Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adrenal Cortex HormonesTransplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Mice, Inbred BALB CXenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mice, Inbred C57BLTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Odontogenic Tumors: Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Rats, Inbred F344Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neuroectodermal Tumors: Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseGenes, Wilms Tumor: Genes at loci that are involved in the development of WILMS TUMOR. Included are human WT1 at 11p13 and human WT2 (MTACR1) at 11p15.Endodermal Sinus Tumor: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Adrenal[edit]. A variety of adrenal cortical abnormalities can cause hypertension, In primary aldosteronism there is a clear ... Also, some renal tumors can cause hypertension. The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a ... Neuroendocrine tumors are also a well known cause of secondary hypertension. Pheochromocytoma[35] (most often located in the ...
Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe. 24 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1007/s00292- ... They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes ... Tumors of the paraganglionic tissues are known as paragangliomas, though this term tends to imply the nonchromaffin type, and ... Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant. They are most of the time in the ...
Brain tumors e.g. craniopharyngioma, prolactinoma, germinoma, glioma; diseases of hypothalamus, irradiation and trauma. ... Various forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[9]. *Gonadotropin deficiency, resulting from a number of congenital and ...
... tumor of the adrenal glands); Parathyroid adenomas (benign [noncancerous] tumors) or hyperplasia (increased size) of the ... "Genomic Tumor Assessment". Cancer Treatment Centers for America. Rising Tide. Retrieved 18 November 2016.. ... After analysis, information retrieved can identify mutations in the tumor which can be used to determine the best treatment ... leukemia and brain tumors. In the Cowden syndrome there is a mutation on the PTEN gene, causing potential breast, thyroid or ...
The penetrance of the gene is often reported as 77% by age 50[12] (i.e. 77% of carriers will have at least one tumour by the ... Abdominal extra-adrenal paraganglionic cells secrete catecholamines that play an important role in fetal development. After ... Tumor formation generally follows the Knudson "two hit" hypothesis. The first copy of the gene is mutated in all cells, however ... Mutations causing disease have been seen in exons 1 through 7, but not 8. As with the SDHC and SDHD genes, SDHB is a tumor ...
"Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 41 ... Role in tumor suppression[edit]. Kisspeptin plays a role in tumor suppression. In a study where malignant tumor cells were ... and growing tumors showing decreased levels of KISS1 and Kisspeptin.[11] In conclusion, kisspeptin plays a large role in tumor ... Adrenal gland[edit]. The neuropeptide kisspeptin plays an important role in reproduction, but also stimulates aldosterone ...
About 85 percent of cases are caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, while 15 percent are caused by an adrenal tumor. The ... Surgery is used in some cases of adrenal tumors. Diabetes insipidus* in dogs can be central, caused by a lack of antidiuretic ... Canine transmissible venereal tumor is a tumor of the external genitalia (penis, vulva). It is spread by sexual contact and is ... a tumor can cause it to produce the adrenal-stimulating hormone even when it is not needed. Signs include increased appetite, ...
It has raised expression rates in adrenal tumors, lung tumors. Developmentally, it is most highly expressed during infancy. The ... It is most highly expressed in the gonadal tissue, adrenal gland, brain and placenta. ... tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 induces inflammation and has been shown to increase GRAMD1B levels in colon tumors. A ...
2011) Primary Adrenal Malignancies. (2012) Clinical Impact of a 6-week preoperative very low calorie diet on body weight and ... He works in clinical and basic research projects in genomic medicine of endocrine tumors an genomic of polygenic obesity. He ... 2004) Expression Profiling of Adrenocortical Tumors Suggests a Molecular Signature of Malignancy. (2005) Differential RNA ... 2003) Correlation between radiologic and pathologic dimensions of adrenal masses. ( ...
"WNT-4 mRNA expression in human adrenocortical tumors and cultured adrenal cells". Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und ...
... adrenal glands. It is usually advised for patients with tumors of the adrenal glands. The procedure can be performed using an ... If both adrenals are removed, then the subject requires a lifetime of steroid supplementation of cortisone and hydrocortisone. ...
1996). "Immunoreactive brain natriuretic peptide in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 135 (3): 352- ... Reduces aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Relaxes vascular smooth muscle in arterioles and ...
Extra-adrenal tumors account for around 10% of all cases of pheochromocytoma. Resection has been described. In addition to its ... The organ of Zuckerkandl is of pathological significance in the adult as a common extra-adrenal site of pheochromocytoma though ... Whalen, R. K.; Althausen, A. F.; Daniels, G. H. (1992). "Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma". The Journal of Urology. 147 (1): 1-10 ... Kravarusic, Dragan; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo; Al-Assiri, Ali; Sigalet, David (2007). "Laparoscopic resection of extra-adrenal ...
A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma, or sometimes simply adrenal adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal ... yellow tumour in the adrenal cortex, which is usually 2-5 cm in diameter. The color of the tumour, as with adrenal cortex as a ... adrenal tumor "Definition: adrenocortical adenoma from Online Medical Dictionary". ... These tumors are frequent incidental findings at post mortem examination, and appear to have produced no significant metabolic ...
Primary tumor cannot be assessed. Tumor cells present in sputum or bronchial washing, but tumor not seen with imaging or ... Primary lung cancers themselves most commonly metastasize to the brain, bones, liver and adrenal glands.[6] Immunostaining of a ... Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading ... By studying samples at different points of tumor development, the researchers hope to identify the changes that drive tumor ...
The most common location for neuroblastoma to originate (i.e., the primary tumor) is in the adrenal glands. This occurs in 40% ... Note: Not all brain tumors are of nervous tissue, and not all nervous tissue tumors are in the brain (see brain metastasis).. ... A tumor in the chest may cause breathing problems.. *A tumor pressing on the spinal cord may cause weakness, thus an inability ... Symptoms depend on primary tumor locations and metastases if present:[6] *In the abdomen, a tumor may cause a swollen belly and ...
Testicular adrenal rest tumors[edit]. Infertility observed in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been ... 2007). "Testicular adrenal rest tumors and Leydig and Sertoli cell function in boys with classical congenital adrenal ... The primary goals of hormone replacement are to protect from adrenal insufficiency and to suppress the excessive adrenal ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of ...
If the tumor is located lower in the abdomen, it may cause abdominal pain and bloating. A tumor near the spinal cord may cause ... Other common locations include the adrenal gland, paraspinal retroperitoneum, posterior mediastinum, head, and neck. A ... Any symptoms will depend upon the tumor's location and the nearby organs affected. For example, a tumor in the chest area may ... If the tumor has been present for a long time and has pressed on the spinal cord or caused other symptoms, it may have caused ...
Brain tumors: There are multiple cases were the neuropsychiatric symptoms of a brain tumor were attributed to AN, resulting in ... Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... Lin, L.; Liao, S. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Tseng, M. C.; Lee, M. B. (2003). "Brain tumor presenting as anorexia nervosa in a 19-year-old ... The tumors in these cases were noted in various regions of the brain including the medulla oblongata, hypothalamus, pituitary ...
a proband with any childhood cancer or sarcoma, brain tumor or adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosed before age 45 ... tumor belonging to the LFS tumor spectrum - soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, pre-menopausal breast cancer, brain tumor, ... Normal Conditions:[citation needed] TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 17 that normally assists in the control of ... The syndrome is linked to germline mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene,[3] which encodes a transcription factor (p53) ...
These include renal artery stenosis and tumors (generally nonmalignant) of the adrenal glands, e.g., Conn's syndrome (primary ...
... expression is highest in adrenal tumors, esophageal tumors, and soft tissue/muscle tissue tumors. Copy number gain/loss ...
It is expressed most highly in the adrenal gland, the bone marrow, and the testis. It is also found in cancerous tissues, most ... highly in cervical tumors and bladder carcinoma. KIAA0895 has one paralog in humans known as KIAA0895L. Orthologs have been ...
Lewis found that this phenomenon occurred in the adrenals but was not common to all subjects tested with tumors. However, tumor ... In the tumor atrophy paper, Margaret Lewis showed that tumor tissue inactivated in environments devoid of sufficient ... "Myeloid infiltrations occurring in the adrenals of animals bearing certain tumors" (PDF). The American Journal of Cancer. ... "Atrophy of tumors caused by strangulation and accompanied by development of tumor immunity in rats". Cancer. 5 (2): 411-413. ...
In animal models, exposure to acrylamide causes tumors in the adrenal glands, thyroid, lungs, and testes. Acrylamide is easily ... Acrylamide is also a skin irritant and may be a tumor initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for skin cancer. ...
For example, 11C-labelled metomidate (11C-metomidate), has been used to detect tumors of adrenocortical origin.[5][6] Also, ... "Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas with PET using (11)C-metomidate and (18)F-FDG". J. Nucl. Med. 45 (6): 972-9. PMID 15181132 ... Sweet, W.H.; G.L. Brownell (1953). "Localization of brain tumors with positron emitters". Nucleonics. 11: 40-45.. ... Stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery: PET-image guided surgery facilitates treatment of intracranial tumors, arteriovenous ...
... testicular adrenal rest tumor (TART) testicular adrenal rest tissue testicular tumor of the adrenogeni... ... Terminology Testicular adrenal rests can be known by a variety of terms 2: ... Testicular adrenal rests are a rare cause of a testicular mass. ... testicular adrenal rest tumor (TART). *testicular adrenal rest ... Testicular adrenal rest tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: serial sonographic and clinical findings. AJR. American ...
What is adrenal rests? Meaning of adrenal rests as a legal term. What does adrenal rests mean in law? ... Definition of adrenal rests in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... 8) testikuler adrenal artik tumorlerini (testicular adrenal rest tumors, TART) klinik ve histolojik bulgulara gore 5 evreye ... Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.. A case of late stage bilateral testicular adrenal rest ...
The ectopic production of ACTH from a carcinoid tumour of the thymus is recognised but a report of acute adrenal insufficiency ... collapsed after the removal of a carcinoid tumour of the thymus. The clinical suspicion of acute adrenal insufficiency was ... These post-operative events were subsequently ignored and a further crisis was probably prevented by tumour recurrence (and ...
... or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). Primary adrenocortical neoplasia has been diagnosed in 10 to ... Bilateral adrenocortical tumors resulting in hyperadrenocorticism are exceedingly rare in dogs. In a retrospective study ... The following is a case report of a dog that was diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism due to bilateral adrenocortical tumors and ... The prevalence of adenomas and carcinomas in dogs with functioning adrenocortical tumors is approximately equal, and the right ...
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign and non-functioning tumor. Most of these tumors are asymptomatic; when they ... The pain was related to adrenal myelolipoma, necessitating surgical resection of the tumor. Adrenal myelolipoma has rarely been ... 2: TUMOUR COMPOSED OF MATURE ADIPOSE TISSUE AND HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS, WITH PERIPHERAL ADRENAL CORTICAL TISSUE (H & E, X200) ... Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign endocrinologically inactive tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic ...
Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. It mainly consists of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid ... Adrenal myelolipomas are the second most common adrenal incidentalomas comprising of 6-16% of adrenal incidentalomas. ... Adrenal myelolipomas are the second most common adrenal incidentalomas comprising of 6-16% of adrenal incidentalomas. ... The diagnosis of Adrenal myelolipoma is made when History and Symptoms. The majority of patients with Adrenal myelolipoma are ...
Furthermore, only two other adenomas (mineral corticoids and corticosteroidproducing tumors) associated with myelolipomas have ... title = "Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma",. abstract = "The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non- ... Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma. Francesca Rappa, Francesca Manassero, Alfonso Crisci, Giorgio Pomara, Maria ... The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non-functioning adenoma is very rare. Herein,we report on such a case in an ...
Numerous autopsy studies have examined the frequency of adrenal tumors, and in a review of 87,065 autopsies, adrenal lesions (> ... Adrenal tumors are common, especially in older individuals. ... Fraker D (2008) Adrenal tumors. In: DeVitaJr VT, Lawrence TS, ... Adrenal Tumor Adrenal Mass Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy Adrenocortical Carcinoma Adrenal Adenoma These keywords were added by ... Adrenal tumors are common, especially in older individuals. Numerous autopsy studies have examined the frequency of adrenal ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) "" Variations of a gene are associated with a type of tumor that forms within the adrenal gland, and were ... Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are types of tumors. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal gland causing it to make too ... Mutations were detected only in patients with tumors of adrenal localization (pheochromocytomas) but not with paragangliomas. ... The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years. Malignancy was seen in ...
If you or your loved one has been diagnosed with a tumor of the adrenal gland, Memorial Sloan Kettering is ready to help. Find ... Adrenal tumors are not always cancer. Benign adrenal tumors are noncancerous, so they dont metastasize, or spread, to other ... Symptoms of adrenal tumors depend on which type of tumor you have and where it is located. Common symptoms include a rise in ... Your adrenal glands produce four common hormones. If you have an adrenal tumor, it may affect the production of these hormones: ...
Malignant adrenal tumors may be called adrenal carcinoma, adrenocortical cancer, or adrenal cortical cancer. Learn more about ... Benign adrenal tumors are called adrenal adenomas. They are usually less than two inches in length and usually occur in just ... the treatment of adrenal tumors at BIDMC in Boston. ... Adrenal tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant ( ... Most adrenal tumors occur in the adrenal cortex.. Sometimes adrenal tumors and adrenal cancer produce no symptoms, and they are ...
Ketterings multidisciplinary team of doctors provides comprehensive treatment for patients with all types of adrenal tumors. ... The multidisciplinary team of doctors at MSK provides comprehensive treatment for patients with all types of adrenal tumors. ... Select from the list below to learn more about our adrenal tumor specialists and their education, training, board ... To make an appointment with an adrenal tumor specialist, please call 646-227-9068. ...
The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. ... CT scan of the upper abdomen in a person with a right adrenal ... CT scan of the upper abdomen in a person with a right adrenal mass. The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. ...
Research adrenal glad tumors to learn about the symptoms, treatments and preventative techniques available. Then schedule a ... In this section, you can find out more about adrenal gland cancer symptoms, Florida Hospital treatment of adrenal tumors and ... and tumors may interfere with the level of these hormones. Whether benign or cancerous, treatment for adrenal gland tumors ... Locations for Adrenal Tumors. * Florida Hospital Carrollwood. 7171 North Dale Mabry Highway. Tampa, Florida 33614 ...
Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München have elucidated a mechanism that is responsible for the development of adrenal ... gland tumors. They discovered that the BMP7 protein plays a key role in this process and that it could be a possible target for ... Researchers discover new mechanism in adrenal gland tumors Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental ... Researchers discover new mechanism in adrenal gland tumors. Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for ...
... Mohammad Kazem Moslemi,1 Shabir Al-Mousawi,2 and Mohammad Hasan Dehghani ...
Virilizing Adrenal Tumor. Feminizing Adrenal Tumor. Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease. Adrenal Gland Tumor. ... Women with adrenal tumors secreting cortisol or other adrenal hormones may benefit clinically from evaluation and treatment of ... Adrenal Adenoma. Adrenal Cancer. Macronodular Adrenals. Ectopic Receptors. Gene Profiling. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Cushing ... Study of Adrenal Gland Tumors. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and Locations ...
... Thomas M. Kerkhofs,1 Rudi M. Roumen,2,3 Thomas B. Demeyere, ... "Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors," Journal of Endourology ... Adrenal angiomyolipomas are extremely rare with only five cases reported [40-44]. These tumors are classified in the family of ... However, the adrenal glands are involved in less than ,0.5% of infected patients [52]. Of note, all adrenal pathologies may ...
Many adrenal tumors are not symptomatic, however some adrenal tumors will release excess hormones that may lead to symptoms ... The adrenal glands produce important hormones, like cortisol, that are essential to normal body function. An adrenal tumor is ... Minimally Invasive Procedures for Adrenal Tumors. Our surgeons also have extensive experience removing complex adrenal and ... Why choose Johns Hopkins for treatment of adrenal tumors?. Our Physicians. Rely on the expertise of our physicians to help ...
It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. ... Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor is a form of Cushing syndrome. ... Appropriate treatment of adrenal tumors may reduce the risk of complications in some people with adrenal tumor-related Cushing ... Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor is a form of Cushing syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases ...
Adrenal Gland Tumor or Pheochromocytoma is a tumor and is made up of special adrenal gland cells. These cells secrete hormones ... See the latest posts about Adrenal Gland Tumor Symptoms & Diagnosis in womens health ... The Latest in Adrenal Gland Tumor Symptoms & Diagnosis. * Adrenal Gland Tumors: Facts, Symptoms and Treatments By Darlene ... MIBG scintiscan (or adrenal medullary imaging)-an imaging test for diagnosing adrenal tumors, in which tiny amounts of ...
Treating Adrenal Gland Tumors. There are two primary ways of treating and managing adrenal gland tumors. If the tumor is large ... An adrenal gland tumor is likely to be a relatively small tumor, but its accessibility and the dramatic effect that it has over ... Conditions Which May Be Caused by Adrenal Gland Tumors. There are two primary conditions of the adrenal system and the ... An adrenal gland tumor in dogs can be the cause of a variety of different problems to your pet. Among these problems are ...
I have been diagnosed with a nickle sized tumor in my adrenal gland . It is in the medula ( the middle of the adrenal gland) I ... I am also new here and am also being tested re a possible adrenal tumor. The name of this tumor is pheochromocytoma and usually ... adrenal tumor..i need answers. From: m_kennedy - 8 years 39 weeks ago ... What symptoms do you have? The symptoms are an important clue as to what kind of tumor it is. A pheo tumor (its common nickname ...
52 dogs with primary adrenal gland tumors.. PROCEDURES: Medical records were reviewed. Signalment, tumor features, and ... Adrenalectomy in dogs with adrenal gland tumors: 52 cases (2002-2008).. Massari F1, Nicoli S, Romanelli G, Buracco P, Zini E. ... Dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm, documented metastasis, or vein thrombosis had a poorer ... The association between metastasis or vein thrombosis and tumor type, size, and site (right or left adrenal gland) was ...
... is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors. In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative ... Tumors of the adrenal. In Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Washington, DC, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1986;1-106Google ... Limitations of size as a criterion in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. Surgery 2000;128:973-982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumors. Br J Surg 2005;92:719-726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • The prevalence of adenomas and carcinomas in dogs with functioning adrenocortical tumors is approximately equal, and the right and left glands appear to be involved with equal frequency. (cornell.edu)
  • Naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. (cornell.edu)
  • Hyperadrenocorticism is caused by either excessive pituitary ACTH secretion, as in pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). (cornell.edu)
  • The most plausible explanation may be that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells within the adrenal cortex are stimulated to differentiate into myeloid and lipoid lines by some stress in the form of chronic illness, necrosis or neoplasia 4 . (ijpsr.com)
  • Furthermore, only two other adenomas (mineral corticoids and corticosteroidproducing tumors) associated with myelolipomas have been reported, and both myelolipomas wereless than 1 cm in size. (unipa.it)
  • Aberrant adrenal rests represent collections of cells that have become trapped within the developing gonad during fetal development. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Microscopic examination revealed predominantly mature adipose tissue interspersed with hematopoietic cells of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic series with peripheral compressed adrenal cortical tissue ( Fig. 2 ). (ijpsr.com)
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