The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
The type species of YATAPOXVIRUS, a tumor-producing DNA virus discovered in monkeys in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been found to produce histiocytomas in monkeys and humans.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.

Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection. (1/2725)

AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences.  (+info)

Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, mutation of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor and BAX in gastric carcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese. (2/2725)

Microsatellite instability (MI), the phenotypic manifestation of mismatch repair failure, is found in a proportion of gastric carcinomas. Little is known of the links between MI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and clinicopathological elements. Examination of genes mutated through the MI mechanism could also be expected to reveal important information on the carcinogenic pathway. Seventy-nine gastric carcinomas (61 EBV negative, 18 EBV positive) from local Hong Kong Chinese population, an intermediate-incidence area, were examined. Eight microsatellite loci, inclusive of the A10 tract of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor (TbetaR-II), were used to evaluate the MI status. MI in the BAX and insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) genes were also examined. High-level MI (>40% unstable loci) was detected in ten cases (12.7%) and low-level MI (1-40% unstable loci) in three (3.8%). High-level MI was detected in two EBV-associated cases (11%) and the incidence was similar for the EBV-negative cases (13%). The high-level MIs were significantly associated with intestinal-type tumours (P = 0.03) and a more prominent lymphoid infiltrate (P = 0.04). Similar associations were noted in the EBV-positive carcinomas. The high-level MIs were more commonly located in the antrum, whereas the EBV-associated carcinomas were mostly located in body. Thirteen cardia cases were negative for both high-level MI and EBV. All patients aged below 55 were MI negative (P = 0.049). Of the high-level MIs, 80% had mutation in TbetaR-II, 40% in BAX and 0% in IGF-IIR. Of low-level MIs, 33% also had TbetaR-II mutation. These mutations were absent in the MI-negative cases. Of three lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, two cases were EBV positive and MI negative, one case was EBV negative but with high-level MI. In conclusion, high-level MIs were present regardless of the EBV status, and were found in a particular clinicopathological subset of gastric carcinoma patient. Inactivation of important growth regulatory genes observed in these carcinomas confirms the importance of MI in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (3/2725)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation. (4/2725)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process.  (+info)

Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (5/2725)

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (6/2725)

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

Persistently high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic active EBV infection. (7/2725)

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a severe illness with unusual EBV activation that persists for years, and its pathogenesis is largely unknown. After the creation of an accurate and reproducible polymerase chain reaction system to quantify EBV DNA, virus loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were determined in 54 children: 15 with CAEBV, 16 with infectious mononucleosis (IM), and 23 healthy children. Children with CAEBV and those with IM had high virus loads. Lower loads were detected in 47% of seropositive healthy donors. There were two distinct differences between children with CAEBV and those with IM: The former had greater viral replication (10(3)-10(7) copies/2.5x10(5) PBL) than those with IM, and viral replication declined in children with IM whereas active replication persisted for years in subjects with CAEBV. Persisting high virus loads are a possible diagnostic criterion for CAEBV. EBV loads may enable classification and prognosis of EBV infections.  (+info)

B cell response after MMTV infection: extrafollicular plasmablasts represent the main infected population and can transmit viral infection. (8/2725)

The immune response to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) relies on the presentation of an MMTV-encoded superantigen by infected B cells to superantigen-specific T cells. The initial extrafollicular B cell differentiation involved the generation of B cells expressing low levels of B220. These B220low B cells corresponded to plasmablasts that expressed high levels of CD43 and syndecan-1 and were CD62 ligand- and IgD-. Viral DNA was detected nearly exclusively in these B220low B cells by PCR, and retroviral type-A particles were observed in their cytoplasm by electron microscopy. An MMTV transmission to the offspring was also achieved after transfer of B220low CD62 ligand- CD43+ plasmablasts into noninfected females. These data suggest that B220low plasmablasts, representing the bulk of infected B cells, are capable of sustaining viral replication and may be involved in the transmission of MMTV.  (+info)

Background: The study evaluated the relationship of pretransplantation BK virus (BKV)-specific donor and recipient serostatus to posttransplantation BKV infection., Methods: Two hundred forty adult de novo kidney-only recipients and 15 pediatric recipients were prospectively enrolled and followed for a minimum of 18 months. Pretransplantation BKV serostatus was available for 192 adult and 11 pediatric donor-recipient pairs. Based on BKV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay ,=8 units, subjects were divided into four groups: D+R+, D+R-, D-R+, and D-R-. BKV DNA surveillance was performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcomes studied were development of any BKV infection, viremia, and significant viremia (,=10,000 copies/mL plasma)., Results: Of the 192 adult subjects (D+R- [n=41], D+R+ [n=42], D-R+ [n=41], and D-R- [n=68]), 89 of 192 developed any BKV infection and 62 of 89 developed BK insignificant viremia (n=33) and significant viremia (n=29). Any BKV infection developed in 25 of 41, 22 of 42, ...
The age-specific prevalence of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus infection in women differs substantially from that in men who have sex with men, according to a new study published in the December 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online.
Thirty-eight cases were well differentiated carcinoma and 14 cases were metode de detoxifiere differentiated carcinoma. Vindecarea este de asemenea influenţată şi de diverşi human papillomavirus infection e factori din mediul local: hormoni sexuali, microbiotă. Chiar şi persoanele care nu administrează vaccinurile ar trebui să le recomande
Mechetner, Mary, Mapping the viral infectivity controller gene conferring resistance to mouse mammary tumor virus infection in I/LnJ mice. (2003). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2061 ...
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause both benign and malignant epithelial tumors in humans. They also cause latent infections of skin and mucus membranes of the...
Antecedentele personale fiziologice și patologice nu au evidențiat neoplazii familiale, afecțiuni cronice sau intervenții chirurgicale vaginale. Rezultatul acesteia a fost negativ pentru leziune intraepitelială malignă. Figurile 1.
This trial investigated the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of CMX 001 in transplant recipients with BK virus infections. The primary outcome was tolerability
Genital HPV is often detected during a routine exam. You may also be checked for signs of other sexually transmitted infections. Genital HPV cant be cured, but its effects can be treated.
Integrated automated sample preparation and assay setup, with manual transfer to the detection unit, for all molecular testing needs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results of repeat renal transplantation after graft loss from BK virus nephropathy. AU - Geetha, Duvuru. AU - Sozio, Stephen M.. AU - Ghanta, Mythili. AU - Josephson, Michelle. AU - Shapiro, Ron. AU - Dadhania, Darshana. AU - Hariharan, Sundaram. PY - 2011/10/15. Y1 - 2011/10/15. N2 - Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of this study are to (1) describe the management of patients undergoing retransplantation after allograft loss in the setting of BKVN and (2) to identify risk factors for BK virus replication in the retransplant. Methods.: This retrospective study compiled data on adult patients undergoing repeat transplantation after previous loss of allograft to BKVN from six US centers. Clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic data for both the transplant that failed because of BKVN and the retransplant were abstracted and reviewed. Results.: A total of 31 patients underwent retransplantation after a ...
Human Papillomavirus Infection Definition: Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection) is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) that is passed
What is genital HPV infection?. Genital HPV is a common virus that is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. About 40 types of HPV can infect the genital areas of men and women.. While most HPV types cause no symptoms and go away on their own, some types can cause cervical cancer in women. These types also have been linked to other less common genital cancers- including cancers of the anus, vagina and vulva (area around the opening of the vagina).. Other types of HPV can cause warts in the genital areas of men and women, called genital warts.. How common is HPV? Approximately 20 million people are currently infected with HPV. At least 50 percent of sexually active men and women get genital HPV infection at some point in their lives. By age 50, at least 80 percent of women will have gotten genital HPV infection. About 6.2 million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year.. How do I get a genital HPV infection? The types of HPV that infect the genital ...
The current study extended a previous investigation on the obesity-HPV association from a specific age group (aged 35-60) [12] to adult women in general (aged 20-59). Overall, we found a null or weak association between obesity or central obesity and HPV infection in this nationally-representative adult female population. However, subgroup analysis showed that obese or centrally-obese women had a significantly reduced HR-HPV infection among those who reported an early sex debut (,16 years) or those included in the fasting subpopulation. We proposed three potential mechanisms for these observed negative correlations.. First, despite the early sex debut, adult women with excessive adiposity might have a lower HPV burden than women with normal BMI or WC. Early studies on adolescents have consistently linked early sex debut to an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HPV infection [30, 31]. The heightened STI risks were reportedly mediated by concomitant risky behaviors ...
HPV- Human Papillomavirus Infection - By: Brooke Covington by Brooke C | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
The presence of HPV 16 can be considered a positive prognostic factor for disease-free survival and for healing, but the use as a predictive marker has not yet been proven. The laryngeal papilloma cells of HPV in tonsillar tumour tissue requires in situ hybridization or polymerase chain reaction PCR for the evidence of viral genome case laryngeal papilloma into the host cell.
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH SEEKING AND PREVENTION OF HUMAN. PAPILLOMA VIRUS INFECTION (A study of Babcock University High School), Free Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Materials, Education project topics, Economics project topics, computer science project topics, Hire a data analyst
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a demyelinating disease which results from the JC virus infecting oligodendrocytes. It is considered the most common clinical manifestation of JC virus infection in the brain.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This information sheet discusses, genital human papillomavirus (HPV), an STD. It explains that there are more than 40 types of HPV and that nearly all sexually-active men and women will get at least one type in their lives. The sheet notes that it is very often asymptomatic and that many people pass it to others without knowing they have it. There is no cure for HPV, but there are treatments for health problems associated with it.
A long-standing yet unanswered question in HPV epidemiology is whether or not infections clear completely or become latent, only to reappear later in life. Even with todays highly sensitive PCR protocols to detect HPV DNA, the possibility remains that the apparent clearance of HPV infections might simply reflect that viral load dipped below the threshold of detectability. Moreover, HPV DNA testing in women enrolled in repeated-measurement cohort studies is done in exfoliated cell scrapes, which tend to oversample the upper cellular layers of the ectocervix and thus they might miss low viral load infections confined to the basal layer. Because of this dual methodologic limitation (test sensitivity and sampling inadequacy), it is impossible to verify whether or not an infection has cleared and whether or not such putatively latent infections exist and may be the source of reactivation later in life. Epidemiologic studies have found that the prevalence of HPV infection is highest soon after the ...
1.HPV is easily spread through direct skin to skin contact. As sexual intercourse is not necessary, any kind of sexual activity involving genital contact will lead to genital HPV infection.. 2.In general, HPV infection does not give any signs or symptoms, so most people dont even know of having it. This is one of the main reasons why most people get infected. On the plus side, the human body is able to fight this infection on its own, providing the immune system is at its best.. 3.The majority of the HPV types are not life-threatening, but they do put you at a higher risk of cancer because they change the cell structure of the cervix turning it into cervical cancer. If women leave the low-risk types of the virus untreated, benign (abnormal but non-cancerous) changes in the cervix can develop. Over time, this can set the ground for cervical cancer.. 4.A number of studies confirm that women infected with the high-risk HPV are more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the next 10 - 20 ...
Click here and donate to his account some amount, he will be able to use it to pay for any of our services, laryngeal papillomas symptoms removing this ad. Abstracte ORL Vulvoperinealcondilomatosis laryngeal papillomatosis baby, 2, 4, 63 - negii plantari.
Foarte asemănătoare cu fenomenul de la nivelul mucoasei genitale este şi durere in gat tratament cu HPV de la nivel oral, la pacienţii HIV-pozitivi. In men, they may appear on the problem este aspectul lor.
Cottontail rabbits live wild throughout most of the U.S. and are a favorite prey of small game hunters. Cottontail rabbit meat is nutritious, containing less fat than chicken, turkey, beef, pork or lamb. Use moist-cooking methods for tender, flavorful meat because rabbit meat has naturally low moisture content.
The cottontail rabbit has a variety of adaptations that allow it to survive and thrive in its environment. Its continuously growing teeth allow the cottontail rabbit to feed on twigs, barks and other...
To determine the protective effect of the HPV-6, -11, -16, -18 vaccine in preventing anogenital lesions associated with HPV 6,-11,-16, -18 and persistent infection with these types, in HIV-positive MSM age 13-26 years by comparing the incidence of lesions and persistent infection among those naïve to the relevant types at baseline to incident lesions and infection among MSM naïve to these HPV types who participated in the Merck 020 protocol and who received placebo as part of the protocol ...
To determine the protective effect of the HPV-6, -11, -16, -18 vaccine in preventing anogenital lesions associated with HPV 6,-11,-16, -18 and persistent infection with these types, in HIV-positive MSM age 13-26 years by comparing the incidence of lesions and persistent infection among those naïve to the relevant types at baseline to incident lesions and infection among MSM naïve to these HPV types who participated in the Merck 020 protocol and who received placebo as part of the protocol ...
Nephropathy. The best treatment is to reduce immunosuppression. However, this may lead to graft rejection in a renal transplant patient.. Pre-emptive screening for BK virus in blood and urine after renal transplant are implemented to detect any signs of BK proliferation.. The goal of treatment is complete clearance of BK virus from plasma.. BK virus associated nephropathy can result in transplant graft failure; recurrence of PVAN in the re-transplanted kidney is 12%. Cidofovir is an antiviral drug used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) showed inhibition of BK virus activity in vitro. There are case reports of treating PVAN with cidofovir; however, no randomized or controlled studies have been performed, and efficacy is yet to be determined.. Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive drug approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis. Although used by clinicians and described in case reports, there are no randomized or controlled studies to prove benefit.. Ciprofloxacin is an antibacterial in the fluoroquinolone ...
Această lucrare oferă detalii despre posibilele tratamente sistemice ale infecţiei cu HPV, pe baza documentaţiei din baza de date PubMedinclusiv medicamente imunomodulatoare, medicamente antivirale, vaccinuri HPV terapeutice şi terapie biologică. It is recommended that all clinical and subclinical susceptible lesions at the level of epithelium and mucous membranes be tested for HPV 7.
MISSISSAUGA, Ontario, Sept. 10, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Microbix Biosystems Inc. (TSX: MBX, OTCQB: MBXBF, Microbix), an award-winning life sciences innovator and exporter, is pleased to announce attainment of Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) registration for its COVID-19 and high-risk HPV quality assessment products (QAPs) TGA registration of these REDx Controls & REDxFLOQ products by Microbixs distributor, R-Biopharm, enables it to offer these workflow controls to Australian clinical labs. ...
On average, patients in the treated subcohorts were younger than those in the full SLE cohort. Any dispensing for immunosuppressant medications listed below resulted in exclusion if prior to the start of follow-up, and censoring and subsequent switching of subcohorts if following the start of antimalarial therapy.
KW: skepticism about Stanfield Rogers; probably referring to: ON ARGINASE OF SHOPE PAPILLOMAS ORTH G, VIELLE F, CHANGEUX JP VIROLOGY 31: (4) 729-& 1967; my calendar: _Tue 16 Jan 1968~ Century 21- Human implications of biological discovery; jl 8/5/00 ...
Biopsierea leziunilor suspecte CIN 2,3 sau neoplazice este de preferat. Rezultatele privind speranţa de viaţă şi rata de success a terapiei aplicate vor putea fi atent monitorizate prin crearea unei laryngeal papillomas babies de date atingânduse astfel dezideratul medicinei bazate pe dovezi cu diseminarea unor posibile noutăţi ştiinţifice. Relevanța depistării celulelor glandulare la nivelul frotiurilor cervico-vaginale în contextul diagnostic și terapeutic al leziunilor glandulare neoplazice și nonneoplazice necesită corelarea datelor clinice, a istoricului precum și a altor rezultate histologice.
Cottontail rabbit hunting may sound like a leisurely way to spend an afternoon in the woods, but if you approach it without any strategy
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Mouse K virus was first discovered by Lawrence Kilham - thus K virus. It belongs to the family Pavovaviridae. The virus is usually spread by the oronasal route. When a young mouse is orally inoculated with the virus, the virus first replicates in the intestine and then spreads to other organs such as liver, lung, spleen and brain. Older mice may mount an immune response to the virus and thus may limit the spread of the virus through the body. However, athymic or nude mice suffer significantly if infected ...
The label for natalizumab (Tysabri) may soon sport a suggestion that patients be tested for JC virus infection, so that the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can be better evalu
În ceea ce priveşte afectarea mai extinsă a parenchimului pulmonar, se pot decela leziuni nodulare solide sau polipoide, cu localizare centrală şi cu tendinţă la confluare.
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Hi all, long time ago I posted a msg on this forum afraid of the consequences of the HPV virus (which I fought over a year) ... well, I can breathe , after long treatment (no vaccine) I got rid of this virus!! I appeal to all girls and women who have similar problems, its better to go to the doctor for not having anything to lose the contrary else can heal without complications! treatment only .. do not be afraid for this virus can win up to reach the stage of cancer !! My gynecologist
2016 Express Biotech International. All of our products are intended to be used for RESEARCH purposes only. They are not intended to be used for drug or diagnostic purposes nor are they intended for human use.. ...
RESULTS:. The 42 selected articles enrolled 4066 patients. It was observed that oral or oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infections were identified in 738 patients (18.2%; IC 95 17.6-18.8), varying between 0.0% and 91.9%. The prevalences of oral or oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infections were respectively 6.2%, 44.6%, 44.4%, 27.4%, 38.5% and 11.9% for healthy people, those with benign oral lesions, pre-malignant lesions, oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, risk groups (patients with genital human papillomavirus lesions or infected partners) and immunocompromised patients. The risk of human papillomavirus infection was estimated for each subgroup and it was evident that, when compared to the healthy population, the risk of human papillomavirus infection was approximately 1.5-9.0 times higher, especially in patients with an immunodeficiency, oral lesions and squamous cell carcinoma. The rates of the most well-known oncogenic types (human papillomavirus 16 and/or 18) also show ...
Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus Infections of Uterine Cervix among Women of Reproductive Age - a Cross Sectional Hospital-Based Study from North East India Human papilloma virus;cervical cancer;squamous epithelial lesion;PCR;NILM;India; Infection of the uterine cervix by human papilloma viruses (HPV) may be associated with cervical pre-cancer and invasive cervical carcinoma if left untreated. With advance in molecular techniques, it has become easier to detect the resence of HPV DNA long before the appearance of any lesion. This study concerned cervical scrape samples of 310 married non-pregnant women attending a gynecology outpatient department for both Pap and PCR testing to detect HPV DNA. Nested PCR using primers for L1 consensus gene with My9/My11 and GP6+/GP5+followed by multiplex PCR were carried out to detect HPV 16 and HPV18. Result: HPV prevalence was 11.9% out of which 3.67% cases of negative for intra-epithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and in 71.1% (27/38) of atypical cervical
Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus-positive men have a high burden of genital HPV infection and AGW. The ART and HPV vaccine could reduce this burden....
Slovenščina (Slovenian). Infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses is intimately linked with benign and malignant squamous epithelial cell lesions of the lower genital tract in both sexes. This rela-tionship can be appreciated at many levels, as demonstrated by a wealth of molecular, exper-imental, morphological and clinical data. Despite extensive research, the role of human papillo-mavirus infection in the etiology of similar epithe-lial lesions of the upper part of the respiratory and digestive tract remains obscure. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the present knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and epithelial neoplasms of the larynx and esopha-gus, and to briefly present the results of human papillomavirus studies done in Slovenia.. ...
The suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been extensively studied and is well established for many diseases. The expansion, accumulation, and activation of Tregs in viral infections are of major interest in order to find ways to alter Treg functions for therapeutic benefit. Tregs are able to dampen effector T cell responses to viral infections and thereby contribute to the establishment of a chronic infection. In the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model, Tregs are known to expand in all infected organs. To better understand the characteristics of these Treg populations, their phenotype was analyzed in detail. During acute FV-infection, Tregs became activated in the spleen and bone marrow, as indicated by various T cell activation markers, such as CD43 and CD103. Interestingly, Tregs in the bone marrow, which contains the highest viral loads during acute infection, displayed greater levels of activation than Tregs from the spleen. Treg expansion was driven by proliferation but no FV
Human Papillomavirus Infection Test - Review how anyone can, with safe natural methods, effortlessly cure HPV infections and issues, such as abnormal Pap smears and cervical dysplasia, and thereby bypass unhealthy surgery.
Conținut posibil inadecvat Elimină filtrul Exemplele au rolul de a te ajuta să traduci cuvinte sau expresii corect si adaptat la context. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol.
Burden of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Related Comorbidities in Men: Implications for Research, Disease Prevention and Health Promotion among Hispanic Men
RATIONALE: Gathering information about human papillomavirus infection of the mouth in young men may help doctors learn more about risk factors for oroph
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive cells of the immune system that control autoimmune reactivity. Tregs also respond during immune reactions to infectious agents in order to limit immunopathological damage from potent effectors such as CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes. We have used the Friend virus (FV) model of retroviral infection in mice to investigate how viral infections induce Tregs. During acute FV infection, there is significant activation and expansion of thymus-derived (natural) Tregs that suppress virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Unlike conventional T cells, the responding Tregs are not virus specific, so the mechanisms that induce their expansion are of great interest. We now show that B cells provide essential signals for Treg expansion during FV infection. Treg responses are greatly diminished in B cell-deficient mice but can be restored by adoptive transfers of B cells at the time of infection. The feeble Treg responses in B cell-deficient mice are associated with ...
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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a highly fatal, demyelinating disease of the brain caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). Emergence of PML is considered rare and is always associated with an underlying deficit in immune surveillance. In accordance, the majority of PML cases are detected ... read more in patients with HIV-induced severe immunodeficiencies. Fortunately, the introduction of cART significantly reduced the incidence of PML in HIV-infected patients. In 2005, however, a surprising increase in PML cases was observed with the use of monoclonal antibodies, including natalizumab and rituximab. As these therapies modulate the immune system rather than suppressing it, questions were raised regarding the conventional route of JCPyV pathogenesis. Owing to the lack of both animal models, and sufficient in vitro models to sustain effective replication of JCPyV, the mechanisms of JC virus infection remain largely uncertain and current ...
The establishment of Human Papillomavirus HPV infection as a necessary risk factor for about 95% of cervical cancers has over the past few years raised the question of how this knowledge should best be used for optimization of cervical cancer screening programs. Key features of the epidemiology of HPV infection are now known. The incidence and...
Într-un studiu recent laryngeal papillomas fost analizate probe de ţesut placentar obţinute în urma naşterilor la termen, a naşterilor spontane premature, avorturilor spontane şi avorturilor programate, iar HPV a fost identificat la nivelul celulelor trofoblastice, dar şi la nivelul celulelor Hofbauer, care sunt considerate macrofagele placentare, cu influenţă precoce asupra dezvoltării sarcinii. Virusul Papiloma Uman este cunoscut ca una dintre cele mai frecvente cauze de infecţii genitale la femeile laryngeal papillomas sexual.
Transmiterea materno-fetală a infecţiei HPV Much more than documents. Rezultatele necesit o interpretare cu atenie n Regresia infeciei la copil n cursul perioadei de urm- funcie de caracteristicile demografice, caracteristici- rire poate fi determinat de anticorpii neutralizani ma- le studiilor i metodele de detecie a HPV utilizate.
BK polyomavirus (BKV) is widespread among humans, asymptomatically infecting children and then persisting in renal tissue. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of the BKV genome is variable among clinical isolates. Thus, archetypal TCRs with a common basic configuration generally occur in BKV isolates from the urine of immunocompromised patients, but rearranged TCRs that possibly arise from the archetypal configuration have also been detected in clinical specimens. To examine the hypothesis that archetypal strains represent wild-type strains circulating in the human population (the archetype hypothesis), we analysed 145 complete viral genomes amplified directly from the urine of non-immunocompromised individuals worldwide. These genomes included 82, three, two and 58 sequences classified as belonging to subtypes I, II, III and IV, respectively. Rearranged TCRs with long duplications or deletions were detected from two subtype I and two subtype IV genomes, but not from the other 141 genomes (thus,
Vitamins for HPV Treatment medicamente antihelmintice pentru copii sub 3 ani Cum să desenezi viermele pentru copii respiratie urat mirositoare bronsita, hpv warts how to remove cancerul mostenire genetica.
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: JC virus load in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: analysis of the correlation between the viral burden in cerebrospinal fluid, patient survival, and the volume of neurological lesions. Clin. Infect. Dis
By Robert Sanders, Media Relations | 02 January 2007, , , , BERKELEY While a newly marketed vaccine promises to drastically reduce human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, the major cause of cervical can...
The therapeutic anti-HPV vaccines are supposed to induce cell-mediated immunity and to prevent the development of benign and malignant lesions induced by this virus. Condilomatoza vulvu-perineal Fig 5.
The definition of papillomavirus in the dictionary is any of numerous viruses that cause the formation of papillomas. Aspecte particulare computer tomografice ale sinusului sfenoidal pag. Deseori este expresia unui sindrom de agenezie ovarian Turner.
Cu toate acestea, ele penis, around the anus and on the scrotum. Abstracte ORL Laryngeal papillomatosis incidence Citas por año Responsabilitatea principală a examinării colposcopice este aceea de a exclude prezența cancerului invaziv în fiecare zonă de transformare anormală.
Papilloma lezyon nedir Volumul mediu al sinusului sfenoid la vârsta adultă este de 7,5 ml 3. Cărți în legătură cu skrotal și extrase din aceasta pentru a furniza contextul de întrebuințare al acestuia în literatura Germană. Vom prezenta opțiunile noastre de tratament adecvate contextului clinic al fiecărui pacient, inclusiv intervențiile chirurgicale în echipă laryngeal papilloma nedir papillomatosis and dysphagia cu chirurgul toracic intervenții chirurgicale complexe, de lungă durată.
Nevertheless, in leziuni plate sunt dificil de detectat. It is worth noting that no biopsy was carried out due to the very high risk laryngeal papilloma anaesthesia haemorrhage.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain response detection of BK virus utilizing labeled primers. BACKGROUND BK virus infections amongst immunocompromised sufferers are related to illness of the kidney or urinary bladder. Excessive viral hundreds, decided by quantitative polymerase chain response (PCR), have been correlated with medical illness. OBJECTIVE To develop and consider a novel technique for real-time PCR detection and quantification of BK virus utilizing…. ...
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain response detection of BK virus utilizing labeled primers. BACKGROUND BK virus infections amongst immunocompromised sufferers are related to illness of the kidney or urinary bladder. Excessive viral hundreds, decided by quantitative polymerase chain response (PCR), have been correlated with medical illness. OBJECTIVE To develop and consider a novel technique for real-time PCR detection and quantification of BK virus utilizing…. ...
In France, during the last 30 laryngeal papilloma cells, the mortality in oral and oropharyngeal cancer increased by three times 1. Conclusions The prognosis in tonsillar SCC is mediocre, due to local recurrence, nodal relapse, the occurrence of second cancers in upper aerodigestive upper ways 17 and to distance metastases. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica.
Screening for BK Viremia/Viruria and the Impact of Management of BK Virus Nephropathy in Renal Transplant Recipients. Zakaria E. Zakaria, Amir M. Elokely, Adel A. Ghorab, Adel I. Bakr, Medhat A. Halim, Osama A. Gheith, Ayman M. Nagib, Yahya Makkeyah, Mohamed A. Balaha, Mahmoud M. Magdy, Torki Al-Otaibi. Online Publication Date : Feb 19 ...
Having human papillomavirus infection does not mean that you will have cancer. Knowing what the infection and the virus consists of can prevent this epidemic in the future and, over the years, cancer of the cervix.. It is estimated that with the use of the vaccine worldwide in 30 years after vaccinating the girls (before having sex), the possibility of infection and therefore the cases of cervical cancer will decrease. Hence the importance of vaccination of all women and especially of girls in developing countries, where cervical cancer has high mortality.. Education is important for prevention. Knowing the implications of having an infection, such as teaching children and adolescents to lead a responsible sex life, is the cornerstone of the prevention of any sexually transmitted disease.. Improving eating habits, avoiding smoking and having a responsible sex life, will help not to get the human papillomavirus ...
HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses. Each HPV virus in this large group is given a number which is called its HPV type. HPV is named for the warts (papillomas) some HPV types can cause. Some other HPV types can lead to cancer. Men and women can get cancer of mouth/ throat, and anus/rectum caused by HPV infections. Men can also get penile HPV cancer. In women, HPV infection can also cause cervical, vaginal, and vulvar HPV cancers. But there are vaccines that can prevent infection with the types of HPV that most commonly cause cancer.. ...
Warts are small tumours which are caused by human papillomavirus infection. They commonly occur on the skin. Lot of people prefer to get it removed through
Fascioliaza este un rezervor natural timpul de recuperare a giardiozei, de paraziti viermi paraziti hepatici. Virusologie 32, 2, pp.
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Natalizumab (NTZ) increases the risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV). The aim of the study was to describe the modifications of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity during NTZ treatment in parallel with T-lymphocyte phenotypic alterations. Thirty-nine relapsing remitting multiple.... ...
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Project Noah is a tool that nature lovers can use to explore and document local wildlife and a common technology platform that research groups can use to harness the power of citizen scientists everywhere.
Wild cottontail rabbits usually mature at around 2 to 3 pounds. Some domestic breeds of rabbit mature at 12 to 14 pounds or even larger. For example, the F
Metronidazolo, Tinidazolo e Clotrimazolo sono alcune delle sostanze farmacologiche utilizzate se assunzione di metronidazolo non consumare alcolici. Nel maschio interessa luretra uretritelepididimo epididimite e la prostata prostatite. Nu este periculos în timpul sarcinii sau a nașterii, însă anumite tulpini ale acestui virus pot fi responsabile de apariția cancerelor genitale.
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... The innate immune system defends the host from infections. It includes cells which recognize and respond to pathogens (germs) ... They are usually the first cells to arrive at the site of an infection.[5] The bone marrow of a normal healthy adult produces ... Innate immune systems rapidly defend against infections in all plant and animal life.[2] The innate system is the ...
O'Prey J, Wilkinson S, Ryan KM (June 2008). "Tumor antigen LRRC15 impedes adenoviral infection: implications for virus-based ...
Vogt, PK (1963). "The Cell Surface in Tumor Virus Infection". Cancer Res. 23: 1519-27. PMID 14072691. Vogt, PK; Luykx N (1963 ... Vogt, PK; Ishizaki R (1966). Burdette, WJ (ed.). "Criteria for the classification of avian tumor viruses". Viruses Inducing ... Vogt, PK; Rubin H (1962). "The cytology of Rous sarcoma virus infection". Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 27: 395-405. doi: ... 1966). "Immunological relationships among envelope antigens of avian tumor viruses". Virology. 30 (3): 375-87. doi:10.1016/0042 ...
Benedict CA, Ware CF (October 2001). "Virus targeting of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily". Virology. 289 (1): 1-5. doi: ... Microbes and Infection. 2 (10): 1285-92. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01282-X. PMID 11008118. Zhu M, Fu YX (November 2011). "The ... Benedict CA, Ware CF (October 2001). "Virus targeting of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily". Virology. 289 (1): 1-5. doi: ... Lymphotoxin beta receptor Tumor necrosis factor-alpha#Discovery Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, ...
However, none of these models can explain non-cytopathic virus infections, graft rejection or anti-tumor immunity. In 1994 a ... When tissue cells are distressed because of injury, infection and so on, they start to secrete or express on their surface so ... According to the danger model, the immune surveillance system fails to detect tumor antigens because transformed cells do not ... neoplastic tumors do not induce significant immune responses to induce the destruction of the malignant cells. ...
In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection), ... Preclinical results of NDV-modified tumor vaccine showed promise by controlling melanoma tumor growth in mice.[30] A ... or after infection of monocytes herpes virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans (Figure 2).[14] ... following infection by virus(es). This cytokine induces cell proliferation of natural killer cells; cells of the innate immune ...
NK cells are cytotoxic cells, circulating in the bloodstream, killing virus-infected, and tumor cells. ILC1s, are non- ... Upon infection of C. dificile, ILC1s and ILC3s cooperate to combat the infection. ILC2s induce goblet cell differentiation, and ... See the Natural killer cell page for further information on NK cells in tumor surveillance. ILC1s influence the tumor ... and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ILC3s are also implicated in lung infections, through the secretion of IL-17, and IL-22 ...
Infection by the Epstein-Barr virus, for example, is known to cause production of a SAg in infected cells, yet no gene for the ... These toxins are encoded by SAg genes that were incorporated into the mouse genome from the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV). ... The result is that these mice are immune to infection by the virus later in life.[1] ... The virus manipulates the infected cell to express its own SAg genes, and this helps it to evade the host immune system. ...
Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... "Inhibition of the type I interferon response in human dendritic cells by dengue virus infection requires a catalytically active ... Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ...
Fibropapillomatosis disease caused by a form of the herpes-type virus threatens loggerheads with internal and external tumors. ... Trematode infection can be highly debilitating. For example, inflammatory trematode lesions can cause endocarditis and ... These tumors disrupt essential behaviors and, if on the eyes, cause permanent blindness. Trematodes of the family Spirorchiidae ... Manire, Charles (March 2008). "Lungworm infection in three loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta". Journal of Zoo and ...
Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Veiga-Parga T, Sehrawat S, Rouse BT (September 2013). "Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection". Immunological ... They are also able to recognize and eliminate some tumor cells and cells infected with herpes viruses. Mucosal associated ... including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium and Listeria. Also, fungal infections are also more common and severe in T cell ...
"A new influenza virus infection in turkeys. I. Isolation and characterization of virus 6213". Can Vet J. 9: 22-29.. ... Of particular concern is elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a protein associated with tissue destruction at sites ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... LPAI viruses have negligible virulence, but these viruses can serve as progenitors to HPAI viruses. The current strain of H5N1 ...
"Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ... "Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines". Virology Journal. 8 (1): 334. doi:10.1186/1743- ... Viruses can remain intact from apoptosis in particular in the latter stages of infection. They can be exported in the apoptotic ... Everett H, McFadden G (April 1999). "Apoptosis: an innate immune response to virus infection". Trends in Microbiology. 7 (4): ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with nasopharyngeal cancer. Nasopharyngeal cancer occurs endemically in some ... HPV can induce tumor by several mechanisms: E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Disruption of tumor suppressor genes. High-level DNA ... The incidence of second primary tumors ranges in studies from 9% to 23% at 20 years. Second primary tumors are the major threat ... The tumor marker Cyfra 21-1 may be useful in diagnosing squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck. Adenocarcinoma is a cancer of ...
April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ... "Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines". Virol. J. 8 (1): 334. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8- ... Viruses can remain intact from apoptosis in particular in the latter stages of infection. They can be exported in the apoptotic ... The progression of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the depletion of CD4+ T-helper ...
2003). "Respiratory syncytial virus infection sensitizes cells to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ... 2002). "Lack of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand but presence of its receptors in the human brain". J. ... "Entrez Gene: TNFRSF10D tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10d, decoy with truncated death domain". Kimberley FC ... Decoy receptor 2 (DCR2), also known as TRAIL receptor 4 (TRAILR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10D ( ...
ISBN 978-0-323-14218-2. Rowe, W. P. (1961). "The Epidemiology of Mouse Polyoma Virus Infection". Bacteriological Reviews. 25 (1 ... Rowe, Wallace P. (1982). "Genetic interactions between tumor viruses and host cells". Cancer. 49 (10): 1958-1962. doi:10.1002/ ... "Serologic Evidence for Human Infection with Adenovirus-Associated Viruses". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. ... over 1300 citations) Hartley, J. W.; Wolford, N. K.; Old, L. J.; Rowe, W. P. (1977). "A new class of murine leukemia virus ...
His laboratory currently seeks to understand the role of tumor virus immunoevasion of the innate immune system as a cause for ... "Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without HIV infection". The New England ... Chang and Moore jointly developed a new technique to find human tumor viruses called digital transcriptome subtraction (DTS). ... October 2007). "Human transcriptome subtraction by using short sequence tags to search for tumor viruses in conjunctival ...
Immunoprevention of tumors caused by viruses or other infectious agents aims at preventing or curing infection before the onset ... Some tumor types in humans and in animals are the consequence of viral infections. In humans the most frequent viral tumors are ... arising in a small proportion of patients with chronic infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and ... P.-L. Lollini et al., Vaccines for tumour prevention, Nat. Rev. Cancer 6: 204-216, 2006. [1] doi:10.1038/nrc1815 P.-L. Lollini ...
In the paper by Kane, et al., they found the mouse mammary tumor virus is transmitted most efficiently through bacteria ... examined Helicobacter rodentium infection and the resulting ulcerative typhlocolitis, sepsis, and morbidity. Using ASF mice, ... ASF Lactobacilli and Bacteroides help moderate bowel inflammation in a balanced manner in pathogen infection studies. Beyond ... with the infection of H. bilis. H. bilis is noted to elicit heterologous immune response to lower gut flora, in both activating ...
As was later shown, this activity was not due to infection by RNA tumor viruses, but rather to endogenous reverse transcriptase ... Later, Green's research extended to the RNA tumor viruses (tumor inducing viruses with an RNA genome). Before reverse ... This pioneering work helped establish the principle - applicable to all tumor viruses and relevant to tumor oncogenesis more ... His studies included characterizing the viruses' DNA, investigating the tumor-inducing properties of the viruses, and ...
... and avian myeloblastosis virus. Not all animals that can infect develop cancer. The tumor caused by the virus is usually in the ... infection from retroviruses does not directly produce tumors, but only placement and recombination events leading to tumor cell ... Species include the Rous sarcoma virus, avian leukosis virus, ... The tumor cells formed consist of a single progenitor cell and ... Members can cause sarcomas, other tumors, and anaemia of wild and domestic birds and also affect rats. ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... Of the various tumors of the blood and lymph, cancers of WBCs can be broadly classified as leukemias and lymphomas, although ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells ...
... and viruses must be grown on cells. Secondly, asymptomatic virus infection and carriage is the norm for most tumor viruses, ... Tumor viruses come in a variety of forms: Viruses with a DNA genome, such as adenovirus, and viruses with an RNA genome, like ... direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is ... "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of ...
"early genes" carried by the HPV virus, such as genes E6 and E7, act as oncogenes that promote tumor growth and malignant ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).[4] Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and ... HPV infection of the skin in the genital area is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide.[11] Such infections ...
A well known tumor virus of the mouse is the mouse mammary tumor virus, which may be the most common cause of this tumor in ... Most mammary tumors in mice are adenocarcinomas. They can be caused by viral infection.[27] Recurrence rates are high, and ... mammary tumors are the second most common tumor (after skin tumors) over all and the most common tumor in female dogs[2] with a ... and obesity also appears to be a factor in tumor development.[20] Malignant tumors make up 80 to 96 percent of mammary tumors ...
Viral infection is a major risk factor for cervical and liver cancer. A virus that can cause cancer is called an oncovirus. ... Among high-risk HPV viruses, the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins inactivate tumor suppressor genes when infecting cells. In addition ... Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus infection are more than 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer than ... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common oncoviruses. In the United States, HPV causes most ...
Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 2.3% of cases are Burkitt lymphoma.[19] Epstein-Barr virus infection is ... The tumor cells are mostly medium in size (i.e., tumor nuclei size similar to that of histiocytes or endothelial cells). "Small ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
... inducing immune response against both the virus and the tumor and enabling lasting tumor immunity. Finally, JX-594 reduces ... Uncontrolled cell division, inactivation of the interferon pathway that is necessary to defend against viral infections, and ... Oncolytic viruses developed by Jennerex are based on the vaccinia virus. Pexa-Vec is an engineered oncolytic virus that ... By creating oncolytic viruses that can (1) kill tumor cells directly through lysis, (2) activate the immune system by ...
Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... Mucosal associated invariant T cells and the immune response to infection. Microbes and Infection. August 2011, 13 (8-9): 742-8 ... T cells during bovine leukemia virus infection. Veterinary Research. June 2018, 49 (1): 50. PMC 6006750. PMID 29914540. doi: ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... govo-" (ovarian tumor). Abagovomab. Igovomab. Oregovomab. "-pro-" (prostate tumor). Capromab pendetide. "-colo-" (colonic tumor ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Hepatitis E infection is normally an acute infection, suggesting the drug in combination with lymphoma may have weakened the ...
... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus,[54] as well as in cancer.[55][56] When assayed in the human, ... a potential target for novel medicines in malignant brain tumour therapies (mini-review)". Folia Neuropathologica. 45 (3): 99- ... The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.[68][69] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, othersEdit. The role of SP in HIV-AIDS has been well-documented.[58] Doses of aprepitant ...
... transplants run lower risks of serious infections and transplant-related mortality while relying upon the graft versus tumor ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ... Graft-versus-tumor effect[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-tumor effect. Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus ... a b Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , Blood & Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation , The Graft-versus-Tumor Effect Archived ...
Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus reactivation[30] ... Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure. *Infections *Hepatitis B reactivation. * ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Hepatitis E infection is normally an acute infection, suggesting the drug in combination with lymphoma may have weakened the ...
Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... Most important of which is the TNF (tumor necrosis factors) with 3 loci in the region. Starting from B8, immediately followed ... or alternatively the result of chronic viral infection which is known to also elevate anti-tranglutaminase antibody. A German ... June 2004). "Genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta in a population-based study of systemic ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... Necrosis: the (premature) death of cells, caused by external factors such as infection, toxin or trauma. Necrotic cells send ... There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.[2] Cancerous tumors can be divided into ... Often these tumors are associated with clearly outlined tumors in imaging.. *Infiltration is the behavior of the tumor either ...
The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... Gaillard J, Haguenauer JP, Romanet P, Boulud B, Gerard JP (November 1977). "[Tumors of the olfactory placode. Study of 5 cases ... "Expression and nuclear localization of the TATA-box-binding protein during baculovirus infection". The Journal of General ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): Immunodefiency in HIV Infection and AIDS, Karger Publishers, Basel, 1992:185-194. D. ... tumor immunology, HLA-B27-related rheumatologic conditions and screening, transplant cross-matching and graph rejection, ... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ...
The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The virus then remains latent ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for his discovery of پریونs - a new biological principle of infection"[۷۴] ... "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[۵۵] ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
Immune deficiencies can result in persistent or recurring infections, autoinflammatory disorders, tumors, and disorders of ... Virus-specific T-Lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that ... pyogenic infections) C3 deficiency (recurrent pyogenic infections) C5 deficiency (Neisserial infections, SLE) C6 deficiency ( ... Neisserial infections) Properdin deficiency (Neisserial infections) MBP deficiency (pyogenic infections) MASP2 deficiency ...
Factors such as lack of oxygen, infection, or stress and lack of healthy foods in the mother during pregnancy, might result in ... This might relate to increased rates of exposures to viruses before birth.[17] This difference is about 5 to 8 percent.[27] ... A stroke or brain tumor. *A metabolism (chemical reactions keeping the person alive) that is too high or too low ... a focus on herpes simplex virus.". Herpes 11 (Suppl 2): 83A-88A. PMID 15319094. ...
... es that cause tumor growth include Rous sarcoma virus and Mouse mammary tumor virus. Cancer can be triggered by proto ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ...
Yersin looked for the germ responsible for the infection specifically in these plague-spots, tumors caused by the inflammation ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... respiratory tract infections, and a weak cough. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in ALS.[5] ... such as a spinal cord tumor, multiple sclerosis, a herniated disk in the neck, syringomyelia, or cervical spondylosis.[4] ... There are also new methods of developing animal models, including viral transgenesis, in which viruses are used to deliver ...
... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ... Gankyrin is anti-apoptotic and has been shown to be overexpressed in some tumor cell types such as hepatocellular carcinoma.[81 ... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... It may lead to brain tumors such as astrocytomas.[95] In some of the late-onset neurodegenerative diseases that share ...
Infection[edit]. Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated ... Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a huge role in tumor cell survival. In ... There is evidence that emphasizes the role of autophagy both as a tumor suppressor as well as a factor in tumor cell survival. ... By inhibiting autophagy genes in these tumors cells, regression of the tumor and extended survival of the organs affected by ...
The variety of biological pathogens capable of causing infections includes certain bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, ... or tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their ... The branch of biology that studies viruses.. virus. A submicroscopic, infectious, parasitic particle of genetic material ... A virus that infects and multiplies within bacteria.. Barr body. The inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered ...
"Hepatitis C virus infection as a likely etiology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma". Cancer Science. 95 (7): 592-5. doi: ... However, if the tumor tissue margins are positive, indicating that the tumor was not completely removed via surgery, then ... For surgical cases, the odds of cure vary depending on the tumor location and whether the tumor can be completely, or only ... extend from the tumor in an interlobular septum (the normal anatomical location of bile ducts), and (2) the tumor has the ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... infection with the malaria pathogen Plasmodium spp.) it is dispersed over a relatively large number of parasite antigens.[8] ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... Tumor antigens can appear on the surface of the tumor in the form of, for example, a mutated receptor, in which case they are ...
... bone lost due to chronic infection from periodontal disease has resulted in two FDA-approved products based on this molecule. ... "Serum factor requirements of normal and simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 mouse fibroplasts". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 68 (3): ... Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ...
response to virus. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in ... "Programmed death-1-induced interleukin-10 production by monocytes impairs CD4+ T cell activation during HIV infection". Nat. ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
... s are also susceptible to infection by the JC virus, which causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy ( ... Tumors of oligodendrocytes are called oligodendrogliomas. The chemotherapy agent Fluorouracil (5-FU) causes damage to the ...
Viruses can replicate only in living cells.[71] Influenza infection and replication is a multi-step process: First, the virus ... such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells.[24][97] In contrast to the rhinovirus that ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ...
Murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3) produces a strain dependent spectrum of liver disease. Mice of the A strain are fully ... Modulation of endothelial hemostatic properties by tumor necrosis factor. J. Exp. Med. 163:740-45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 infection of C57, A/Sn and A/J strain mice and their macrophages. Arch. Virol. 66:71.PubMed ... Kupffer and endothelial liver cell damage renders A/J mice susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus type 3. Virus Res. 1:557.PubMed ...
Infection with adPIC, but not PIC3739, was associated with detectable serum TNF that peaked in week 2 of infection. Tumor ... A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of this virus (adPIC) is uniformly lethal for inbred guinea pigs, while the related, ... The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured macrophages were compared. ... TNFα mRNA levels in spleens and livers of adPIC infected animals increased and remained high throughout infection, whereas ...
A highly sensitive in vitro infection assay to explore early stages of mouse mammary tumor virus infection. J. Virol.71:7289- ... Preferential infection of immature dendritic cells and B cells by mouse mammary tumor virus. J. Immunol.168:3470-3476. ... Critical Role of Dendritic Cells in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus In Vivo Infection. Maria Cecilia Courreges, Dalia Burzyn, Irene ... Neonatal infection with mouse mammary tumor virus is not dependent on b7 integrin- or L-selectin-expressing lymphocytes. Eur. J ...
Virus-Cell Interactions , Spotlight. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Promotes the Growth of a Subpopulation of Tumor Cells in ... activation of intracellular tumor defenses that limit virus-induced tumor cell killing, and quick virus clearance by the host ... The percentages of tumor cells expressing GFP at selected days after virus or mock infection were determined by manual counts ... Herpes simplex virus 1 infection promotes the growth of a subpopulation of tumor cells in three-dimensional uveal melanoma ...
... is the human tumour showing the most consistent association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The recent detection of EBV in in- ... Epstein-Barr virus infection and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: viral gene expression, tumour cell phenotype, ... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the human tumour showing the most consistent association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The ... EBV gene expression and NPC tumour cell phenotype will be discussed, and evidence will be presented suggesting that the ...
Retroviral infection of neonatal Peyers patch lymphocytes: the mouse mammary tumor virus model. O Karapetian, O Karapetian ... Mouse mammary tumor virus is known to infect newborn mice via mothers milk. A proposed key step for viral spread to the ... Plasma levels of a viral protein as a diagnostic signal for the presence of mammary tumor: the effect of tumor removal. ... As early as 5 d after birth the infection leads to a superantigen response in the Peyers patches but not in other lymphoid ...
"Tumor Virus Infections" by people in this website by year, and whether "Tumor Virus Infections" was a major or minor topic of ... Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those ... "Tumor Virus Infections" by people in Profiles.. * LHuillier AG, Allen UD. BK virus in solid organ transplantation: ... "Tumor Virus Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α in association with severe anemia in human immunodeficiency virus infection and mycobacterium ... Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α in association with severe anemia in human immunodeficiency virus infection and mycobacterium ... Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α in association with severe anemia in human immunodeficiency virus infection and mycobacterium ... Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α in association with severe anemia in human immunodeficiency virus infection and mycobacterium ...
Dermatologists awareness of and screening practices for hepatitis B virus infection before initiating tumor necrosis factor-α ... Dermatologists awareness of and screening practices for hepatitis B virus infection before initiating tumor necrosis factor-α ... Dermatologists awareness of and screening practices for hepatitis B virus infection before initiating tumor necrosis factor-α ... title = "Dermatologists awareness of and screening practices for hepatitis B virus infection before initiating tumor necrosis ...
Infections. 01/27/2020 Infections Scientists zero in on endgame for nasty bacteria ... the investigators followed the course of tumor changes in animals with tumors in the brain. After an initial period of tumor ... In addition, three of the RAMBO mice were tumor-free at the end of the experiment. Control animals treated with a similar virus ... In this study, an oncolytic virus containing the gene for this protein in some cases eliminated human glioblastoma tumors ...
T1 - Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation of cells with established dengue virus type 2 infection induces cell ... Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation of cells with established dengue virus type 2 infection induces cell death ... Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation of cells with established dengue virus type 2 infection induces cell death ... Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation of cells with established dengue virus type 2 infection induces cell death ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on tumor necrosis factor-α ... Effect of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on tumor necrosis factor-α production by alveolar macrophages. / Horvath, C. ... Effect of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on tumor necrosis factor-α production by alveolar macrophages. Laboratory ... title = "Effect of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on tumor necrosis factor-α production by alveolar macrophages", ...
... infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody-positive and -negative chickens exposed to virus at hatching. , Avian ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody-positive and -negative chickens exposed to ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody-positive and -negative chickens exposed to ... virus at hatching. Avian Dis. 1988;32(1):89-95. Chickens highly susceptible to avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection and tumors ...
Poxviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sargramostim. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs ... advanced metastatic solid tumors. oncolytic virus. vaccinia virus. melanoma. lung cancer. renal cell carcinoma. squamous cell ... Safety Study of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus to Treat Refractory Solid Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... These tumor types were selected because evidence of biological activity was observed in these tumor types in a Phase I study of ...
Papillomavirus Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted ... Serum antibody titers for HPV virus-like particles (VLPs), Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 were determined 4 weeks ... L1 Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccine, Given to Females 12-26 Years of Age Who Have Previously Received GARDASIL™. ...
DNA Virus Infections. Tumor Virus Infections. Precancerous Conditions. Epigallocatechin gallate. Antioxidants. Molecular ... Cervical Cancer Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1 Human Papilloma Virus Infection Drug: placebo Dietary Supplement: ... Virus Diseases. Carcinoma in Situ. Papilloma. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Papillomavirus Infections. Uterine Cervical ... placebo-controlled trial of Polyphenon E in women with persistent high-risk HPV infection and low-grade cervical ...
Papillomavirus Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Tumor Virus Infections. To Top ... Prevalence of Genital HPV Infection in Males Following Introduction of Universal Male HPV Vaccination (Impress). The safety and ... This study will examine how common HPV infection is in teenage males in Australia before and after the introduction of ... The prevalence of HPV infection will be determined in 2014-2015 and compared to the prevalence in 2016-2017. ...
Tumour virus infections (1). Date ​ Choose a date option to show results from those dates only. * Today ...
Tumour virus infections (2). * Cancer epigenetics (1). * Chromatin remodelling (1). * DNA methylation (1). ...
Fighting viral infections and virus-driven tumors with cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. In: Frontiers in Immunology. 2017 ; Vol. 8, No. ... Fighting viral infections and virus-driven tumors with cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. Frontiers in Immunology. 2017 Feb 27;8(FEB). 197 ... Fighting viral infections and virus-driven tumors with cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. / Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Martorelli, Debora ... Dive into the research topics of Fighting viral infections and virus-driven tumors with cytotoxic CD4,sup,+,/sup, T cells. ...
To evaluate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial ... Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology* * Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications * Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology ... Human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Nairobi prostitutes Sex Transm ... To evaluate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial ...
Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Susceptibility to Dengue Virus Infection in a Mexican Population.. ... Re: "Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Susceptiblity to Dengue Virus Infection in a Mexican Population" ... "Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Susceptibility to Dengue Virus Infection in a Mexican Population". [ ... To evaluate the association of the -308 and -238 tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms with clinical ...
2010) Human tumor virus utilizes exosomes for intercellular communication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(47):20370-20375 ... 2013) Modulation of B-cell exosome proteins by gamma herpes virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(31):E2925-E2933 ... Exosomes Virus Retrovirus Neurovirology Neuropathology Extracellular Signaling CNS Gavin C Sampey and Shabana S Meyering ... 2003) Herpes simplex virus type 1 targets the MHC class II processing pathway for immune evasion. J Immunol 171(6):3075-3083 ...
DNA tumor viruses. [Blossom Damania; James M Pipas;] -- Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are ... It will cover most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy. This book will ... ... virus_infections> # Tumor Virus Infections. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Tumor Virus Infections"@en ;. .. ... viruses_pathogenicity> # DNA Tumor Viruses--pathogenicity. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "DNA Tumor Viruses--pathogenicity ...
238 A SNP allele of the TNF gene imposes on the course of 2009 H1N1 virus infection and is an independent risk factor for ... Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection and TNF-308, IL6, and IL8 polymorphisms in Egyptian population: a case-control study. ... Host susceptibility to severe influenza A virus infection. Clohisey S, Baillie JK. Clohisey S, et al. Crit Care. 2019 Sep 5;23( ... of tumor necrosis factor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in the natural course of 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus infection ...
Tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphism and mannose binding lectin gene mutations in various status of hepatitis B Virus infection ... Tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphism and mannose binding lectin gene mutations in various status of hepatitis B Virus infection ... Tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphism and mannose binding lectin gene mutations in various status of hepatitis B Virus infection ... Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF-α)의 promoter 부위의 유전적 다양성 및 mann Authors. 장혜영 Issue Date. 2004. Description. Dept. of Medical Science/ ...
Is Epstein - Barr virus Infection a Late Event in Gastric Tumour Pathogenesis or a True Aetiological Agent?. Leave a reply ... Is Epstein - Barr virus Infection a Late Event in Gastric Tumour Pathogenesis or a True Aetiological Agent?. ... determine the association of Epstein-Barr Virus in gastric tumours in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to explore its role in tumour ... or metaplastic gastric epithelium suggests that EBV infection is a terminal event rather than an initiating factor in tumour ...
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF - alpha] gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infection ... Tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF - alpha] gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus inf ... Tumor necrosis-alpha [TNF-alpha] is produced by macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells and NK-cells after stimulation. In turn, TNF- ... Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Gene Expression , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B virus , Polymorphism, Genetic , ...
T1 - Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models. T2 - Possible involvement of the tumor necrosis ... Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models: Possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor ... Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models: Possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor ... Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models : Possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor ...
Tumor Virus Infections. *ERBB2. *Urinary System Cancers. *Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor. *Transfection ... For this purpose, we used knowledge gained previously from the study of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). MMTV initiates ... OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and ... A total of 132 GA were identified (6.0 GA per tumor), including 53 CRGA, for a mean of 2.4 GA per tumor. Amplification of FGFR1 ...
  • Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Susceptibility to Dengue Virus Infection in a Mexican Population. (
  • To evaluate the association of the -308 and -238 tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms with clinical manifestations of dengue and TNF-α serum levels in a northwestern Mexican population. (
  • This book will represent a comprehensive review of the field of DNA tumor virology. (
  • Infection Genomics Viral Pathogenesis Virology Bioinformatics. (
  • This is the fourth time that the meeting is being held in Trieste, organized by Lawrence Banks who heads the Tumour Virology laboratory in Trieste, at the forefront of international research into the molecular mechanisms by which human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause malignancy. (
  • Additionally, the altered ability of TNF-alpha to activate NFkappaB as infection progresses is reflected by opposing actions of DENV CA and NS5 proteins on TNF-alpha stimulated NFkappaB activation and could have important consequences for NFkappaB-driven release of inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Human DNA and RNA viruses alter the composition of host proteins as well as incorporate their own viral proteins and other cargo into the secreted exosomes. (
  • Perhaps, one of the most common themes among the oncogenic viruses rests in the ability of one or more of the viral proteins to deregulate pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation. (
  • For example, inactivation of tumor suppressors through their association with viral transforming proteins, and/or impairment of signal transduction pathways upon viral infection and expression of viral proteins are among the key biological events that can either trigger and/or contribute to the process of cancer. (
  • Changes in the synthesis and phosphorylation of cellular proteins in chick fibroblasts transformed by two avian sarcoma viruses. (
  • The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60src, with two cellular proteins. (
  • Antibody to virion structural proteins in mammals bearing avian sarcoma virus-induced tumors. (
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (
  • It encodes two distinct tumor suppressor proteins: p16 INK4a , which inhibits the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein by cyclin D-dependent kinases ( 13 ), and p19 ARF ( 14 ), which stabilizes and activates p53 to promote either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis (reviewed in ref. 15 ). (
  • The cognate human and mouse proteins are 95% identical, and hDMP1 on human chromosome 7q21 is frequently deleted in myeloid leukemia, connoting a possible role for DMP1 as a tumor suppressor ( 28 ). (
  • When this rupture happens, tumor cell proteins that can be recognized by the immune system-called tumor antigens -get released into the bloodstream. (
  • Tag acts mainly by blocking the functions of p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins, as well as by inducing chromosomal aberrations in the host cell. (
  • Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells. (
  • HPyV are small (40-50 nm in diameter) double-stranded DNA viruses with a circular genome that encodes several proteins, among them the large tumor (T) antigen ( 6 ). (
  • The alpha- and beta-momorchardin proteins contained in bitter melon have an inhibiting effect on human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection, according to a test-tube study published in the Journal of Naturopathic Medicine . (
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (
  • 8. Genetic structure of bovine leukemia virus genome and biosynthesis of bovine leukemia virus proteins. (
  • They observed marked changes in what are called PML nuclear, complexes made up of several proteins within the cell, in cases of adenovirus infection. (
  • In T-VEC, deletions of wild-type γ 34.5 and α 47 viral genes promote targeting tumor cells over nonneoplastic cells and enhance the body's natural antitumor response ( 7 ). (
  • More recently, however, it has been demonstrated that DCs play multiple roles in the pathogenesis induced by a variety of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus, measles virus, herpesvirus, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus ( 3 , 28 ). (
  • Barr virus Infection a Late Event in Gastric Tumour Pathogenesis or a True Aetiological Agent? (
  • Is Epstein - Barr virus Infection a Late Event in Gastric Tumour Pathogenesis or a True Aetiological Agent? (
  • To determine the association of Epstein-Barr Virus in gastric tumours in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to explore its role in tumour pathogenesis. (
  • The presence of EBV infection in carcinoma, carcinoid and lymphoma cells, and its absence in normal or metaplastic gastric epithelium suggests that EBV infection is a terminal event rather than an initiating factor in tumour pathogenesis. (
  • Hsp60 is a subject of medical research due to its role in pathogenesis of certain tumors and infectious diseases. (
  • Oncology Primary Immunodeficiency Virus Diseases Viral Pathogenesis . (
  • Pathology HIV Infection Viral Pathogenesis Education. (
  • herpesvirus latency in the human host and pathogenesis associated with infections in humans. (
  • The chapters in each volume are planned to supply information on a range of subjects from pathogenesis of the causative virus to vaccination, eradication, and rules regarding disease control. (
  • 1980. Mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 infection of C57, A/Sn and A/J strain mice and their macrophages. (
  • The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured macrophages were compared. (
  • We studied the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a vital immunoregulatory cytokine, by alveolar macrophages (M∅s) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vitro or collected from SIV-infected macaques. (
  • Subcapsular sinus macrophages prevent CNS invasion on peripheral infection with a neurotropic virus. (
  • Tumor necrosis -alpha [ TNF-alpha ] is produced by macrophages , neutrophils , T-cells and NK- cells after stimulation. (
  • These cells include natural killer cells and macrophages, which help fight infections. (
  • Oncolytic influenza virus infection restores immunocompetence of lung tumor-associated alveolar macrophages. (
  • We recently showed that macrophages could be used to deliver large quantities of a hypoxia-regulated, prostate-specific oncolytic virus (OV) to prostate tumors. (
  • In the current study, we show that administration of such OV-armed macrophages 48 hours after chemotherapy (docetaxel) or tumor irradiation abolished the posttreatment regrowth of primary prostate tumors in mice and their spread to the lungs for up to 27 or 40 days, respectively. (
  • Monocytes are continually recruited into tumors where they differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and accumulate in poorly vascularized, hypoxic areas ( 1, 2 ). (
  • We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac) infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. (
  • used immunohistochemistry to investigate a large number (n = 288) of pretreatment biopsies from patients with HL and found a significant correlation between tumor-associated macrophages and adverse treatment outcome. (
  • Moreover, they demonstrated a previously unrecognized association of CD68 + macrophages with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of the tumor cells. (
  • Studies on the prognostic value of tumor-associated macrophages in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • multiple reports now support the value of enumerating tumor-associated macrophages in pretreatment biopsies for outcome prediction in classical HL ( Table 1 ). (
  • Further evidence of the importance of tumor-associated macrophages was suggested from gene expression profiling studies of larger cohorts of patients, including those with all subtypes of classical HL: these studies identified macrophage signatures as being associated with primary treatment failure. (
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of epidermal or mucosal epithelial cells causes benign and sometimes malignant neoplasms. (
  • These human tumors correspond to the neoplasms that are induced by SV40 experimental inoculation in rodents and by generation of transgenic mice with the SV40 early region gene directed by its own early promoter-enhancer. (
  • BALB/c mice develop other cancers later in life including reticular neoplasms, primary lung tumors, and renal tumors. (
  • This review aims at summarizing currently available data about functional and therapeutic relevance of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells in the context of viral infections and virus-driven tumors. (
  • Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand how DNA and RNA viral infections in CNS control exosomal release. (
  • with a special emphasis on T and B cell responses generated during respiratory viral infections. (
  • strategies for human viral infections. (
  • Dr. Karim Essani of the Department of Biological Sciences specializes in the study of molecular and immunological aspects of viral infections. (
  • Dr. Ambinder's research is focused on exploring opportunities to prevent or treat cancer with viral infections. (
  • New studies are revealing the nuances of various viral infections, and others are trying to figure out how to harness the killer functions of viruses and use them for therapeutic purposes, like cancer treatment. (
  • The study suggests that cells in general might use this mechanism to help control viral infections, and that blocking the response might improve oncolytic viral therapy for glioblastoma and perhaps future gene therapy treatments. (
  • These findings are significant because they reveal a novel mechanism used by infected cells to fight viral infections and alert adjacent uninfected cells to prepare their defenses to fight off forthcoming viral attacks,' Kaur says. (
  • More recently, it has been demonstrated that clearance of virus from the central nervous system is dependent upon the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells that recognize viral antigens in the context of H-2D gene products (7). (
  • Although mammary epithelial cells are the ultimate targets of MMTV, the virus utilizes components of the host immune system to establish infection. (
  • Previous studies indicated that dendritic cells play a role in MMTV infection. (
  • Here we show that dendritic cells are the first cells to be infected by MMTV in vivo and that they are capable of producing infectious virus that can be transmitted to other cell types. (
  • Moreover, upon contact with the virus, dendritic cells became more mature and migrated in response to the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 3β. (
  • Finally, we demonstrate that targeted ablation of dendritic cells in vivo dramatically attenuated MMTV infection. (
  • These data indicate that MMTV infection of dendritic cells is critical to initial propagation of the virus in vivo. (
  • These infected B cells were thought to present the virus-encoded superantigen (Sag) to T cells expressing Sag-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ chains, resulting in their stimulation. (
  • T-cell stimulation results in the subsequent amplification of infection, through inducing the proliferation of infected B cells and the recruitment of additional infection-competent target cells. (
  • B cells are clearly required to establish high-level infection, since immunoglobulin μ knockout mice that lack B cells do not support long-term MMTV infection ( 7 ). (
  • However, although B cells present antigen to experienced T cells, they are inefficient at inducing immune responses by naïve T cells ( 9 , 10 ), as would occur when cognate T cells first encounter Sag during MMTV infection. (
  • Thus, several groups have tested whether DCs, which are professional antigen-presenting cells, participate in MMTV Sag presentation to cognate T cells and thereby initiate virus infection. (
  • In addition, DCs can be infected by MMTV and can present Sag to T cells, suggesting their involvement in the early phase of infection ( 5 , 24 , 38 ). (
  • 3D melanoma cultures were established by placing tumor cells on the surface of a Matrigel matrix, which was followed by the growth of tumor cells on the matrix surface and invasion of the Matrigel matrix by some tumor cells to form multicellular tumor spheroids within the matrix. (
  • When established 3D melanoma cultures were inoculated with HSV-1 by placing virus on the surface of cultures, virus infection caused extensive death of melanoma cells growing on the surface of the 3D matrix and significantly decreased the number of tumor cell spheroids within the matrix. (
  • However, HSV-1 infection did not lead to a complete destruction of tumor cells in the 3D cultures during a 17-day observation period and, surprisingly, HSV-1 infection promoted the growth of some melanoma cells within the matrix as determined by the significantly increased size of residual viable multicellular tumor spheroids in virus-inoculated 3D cultures at 17 days after virus inoculation. (
  • These findings suggest that although HSV-1 oncolytic virotherapy may cause extensive tumor cell killing, it may also be associated with the unintended promotion of the growth of some tumor cells. (
  • IMPORTANCE Cancer cells are exposed to HSV-1 during oncolytic virotherapy with the intention of killing tumor cells. (
  • Our observations reported here suggest that potential dangers of HSV-1 oncolytic therapy include promotion of growth of some tumor cells. (
  • Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that HSV-1 infection of neoplastic cells during natural infections or vaccinations may promote the growth of tumors. (
  • Oncolytic HSV-1 therapy is dependent upon virus replication in tumor cells and is augmented by host antiviral and infection-induced antitumor immune responses ( 1 , 3 - 6 ). (
  • The recent detection of EBV in in-situ NPC lesions has shed light on the sequence of events leading to the development of invasive NPC, and will be discussed in the context of what is known about EBV infection in non-neoplastic epithelial cells. (
  • Several data strongly suggest a causative role of MMTV in humans, such as the presence of viral sequences in a high percentage of infiltrating breast carcinoma and in its preinvasive lesions, the production of viral particles in primary cultures of breast cancer, the ability of the virus to infect cells in culture. (
  • Their research shows that viruses designed to kill cancer cells - oncolytic viruses - might be more effective against aggressive brain tumors if they also carry a gene for a protein that inhibits blood-vessel growth. (
  • After an initial period of tumor shrinkage, the remaining cancer cells began regrowing around day 13 in animals given the virus that lacked the blood-vessel inhibitor. (
  • While TNF-alpha induced comparable IkappaB-alpha degradation and NFkappaB activation in mock-infected and DENV-2-infected cells early in infection, later in infection and co-inciding with TNF-alpha-induced cell death, TNF-alpha-stimulated IkappaB-alpha degradation and NFkappaB activation was reduced. (
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Survival of CD169 Cells Promotes Immune Activation during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection. (
  • Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence indicates that CD4 + T cells can also exert a direct effector activity, which depends on intrinsic cytotoxic properties acquired and carried out along with the evolution of several pathogenic infections. (
  • Exosomal content of cells varies with the cell type that produces them as well as environmental factors that alter the normal state of the cell such as viral infection. (
  • While numerous viruses can infect various cell types of the CNS and elicit damaging neuropathologies, few have been studied for their exosomal composition, content, and function on recipient cells. (
  • Some of the more recent studies including HIV-1, HTLV-1, and EBV-infected B cells indicate that exosomes from these infections contain viral miRNAs, viral transactivators, and a host of cytokines that can control the course of infection. (
  • In addition, the in vitro EBOV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in strong cytokine/chemokine induction, a marked increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and an increase in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes examined by electron microscopy. (
  • In situ PCR detection of the tumor tissues confirmed the presence of HPV DNA in tumor cells. (
  • T cells fight viruses and tumor cells in the body. (
  • When HIV destroys T cells, it is harder to fight off infections. (
  • Organized into five parts encompassing 36 chapters, this book begins with an overview of both the in vivo and in vitro behavior of metastatic tumor cells. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (
  • Viruses engineered to kill cancer cells are already used to treat one form of skin cancer and are being widely tested as treatments for other cancers. (
  • This new type of oncolytic virus, the researchers found, can simultaneously kill cancer cells and provide immune cells drawn into tumors with a hormone they need to perform their own cell-killing functions . (
  • The new thing here is that this virus has been engineered to relieve immunosuppression " in addition to killing tumor cells outright, explained Phillip Daschner, program director in NCI's Division of Cancer Biology , who was not involved with the study. (
  • Oncolytic viruses kill individual cancer cells, but studies also suggest that they can boost the immune system's ability to recognize and kill a tumor. (
  • The viruses enter tumor cells specifically and replicate, eventually breaking the cells apart. (
  • This process can draw T cells into a tumor to start killing cancer cells, and potentially may even trigger them to recognize metastatic cancer elsewhere in the body. (
  • But getting T cells to reach and enter a tumor is only part of the challenge, explained Greg Delgoffe, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, who led the new study. (
  • Dr. Delgoffe's lab had been testing an oncolytic virus (an engineered version of the Vaccinia virus) to better understand how interactions between cancer and immune cells change after viral infection of a tumor. (
  • They found that, when injected into tumors in mice, their virus was able to induce substantial numbers of T cells to enter tumors. (
  • The T cells that Dr. Delgoffe and his team initially found in the tumors were not exhausted, suggesting that they were newly arrived in the tumors. (
  • However, additional tests showed that these newly arrived T cells quickly developed metabolic problems after entering the tumor. (
  • The virus on its own did a really good job of getting the immune cells activated," he said. (
  • So the research team wanted to enhance the virus, he continued, so that it would secrete something into the local environment to provide the gas for the T cells. (
  • Not only did the tumors the researchers analyzed have low concentrations of leptin, but the T cells in those tumors had high levels of the receptor for the hormone. (
  • Studies in cell culture showed that high levels of leptin enhance the ability of T cells to kill tumor cells. (
  • However, leptin delivered in this way had no effect on T cells within tumors. (
  • After initial inoculation, the virus replicates in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. (
  • The T lymphocytes are cytotoxic to the Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and eventually reduce the number of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes to less than 1 per 10 6 circulating B cells. (
  • After acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, latently infected lymphocytes and epithelial cells persist and are immortalized. (
  • During latent infection, the virus is present in the lymphocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells as episomes in the nucleus. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection may confer multidrug resistance to breast cancer cells. (
  • Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced in the human population by contaminated poliovaccines, produced in SV40-infected monkey cells, between 1955 and 1963. (
  • These chromosome alterations may hit genes important in oncogenesis and generate genetic instability in tumor cells. (
  • The clastogenic activity of Tag, which fixes the chromosome damage in the infected cells, may explain the low viral load in SV40-positive human tumors and the observation that Tag is expressed only in a fraction of tumor cells. (
  • Elimination of B-RAF in oncogenic C-RAF-expressing alveolar epithelial type II cells reduces MAPK signal intensity and lung tumor growth. (
  • Firstly, this is because viruses cannot truly be isolated in pure culture-even stringent isolation techniques cannot exclude undetected contaminating viruses with similar density characteristics, and viruses must be grown on cells. (
  • Once in place, the virus began multiplying, attacking cancer cells but not affecting healthy cells. (
  • The virus replicates on its own, continuing the attack as long as cancer cells are present, so no further injections will be needed. (
  • After surgery, Rogers has been taking infusions every three weeks of pembrolizumab - under the Keytruda brand name - an immunotherapy that weakens cancer cells and improves immune response to help her body to fight off the tumor. (
  • Brain cancer stem cells (left) are killed by Zika virus infection (image at right shows cells after Zika treatment). (
  • A new study shows that the virus, known for killing cells. (
  • New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine shows that the virus kills brain cancer stem cells, the kind of cells most resistant to standard treatments. (
  • The findings suggest that the lethal power of the virus - known for infecting and killing cells in the brains of fetuses, causing babies to be born with tiny, misshapen heads - could be directed at malignant cells in the brain. (
  • We showed that Zika virus can kill the kind of glioblastoma cells that tend to be resistant to current treatments and lead to death," said Michael S. Diamond, MD, PhD, the Herbert S. Gasser Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine and the study's co-senior author. (
  • A small population of cells, known as glioblastoma stem cells, often survives the onslaught and continues to divide, producing new tumor cells to replace the ones killed by the cancer drugs. (
  • Zika virus specifically targets and kills neuroprogenitor cells. (
  • In collaboration with co-senior authors Diamond and Milan G. Chheda, MD, of Washington University School of Medicine, and Jeremy N. Rich, MD, of UC San Diego, Zhu tested whether the virus could kill stem cells in glioblastomas removed from patients at diagnosis. (
  • Both strains spread through the tumors, infecting and killing the cancer stem cells while largely avoiding other tumor cells. (
  • The standard treatment kills the bulk of the tumor cells but often leaves the stem cells intact to regenerate the tumor. (
  • Zika virus attacks the stem cells but bypasses the greater part of the tumor. (
  • The idea of injecting a virus notorious for causing brain damage into people's brains seems alarming, but Zika may be safer for use in adults because its primary targets - neuroprogenitor cells - are rare in the adult brain. (
  • The fetal brain, on the other hand, is loaded with such cells, which is part of the reason why Zika infection before birth produces widespread and severe brain damage, while natural infection in adulthood causes mild symptoms. (
  • The researchers conducted additional studies of the virus using brain tissue from epilepsy patients and showed that the virus does not infect noncancerous brain cells. (
  • As an additional safety feature, the researchers introduced two mutations that weakened the virus's ability to combat the cell's defenses against infection, reasoning that the mutated virus still would be able to grow in tumor cells - which have a poor antiviral defense system - but would be eliminated quickly in healthy cells with a robust antiviral response. (
  • In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. (
  • The viral genes transcribed or expressed in infected cells modulate the physiological machinery of cells that leads to cell transformation and development of tumor. (
  • In 1960, Sweet and Hilleman discovered a new virus in cultures of kidney cells of rhesus monkeys, producing vaccines to poliovirus [ 3 ]. (
  • In their life cycle, viruses replicate, inducing the cytopathic effect in the host cells and forming new viral particles. (
  • Herpesviruses are able to establish persistent infection transforming the host cells. (
  • It is well known that tumor cells differ from normal cells by glucose metabolism. (
  • HOUSTON - A tailored virus destroys brain tumor stem cells that resist other therapies and cause lethal re-growth of cancer after surgery, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center reports in the Sept. 18 edition of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (
  • We have shown first in lab experiments and then in stem cell-derived human brain cancer in mice, that we have a tool that can target and eliminate the cells that drive brain tumors," says co-senior author Juan Fueyo, M.D., associate professor in M. D. Anderson's Department of Neuro-Oncology. (
  • The virus was tested against the most aggressive brain tumor - glioblastoma multiforme, which originates in the glial cells that surround and support neurons. (
  • The virus spreads in a wave through the tumors until there are no cancer cells left, then it dies. (
  • Since 2004 scientists have found that brain tumors are driven by haywire stem cells that replicate themselves, differentiate into other types of cells, and bear protein markers like normal stem cells. (
  • Research has shown that these cancer stem cells are the origin of the tumor, that they resist the chemotherapy and radiation that we give to our patients, and that they drive the renewed growth of the tumor after surgery," Fueyo said. (
  • So we decided to test Delta-24-RGD against glioma stem cells and tumors grown from them. (
  • We have to be cautious, because an animal model doesn't fully represent humans, but the tumors grown by these stem cells closely resemble the tumors we see in our patients, which is an exciting finding in itself. (
  • To overcome this inhibition, we generated a novel recombinant myxoma virus (vPD1), which inhibits the PD1/PDL1 pathway specifically within the tumor microenvironment by secreting a soluble form of PD1 from infected cells. (
  • To overcome this increased toxicity, while maintaining an improved response rate, we generated a recombinant oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) designed to inhibit the PD1/PDL1 pathway specifically within the local tumor microenvironment by secreting a soluble form of PD1 from infected cells. (
  • Thus, the metabolic plasticity of cancer cells is illustrated under conditions frequently established for solid tumors in vivo , such as aglycemia plus hypoxia. (
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (
  • The recombinant tanapox virus specifically infects cancer cells and tags the cancer cells with a marker that directs the body's immune system to attack these cells. (
  • Of the 117 positive MCC tumor cells ( 10 ). (
  • MCV immunoglobulin G levels phenotype in MCV-positive tumor cells ( 11 ), and the extent remained detectable up to 25 years after exposure. (
  • Although HPVs have long-recognized roles in tumorigenesis and cancers, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses interact with cells and usurp cellular processes to initiate infections and produce progeny virions is limited. (
  • Mammary tumor incidence is also affected by the genetic background of the mouse and at least one gene that affects infection of both lymphocytes and mammary cells has not yet been identified. (
  • Immortalization of swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs) with the simian virus 40 large-T antigen. (
  • The article is called "Zika virus selectively kills aggressive human embryonal CNS tumor cells in vitro and in vivo" and was published online this Thursday. (
  • The tumor cells are modified to emit light, which can be picked up with a specific equipment, producing a colored signal in the place where the tumors are. (
  • Concentrations of one viral particle per ten cells were sufficient to infect and kill cells derived from AT/RT and medulloblastoma tumors. (
  • In addition, the virus showed high specificity for this type of cells. (
  • The virus did not infect tumor cells indiscriminately," explains Okamoto. (
  • It is quite specific for tumor cells of the nervous system. (
  • The researchers also tested in vitro the functionality of viruses formed in tumor cells after infection. (
  • Our results suggest Zika has an even greater affinity with central nervous system tumor cells than with healthy neural stem cells [the virus's main targets in the brains of fetuses exposed during pregnancy]. (
  • When it infects tumor cells, it swiftly destroys them,' Okamoto said. (
  • In his laboratory at IB-USP, Okamoto has devoted the last few years to studying a group of genes which, when expressed in malignant tumors, endow tumor cells with properties similar to those of stem cells, making them more aggressive and treatment-resistant. (
  • According to Okamoto, these tumor cells with stem cell-like characteristics have been observed in various kinds of solid tumor including those that affect the central nervous system. (
  • Our research and studies by other groups have shown that Zika virus causes microcephaly because it infects and destroys neural stem cells in the fetus, preventing the formation of new neurons. (
  • So we had the idea of investigating whether the virus also attacked tumor stem cells in the central nervous system,' he said. (
  • The neural stem cells that undergo these alterations give rise to tumor cells at a later stage. (
  • In the first stage of their research, the group tested in vitro whether Zika was capable of infecting these three CNS tumor cell lines, as well as cells from other frequent types of tumor, such as breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. (
  • The researchers performed a dose escalation study, adding steadily larger amounts of Zika virus to cultured tumor cells until they found the quantity that promoted infection. (
  • Using immunofluorescence microscopy they confirmed that the virus had in fact invaded the tumor cells and begun to replicate inside them. (
  • We observed that small amounts of Zika were sufficient to infect CNS tumor cells,' Okamoto said. (
  • On the other hand, even a large viral dose failed to cause infection in breast and colorectal cancer cells. (
  • The second experiment consisted of comparing Zika's capacity to infect healthy neural stem cells obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (adult cells reprogrammed in the laboratory to behave like stem cells) with its infection of CNS tumor stem cells. (
  • We infected both cell types in vitro and found tumor stem cells to be even more susceptible to destruction by Zika than healthy neural stem cells,' Okamoto said. (
  • In this same experiment, we exposed mature neurons differentiated from human neural stem cells to Zika and found that they weren't infected or destroyed by the virus. (
  • This is very good news, since our specific goal is to destroy tumor cells,' Zatz noted. (
  • The neural stem cells used in the experiment, she explained, were obtained during a previous study conducted by the group with pairs of discordant twins - cases in which only one twin was affected by the virus although both had been equally exposed during pregnancy. (
  • Gets immune cells (such as natural killer cells ) to the infection by producing cytokines . (
  • In my lab we are exploring using modified viruses as vehicles to deliver the correct form of a gene into the diseased cells of the eye. (
  • The newly published study describes, what I believe is a game-changing approach: use of a modified virus to directly kill cancer cells. (
  • Using the knowledge of how retinoblastoma cells multiply to become cancerous, a team of researchers led by Ángel Montero Carcaboso of the Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute in Barcelona, Spain, genetically modified a virus called adenovirus that recognizes and kills the retinoblastoma cells without harming the neighboring healthier cells. (
  • To make sure that the virus couldn't harm healthy cells, it was specifically engineered to reproduce only in the retinoblastoma cells. (
  • His team discovered that the virus was confined to the tumor cells of the eye and showed only slight and short-term leakage into the bloodstream. (
  • The researchers then analyzed the ability of the modified adenovirus to kill the retinoblastoma tumor cells when the virus was injected into the eyes of the retinoblastoma mice. (
  • Another positive finding was that the virus did not attack normal, healthy cells outside the tumor. (
  • 6 These malignant cells are, however, greatly outnumbered by the reactive cells in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Reporting in the journal Science Translational Medicine , the researchers explain how the virus - a member of the reovirus family - not only infected cancer cells without affecting healthy cells, but it also helped the immune system to find and attack the cancer cells. (
  • Cancers of the brain and other tissues located in the central nervous system (CNS) occur because abnormal cells in those tissues grow out of control and form tumors. (
  • CHICAGO (January 25, 2019): Injection of a genetically modified virus that induces the body's own immune cells to attack metastatic melanoma effectively treated almost 40 percent of patients with tumors that could not be surgically removed, according to researchers from three prominent cancer centers in a study published as an " article in press " on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website in advance of print publication. (
  • The stimulatory factor sends a signal to attract white blood cells into the tumor, Dr. Ollila explained, thereby inducing the body's activated immune system to kill the metastatic melanoma cells. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - Brain-tumor cells that are infected with a cancer-killing virus release a protein 'alarm bell' that warns other tumor cells of the impending infection and enables them to mount a defense against the virus, according to a study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James). (
  • The infected tumor cells release a protein called CCN1 into the narrow space between cells where it initiates an antiviral response. (
  • The response limits the spread of the oncolytic virus through the tumor, reducing its ability to kill cancer cells and limiting the efficacy of the therapy. (
  • Oncolytic viruses replicate in tumor cells and kill them. (
  • Thus, it may be a general response of glioma cells to viral infection. (
  • HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection can also be confirmed by amplification of viral sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • In ATLL, the virus is clonally integrated into the tumour cells. (
  • Humoral immunity to infection depends upon two layers of protection: pre-existing antibodies expressed by long-lived plasma cells and a stable population of rapidly reactive memory B cells (MBCs). (
  • Oncogenesis occurs in the nasal turbinate cells A typical oncogenic virus will cause a mutation in a host cell, causing the transformation of host cells from a protooncogene into an oncogene. (
  • 2004) Toxoplasma gondii antigen-pulsed-dendritic cell-derived exosomes induce a protective immune response against T. gondii infection. (
  • Colino J, Snapper CM (2007) Dendritic cell-derived exosomes express a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide type 14 cross-reactive antigen that induces protective immunoglobulin responses against pneumococcal infection in mice. (
  • The large T antigen regulates the life cycle of the virus as well as stimulates the cell cycle of the host cell. (
  • MCV-seronegative men, 31 subsequently seroconverted over a 4-year follow-up period, corresponding to a 6.6% studies show that MCV T antigen is needed for the tumor annual conversion rate. (
  • No of tumors in the patient is correlated with levels of antibodies signs, symptoms, or routine diagnostic test results were to MCV T antigen ( 12 ), leaving little doubt that MCV is the associated with MCV infection, and no correlation between infectious cause for most but not all MCC tumors. (
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of cytotoxic responses to the immunodominant and subdominant HLA A11-restricted epitopes in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-4 were investigated in four healthy virus carriers. (
  • 10. Transforming activity of bovine leukemia virus and properties of tumor-associated antigen on bovine lymphosarcoma. (
  • Malignant tumors in patients are never round, they invade other tissues and delve deeply into the brain. (
  • Mesotheliomas are malignant tumors of the pleural and peritoneal membranes which are often associated with asbestos exposure and with Simian virus 40 (SV40) infection. (
  • Simian virus 40 infection is associated with inflammatory kidney diseases and with specific tumor types: mesothelioma, lymphoma, brain, and bone. (
  • The viruses in this genus are listed by the World Organizations for Animal Health (OIE: Office International des Epizooties) as important animal diseases that require notification. (
  • Generally, tumor viruses cause little or no disease after infection in their hosts, or cause non- neoplastic diseases such as acute hepatitis for hepatitis B virus or mononucleosis for Epstein-Barr virus . (
  • Two 5 μm sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 50 neuro-endorcrinal tumor from different entities ( Table 1 ), collected between 1997 and 2008, were obtained from the tissue bank of the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg. (
  • All PVs cause benign epithelial hyperproliferative diseases and tumors in mucosal or cutaneous epithelial sites as part of their normal replicative processes. (
  • 1999. Fish diseases and disorders, Vol. 3 Viral, bacterial and fungal infections. (
  • When most people think of the word "virus," they often relate it to infections or diseases. (
  • To force leptin deep into the tumor microenvironment , Dr. Delgoffe's team re-engineered their oncolytic virus to carry the gene for leptin production. (
  • Previous research led by Kaur found that oncolytic virus therapy induced the release of CCN1 into the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. (
  • Thus far, a strong link between some RNA and DNA viruses and various cancers in humans has been established and the transforming activity of several of the viruses in cell culture and their oncogenecity in experimental animals has been well documented. (
  • The acknowledgment that viruses are potent biological factors in driving many cancers have seen a dramatic upsurge in recent years in large part to the success of the human papilloma virus vaccine against invasive cervical carcinomas and followed by the awarding of the noble prize in medicine in 2008 to Dr. Harald zurHausen who identified the link between papilloma virus and cervical cancers. (
  • Over the last few years there have been some volumes addressing different aspects of viruses and cancers and to some extent focusing on the DNA viruses, more specifically the human DNA viruses. (
  • We will also cover other known oncogenic viruses associated cancers in other mammals in addition to humans. (
  • HPV DNA has been detected in tumor tissues of head and neck cancer ( 3 , 4 ), oral cancer ( 5 ), esophageal cancer ( 6 , 7 ), and some skin cancers ( 8 , 9 ), as well as lung cancer ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • However, HPV DNA was not detectable by regular PCR in one earlier study ( 18 ) and a survey of HPV16 virus-like particle antibodies in patients with epithelial cancers also failed to provide an association between HPV and colorectal cancer ( 19 ), challenging the association of colorectal cancers with HPVs. (
  • The World Health Organization 's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of human cancers, with 11.9% caused by one of seven viruses. (
  • A minority of persons (or animals) will go on to develop cancers after infection. (
  • Relman and Fredericks have described the difficulties in applying Koch's postulates to virus-induced cancers. (
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (
  • 12% of all human cancers are caused by virus infections. (
  • Another avenue of research conducted in Essani's laboratory has been to create a recombinant tanapox virus that can mobilize the body's immune system to fight cancers. (
  • In adults, MCV is typically an asymptomatic, common, and occurs largely in childhood, with BKV seroprevalence commensal viral infection that initiates rare cancers after virus (rather than host cell) mutations. (
  • Papillomaviruses (PVs) were the first viruses recognized to cause tumors and cancers in mammalian hosts by Shope, nearly a century ago ( Shope and Hurst, 1933 ). (
  • Despite effective vaccines and screening, HPV infection and morbidity remain a significant worldwide burden, with HPV infections and HPV-related cancers expected increase through 2040. (
  • This is the first time it has been shown," explains co-lead study author Dr. Adel Samson, who is a medical oncologist at the University of Leeds, "that a therapeutic virus is able to pass through the brain-blood barrier, and that opens up the possibility [that] this type of immunotherapy could be used to treat more people with aggressive brain cancers. (
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted betaretrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice. (
  • MMTV is a betaretrovirus transmitted through milk that causes mammary tumors in mice ( 25 ). (
  • We have been using mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), a retrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice, to study virus/host interactions. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-mediated oncolytic therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality with potential effectiveness against a variety of malignancies. (
  • Etiology of human breast cancer is unknown, whereas the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) is recognized as the etiologic agent of mouse mammary carcinoma. (
  • This is the first study to report the effects of vasculostatin delivery into established tumors, and it supports further development of this novel virus as a possible cancer treatment," says study leader Balveen Kaur, associate professor of neurological surgery and a researcher with the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. (
  • Jayson Hardcastle, a graduate student in Dr. Kaur's laboratory, injected the cancer-killing virus, called RAMBO (for Rapid Antiangiogenesis Mediated By Oncolytic virus), directly into human glioblastoma tumors growing either under the skin or in the brains of mice. (
  • With additional research, this virus could lead to a new therapeutic strategy for combating cancer," Kaur says. (
  • tumors may include malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (
  • Although based on a prevalent cohort, these results are concordant with previous suggestions that HPV infection is usually transient and that cervical cancer may arise from within the subset of women with persistent HPV infection. (
  • Viruses and cancer: lessons from the human polyomavirus, JCV. (
  • The possible role of eucaryotic viruses in the development of cancer has been the subject of intense investigation during the past 50 years. (
  • Here, we will focus our attention on JCV and describe several pathways employed by the virus to contribute to and/or accelerate cancer development. (
  • 1. Historical Perspectives of Viruses and Cancer - Baruch Blumberg 2. (
  • Oncogenic Viruses and Cancer Transmission- Robin Weiss6. (
  • Overview of DNA Viruses and Cancer - James Alwine7. (
  • Polyoma Viruses and Cancer -Ole Gjoerup 15. (
  • Papilloma Viruses - HPV and BPV and Cancer - Jianxin You and Suzanne Wells20. (
  • Overview of Hepatitis Viruses and Cancer - Tim Block 22. (
  • Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer, but whether HPVs have a role in colorectal cancer remains controversial. (
  • To determine the relationship between HPV and colorectal cancer, we did a retrospective, controlled study using tumor and tumor-adjacent colorectal tissues dissected from patients with colorectal cancer, as well as colorectal tissues from control individuals with no cancer. (
  • Our results suggest that colorectal HPV infection is common in patients with colorectal cancer, albeit at a low DNA copy number, with HPV16 being the most prevalent type. (
  • Integration of the viral genome into the cancer cell genome is characteristic of infection by these HPVs. (
  • Detection of HPV DNA in colorectal cancer tissues by in situ hybridization ( 12 ) and PCR ( 13 - 17 ) has suggested that HPV infection might be associated with the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. (
  • Colorectal tissues were obtained from 55 patients with colorectal cancer as paired tissue specimens by dissection of tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues. (
  • PURPOSE: Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with the development of certain types of cancer and the dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. (
  • Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis provides information pertinent to the basic mechanism of tumor metastasis and the clinical results with immunochemotherapy of cancer. (
  • The singularly most frequently disrupted gene in cancer is p53, whose loss of function occurs in more than half of human tumors ( 1 ). (
  • Once inside a cancer cell, the virus would also produce leptin when it copied itself. (
  • Cysts mark the early stage of metastatic tumor development in non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Lung cancer-associated pulmonary hypertension: Role of microenvironmental inflammation based on tumor cell-immune cell cross-talk. (
  • An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer . (
  • The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. (
  • This has complicated efforts to determine whether or not a given virus causes cancer. (
  • [4] Finally, the host restriction for human viruses makes it unethical to experimentally transmit a suspected cancer virus. (
  • In many cases, tumor viruses do not cause cancer in their native hosts but only in dead-end species. (
  • Indirect viral oncogenicity involves chronic nonspecific inflammation occurring over decades of infection, as is the case for HCV-induced liver cancer. (
  • Tumor Virus Infections Blood Cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) Viral . (
  • The combination of treatments has proven successful with other types of cancer, but this is the first time it has been tried with a brain tumor. (
  • While Zika virus causes devastating damage to the brains of developing fetuses, it one day may be an effective treatment for glioblastoma, a deadly form of brain cancer. (
  • To find out whether the virus could help treat cancer in a living animal, the researchers injected either Zika virus or saltwater (a placebo) directly into the brain tumors of 18 and 15 mice, respectively. (
  • Studies of DNA viruses have led to the identification of viral genes responsible for cancer induction and paving the way to our current understanding of cancer at the molecular level [ 2 ]. (
  • Some of these viruses infect the liver, and related viruses are known to cause hepatitis and liver cancer in other animals. (
  • Over 120 talks and 90 poster presentations highlighting major breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses cause cancer, and which will also provide insights into novel thereapeutic and diagnostic approaches for addressing these human health problems. (
  • The cancer stem cell-derived tumors in these experiments have the irregular shape and invasive characteristics of their human counterparts. (
  • Animal studies have shown that this recombinant virus significantly shrinks colorectal cancer tumors. (
  • Additionally, the study of how viruses can impact these tumors is important in creating model systems for the development of new approaches to cancer care. (
  • Much in the same way the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma with radiotherapy and chemotherapy paved the way for the modern approach to cancer treatment more broadly, the treatment of EBV-associated tumors (including Hodgkin's lymphoma) may pave the way to the more generalized use of these modalities to treat a myriad of cancer types. (
  • A study published in the journal Cancer Research , of the American Association for Cancer Research, reveals the therapeutic side of the Zika virus, which in 2015 made global public health authorities wary when the link between the infection of the virus during gestation and the birth of children with microcephaly was established. (
  • A Brazilian study published April 26 in the journal Cancer Research shows for the first time in vivo that Zika virus can be used as a tool to treat aggressive human central nervous system (CNS) tumors. (
  • Data in the scientific literature suggests they help cancer spread through the organism and restore tumor growth after chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all but eliminated the disease. (
  • Now, in a recent report published in Science Translational Medicine, scientists have found another approach to target retinoblastoma using safer: cancer-killing viruses. (
  • The strategy harnesses the natural cell-killing ability of a virus to treat eye cancer. (
  • Encouraged by the success of the modified viruses in mouse eyes, the authors tested their cancer-killing ability in a small clinical trial in two patients. (
  • Researchers at the University of Leeds and the Institute of Cancer Research in London, both in the United Kingdom, found that the naturally occurring virus was able to cross the blood-brain barrier in all who took part in the study. (
  • These findings are significant because it was previously thought that the only way to use the virus to treat brain cancer was to inject it directly into brain tissue. (
  • Primary brain tumors or those of the CNS are due to cancer that starts in those tissues. (
  • Secondary, or metastatic, tumors in the brain or CNS are due to cancer that started somewhere else in the body, such as the breast or bowel. (
  • TVEC is injected directly into the skin tumor in the physician's office or clinic and the patient may leave immediately afterward, without the severe side effects of chemotherapy or other cancer drugs that act on the body's immune system. (
  • Virologists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the German Research Center for Environmental Health Helmholtz Zentrum München have successfully shown that a previously approved medication used in cancer treatment could help inhibit this virus infection. (
  • In the future, research on ENTV may become important in studying viruses that cause human lung cancer. (
  • From 1959 to 1962 he was Damon Runyon Cancer Research Fellow in the laboratory of Harry Rubin at the University of California in Berkeley and started to work on Rous sarcoma virus. (
  • Viruses Inducing Cancer. (
  • Beth Rogers is the first person in the United States to undergo a trial procedure in which a virus was injected in her brain tumor. (
  • Beth Rogers might have been the first person in the United States to be treated as part of a clinical trial that included the injection of a virus into her brain tumor in combination with immunotherapy treatments - but the Hazen resident said she had no fear. (
  • The research team led by Fueyo, co-senior author Frederick Lang, M.D., professor in M. D. Anderson's Department of Neurosurgery, and first author Hong Jiang, Ph.D., instructor in neuro-oncology, derived four brain tumor stem cell lines from four specimens of glioblastoma multiforme. (
  • In addition, it also did not infect already differentiated neurons, which is a very advantageous behavior if repeated in humans with brain tumor. (
  • These findings confirm the presence of MMTV in humans, strongly suggest saliva as route in inter-human infection, and support the hypothesis of a viral origin for human breast carcinoma. (
  • Humans are the only known reservoir of Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • Epidemiological evidence now suggests that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independent of the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated poliovaccines. (
  • Detection of SV40 DNA sequences in blood and sperm and of SV40 virions in sewage points to the hematic, sexual, and orofecal routes as means of virus transmission in humans. (
  • The site of latent infection in humans is not known, but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency, as it occurs in the natural monkey host. (
  • Molluscum contagiosum only infects humans and is a common infection of children and immunodeficient individuals. (
  • All animals, including humans, show differential susceptibility to infection with viruses. (
  • In order to do this, it will be necessary to obtain the purified virus in larger amounts and produced according to the good cultivation practices required for testing in humans. (
  • The immune response to mouse hepatitis virus: Expression of monocyte procoagulant activity and plasminogen activator during infection in vivo. (
  • with the exception of its association with milk, the virus is cell associated in vivo ( 31 ). (
  • These studies have focused on understanding the mechanisms that determine genetic susceptibility to MMTV-induced mammary tumors, the regulation of virus gene expression in vivo and how the virus is transmitted between different cell types. (
  • The proposed research project is designed to understand how XIAP inhibition compromises EBV specific immune control and tumorigenesis in the only small animal in vivo model of this infection. (
  • Murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3) produces a strain dependent spectrum of liver disease. (
  • Lymphocyte-instructed monocyte induction of the coagulation pathways parallels the induction of hepatitis by the murine hepatitis virus. (
  • Immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. (
  • Kupffer and endothelial liver cell damage renders A/J mice susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus type 3. (
  • T-cell mediated clearance of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM from the central nervous system. (
  • Susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 in Balb/cJ mice: Failure of immune cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production, in: Coronaviruses, Michael M.C. Lai and Stephen A. Stohlman, ed. (
  • Activation of the immune coagulation system by murine hepatitis virus strain 3. (
  • Susceptibility/resistance to mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 and macrophage procoagulant activity are genetically linked and controlled by two non-H-2-linked genes. (
  • 16, 16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 prevents the development of fulminant hepatitis and blocks the induction of monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection. (
  • Leukotrienes as mediators in frog virus 3-induced hepatitis in rats. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess dermatologists' awareness of available guidelines and drug package insert information on the screening for and management of hepatitis B (HBV) infection in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNF-αI) drug therapies for dermatological disorders. (
  • Lewis, James H. / Dermatologists' awareness of and screening practices for hepatitis B virus infection before initiating tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy . (
  • Association between tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphisms and the clinical types of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α polymorphism in the promoter region at position -308 was reported to be associated with chronic hepatitis B infection. (
  • Hence, it fulfills the role as a principal mediator of cellular immune response and inflammation , and may play an important role in non-cytopathic and cytolytic clearance of hepatitis B virus [HBV]. (
  • Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinomas - Brett Lindenbach 24. (
  • In this review we discuss mechanisms by which Hsp60 promotes development and progression of infections caused by three human viruses: hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza A virus. (
  • Hepatitis B virus promotes β-catenin-signalling and disassembly of adherens junctions in a Src kinase dependent fashion. (
  • Maternal chronic hepatitis B virus infection does not affect pregnancy outcomes in infertile patients receiving first in vitro fertilization treatment. (
  • Develop quantitative PCR methods to screen for the presence of hepatitis viruses in plasma. (
  • Analysis of virus prevalence, genotype, and tumor frequency to determine the association of hepatitis viruses and liver tumors. (
  • In addition, we analyzed these NETs for the presence of DNA from 12 adeno-associated virus (AAV) genotypes, adeno virus-5, 27 mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, hepatitis B (HBV), 8 human herpes viruses (HHV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). (
  • An initial correlation between chronic hepatitis B investigate the prevalence of various polyomaviruses in virus infection and MCV prevalence could not be confi rmed human populations ( 13 - 16 ). (
  • BK virus (BKV) and John among MCV seroconverters or in studies of a second Cunningham virus (JCV), for example, are ubiquitous hepatitis B virus-hyperendemic cohort from Qidong, China. (
  • Experimental ablation of the immune cell populations by X irradiation (3) , antilymphocyte serum (4) , or infection with frog virus-3 (5) renders resistant A/J mice susceptible. (
  • Neonatal susceptibility to MHV-3 infection in mice. (
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus is known to infect newborn mice via mother's milk. (
  • In addition, three of the RAMBO mice were tumor-free at the end of the experiment. (
  • In mice with melanoma tumors, the dual-function virus was far more effective at shrinking and eliminating tumors than a standard oncolytic virus. (
  • So the researchers tried delivering high doses of leptin directly into the bloodstream of mice bearing melanoma tumors. (
  • When the researchers injected their dual-function virus directly into melanoma tumors in mice, the tumors shrank substantially, and about a quarter of the mice had a complete response (that is, their tumors disappeared entirely). (
  • Tumors were significantly smaller in the Zika-treated mice two weeks after injection, and those mice survived significantly longer than the ones given saltwater. (
  • It also significantly increased the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice compared with those given docetaxel or irradiation alone. (
  • They showed in a JNCI paper in 2003 that the virus eliminated brain tumors in 60 percent of mice who received injections directly into their tumors. (
  • Next, the researchers grafted the stem cell lines into the brains of mice and treated the resultant tumors with injections of Delta-24-RGD. (
  • Now, Brazilian researchers at the Center for Human Genome and Stem Cell Studies at the University of São Paulo have put the virus to good use showing, for the first time in animals, the deleterious effect of the injection of a low concentration of the purified virus on human embryonic brain tumors induced in mice with low immunity. (
  • She was especially responsible for dealing with the mice: she performed the surgeries to implant the tumors, injected the Zika virus on the spot, and then followed the evolution. (
  • After injecting small amounts of the pathogen into the brains of mice with an advanced stage of the disease, the scientists observed a significant reduction in tumor mass and an increase in survival. (
  • Mammary tumor incidence is normally low but infection with mammary tumor virus by fostering to MMTV + C3H mice dramatically increases tumor number and age of onset. (
  • Genetic transmission of viruses that incite mammary tumor in mice. (
  • 1978. Resistance and susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection: genetics of listeriosis. (
  • Carcaboso's team tested the distribution of the adenovirus in other parts of the body after the modified virus had been injected into the eye of retinoblastoma mice. (
  • The immune system of the mice then seemed to clear the leaked virus from the system within six weeks. (
  • S-180 ascites tumor of mice destroyed by Piry virus, but virus titer potentiated (6). (
  • However, in EBV-associated tumors the antigens are well defined, thus allowing the Ambinder lab to define the epitope-specific cellular immune responses. (
  • Application of the ELISPOT Assay to the Characterization of CD8+ Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens. (
  • Serological detection of specific reactivity to Gag and Env HTLV-I or HTLV-II antigens, confirmed if necessary by western blot, is indicative of current infection. (
  • EBV gene expression and NPC tumour cell phenotype will be discussed, and evidence will be presented suggesting that the lymphoid stroma characteristically found in undifferentiated NPC is a prerequisite for the development of this tumour. (
  • In this study, an oncolytic virus containing the gene for this protein in some cases eliminated human glioblastoma tumors growing in animals and significantly slowed tumor recurrence in others. (
  • Control animals treated with a similar virus that lacked the vasculostatin gene, on the other hand, survived an average of 26 days and none were tumor-free. (
  • To identify the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene in the natural course of 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus infection. (
  • The -238 A SNP allele of the TNF gene imposes on the course of 2009 H1N1 virus infection and is an independent risk factor for pneumonia. (
  • We conducted the present study to investigate the association of MBL gene mutations and TNF-α promoter polymorphism with host''s susceptibility to various courses of HBV infection in Korean. (
  • MBL gene codon 54 mutation was not associated with HBV clearance (P=0.132) and progression of HBV infection (P=0.136). (
  • This gene was identified by its similarity with mouse fgf3/int-2, a proto-oncogene activated in virally induced mammary tumors in the mouse. (
  • Frequent amplification of this gene has been found in human tumors, which may be important for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. (
  • Expression of the DMP1 transcription factor, a cyclin D-binding Myb-like protein, induces growth arrest in mouse embryo fibroblast strains but is devoid of antiproliferative activity in primary diploid fibroblasts that lack the ARF tumor suppressor gene. (
  • Using the tanopox virus as a model for his research, Essani looks at the molecular mechanisms within the viral model that dictate which gene sequences are expressed or kept silent. (
  • Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. (
  • The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses. (
  • Indeed, germ-line integration has not yet been described for DNA tumour viruses, although we now know that it occasionally occurs with human herpesvirus 6 [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the world's population. (
  • Some viruses are tumorigenic when they infect a cell and persist as circular episomes or plasmids, replicating separately from host cell DNA ( Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ). (
  • Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV), the causative virus, is also known as Nerka virus Towada Lake, Akita and Amori prefecture (NeVTA), yamame tumor virus (YTV), Oncorhynchus kisutch virus (OKV), coho salmon tumor virus (COTV), coho salmon herpesvirus (CSHV), rainbow trout kidney virus (RKV), or rainbow trout herpesvirus (RHV). (
  • For this study, Kaur and her colleagues used glioma cell lines, oncolytic viruses derived from human herpesvirus type 1 (HSV-1), and glioblastoma animal models. (
  • Conversely, many host genes have been incorporated into large DNA viruses, such as herpesviuses and poxviruses, as well as oncogene-bearing retroviruses. (
  • Rogers came to UAMS for the procedure when her tumor continued to grow despite two previous surgeries and a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. (
  • The standard treatment is aggressive - surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation - yet most tumors recur within six months. (
  • The studies were conducted using human cell lineages derived from two types of embryonic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS): medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). (
  • The experiments were performed with three human tumor cell lines: two derived from medulloblastoma and the third from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). (
  • If Zika were used in people, it would have to be injected into the brain, most likely during surgery to remove the primary tumor. (
  • However, a major clinical problem is the subsequent regrowth of such tumors-both at the site of the primary tumor and/or distant sites. (
  • We evaluated telomerase activity in seven primary malignant mesothelioma biopsies and matched lung specimens and 20 mesothelioma cell lines and eight corresponding primary tumor cultures. (
  • Immunoactivation induced by chronic viral infection inhibits viral replication and drives immunosuppression through sustained IFN-I responses. (
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (
  • In contrast, and in full confirmation of Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis, retroviral integration is an obligatory step in replication, whereas non-integrated 2-LTR circles lead to abortive infection. (
  • Further viral replication results in viremia, with subsequent infection of the lymphoreticular system, including the liver, spleen, and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood. (
  • In summary, in vitro infection with SIV does not cause constitutive TNFα release or alter the response of cultured M∅s to LPS. (
  • This is due to longstanding challenges in both obtaining well-characterized infectious virus stocks and modeling tissue-based infection and the replicative cycles in vitro . (
  • 7. In vitro propagation of bovine leukemia virus. (
  • Brain tumors can be aggressive, but initial symptoms can be subtle and are often ignored. (
  • Oncolytic virotherapy represents an attractive option for the treatment of a variety of aggressive or refractory tumors. (
  • They form aggressive, fast-growing tumors that can manifest shortly after birth or until adolescence,' Okamoto said. (
  • A major new study reveals that it is possible to get a therapeutic virus to target aggressive brain tumors by injecting it into the bloodstream. (
  • In particular, DC participation in the immune response to the murine retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been demonstrated. (
  • Retroviral infection of neonatal Peyer's patch lymphocytes: the mouse mammary tumor virus model. (
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), a retrovirus that exploits the immune system. (
  • Mammary tumors, plaques, and hyperplastic alveolar nodules in various combinations of mouse inbred strains and the different lines of the mammary tumor virus. (
  • abstract = "Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) infection is a serious opportunistic infection that occurs in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • This is a model of the adenovirus type 5 which causes respiratory infections. (
  • The virus causes tumor growth in the upper nasal cavity and is closely related to JSRV which also causes respiratory tumors in ovine. (
  • Tissue-specific expression of SV40 in tumors associated with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (
  • This evidence includes detection of SV40 DNA sequences in human tissues and of SV40 antibodies in human sera, as well as rescue of infectious SV40 from a human tumor. (
  • The possibility that SV40 is implicated as a cofactor in the etiology of some human tumors has stimulated the preparation of a vaccine against the large Tag. (
  • Such a vaccine may represent in the future a useful immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic intervention against human tumors associated with SV40. (
  • This virus was named Simian vacuolating virus (SV40). (
  • Two μL of purified DNA were analyzed for the human PyVs BKV, JCV, KIV, WUV, MCV, HPyV6, HPyV7, and TSV, as well as the monkey PyVs SV40 and LPV by a novel polyoma virus genotyping assay. (
  • Ho WSC, van den Pol AN (2007) Bystander attenuation of neuronal and astrocyte intercellular communication by murine cytomegalovirus infection of glia J. Virol. (
  • Solid human and murine tumors often respond well initially to conventional, frontline therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, leading to the cessation of tumor growth and even tumor shrinkage. (
  • Key traits include a susceptibility to developing the demyelinating disease upon infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. (
  • The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited clinical syndrome that most frequently affects adolescents and young adults. (
  • The search for the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis was unsuccessful for many years, partly because researchers did not appreciate that most primary infections are asymptomatic and that most adults are seropositive. (
  • [ 3 ] Henle reported the relationship between acute infectious mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus in 1968. (
  • [ 4 ] Subsequently, a large prospective study of students at Yale University firmly established Epstein-Barr virus as the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Here, we provide a general overview of the current HPV infection paradigm, the epithelial differentiation-dependent HPV replicative cycle, and review the specifics of how HPVs usurp Rab-related functions during infectious entry. (
  • Host immune response to the viral infection includes CD8+ T lymphocytes with suppressor and cytotoxic functions, the characteristic atypical lymphocytes found in the peripheral blood. (
  • Other viruses are only carcinogenic when they integrate into the host cell genome as part of a biological accident, such as polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses. (
  • Classification of viruses considers the genome characteristics, virion shape and macromolecular composition, and other properties, such as antigenicity and host range. (
  • Similar to the human genome, viruses are used by Essani and many top research universities because of similarities and the ability to manipulate the genome. (
  • recently discovered Merkel cell tendency to decline after age 40-50 years, while JCV polyomavirus (MCV) clonally integrated in the tumor cell seropositivity tends to increase slowly from childhood into genome of 80% of MCC ( 4 ). (
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, non-enveloped icosahedral viruses of 55 nm containing a circular, ≈8-kb double-stranded DNA genome condensed by cellular histones. (
  • The present volume on enzootic bovine leukosis and bovine leukemia virus updates the reader on the disease and its causative agent and includes the nucleotide sequence of the BLV genome as well as data on its integration into the DNA of the tumor cell. (
  • 9. Sequence analysis of the bovine leukemia virus genome. (
  • During the surgery, Day injected Rogers' tumor with an adenovirus, which is associated with the common cold. (
  • An adenovirus infection can be potentially life-threatening, especially for children after a stem cell transplant. (
  • Generally speaking, every adult has probably had several adenovirus infections already,' says Dr. Sabrina Schreiner. (
  • We've known that adenovirus infections in healthy patients can also cause severe pneumonia ending in death since 2006,' says Schreiner. (
  • Following laboratory testing, in the next step the medication will be used on patients with adenovirus infections. (
  • In order to protect children who undergo stem cell therapy from adenovirus infections, scientists intend to develop new methods for detecting even very small amounts of the viruses in the patient and the donor before the therapy. (
  • Rous Sarcoma Virus -Leslie Parent 29. (
  • Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses. (
  • I first came across an endogenous factor which functionally complemented env -defective Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) during my doctoral studies in 1966. (
  • Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be transmitted after cell-free filtration to new chickens, causing leukemia. (
  • His work on mutants of the Rous sarcoma virus enabled Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus to isolate DNA sequences that represent the src oncogene and to demonstrate the cellular origin of oncogenes. (
  • This is the case of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which is thought to regulate tumor-associated inflammation. (
  • Chronic indirect tumor viruses, on the other hand, can be lost (at least theoretically) from a mature tumor that has accumulated sufficient mutations and growth conditions (hyperplasia) from the chronic inflammation of viral infection. (
  • Functional role of Hsp60 as a positive regulator of human viral infection progression. (
  • Hence, they acquire various hallmarks during the process of tumor progression, such as self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastases [ 1 ]. (
  • A new study has found that cystic fibrosis patients who have a common virus may experience faster disease progression than patients who do not have the virus. (
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody-positive and -negative chickens exposed to virus at hatching. (
  • Chickens highly susceptible to avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection and tumors, with and without ALV subgroup A maternal antibody (MAB), were infected with a field strain of ALV subgroup A at hatching. (
  • Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. (
  • This book discusses as well the immunobiology and immunopathology of human tumor cell metastasis. (
  • Some of the oncolytic viruses being studied are engineered vaccinia viruses. (
  • A new study suggests that such viruses, known as oncolytic viruses, can be further enhanced to improve the body's immune response against tumors. (
  • One method to overcome this challenge is to use oncolytic viruses to induce secondary antitumor immune responses. (
  • At the same time, it was also shown that human adenoviruses could induce tumors in newborn hamsters [ 5 ]. (
  • It is able to induce tumors by itself. (
  • In recent years, more attention has been paid to human polyomaviruses, particularly JC virus (JCV), which infects greater than 80% of the human population, due to the ability of this virus to induce a fatal demyelinating disease in the brain, its presence in various tumors of central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS origin, and the oncogenic potential of this virus in several laboratory animal models. (
  • Infection with Epstein-Barr virus is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, especially in immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with various tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma. (
  • Factors that may limit the effectiveness of HSV-1 oncolytic therapy include restricted intratumoral spread of oncolytic virus, activation of intracellular tumor defenses that limit virus-induced tumor cell killing, and quick virus clearance by the host immune system ( 1 , 8 - 12 ). (
  • Such infections can become severe if a person has a weakened immune system. (
  • One theory is that garlic has sulfur-containing amino acids that stimulate activity in the immune system and help fight infections. (
  • Boosting the immune system may help people with HIV stay healthy, but studies do not confirm that garlic can prevent infections specifically in people who have HIV. (
  • Applying all of the data and knowledge gained from his research, Essani has focused on how different viruses can harm or benefit the human immune system. (
  • The innate immune system defends the host from infections . (
  • Unlike the adaptive immune system , the innate immune system does not give long-lasting immunity against specific infections. (
  • The microbes in your gut influence how your immune system reacts to bacteria and viruses. (
  • However, for individuals with immune system deficiencies the course of the infection can have serious effects or even be fatal. (
  • Virus recognition and response by the innate immune system are critical components of host defense against infection. (
  • Regulation of macrophage tumor necrosis factor production by prostaglandin E2. (
  • TNFα mRNA levels in spleens and livers of adPIC infected animals increased and remained high throughout infection, whereas PIC3739-infected organs showed down regulation of TNFα mRNA late in infection. (
  • Finally, it has been demonstrated that MMTV can induce DC maturation and up-regulation of surface expression of the virus entry receptor transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) via interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ( 8 ). (
  • Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. (
  • Fueyo and colleagues developed Delta-24-RGD to prey on a molecular weakness in tumors and altered the virus so it could not replicate in normal tissue. (
  • The sole purpose of a virus is to attack and infect a normal cell, use it to replicate, and then kill it. (
  • TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in the Mexican Population. (
  • Hsp60 may favor oncogenesis by promoting survival or growth of some tumor cell types. (
  • TNF-alpha has an anti-viral role in some infections but in dengue virus (DENV) infection is linked to severe pathology. (
  • It is the consequence of these events rather than direct viral infection that results in much of the observed pathology. (
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (
  • Delta-24-RGD exploits the fact that a protein called retinoblastoma (Rb) is either missing or defective in brain tumors. (
  • We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). (
  • Once tanopox virus has entered the cell, a new protein is produced which is then secreted into the blood stream. (
  • The viruses destroy the round structures of the protein complexes and then make use of this cellular manipulation for their own reproduction. (
  • There is not a humoral immune response to the ENTV capsid protein meaning there are no antibodies produced by the host in response to the virus capsid. (
  • However, recent studies have shown that there is sero-conversion in response to the envelope protein if a host is exposed to the virus after a long period of time. (
  • This proposed volume will attempt to review and address the major gaps in current knowledge in DNA viruses as well as RNA viruses bringing a historical perspective of where studies began to a more recent molecular approach and vaccine successes in tumor viruses. (
  • Emerging roles of DNA tumor viruses in cell proliferation: new insights into genomic instability. (
  • Virus Mediated Cell Proliferation - Jae Jung4. (
  • Tumor DNA viruses enhance "aerobic" glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. (
  • However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. (
  • Furthermore, M∅s cytokine production is exaggerated before overt clinical disease, but not as a direct result of infection with SIV. (
  • A request to launch a clinical trial of the virus, called Delta-24-RGD, is expected to go to federal regulators this month. (