designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary anti- tumor activity of LOXO-292 administered orally to patients with advanced solid tumors , including RET-fusion-positive solid tumors , medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and other tumors with RET activation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is an open-label, multi-center Phase 1/2 study in patients with advanced solid tumors, including RET fusion-positive solid tumors, MTC, and other tumors with RET activation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Up to ~850 patients with advanced solid tumors harboring a RET gene alteration in tumor and/or blood will be enrolled to one of five phase 2 cohorts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of giving temsirolimus and vinorelbine ditartrate together in treating patients with unresectable or metastatic solid tumors. (pfizer.com)
  • Phase I Clinical Trial of Temsirolimus and Vinorelbine in Advanced Solid Tumors. (pfizer.com)
  • I. To determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) for the combination of temsirolimus and vinorelbine in advanced solid tumors. (pfizer.com)
  • Determine the dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose of tumor vasculature-targeted tumor necrosis factor alpha (NGR-TNF) in patients with advanced solid tumors. (knowcancer.com)
  • CTLs are a prominent immune component infiltrating many solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are one of the major immune components infiltrating solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abstract: Background: Pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is over-expressed in a variety of endocrine-related tumours. (unipd.it)
  • Surgery is often done after testing, and sometimes as treatment, for other tumours that develop when medullary carcinoma is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), such as pheochromocytomas and parathyroid gland tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma is a rare thyroid tumor originating from neural crest cells, the C-cell that implies several special features, secretion of different neuroendocrine markers, association with other endocrine tumors and familial appearance. (exlibris.ch)
  • C-cell hyperplasia in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A has demonstrated monoclonality, down-regulated apoptosis, and tumor-suppressor gene abnormalities consistent with intraepithelial neoplasia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunostains for collagen type IV discriminate between C-cell hyperplasia and microscopic medullary carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2a. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carcinoids , and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are also known as endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) or islet cell tumors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Approximately 20% are familial tumors that are transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and are often associated with other endocrine neoplasms (Becker, 2001). (ndnr.com)
  • You should not use Saxenda if you have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (tumors in your glands), a personal or family history of medullary thyroid cancer, insulin-dependent diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, or are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • Malignant medullary carcinoma represents a neoplasm of endocrine C cells of the thyroid. (upmc.edu)
  • Grade 2 include tumors such as atypical carcinoid tumors, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and some pancreatic endocrine tumors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed down through families in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or form a tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and medullary thyroid carcinoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, despite being poorly differentiated by traditional morphological criteria, has been reported to have a good prognosis. (springer.com)
  • Most investigators have reported that medullary CRC has a significantly better prognosis than other CRCs. (springer.com)
  • The association of improved prognosis with plasmacytic infiltrates has been classically linked with the rare medullary carcinoma subtype but is also evident in the smaller infiltrated fraction of the more abundant nonmedullary (not otherwise specified) tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor characteristics , such as hormone receptor status and HER2 status, also affect prognosis. (komen.org)
  • The impact of tumor-infiltrating CTLs on prognosis in endometrial carcinoma has not been addressed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment. (scielo.br)
  • Patients with well-differentiated tumors generally have a good prognosis. (healthcentral.com)
  • This article will discuss common medullary thyroid cancer symptoms and treatments as well as medullary thyroid cancer diagnosis and prognosis. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The prognosis of medullary carcinoma varies considerably. (upmc.edu)
  • An invasive malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue that tends to metastasize to other areas of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finally, there is a steady increase with aging for papillary and mucinous carcinomas, as is seen for epithelial tumors such as colorectal carcinoma ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Laryngeal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a rare group of NENs of the neck, divided into epithelial (carcinomas), and neural-type tumors (paraganglioma) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Role of pituitary tumour trasforming gene 1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma. (unipd.it)
  • They usually succumb to fast-growing, Rb-deficient melanotropli tumors of the pituitary intermediate lobe, which are extremely rare in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, abrogation of melanotroph carcinogenesis results in accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas. (elsevier.com)
  • primary glucocorticoid excess caused by pituitary tumor. (sporcle.com)
  • sudden hemorrhage of the pituitary, usually caused by expanding tumor. (sporcle.com)
  • parathyroid, pituitary, pancreatic tumors. (sporcle.com)
  • After surgical excision of thyroid and lymph node clearance, he underwent craniotomy and subfrontal excision of pituitary tumor. (springer.com)
  • Max MB, Kovacs KT, Scheithauer BW et al (1992) The pituitary gland in patients with breast carcinoma: a histologic and immunocytochemical study of 125 cases. (springer.com)
  • Teears RJ, Silverman EM (1975) Clinicopathologic review of 88 cases of carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland. (springer.com)
  • Brand CL Jr, Laws ER Jr (1987) Metastatic tumors of the sella turcica masquerading as primary pituitary tumors. (springer.com)
  • Bell CD, Kovacs K, Horvath F, Smythe H, Asa S (2001) Papillary carcinoma of thyroid metastatic to the pituitary gland. (springer.com)
  • Masiukiewicz US, Nakchbandi IA, Stewart AF, Inzucchi SE (1999) Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland. (springer.com)
  • Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (stlukes-stl.com)
  • This slide show on Hodgkin lymphoma includes images of Lennert lymphoma and Reed-Sternberg cells, tumor involvement in various organs, and more. (cancernetwork.com)
  • External radiation to the cervical region is a significant risk factor for thyroid carcinoma, i.e. thymic irradiation in childhood, irradiation for tonsillar or adenoidal enlargement, irradiation in teenagers for acne, neck irradiation in Hodgkin's lymphoma. (ndnr.com)
  • Special types include pure tubular, pure colloid (mucinous), or typical medullary carcinomas. (mskcc.org)
  • Lobular, papillary, mucinous and medullary types have relatively lower incidence. (ebscohost.com)
  • Pathology of Sporadic and Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. (exlibris.ch)
  • This thyroid cancer slide show features pathology images of medullary thyroid carcinomas showing amyloid deposits, solid components, spindle cell growth pattern, and papillary and neuroendocrine features. (cancernetwork.com)
  • According to a 2006 study, only an estimated 10 percent of those with a carcinoid tumor have symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. (healthline.com)
  • We are now beginning to understand the genetic mechanisms of thyroid tumor initiation and progression. (booktopia.com.au)
  • We encountered a case of thyroid tumor coexisting with carcinoma of breast. (ebscohost.com)
  • Call your doctor at once if you have signs of a thyroid tumor , such as swelling or a lump in your neck, trouble swallowing, a hoarse voice, or shortness of breath. (drugs.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A ''well-differentiated'' tumor for example is low grade and resembles normal tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • A ''poorly differentiated'' tumor is composed of disorganized cells and, therefore, does not look like normal tissue and is termed high grade. (news-medical.net)
  • There are a few exceptions to this, such as tissue-bound receptors that must be measured in a biopsy from the solid tumor or proteins that are secreted into the urine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending upon the tumor marker, it can be measured in blood, urine, stool or tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A sample of blood or other tissue is mixed with a substance containing specific antibodies to each tumor marker. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tests that obtain images of the tissue inside the breast, such as mammography and ultrasound, sometimes can find a medullary carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • A clear, well-defined boundary between tumor tissue and normal breast tissue. (breastcancer.org)
  • Giving combination chemotherapy together with radiation therapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. (mayo.edu)
  • The present volume concentrates on substantiated data first obtained from the study of tumors developing from hormone- regulated or hormone-producing tissue, e.g., the thyroid, adrenal glands, prostate, and the female genital tract. (springer.com)
  • Further improvements can be expected in the localization of hormones in tumor tissue by specific antibodies. (springer.com)
  • 1. a malignant tumor that may spread to surrounding tissue and distant areas of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C-cell hyperplasia in thyroid tissue adjacent to follicular cell tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The overall growth characteristics of each tumour were assessed using whole tissue sections. (bmj.com)
  • Tissue microarray comprising duplicate cores of tumors from 374 breast cancer patients was used for this study. (amazonaws.com)
  • Paraffin blocks containing tissue samples that had been obtained from 90 patients with endometrial carcinoma between the years 1991 and 1999 were retrieved from the archives of the Carmel Medical Center. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A tumor is an abnormal growth of body tissue. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Ancillary-correlative (renal tumor classification, biology) - Tumor tissue, blood, and urine samples are collected for research studies, including immunohistochemistry. (anzctr.org.au)
  • The present study investigated this medicinal herb for the first time with respect to its anticancer activity in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. (dovepress.com)
  • 5 However, this and other guidelines do not indicate whether these features should be present throughout the tumor or only in the majority of malignant cells. (springer.com)
  • We aimed at evaluating PTTG1 expression and function in human neoplastic parafollicular C-cells, represented by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) samples and by the TT cell line. (unipd.it)
  • The mucous and cancer cells combine to form jelly-like tumors. (news-medical.net)
  • They are either produced by tumor cells (tumor-derived) or by the body in response to tumor cells (tumor-associated). (encyclopedia.com)
  • As tumor cells grow and multiply, some of their substances can increase and leak into the bloodstream or other fluids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most common way to make an experimental model of cancer in mice is to inject tumour cells under the mouse's skin. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • This study is important because not all tumour cells in a tumour are genetically identical. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Tumour cells left behind after treatment are often responsible for cancer coming back. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The team then used the experimental models to test 156 cancer drugs and examined their effect on the tumour and the tumour cells left behind. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • However, medullary carcinoma cells do not behave like high-grade cancer cells, which are aggressive and grow and spread quickly. (breastcancer.org)
  • Immune system cells (white blood cells called lymphocytes and plasma cells) at the edges of the tumor. (breastcancer.org)
  • It's believed that these cells help keep the medullary carcinoma in check, preventing it from growing and spreading quickly. (breastcancer.org)
  • In addition, medullary carcinoma cells often express a protein called p53. (breastcancer.org)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma is a rare thyroid tumororiginating from neural crest cells, the C-cell that impliesseveral special fea. (exlibris.ch)
  • RATIONALE: Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (pfizer.com)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as vinorelbine ditartrate, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (pfizer.com)
  • Giving temsirolimus together with vinorelbine ditartrate may kill more tumor cells. (pfizer.com)
  • Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. (mayo.edu)
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. (mayo.edu)
  • A malignant tumor of C-cells (parafollicular) of the thyroid gland. (powershow.com)
  • Tumor cells can vary in location (milk ducts or lobules) and how they look under a microscope. (komen.org)
  • Although chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is aimed at directly inducing apoptosis or necrosis, there is accumulating evidence to support the novel concept that CRT may induce the immunogenic tumor cell death (ICD) of tumor cells ( 7 - 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CRT could trigger uptake of antigenic components by dendritic cells (DCs) and transfer antigenic signals to T-cell-mediated immunity, resulting in the expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and production of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Endogenous activation of the Notch pathway results in a neuroendocrine to non-neuroendocrine fate switch in 10-50% of tumour cells in a mouse model of small-cell lung cancer and in human tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Non-neuroendocrine Notch-active small-cell lung cancer cells are slow growing, consistent with a tumour-suppressive role for Notch, but these cells are also relatively chemoresistant and provide trophic support to neuroendocrine tumour cells, consistent with a pro-tumorigenic role. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, small-cell lung cancer tumours generate their own microenvironment via activation of Notch signalling in a subset of tumour cells, and the presence of these cells may serve as a biomarker for the use of Notch pathway inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy in select patients with small-cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • of Hes1 pos cells in TKO tumors at different stages of tumor development. (nih.gov)
  • PurposeMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. (rug.nl)
  • Figure 2: LIF promotes proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells and promotes the growth of xenograft breast tumors. (amazonaws.com)
  • Whether the presence of one or more tumor cells was found in the lymphatic or vascular structure. (mskcc.org)
  • Whether cells have separated from the main tumor mass. (mskcc.org)
  • This slide show on multiple myeloma includes images of bone marrow aspirates revealing sheets of tumor cells and organs with amyloid deposits and disease involvement. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution pattern and prognostic value of CD8 + T cells in endometrial carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The number of immunohistochemically staining CD8 + T cells was enumerated in the following four regions: lymphocytes infiltrating the tumor epithelium at the invasive border, within the underlying tumor stroma, within the superficial tumor epithelium, and in the perivascular areas of the myometrium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings were extended to an in vivo model of NK-mediated tumor killing in which NKLAM-deficient knockout (KO) mice injected with B16 melanoma cells were found to have significantly higher numbers of pulmonary tumor nodules than wild-type (WT) mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • few detectable tumor cells remained in WT mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • More significantly, there were 4-5-fold more tumor cells in the blood and lungs of NKLAM KO than in WT mice 2 weeks after injection of tumor cells into the mammary pad. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in defense against tumors, viruses, and microbial pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knockdown of pVHL impeded the formation of cilia in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 kidney cells, whereas the expression of pVHL in VHL-negative renal cancer cells rescued the ciliogenesis defect. (rupress.org)
  • It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. (hindawi.com)
  • Uncontrolled or promoted proliferation, loss of cell death and apoptosis, cell growth, and gene expression dysregulation are properties of tumor cells and all are influenced by TCTP activity [ 12 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, TCTP has a crucial role in tumor reversion, a process by which some cancer cells lose their malignant phenotype [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Some develop from the parafollicular cells or C cells (medullary). (healthcentral.com)
  • In an intrahepatic xenograft model using NCI-H2228 cells, ASP3026 induced continuous tumor regression, whereas mice treated with crizotinib showed tumor relapse after an initial response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unlike papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer that arise from thyroid hormone producing cells, medullary thyroid cancer originates from the parafollicular cells (also called C cells) of the thyroid. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors are tumors that develop from the cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, such as the enterochromaffin (EC) cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These tumors are characterized by the presence of cells that possess secretory granules and have the ability to secrete neurohormones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors are also known as apudomas, or tumors that contain apud cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because they can occur wherever neuroendocrine cells are found, neuroendocrine tumors come in a wide variety of types and have been classified according to their site of origin, usually either as digestive system , pancreatic or lung neuroendocrine tumors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Less is known about tumor-infiltrating CD20 + B cells, which often colocalize with T cells, sometimes forming organized lymphoid structures. (jimmunol.org)
  • Engagement of tumor-reactive B cells may be an important condition for generating potent, long-term T cell responses against cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, B cells are often overlooked by tumor immunologists, likely because of the common notion that humoral and cytolytic responses work in opposition. (jimmunol.org)
  • LOH of Papillary carcinoma detected about 13.9% and follicular carcinoma 7.2% in this study. (ac.ir)
  • Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • This will be a Phase II, open label study to establish the effect of once-daily oral doses of ZD6474 100mg in subjects with locally advanced or metastatic hereditary medullary thyroid cancer in whom no standard therapeutic option is available. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the progression-free survival (PFS) with XL184 as compared with placebo (an inactive substance) in subjects with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Clinical Steering Committee for this study, comprised of study doctors who specialize in medullary thyroid cancer, has provided guidance regarding the design of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cancer syndromes often show not only a high lifetime risk of developing cancer, but also the development of multiple independent primary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though tumor markers are rarely specific enough to be used alone to diagnose cancer, they do have a number of clinical uses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, no tumor marker is specific for cancer and most are found in low levels in healthy persons, or can be associated with non-neoplastic diseases as well as cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once cancer is diagnosed, tumor marker levels sometimes help to determine the extent of cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Monitoring cancer treatment is the most common use of tumor markers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Watching for cancer recurrence after treatment is another reason for tumor marker testing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In general, liver transplant is reserved for those who have undergone surgery to remove the primary tumor and for those whose cancer hasn't spread to places other than the liver. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If it's suspected that you may have inherited gene mutations that increase your risk of neuroendocrine tumors and other types of cancer, Mayo Clinic geneticists can guide you through the process of considering genetic testing. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The type of neck dissection done depends on the size of the tumour and if the doctor thinks there is cancer in the lymph nodes in the neck based on the results of an ultrasound. (cancer.ca)
  • It may also be used to treat recurrent medullary carcinoma that can't be removed with surgery (it is unresectable) and the cancer continues to grow and spread (it is progressing). (cancer.ca)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The finding that virtually all people affected by renal medullary carcinoma carry at least one copy of the HbS mutation suggests that sickle cell trait somehow predisposes to this type of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell trait who will eventually develop this cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilms' tumor, the most common renal tumor of childhood, is responsible for 6-7% of childhood cancer whereas all remaining primary renal tumors (among which is included renal medullary carcinoma) collectively account for less than 1% of all childhood cancer and less than 10% of primary kidney tumors in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other types of breast cancer, medullary carcinoma may not cause any symptoms at first. (breastcancer.org)
  • A mammogram to locate the tumor and check for evidence of cancer in other areas of the breast. (breastcancer.org)
  • Biopsy is the key to accurate diagnosis, because imaging tests alone can't tell the difference between medullary carcinoma and other types of breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • The pathologist may test for p53 to help decide if the cancer is truly medullary. (breastcancer.org)
  • If you receive a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, ask your doctor whether the pathologist who looked at the sample has experience diagnosing this type of cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • Several epidemiologically important tumor entities, in particular breast, esophagus, lung, pancreatic, head-neck, and colorectal cancer, present with a remarkably high uptake in Ga-68 FAPI PET/CT," wrote the researchers led by Dr. Clemens Kratochwil from University Hospital Heidelberg. (auntminnie.com)
  • Breast cancer is remarkable among human malignancies in the incidence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a minority of tumors that suggest an ongoing humoral immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antihormones, i.e. antian- drogens or GnRH analogues have proved to be important indeed since they exhibit a destructive effect on prostate carcinomas and breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Though they are not specific types of tumors, some special forms of breast cancer are discussed below. (komen.org)
  • In the present study, the expression of HMGB1 and calreticulin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment biopsy specimens and surgically resected specimens, which were obtained from patients with breast cancer (n=52) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (n=8) who had been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Breast cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are well known to be sensitive to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and their combination with surgery has been proven to have clinical benefits ( 1 - 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The optimal initial operative management of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and the use of biomarkers to guide the extent of operation remain controversial. (ovid.com)
  • In small-cell lung cancer, an aggressive neuroendocrine lung cancer, loss-of-function mutations in NOTCH genes and the inhibitory effects of ectopic Notch activation indicate that Notch signalling is tumour suppressive. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that Notch signalling can be both tumour suppressive and pro-tumorigenic in small-cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Notch signaling triggers the tumor heterogeneity of small cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Materials and Methods: To determine if different age incidence patterns reflect etiologic heterogeneity (more than one breast cancer type within the general breast carcinoma), we applied "smoothed" age histograms at diagnosis (density plots) and a two-component statistical mixture model to all breast carcinoma cases ( n = 270,124) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Distinct age-specific incidence patterns reflected bimodal breast cancer populations for breast carcinoma overall as well as for histopathologic subtypes, race, and ER expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These descriptive and model-based results support emerging molecular data, suggesting two main types of breast carcinoma in the overall breast cancer population. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used the SEER Cancer Incidence Public-Use Database (November 2004 submission) to analyze invasive breast carcinoma among women, diagnosed during the years 1992 to 2002 ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The prognostic value of cyclin E in premenopausal breast cancer is limited to patients with breast carcinomas exhibiting an exclusively infiltrative growth pattern. (bmj.com)
  • If the patient is newly diagnosed with breast cancer and has not undergone surgery or excisional biopsies, information about tumor size and multifocality based on core biopsies, mammography, ultrasound, or MRI can be used to complete the nomogram, and has been shown to provide a good estimate. (mskcc.org)
  • A head and neck cancer slide show including a laryngectomy specimen, and poorly and moderately differentiated verrucous and keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This bladder cancer slide show features images of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, as well as sarcomatoid, small-cell, and squamous cell carcinomas. (cancernetwork.com)
  • He gave the term "carcinoid" to these tumors, because they were so slow-growing that he considered them to be "cancer-like" rather than truly cancerous. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. (scielo.br)
  • Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and have maintained an increasing prevalence ( 1 , 2 ) , representing 1% to 3% of all malignant visceral neoplasms. (scielo.br)
  • The article presents case report of a patient who developed breast cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, multicentric micropapillary thyroid carcinoma and scapular and lumbar melanomas during treatment with azathioprine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Chris was diagnosed with an extremely rare form of kidney cancer known as renal medullary carcinoma (RMC). (cdc.gov)
  • At present, breast cancer has become one of the most common malignant tumors in female worldwide, and it is also an important cause of female death[ 1 - 5 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In animal studies, liraglutide caused thyroid tumors or thyroid cancer. (drugs.com)
  • In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Medullary thyroid cancer is the third most common type of thyroid cancer. (endocrineweb.com)
  • But what are some common medullary thyroid cancer symptoms? (endocrineweb.com)
  • Accounts for 80% of all cases of medullary thyroid cancer. (endocrineweb.com)
  • This particular medullary cancer showed many of the classic features of the tumor (2). (upmc.edu)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is a very aggressive and potentially fatal cancer, but early diagnosis and surgery can often lead to a cure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5 Similarly, some authors consider the presence of mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd) necessary for the diagnosis of medullary CRC, 6 , 7 whereas others note a very strong association between MMRd and medullary CRC of 60-99 % but accept that some medullary CRCs may not show MMRd. (springer.com)
  • This slide show features carcinomas found in the lung, liver, brain, and lymph nodes, where the primary site is undetermined. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Carcinoma should be suspected if a hard, irregular thyroid nodule is found, ipsilateral lymph nodes are enlarged or compressive symptoms are present, or if there is a history of progressive increase in the size of the nodule (Rubin, 2001). (ndnr.com)
  • Even when tumors spread to regional lymph nodes or the lungs, survival may be more than 10 years. (healthcentral.com)
  • Papillary carcinomas spread to nearby lymph nodes and the tissues in the neck, with metastatic lesions to the lungs and bones. (healthcentral.com)
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Head & Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • For medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the thyroid gland and surrounding lymph nodes must be totally removed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A patient with N3 disease of the neck is defined as having a lymph node measuring greater than 6 cm, which is categorized as having stage 4b disease regardless of primary site tumor size. (medscape.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to build on this premise, to explore the molecular basis for the apparently improved survival in PC 3 -infiltrated breast carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Breast carcinomas among women are extremely diverse in clinical and histopathologic features, suggesting that these tumors also vary in etiology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features. (ebscohost.com)
  • This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with. (ebscohost.com)
  • Metaplastic breast carcinomas -- analysis of prognostic factors in a case series. (ebscohost.com)
  • The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if the combination of ixazomib, gemcitabine, and doxorubicin can help to control renal medullary carcinoma (RMC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The etiology of renal medullary carcinoma is still not completely understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other genetic or environmental factors that contribute to the risk of renal medullary carcinoma are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma is typically made after individuals with sickle cell trait present with the typical signs and symptoms outlined above, in combination with radiographic imaging (usually abdominal/pelvic CT scan) studies and ultimately surgical biopsy and pathological examination of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in individuals with sickle cell trait or occasionally in those with sickle cell disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2009, there have been approximately 120 reported cases of renal medullary carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. (urotoday.com)
  • We studied 90 cases of endometrial carcinoma, including 75 endometrioid and 15 papillary serous carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study demonstrates for the first time that increased numbers of CTLs at the invasive border may be a reliable independent prognostic factor of survival in patients with endometrial carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in the United States and Western Europe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several studies have investigated the prognostic value of histopathological and molecular parameters in women with endometrial carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine the pattern of CTL distribution in endometrial carcinoma and evaluate whether the number of CTLs correlates with patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histological typing of thyroid tumors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • OXTR-induced mammary tumors showed ERBB2 upregulation and mixed histological subtypes with predomination of papillary and medullary carcinomas. (nature.com)
  • Thyroid carcinomas showing Hürtle cell differentiation were classified either as follicular or papillary histological type. (bmj.com)
  • The most frequent histological subtypes include clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC), papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC), and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (crRCC) ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
  • Tumors of the thyroid gland: Histological and cytological features. (upmc.edu)
  • Activating mutations of the RET proto-oncogene cause hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In these cases, your doctor may call the tumor "atypical medullary carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • Tumors in the thyroid, adrenal, or parathyroid glands may occur years apart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Multifocal bronchial carcinoid tumour was diagnosed initially, but at necropsy metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid was found. (bmj.com)
  • You may be offered targeted therapy for locally advanced or metastatic medullary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • We investigated the pathological and clinical features of medullary CRC in an unselected cohort of CRCs undergoing surgical resection. (springer.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma can have an aggressive behavior, and little is known about the molecular basis for clinical outcome. (lvhn.org)
  • When used for diagnosis, tumor markers are used in conjunction with other clinical parameters such as biopsy and radiological findings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although there are a multitude of tumor markers, very few of them have found their way into clinical practice because of their lack of specificity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You and your doctor can consider a number of clinical trials studying new treatments and new strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors. (mayoclinic.org)
  • You may be asked if you want to join a clinical trial for medullary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects: Tumor Markers. (exlibris.ch)
  • Girelli ME, Nacamulli D, Pelizzo MR et al (1998) Medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical features and long-term follow-up of seventy eight patients treated between 1979 and 1986. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, Notch blockade in combination with chemotherapy suppresses tumour growth and delays relapse in pre-clinical models. (nih.gov)
  • Many of these compounds entered clinical trials also for locally advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas showing very promising results. (scielo.br)
  • However, despite its minimum invasiveness, percutaneous biopsy involves risks and limitations and currently it is only indicated in cases where a renal tumor cannot be radiologically characterized or in specific clinical situations. (scielo.br)
  • Clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guideines): neuroendocrine tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Concurrent chemoradiation therapy followed by planned neck dissection, regardless of nodal response (This option is applicable if the primary tumor has a complete response to chemoradiation therapy based on clinical examination, endoscopic examination, and biopsy of the primary lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical Uses: Brain tumors, bone tumors, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and various other tumors. (scribd.com)
  • Material and Methods: 22 nuclear families (78 persons including 12 patients) with papillary and follicular tumors were selected in a period of six months from Milad hospital. (ac.ir)
  • This antibody is useful in identification of thyroid carcinoma of the papillary and follicular types. (fishersci.com)
  • The sporadic form of medullary thyroid carcinoma will be diagnosed in a progressive stage, but adequate surgical procedure can cure these patients too. (exlibris.ch)
  • Using microdissection and genotyping, we studied 11 cases of medullary carcinoma for allelic losses in a panel of known tumor suppressor genes. (lvhn.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification of gastrointestinal neoplasia, the medullary variant is characterized by a solid rather than glandular architecture, coarse chromatin, and prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm, often associated with numerous intraepithelial lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Th 2010 WHO classification of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract , liver , and pancreas (which was subsequently updated in 2017) also endorsed the ENETS grading scheme for NENs of the digestive tract , separating well - differentiated tumors into low- grade ( G1 ) and intermediate- grade ( G2 ) categories . (wikidoc.org)
  • The association of LNR with patient and tumor characteristics and prognostic factors was evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • Fuchshuber et al : Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: prognostic factors and treatment recommendations. (upmc.edu)
  • The differential diagnosis ranges from papillary (PC), follicular (FC) and medullary (MC) carcinomas to follicular adenoma (FA) and colloid goitre. (intechopen.com)
  • A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hurthle cell adenoma, Hurthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hurthle cell cytology. (redorbit.com)
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. (helsinki.fi)
  • Many of these syndromes are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes, genes that are involved in protecting the cell from turning cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequency of allelic loss in tumor suppressor genes may provide a useful adjunctive prognostic test in medullary thyroid carcinoma. (lvhn.org)
  • The tumor syndrome von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is caused by heterozygous germline inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene, which resides on chromosome 3p25 ( Kaelin, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. (ebscohost.com)
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the breast is a rare disorder (1). (ebscohost.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the aerodigestive tract is the most frequently encountered malignancy of the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery followed by radiation has long been the criterion standard treatment option for advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathology of malignant salivary gland tumors that have frequent neck disease include high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic, and high-grade adenocarcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Another exciting example is the endo- nuclear diagnosis of adrenal tumors. (springer.com)
  • Minimal invasive endoscopic treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is advocated in patients with low-risk disease and limited tumor volume. (urotoday.com)
  • a rare tumor with numerous diagnostic mimics by fine needle aspiration. (amedeo.com)
  • A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors are further classified, depending on the point of origin, as foregut ( lung , thymus , stomach , and duodenum ) or midgut (distal ileum and proximal colon ) or hindgut (distal colon and rectum ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors are most often found in the digestive system and the lung. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These types of neuroendocrine lung tumors grow slowly and do not often spread beyond the lungs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atypical lung carcinoids tumors grow faster than the typical tumors and are more likely to metastasize to other organs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the overall SUV mean, median and range of 68Ga-FAPI in primary tumors and metastatic lesions did not differ significantly, researchers analyzed all results in one group. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Primary tumors of the major and minor salivary glands can also present with cervical lymphadenopathy. (medscape.com)
  • as well as sarcomatoid, transitional cell, and small-cell carcinomas of the kidney. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In contrast, the protein has never been previously detected in human kidney and in renal cell carcinomas, as also reported by the Swiss-Prot proteomic bank ( http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot ) [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid. (springer.com)
  • Counsel patients regarding the potential risk of MTC with use of Trulicity and inform them of symptoms of thyroid tumors (e.g., mass in the neck, dysphagia, dyspnea, persistent hoarseness). (drugs.com)