Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Serological tumor marker composed of a molecular complex of cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. It is used in the diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (1/20529)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

Expression of tissue factor in non-small-cell lung cancers and its relationship to metastasis. (2/20529)

Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of the extrinsic cascade of blood coagulation. Although recent studies have revealed a relationship between metastatic properties and TF expression in some neoplastic cells, the significance of TF in lung cancer, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is still unclear. In this study, TF was detected in NSCLC cell lines by functional study, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. TF levels in eight NSCLC cell lines were also quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TF expression was evaluated in 55 specimens of surgically resected NSCLCs. NSCLC cell lines derived from metastatic lesions produced high levels of TF (48.3+/-23.5 ng 10(-6) cells, mean +/- s.e.m.), whereas those derived from primary lesions produced low levels of TF (0.2+/-0.1 ng 10(-6) cells). Immunohistochemical studies disclosed significantly stronger staining for TF in cells from NSCLC patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. Among the 28 patients with metastasis, ten were strongly positive, 16 were moderately positive and two were negative for TF. In contrast, among the 27 patients without metastasis, only two were strongly positive, 18 were moderately positive and seven were negative for TF. Therefore, malignant cells from patients with lung cancer produce various levels of TF, and TF may play an important role in the metastatic process.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), malignancy grade and clonality in microdissected prostate cancer. (3/20529)

The aim of the present study was to find out whether increasing malignancy of prostate carcinoma correlates with an overall increase of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whether LOH typing of microdissected tumour areas can help to distinguish between multifocal or clonal tumour development. In 47 carcinomas analysed at 25 chromosomal loci, the overall LOH rate was found to be significantly lower in grade 1 areas (2.2%) compared with grade 2 (9.4%) and grade 3 areas (8.3%, P = 0.007). A similar tendency was found for the mean fractional allele loss (FAL, 0.043 for grade 1, 0.2 for grade 2 and 0.23 for grade 3, P = 0.0004). Of 20 tumours (65%) with LOH in several microdissected areas, 13 had identical losses at 1-4 loci within two or three areas, suggesting clonal development of these areas. Markers near RB, DCC, BBC1, TP53 and at D13S325 (13q21-22) showed higher loss rates in grades 2 and 3 (between 25% and 44.4%) compared with grade 1 (0-6.6%). Tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs) near these loci might, thus, be important for tumour progression. TP53 mutations were detected in 27%, but BBC1 mutations in only 7%, of samples with LOH. Evaluation of all 25 loci in every tumour made evident that each prostate cancer has its own pattern of allelic losses.  (+info)

Syndecan-1 expression has prognostic significance in head and neck carcinoma. (4/20529)

The syndecans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans that regulate cell behaviour by binding extracellular matrix molecules such as growth factors. The syndecan family has four members, of which syndecan-1 is the most studied and best characterized. We have studied the prognostic significance of syndecan-1 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken from 175 patients with primary SCC, followed up from 2 to 15 years after surgery, were studied for expression of syndecan-1 by immunohistochemistry. A low number (< or =50%, the median value) of syndecan-1-positive tumour cells was associated with low histological grade of differentiation (P<0.0001), a large primary tumour size (T1-2 vs. T3-4, P = 0.02), positive nodal status (NO vs. N1-3, P = 0.0006), and high clinical stage (stage I or II vs. III or IV, P<0.0001). Low syndecan-1 expression was also associated with unfavourable overall survival in a univariate analysis (P = 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, the clinical stage and syndecan-1 expression were the only independent prognostic factors. We conclude that syndecan-1 is a novel prognostic factor in SCC of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy.  (+info)

Expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with oesophageal cancer. (5/20529)

To clarify the significance of the expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNPase) mRNA as a predictive factor for the prognosis of patients with oesophageal carcinoma, the PyNPase mRNA in the tumours and normal tissues from 55 resected cases of oesophageal carcinoma was examined by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR and that of the enzyme activity of PyNPase based on the findings of an enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (r = 0.594, P = 0.009). The T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was significantly higher in the cases with lymph vessel invasion (P = 0.013), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0016), and an advanced stage of the disease (P = 0.021) than those without these factors. The patients with a higher T/N ratio of PyNPase mRNA showed significantly worse prognosis than those with a lower T/N ratio (P = 0.023 with log-rank tests). A multivariate analysis for the cumulative survival rates revealed that a high T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was independently related to a poor prognosis. These findings suggested that the determination of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR thus appears to be a new useful parameter for identifying both a poor prognosis and a highly malignant potential of oesophageal carcinoma.  (+info)

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (6/20529)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Clinical significance of circulating anti-p53 antibodies in European patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (7/20529)

p53 alterations are considered to be predictive of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may induce a humoral response. Anti-p53 serum antibodies were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified recombinant human p53 on 130 European HCC patients before treatment and during the clinical course of the disease. p53 immunohistochemistry was performed on tumours from the 52 patients who underwent surgery, and DNA sequencing analysis was initiated when circulating anti-p53 antibodies were detected. Nine (7%) HCC patients had anti-p53 serum antibodies before treatment. During a mean period of 30 months of follow-up, all the negative patients remained negative, even when recurrence was observed. Of the nine positive patients, eight were still positive 12-30 months after surgery. The presence of anti-p53 serum antibodies was correlated neither with mutation of the p53 gene nor the serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumours. However, a greater incidence of vascular invasion and accumulation of p53 protein were observed in the tumours of these patients (P<0.03 and P<0.01 respectively) as well as a better survival rate without recurrence (P = 0.05). In conclusion, as was recently shown in pancreatic cancer, anti-p53 serum antibodies may constitute a marker of relative 'good prognosis' in a subgroup of patients exhibiting one or several markers traditionally thought to be of bad prognosis.  (+info)

Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. (8/20529)

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

IRVINE, Calif. - August 14, 2019 - AIVITA Biomedical, Inc., a biotech company specializing in innovative stem cell applications, announced today updated clinical data from its ongoing glioblastoma Phase 2 clinical trial, investigating AIVITAs platform immunotherapy targeting tumor-initiating cells. Blood plasma biomarker analyses have identified a robust immune response and a decrease of tumor biomarkers in 65% of treated patients, in a sample that represents 29% of the total Phase 2 clinical trial size.. Blood was collected from subjects at multiple time points, one week after each dose administration, and assayed for 450 different immune and tumor biomarkers. Treatment elicited a robust immune response, with biomarkers suggesting progressive activation of dendritic cell cross-presentation and progressive activation of a type II hypersensitivity antibody-mediated cytotoxic response. Most notably, 65% of the treated glioblastoma patients also showed a robust decrease of 27 different biomarkers ...
1 Industry Overview. 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.2 Classification of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.3 Applications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.4 Industry Chain Structure of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5 Industry Overview and Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5.2 Global Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.6 Industry Policy Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.7 Industry News Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.1 Raw Material Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.2 Equipment Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular ...
Tumor markers are substances found in the blood, urine or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer. There are many different tumor markers. They are used in oncology to help determine the presence of cancer. An elevated level of a tumor marker can indicate cancer, however there can often also be other causes of the elevation.. Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Tumor markers can be used in screening programs, such as screening for elevated levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to indicate possible prostate cancer. Tumor markers are also used to monitor patients for cancer return. Tumor markers can be classified in two groups: Cancer-specific markers and tissue-specific markers.. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma. Ki- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumour biomarkers. T2 - homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Palma, Giuseppe. AU - Rea, Domenica. AU - De Biase, Davide. AU - Scala, Stefania. AU - DAiuto, Massimiliano. AU - Facchini, Gaetano. AU - Perdonà, Sisto. AU - Barbieri, Antonio. AU - Arra, Claudio. N1 - © 2016 The Authors.. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - The term personalized medicine refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a tailored therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis. Several studies have shown that lifestyle and environmental factors can influence the ...
Tumor markers are substances that are produced by the body in response to cancer or other certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in samples of blood, tumor tissue, urine, stool and other bodily fluids of some cancer patients.. Tumor markers are useful in helping to detect, diagnose and manage some types of cancers. The level of tumor marker present can sometimes reflect the stage (extent) of the disease or the patients prognosis (the likely outcome or the course of disease) for some types of cancers. Tumor markers can also be periodically measured during any cancer therapy treatment, where a decrease in level or a return to normal level for the markers can indicate that the treatment is working and the cancer is responding positively. These markers are also often measured after a treatment has ended in order to check for recurrence (i.e. the return of cancer).. Many different tumor markers have been characterized extensively and used for many clinical ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
Yesterday, I went in for my now semi-annual check at M.D. Anderson. Generally, things are going well, except for the new insurance company. Its bad enough that I got laid off by my old company, but the new job meant new medical insurance, and as some folks predicted its not a patient-friendly company. But thats for another time, perhaps.. Dr. Mansfield was, as before, cautiously optimistic. What had been four visits a year was dropped to two a year after my visit in July, and Dr. Mansfield told me that he saw pretty much the same thing as last time. The tumor markers are unchanged, was how he began. After seeing the blank expression on my face, he explained for a couple minutes that my condition in general was unchanged, which in cancer terms is good. Actually, Im doing very well, certainly more than I have a right to expect. It appears that my little floating bio-bombs started an uprising back in 2006, got cleaned out for the most part when Dr. Thomas did my surgery in November of that ...
Review A Dictionary to Tumor Markers and The Methods of Estimation Rahul R Nair, Jerin K Johnson protein(AFP), Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), Pancreatic oncofetal antigen) Abstract Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in the blood, in the urine, in the tumor tissue, or in other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is early stage. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. To date, researchers have identified more than a dozen substances that seem to be expressed abnormally when some types of cancer are present. Some of these substances are also found in other conditions and diseases. Scientists ...
Molecular profiling of head and neck tumors. I know my markers are all in normal ranges, but wish they would just stay the same!!! McIntosh MW, Drescher C, Karlan B, Scholler N, Urban N, Hellstrom KE, et al. Gestational choriocarcinomas demonstrate variable, but positive, staining for beta-hCG and hPL. Predictive factors for the presence of malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis. PET and bone scans were confusing--healing fractures or new mets?? Oct 12, - 3: Pregnancy, marijuana use, hypogonadism testicular failure , cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, duodenal ulcers. ALK gene rearrangements and overexpression Cancer types: Tumor markers are not elevated in all cases of the cancers they are used for, and they are not helpful in all patients. A tumor marker is a substance that is produced by the body in response to cancer, or is produced by the cancer itself. For details about whether tumor markers may be a part of your diagnosis and treatment planning, talk with your health care ...
Purchase Clinical Impact of Bone and Connective Tissue Markers - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124507401, 9780080984353
Anti-Renal Cell Carcinoma Marker (gp200) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision,Request Info,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
[96 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and China Tumor Marker Testing Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026 report by QYResearch Group. Global Tumor Marker Testing Scope and Market Size Tumor Marker...
This unique report provides information not available from any other published source, including volume, sales, and leading supplier shares by test.. This comprehensive five-country report identifies and evaluates major business opportunities emerging in the cancer diagnostics market during the next five years; examines trends in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK; reviews current and emerging tests; analyzes potential applications of various diagnostic technologies; forecasts sales of major tumor markers by country and market segment; profiles leading market players and potential entrants; and suggests alternative business expansion strategies for suppliers.. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the European cancer diagnostic testing market is promising ...
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) which may be extracted from plasma or serum by noninvasive procedures has demonstrated great potential to anticipate SL 0101-1 treatment response and survival for cancer patients. grouped regarding to genotype discovered in cfDNA. Nevertheless NSCLC sufferers which harbored activating mutation in cfDNA got a greater potential for response to EGFR-TKIs (chances proportion or OR 1.96 95 CI 1.59 No significant publication bias was discovered in this scholarly research. To conclude cfDNA could become a predictive and prognostic biomarker for sufferers with NSCLC. mutation position in NSCLC [17 18 These MMP17 evidences recommended that genotype in cfDNA is actually a guaranteeing tumor biomarker for NSCLC. A lot of studies got looked into the predictive or prognostic worth of cfDNA focus in NSCLC sufferers lately [19-22] (discover Table ?Desk11 for sources). These research were often little and SL 0101-1 reported various outcomes However. A few of them demonstrated a ...
A high throughput plasma screening platform will be developed for the discovery of biomarkers of early stage cancer through the PROACTIVE consortium.
Read Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration, JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Blood tests arent always necessary to find cancer markers, as some can be found in other bodily tissues or in urine, explains. Cancer marker tests look for the presence of certain genes...
Tumor markers SlideShare - Deren erhöhte Konzentration kann auf einen Tumor oder das Rezidiv eines Tumors hindeuten. Aufgrund oft geringer Spezifität sind die meisten Tumormarker weniger zum Screening als zur Verlaufskontrolle von Krebs geeignet. Tumormarker gehören zu den Biomarkern Beispiele einzelner Vertreter. Einige Tumormarker sind wesentlich besser unter ihrer Abkürzung als unter dem vollen Namen bekannt.
Blood is just teeming with proteins. Its not easy there to identify specialized tumor markers indicating the presence of cancer. A new method now enables diagnostics to be carried out in a single step. Scientists will present the analysis equipment at analytica, the international trade fair in Munich April 1-4 (Hall A1, Booth 530).
2015 CA Tumor Marker Testing Technologies and Emerging Markets Published by at [Report Price $3500] 278 Pages
The Hospital Tumor Marker market report breaks down the keyword market into various segments - product type, end users, region and market players.
Tumor Markers: Unlocking the Mistery of the Genetic Basis of Cancer--Technological Breakthroughs, Emerging Tests, Market Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence Published by at [Report Price $15900] 1200 Pages
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
You must have .CEL file to use the service. To get it, please contact your local genomic core facility to perform the microarray analysis of the tumour sample.. ...
You must have .CEL file to use the service. To get it, please contact your local genomic core facility to perform the microarray analysis of the tumour sample.. ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say antibodies to a non-human sugar molecule commonly found in people may be useful as a future biomarker for predicting cancer risk, for diagnosing cancer cases early and, in sufficient concentration, used as a treatment for suppressing tumor growth.
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A tumor is a lump of damaged cells. A malignant tumor is cancerous. Malignant tumors cause trouble to cells around them. They can also spread to other
Snapshots of a tumor treated with an AI only. (a) Tumor after two months of growth, before treatment is applied. (b) Tumor after four months of growth, two week
In the Phase I/IB study, only patients with NTRK or ROS1 fusions, or an ALK fusion or mutation responded to entrectinib, while patients without these tumor markers didnt respond.
My tumor marker is 136. Two months ago is was 125, then last month after my surgery (where a large piece of tumor was removed), it dropped down to 109. This wasnt the result I was hoping for, but it may be just too soon to see the effect of Afinitor. Whatever the numbers say,…
In general, benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix -oma to the cell of origin. Tumors of mesenchymal cells generally follow this (...)
癌症(英語:Cancer)又名為惡性(英語:malignant)腫瘤(英語:Malignant tumor),指的是細胞不正常增生,且這些增生的細胞可能侵犯身體的其他部分[2][8];中醫學中稱岩,為由控制細胞分裂增殖機制失常而引起的疾病。癌細胞除了分裂失控外,還會局部侵入(英語:Infiltration ...
கட்டி (tumor) என்பது இழையங்களில் ஏற்படக்கூடிய அசாதாரணமான, அளவுக்கதிகமான வளர்ச்சியால் ஏற்படும் புத்திழையம் (neoplasm) அல்லது திண்ம இழையமாகும். இந்த வளர்ச்சியானது அருகில் சூழவுள்ள இழையங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபட்டிருப்பதுடன், அதற்குரிய தூண்டல் நீக்கப்பட்டாலும்கூட, தொடர்ந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியையே காட்டும்.[1][2][3] இந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியானது, (எப்பொழும் இல்லையெனினும்) பொதுவாக திணிவு கூடி ...
Plot tumor - tv tropes, The plot tumor trope as used in popular culture. a single plot element that was once a minor part of the verse swells in importance as the series progresses …. ...
Malignant: Malignancy is the tendency of a cancer or tumor either to invade the surrounding tissues, to destroy or replace the tissues previously present or to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) ...
Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約)Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約) ...
The main associations for the study of liver in the world simultaneously suggest that tumor biomarkers should not be regarded as a diagnostic criterion but strongly calls for biomarkers in HCC surveillance. In the lately released American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines for the treatment of HCC, US with or without AFP every 6 months is the recommended strategy for HCC surveillance [26]. It should be noticed that in this guideline biomarkers are conditionally recommended for the first time, though the quality of evidence is low. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) still suggests US every 6 months for HCC surveillance but emphasizes on developing accurate tumor biomarkers [27]. Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) and JSH explicitly recommends US with tumor biomarkers as an efficient strategy for HCC [28]. Therefore, biomarkers are still critical in helping HCC surveillance and diagnosis.. Real-world researches often ...
ANAs have been known to be present in BC sera for several decades [25] but their significance remains unknown [24]. This is likely because autoantibodies are part of the normal immune response, and sera from healthy subjects exhibit a plethora of autoantibodies not related to cancer [30-32]. The application of genomics and proteomics to biomarker discovery allowed the identification of multiple autoantibodies in BC sera recognizing TAAs [3-10]. These studies strongly suggested the possibility that autoantibodies in cancer sera were potentially useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of BC. The seminal work establishing the role of autoantibodies as diagnostic biomarkers in the rheumatic ADs [16-20] suggested the hypothesis that the model epitomized by the rheumatic ADs is highly relevant to explain the plethora of autoantibodies detected in cancer sera. Importantly, PBC as an organ-specific autoimmune disease is characterized by a set of autoantibodies with mitochondrial specificity with ...
Tumor markers are substances that can often be detected in higher than normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. These substances can be proteins, enzymes, biochemicals, or antigens. Tumor markers may either be produced by the cancer itself or by the body in response to the cancer. In general, tumor marker levels are lower in early stage disease (but still higher than normal) and higher with advanced disease. Furthermore, their levels decrease in response to treatment and increase when the cancer progresses.. Tumor markers are often used to:. ...
Measurement of remission and progression in metastatic breast cancer by the use of serum tumour markers is simple, objective, reproducible and cost effective. The most widely used markers are a MUC1 mucin (e.g. measured as CA15.3) and CEA. A combination of markers is more sensitive than using a single marker. When CA15.3, CEA and ESR are used as a panel of serum markers in monitoring therapeutic response, over 90% of patients are biochemically assessable. A biochemical index score comprising these three markers has been devised retrospectively, validated prospectively, in a single centre and in a multicentre study. Biochemical assessment by serum markers correlates with clinical/radiological (UICC) assessment and often pre-dates remission and progression shown by UICC criteria. It is also the only validated method in monitoring metastatic breast cancer with disease unassessable by UICC criteria (e.g. sclerotic bone metastases, irradiated lesions). Future studies should aim at incorporating new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HMICL and CD123 in combination with a CD45/CD34/CD117 backbone. T2 - a universal marker combination for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukaemia. AU - Roug, Anne S.. AU - Larsen, Hanne O.. AU - Nederby, Line. AU - Just, Tom. AU - Brown, Gordon. AU - Nyvold, Charlotte G.. AU - Ommen, Hans B.. AU - Hokland, Peter. N1 - The work was supported by grants to PH from The Danish Cancer Society, The Danish MRC, The John and Birthe Meyer Foundation, and the Karen Elise Jensen Foundation. GB has received funding from The Wellcome Trust. We thank our patients for contributing samples, and for continuous input during these efforts.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been extensively validated for the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Meanwhile, multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) has received less attention because the so-called leukaemia-associated ...
Dr. Anthony C.H. YING What are? Tumour markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer is present. They are usually found in the blood or urine. They can be products of cancer cells or
A novel finding with potential prognostic impact relates to the observation that 45/149 (30%) of M-CLL cases exhibited high expression of UGT2B17 and displayed poor clinical outcome (P,0.001, Online Supplementary Figure S1). Since the majority of these cases were negative for CD38 expression (134/149, 90%), carried only favorable genomic lesions (del(13q) or no recurrent aberrations (133/145, 92%) and did not display mutations in TP53 (145/149, 97%), NOTCH1 (139/142, 98%) or SF3B1 (140/143, 98%), quantification of UGT2B17 mRNA expression identified a subgroup of progressive M-CLL cases (31/120, 26%) for which, to date, no established prognostic marker has been successful in identifying (Figure 1C). Notably, within M-CLL, high UGT2B17 expression remained as the strongest independent molecular prognostic marker for OS in multivariate analysis (Online Supplementary Table S2). Further evaluation of UGT2B17 expression on clinical outcome in subgroups of CLL with favorable prognosis revealed high ...
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing
A risk score based on three biological features (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) was previously developed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in untreated Binet A CLL patients. Here we perform a score validation analysis in a prospective and independent cohort of patients. Biological markers (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) and gene expression profiles (GEP) of leukemic cells from CLL patients included in a prospective multicenter observational study (O-CLL1-GISL protocol, ID:NCT00917549) were used to assess the value and reproducibility of this score. To date, 468 Binet A patients were classified as low- (0 positive marker), intermediate- (1 positive marker), or high-risk (2 or 3 positive markers) using the progression risk score. The 3-year PFS probability was 91.7%, 82.9%, and 57.4% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk (P | 0.0001) cases, respectively. These values were similar to those found in the original cohort. At Cox multivariate analysis, Rai
Solid tumors involving glandular organs express mucin glycoprotein which is eventually shed into the circulation. As aresult these proteins can easily be measured in the serum and be used as potential tumor markers. The most commonly used tumor markers for breast cancer are CA 27-29 and CA 15-3, which both measure the glycoprotein product of the mucin-1 (MUC1) gene. CA 27-29 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for monitoring disease activity in breast cancer patients. Most oncology clinical practice guidelines do not recommend the use of tumor markers for routine surveillance of early stage disease but recognize their utility in the metastatic setting ...
The aim of our study was to evaluate the cost of the tumor marker assays most widely used in pneumological practive and the effectiveness of the percentage of DRG-based reimbursements absorbed by these assays. For this purpose we assessed the cost of lung tumor marker assays in Emilia Romagna compared to the DRG-based reimbursement of...
Cancer biomarkers are the measurable molecular changes to either cancerous or normal tissues of patients. Although the term biomarker most commonly refers to altered expression of certain gene products or abnormal DNA configurations, changes to cellular processes such as energy metabolism and DNA damage response can also be used as biomarkers in a broader sense. Cancer biomarkers have multiple implications in cancer intervention. A reliable biomarker can be used for cancer diagnosis, risk and prognosis assessments, and for the surveillance of treatment effectiveness. More importantly, some, but not all, biomarkers can be exploited as therapeutic targets. This is because some biomarkers may be simply messengers that do not directly contribute to the tumor growth and are thus not ideal therapeutic targets. Only the driver or conspirator biomarkers that directly contribute to tumor growth may be targeted for therapy. Therefore, effort in the development of targeted therapies must not simply ...
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Molecular Histopathology and Tissue Biomarkers in Drug and Diagnostic Development gathers varied specialists to offer state-of-the-art tips and alertness of histopathology in drug improvement settings starting from discovery study to human scientific trials. whereas many present purposes of quantitative histology and molecular pathology within the biopharmaceutical are excited by oncology, this quantity moreover explores non-oncologic ailment parts together with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, arthritis, celiac disorder, myeloproliferative issues, neurology, and wound therapeutic. The authors write from years of expertise in diagnostic perform and pharmaceutical drug improvement, aiming to coach pharmaceutical and educational scientists how you can top use tissue to diagnose illness and increase the method of drug development. As a part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology sequence, this quantity is designed to supply knowledge and examples that others can persist with and follow as a ...
In clinical practice, biomarkers can be used to identify risk and susceptibility, diagnose a disease, assess disease severity or progression, classify patients, guide treatment, and predict prognosis. In drug development and the pharmaceutical industry, biomarkers can be used to predict toxicity, safety, or efficacy of a drug. Biomarkers can be categorized as target, mechanism and clinical to indicate if a drug hits its intended target, alters any mechanisms and if it is effective in vivo. Biomarkers can be also classified into three types: type 0 - natural history markers, type 1 - biological or drug activity markers, and type 2 - surrogate markers. Type 0 biomarkers measure the natural history of a disease and should correlate over time with known clinical indicators. They can be characterized in phase 0 clinical trials. Symptoms over the full range of a disease and most prognosis markers are type 0 biomarkers. In most cases, type 1 biomarkers are the markers that capture the effects of a ...
This study addresses two questions: (1) how does prevalence of prognostic biomarkers in old, archival paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens obtained from 50 Asian, 50 black, and 50 white women diagnosed with breast cancer in Oakland, CCA between 1966 and 1990 compare across racial/ethnic groups and to that observed among recent paraffin-embedded specimens, and (2) what is the relationship of these biomarkers to survival, controlling for other biological and socio economic risk factors that affect survival? In Year 1, we have, as planned: (a) abstracted medical chart data on tumor characteristics and treatment for all 150 women, (b) appended these data to an existing database with the women? 5 sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics, (c) determined their vital status as of December 31, 1994, (d) located tumor blocks for 135 of these women, and (e) measured, by immunohistochemistry/image analysis, the following prognostic biomarkers: estrogen, progesterone, androgen, and epidermal growth
The MALDI Tissuetyper solution, an emerging technology, enables the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a powerful mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, which is highly complementary to traditional imaging technologies in histology. The MALDI Tissuetyper allows pathologists a fast identification of proteins in tissue samples. In contrast to traditional histological tissue analysis, the MALDI Tissuetyper requires neither a molecular probe nor an antibody. The MALDI Tissuetyper offers multiplex analysis of multiple potential biomarkers simultaneously in an untargeted approach. Identification of protein expression profiles, will lead to the discovery of clinically useful tumor biomarkers which could be incorporated into future diagnostic and treatment strategies. MALDI Tissuetyper provides complementary information to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in many cases can differentiate cell populations that cannot easily be differentiated by IHC. In additional, it might save valuable biopsy material, ...
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising prognostic and predictive biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we examined the prognostic role of cfDNA and CTCs, in separate and joint analyses, in NSCLC patients receiving first line chemotherapy. Seventy-three patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. CfDNA and CTC were analyzed at baseline and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Plasma cfDNA quantification was performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) whereas CTCs were isolated by the ScreenCell Cyto (ScreenCell, Paris, France) device and enumerated according to malignant features. Patients with baseline cfDNA higher than the median value (96.3 hTERT copy number) had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) and double the risk of death (hazard ratio (HR): 2.14; 95% confidence limits (CL) = 1.24-3.68; p-value = 0.006). Conversely, an inverse relationship between CTC median baseline number (6 CTC/3 mL of blood) and OS was observed. In
The objective of the project is to validate a serum biomarker signature for the early diagnosis (yes/no diagnosis) of pancreatic cancer...
Axl promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of Wilmsâ tumor and can be used as a prognostic factor Shibo Zhu, Guochang Liu, Wen Fu, Jinhua Hu, Kai Fu, Wei Jia Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Childrenâ s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Peopleâ s Republic of China Purpose: Overexpression of Axl has been reported in many tumors, where it promotes tumorigenesis and progression, as well as correlates with the prognosis of different malignancies. However, Axl expression and its function have rarely been reported in Wilmsâ tumor (WT). This study aimed to reveal the clinical significance of Axl expression in patients with WT and determine its mechanisms.Materials and methods: We analyzed the expression of Axl and its correlations with various clinicopathological features in 72 WT tissues and 72 adjacent non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlations between
PubMed journal article: Detection of serum tumor markers in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Tumor-specific biomarkers and molecular/genomic alterations, including pan-cancer markers, have been significantly expanded in the past decade thanks to large-scale high-throughput technologies and will continue to emerge in the future. These biomarkers can be of great value in diagnosis, prognosis, and/or targeted therapy/treatment. Familiarization with these emerging and ever-changing tumor biomarkers will undoubtedly aid pathologists in making accurate and state-of-the-art diagnoses and enable them to be more actively involved in the care of cancer patients. ...
Background: DNA ploidy has been shown to have prognostic significance in patients with breast cancer. Studies in the past have mainly utilized flow cytometry (FCM) for measuring DNA ploidy. However FCM has several disadvantages, the instrument cannot distinguish benign from malignant cells and it cannot be performed on small tumor samples. The relationship between DNA ploidy and biomarker expression in breast cancer has not been well studied. Recently, gene expression analysis has demonstrated distinct subtypes of breast cancer. Expression of ER, PR and Her2 by IHC has been used as a surrogate tool for the molecular classification of breast cancer. Aim: To determine the relationship between DNA ploidy, biomarkers (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67 and p53) expression and molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer (IBCA) using image analysis.. Design: DNA analysis was performed on Feulgen stained sections from the same tumor block used for biomarker analysis. DNA indices and ploidy were analyzed using the ...
Biodesix, Inc. announced initiation of the next phase of their biomarker development program with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer Inc.
Improved diagnosis and management of prostate cancer could result from research that has discovered that seminal fluid contains biomarkers for the disease.
The aim of this study was 2-fold: first is to confirm the suitability of afamin as a novel tumor marker for the specific diagnosis of ovarian cancer as shown previously in a small pilot study (15) in a sufficiently large population of different ethnic origin. As shown in the previous study, ovarian cancer patients had significantly lower serum concentrations of afamin, a member of the albumin gene family (17), than did healthy controls. In contrast, our data also revealed significant differences between median afamin values in the benign patient group and those in both ovarian cancer and control groups possibly due to the much larger samples sizes in the present study. As in the previous study, patients were substantially and significantly older than were controls. Because age has only a very small, nonsignificant influence on afamin concentrations (ref. 15; P = 0.834 in this analysis), this age difference is very unlikely to explain the differences in afamin concentrations between patients and ...
DESIGN/METHODS:We evaluated 369 drug-naïve ePD patients. Data were obtained from the Parkinson?s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database. CSF amyloid-beta levels were transformed using a previously reported linear regression procedure. A cutoff of >198 pg/mL was used to define amyloid-negative (PD-) and amyloid-positive (PD+) subgroups. Grey matter (GM) density from MRI was measured using ANTs. We compared groups using linear regressions ...
OncoSpot™ cancer biomarker mutant cell lines carry CRISPR-mediated hotspot mutations in tumor biomarkers, including EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and more.
In a complex disease, the expression of many genes can be significantly altered, leading to the appearance of a differentially expressed disease module. Some of these genes directly correspond to the disease phenotype, (i.e. driver genes), while others represent closely-related first-degree neighbours in gene interaction space. The remaining genes consist of further removed passenger genes, which are often not directly related to the original cause of the disease. For prognostic and diagnostic purposes, it is crucial to be able to separate the group of driver genes and their first-degree neighbours, (i.e. core module) from the general disease module. We have developed COMBINER: COre Module Biomarker Identification with Network ExploRation. COMBINER is a novel pathway-based approach for selecting highly reproducible discriminative biomarkers. We applied COMBINER to three benchmark breast cancer datasets for identifying prognostic biomarkers. COMBINER-derived biomarkers exhibited 10-fold
[120 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cancer Biomarkers Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Cancer Biomarkers Revenue,...
RNAscope® ISH offers a very reliable and robust method for the detection and validation of prostate cancer-related markers within the tissue environment.
The management of solid tumors has been transformed by the advent of VEGF pathway inhibitors. Early clinical evaluation of these drugs has used pharmacodynamic biomarkers derived from advanced imaging such as dynamic MRI, CT and ultrasound to establish proof of principle. We have reviewed published studies using these imaging techniques to determine if the same biomarkers relate to survival in renal, hepatocellular and brain tumors in patients treated with VEGF inhibitors. Data show that in renal cancer, pre-treatment measurements of Ktrans and early pharmacodynamic reduction in tumour enhancement and density have prognostic significance in patients treated with VEGF inhibitors. A weaker, but significant relationship is seen with subtle early size change (10% in one dimension) and survival. Data from high grade glioma suggest that pre-treatment fractional blood volume and Ktrans were prognostic of overall survival. However, lack of control data with other therapies prevents assessment of the ...
Although there was no significant association of NEP with time to PSA relapse in univariate analysis, we adjusted for known prognostic factors and found that the hazard ratio for patients with complete loss of expression of NEP was 1.99. In a univariate analysis, the association of a new tumor marker with disease outcome may be confounded by other prognostic factors, e.g., an association between the new marker and disease outcome may be observed (and statistically significant) simply because the new marker associates with one or more of the prognostic factors identified previously. In a multivariate analysis, this association between the new marker and disease outcome may no longer be present (or weakened), indicating that the new marker is no better in predicting disease outcome than the previously known prognostic factors. Conversely, an association between a new marker and disease outcome may not be apparent (or may be weak and not statistically significant) in a univariate analysis due to ...
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A key to develop nanodevices with high performance for biosensors applications is to explore advanced functional nanomaterials . Among these materials , 2D - based nanohybrids clearly stand out in the field of electrochemical immunosensors for clinical biomarkers, where they offer unparalleled advan...
Reply. We went through this section and sharpen our statements. But, we included a new point into our conclusion since reviewer 1 requested a more critical view on the question: did EV based liquid biopsy make the translational step forward at least from bench to bed side, at least in some diagnostic applications. Unfortunately, not really and actually it is the current Achilles heel of the whole EV based experimental diagnosis. I discussed this in the conclusion citing appropriate references and referring to FDA. Reviewer 3 Report. The review article by Artur et al. EVs as potential new therapeutic tool/target in gastrointestinal and HCC describes and summarizes body of literature on EVs and their involvement in GI cancers and HCC. The field of EVs and their potential role as tumor biomarker and potential therapeutic target in different cancers has received considerable attention in recent years. The authors have accumulated and described literature focused on EVs in GI cancers and HCC. I ...
Circulating miRNAs (microRNAs) are emerging as promising biomarkers for several pathological conditions, and the aim of this study was to investigate the feasi...
The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (T) is highly expressed in a majority of cancer types but not in normal cells, which allows it to be used as a tumor biomarker (15, 17, 18). Previously, we identified and validated the specificity of the T promoter in ovarian cancer and showed that its activity was enhanced by the VISA amplification system (15). In this study, our results further showed that the T promoter is specifically activated in breast cancer cells but had much weaker activity than the CMV promoter. Using the VISA system that was initially developed for pancreatic cancer (13), we have since then showed that this system is highly active in ovarian (15), lung (16), and liver (30) cancers. With the goal of further developing a robust and breast tumor-specific vector, we incorporated the T promoter into our VISA system and constructed T-VISA expression carrier. Our engineered T-VISA is a composite that contains 3three basic elements: the T promoter, the TSTA system, and the WPRE ...
One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumours are malignant.[1] For this reason, benign tumours are not classed as cancer.[2] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and ...
Rationale. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the worldwide cancer diagnostics market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. The rise in geriatric population will further compound the growing demand for malignancy assays and the rapid market expansion.. Business Opportunities and Strategic Recommendations. - Specific new product development opportunities with ...
Neuropathlogy took center stage at the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) meeting today as Dr. Kenneth D. Aldape, neuropathogist at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, was introduced as the next president of the society. Dr. Aldape also delivered an address to more than 1400 attendees about the future of surgical neuropathological reporting. Aldapes research centers on the clinical utility of brain tumor biomarkers as prognostic indicators. He described how the use of biomarkers will change the way surgical neuropathology diagnoses are rendered. He noted that the broad morphologic spectrum one sees in gliomas makes the recommendations of the World Health Organization sometimes difficult to implement. For example, the difference between a WHO grade II and grade III astrocytoma is based principally on whether or not mitotic figures are brisk as interpreted by the examining neuropathologist. Yet, the imprecision of that approach is obvious when one considers variables such as the diligence ...
Tirosh A, Papadakis GZ, Millo C, Sadowski SM, Herscovitch P, Pacak K, Marx SJ, Yang L, Nockel P, Shell J, Green P, Keutgen XM, Patel D, Nilubol N, Kebebew E. Association between neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers and primary tumor site and disease type based on total 68Ga-DOTATATE-Avid tumor volume measurements. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 May; 176(5):575-582 ...
a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. Calcitonin helps control how the body uses calcium . Calcitonin is a type of tumor marker. Tumor markers are substances made by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to ...
Enhance your Cancer research with Highly Purified His-Tagged Recombinant Proteins. Tumor biomarkers, Cancer Metabolism, Signal transduction proteins & more
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical impact of circulating caspase-3 p17 level. T2 - A potential new biomarker for myocardial injury and cardiovascular disease. AU - Singh, Kanwar P.. AU - Jaffe, Allan S. AU - Liang, Bruce T.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. KW - apoptosis. KW - heart failure. KW - infarct. KW - reperfusion. UR - UR - U2 - 10.2217/fca.11.29. DO - 10.2217/fca.11.29. M3 - Article. C2 - 21797739. AN - SCOPUS:79961076739. VL - 7. SP - 443. EP - 445. JO - Future Cardiology. JF - Future Cardiology. SN - 1479-6678. IS - 4. ER - ...
This paper addresses the problem of classifying cells expressing different biomarkers. A deep learning based method that can automatically localize and count the cells expressing each of the different biomarkers is proposed. To classify the cells, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was employed. Images of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained slides that contain these cells were digitally scanned. The images were taken from digital scans of IHC stained cervical tissues, acquired for a clinical trial. More than 4,500 RGB images of cells were used to train the CNN. To evaluate our method, the cells were first manually labeled based on the expressing biomarkers. Then we performed the classification on 156 randomly selected images of cells that were not used in training the CNN. The accuracy of the classification was 92% in this preliminary data set. The results have shown that this method has a good potential in developing an automatic method for immunohistochemical analysis ...
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Fishman WH (December 1987). "Clinical and biological significance of an isozyme tumor marker--PLAP". Clin. Biochem. 20 (6): 387 ... "European Group on Tumor Markers. A European Based Expert Group on Tumor Markers. Germ cell cancer". Archived from the original ... 2004). "Testicular tumor markers: Corner-stones in the management of malignant germ cell tumors" (PDF). J Lab Med. 28 (2): 109- ... PLAP is a tumor marker, especially in seminoma and ovarian cancer (e.g., dysgerminoma). PLAP is reliable only in non-smokers, ...
Hobbs, J.R., Melino, G, Riches, P. Successful uses of tumour markers in man. In 'Protides of the Biological Fluids' 31. ed. H. ... Developed successful uses of human tumour markers In Clinical Immunology, Standardised methods and reagents (some for WHO) to ... Protides of the biological fluids' 1989; 36: 3-17 Hobbs, J. R., Barrett, A. J., Chambers, J. D., James, D. C. O., Hugh-Jones, K ... Hobbs, J.R. Cytofluorometry to predict effects of biological response modifiers in Poulik D. et al. eds. ' ...
"Down's syndrome-associated single minded gene as a novel tumor marker". Anticancer Research. 22 (6A): 3149-57. PMID 12530058. ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... EMT suppression allows for E-cadherin to remain and for the cell to not undergo pathological EMT associated with tumor ... It has been researched that SIM2s acts in mammary gland development and has tumor suppressive characteristics specifically in ...
"Expression of tumor markers hyaluronic acid and hyaluronidase (HYAL1) in head and neck tumors". International Journal of Cancer ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (14): 9433-42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M900210200. PMC 2666596. PMID 19201751. Lokeshwar VB, ... "Stromal and epithelial expression of tumor markers hyaluronic acid and HYAL1 hyaluronidase in prostate cancer". The Journal of ... "Inducible hyaluronan production reveals differential effects on prostate tumor cell growth and tumor angiogenesis". The Journal ...
"Urinary Cell-Free DNA as a Potential Tumor Marker for Bladder Cancer". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (4 ... For ucfDNA, cancer markers can be generally divided into two groups: urological cancer marker and non-urological cancer marker ... Many tumour markers in ucfDNA have been researched to monitor cancer progression, therapeutic response, and prognosis. Cancer ... "Monitoring Daily Dynamics of Early Tumor Response to Targeted Therapy by Detecting Circulating Tumor DNA in Urine". Clinical ...
Steták A, Veress R, Ovádi J, Csermely P, Kéri G, Ullrich A (February 2007). "Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate ... and tumor growth in a dominant negative manner". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (12): 8098-105. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... In tumor cells, PKM2 is mainly in the dimeric form and has, therefore, been termed Tumor M2-PK. The quantification of Tumor M2- ... Thus, PKM2 is a regulator of LPS- and tumor-induced PD-L1 expression on macrophages and dendritic cells as well as tumor cells ...
This gene is a sensitive marker for neuroendocrine differentiation of human lung tumors. INSM1 has been shown to interact with ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (21): 15252-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)42173-4. PMID 1634555. Li Q, Notkins AL, Lan ... "Molecular characterization of the promoter region of a neuroendocrine tumor marker, IA-1". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (9): 5574-81. doi:10.1074/jbc.M808843200. PMC 2645817. PMID 19124461. v t e (Articles ...
"A new assay to screen for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using the tumor marker metallopanstimulin". Otolaryngology-Head ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (13): 8675-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M511333200. PMID 16446370. Wang YW, Qu Y, Li JF, Chen ... "Metallopanstimulin as a novel tumor marker in sera of patients with various types of common cancers: implications for ... Stack BC, Hollenbeak CS, Lee CM, Dunphy FR, Lowe VJ, Hamilton PD (December 2004). "Metallopanstimulin as a marker for head and ...
... "h-Caldesmon as a specific marker for smooth muscle tumors. Comparison with other smooth muscle markers in bone tumors". ... Advances in Biological Regulation. 80: 100788. doi:10.1016/j.jbior.2021.100788. PMID 33578108. S2CID 231908606. Watanabe K, ... large tumors, tumors deemed highly aggressive based on their pathology and/or local invasiveness, inoperable tumors, and ... These tumors and features are: Pleomorphic liposarcoma: At least some tumor cells have features of pleomorphic lipoblasts, i.e ...
... and circulating tumor marker sialyl-Lewis a levels". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (50): 32260-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Characterization of highly conserved cysteine residues and N-linked glycosylation sites". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (34): 20112-22. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The glycosphingolipids function in embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, tumor metastasis, inflammation, and bacterial ...
High proportions of XIAP may function as a tumor marker. In the development of lung cancer NCI-H460, the overexpression of XIAP ... Apoptotic regulation is an extremely important biological function, as evidenced by "the conservation of the IAPs from humans ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (9): 7494-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200695200. PMID 12511567. Song Z, Yao X, Wu M (June 2003 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (43): 39985-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.C100171200. PMID 11546791. Winsauer G, Resch U, Hofer- ...
... tumor markers, circulating DNA, immunomonitoring, imaging); Optimization and exploitation of clinical research-related tools to ... CALYM is working within the following research areas: Identification and validation of new biological targets and in vitro/in ... including new biological targets) to clinical research (up to international phase III registration trials) and also carries out ... biological collections, network and platform of centralized proofreading of imaging, biometry, long term follow-up of patients ...
Media related to Biological tumor markers at Wikimedia Commons Tumor+Markers,+Biological at the US National Library of Medicine ... Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Although ... Staging: some tumor markers are included in the staging procedures for some tumor localizations. Prognosis to plan the ... Kaura, B; Bagga, R; Patel, FD (2004). "Evaluation of the Pyruvate Kinase isoenzyme tumor (Tu M2-PK) as a tumor marker for ...
... a highly specific tumor marker of T-ALL". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (7): 4576-81. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.7.4576. ... a highly specific tumor marker of T-ALL". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (7): 4576-81. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.7.4576. ... This analysis is widely used as a clinically valuable marker for breast cancer. Similar to breast tumors, the role of GATA3 in ... considered a valuable marker for certain types of urinary bladder and urethral cancers as well as for parathyroid gland tumors ...
"ACS :: Tumor Markers". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 2009-03-28. Ferracci F, Moretto G, Candeago RM, Cimini N, Conte F, ... Major sites of cleavage by cathepsins B, D, and L". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (30): 20198-20204. doi:10.1016/ ... Hence, thyroglobulin levels in the blood are mainly used as a tumor marker for certain kinds of thyroid cancer (particularly ... Study at the N-terminal domain of thyroglobulin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (50): 29881-29888. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"The biological characterization of neuroendocrine tumors: The role of neuroendocrine markers". Journal of Endocrinological ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" The ... Parathyroid tumors Thymus and mediastinal carcinoid tumors Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors bronchus pulmonary carcinoid tumors ... Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors were first distinguished from other tumors in 1907. They were named carcinoid tumors ...
2007). "A novel tumor marker, Niban, is expressed in subsets of thyroid tumors and Hashimoto's thyroiditis". Hum. Pathol. 37 ( ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ...
"Clinical utility of biochemical markers in colorectal cancer: European Group on Tumour Markers (EGTM) guidelines". European ... for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. CEA levels may also be raised in gastric ... Left-sided tumors generally tend to have higher CEA levels than right-sided tumors.[citation needed] Tumors causing bowel ... It varies inversely with tumor grade; well-differentiated tumors secrete more CEA. CEA is elevated more in tumors with lymph ...
Since mesothelin is overexpressed in several cancers and is immunogenic, the protein could be exploited as tumor marker or as ... its biological function is not known. A knockout mouse line that lacks mesothelin reproduces and develops normally. Mesothelin ... January 2006). "Detection and quantitation of serum mesothelin, a tumor marker for patients with mesothelioma and ovarian ... October 2008). "Megakaryocyte potentiating factor as a tumor marker of malignant pleural mesothelioma: evaluation in comparison ...
"Tumor Markers Found in Blood or Urine". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 21 January 2014. "Tumor Markers for Testicular ... As the most abundant biological source is in women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant ... Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors. Human chorionic ... Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker, as its β subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma, ...
Mroczko B, Szmitkowski M (2005). "Hematopoietic cytokines as tumor markers". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 42 (12 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (7): 4345-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)42841-4. PMID 1531650. Saltman DL, Dolganov GM ... Interest Builds in CSF1R for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment Gout I, Dhand R, Panayotou G, Fry MJ, Hiles I, Otsu M, Waterfield ... and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity. The role of M-CSF is not only restricted to the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. By ...
It has been used as a sarcoma tumor marker to identify mesenchyme. Its specificity as a biomarker has been disputed by Jerad ... Intracellular distribution and localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (16): 13302-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Leader M, Collins M, Patel J, Henry K (January 1987). "Vimentin: an evaluation of its role as a tumour marker". Histopathology ... Because of this, vimentin is often used as a marker of mesenchymally-derived cells or cells undergoing an epithelial-to- ...
McIver CM, Lloyd JM, Hewett PJ, Hardingham JE (Jun 2004). "Dipeptidase 1: a candidate tumor-specific molecular marker in ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (25): 15341-5. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)77261-X. PMID 2168407. Adachi H, Tawaragi Y, ... "Dipeptidase 1: a candidate tumor-specific molecular marker in colorectal carcinoma." Cancer Letters 209.1 (2004): 67-74. Web. ... suggesting that DPEP1 is a viable marker for disseminated colon tumor cells. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000015413 - ...
2006). "Novel tumor marker REG4 detected in serum of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer and feasibility for antibody ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... 2005). "Reg IV: a promising marker of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (6): 2237-43. doi: ...
... and its overexpression in tumors with ras mutation is a poor prognostic marker". Clinical Cancer Research. 10 (6): 1984-91. doi ... Direct evidence for ubiquitylation at the N-terminal residue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (40): 41414-21. doi: ... Mutations in Fbw7 have been found in more than 30% of human tumors, characterizing it as a tumor suppressor protein. Oncogenic ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in humans which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ...
Since then, Pro-GRP has been used as a tumor marker for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in limited and extended ... A single center experience". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 33 (1): 55-61. doi:10.5301/ijbm.5000305. ISSN ... "Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (PROGRP) as a specific tumor marker in patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)". Lung ... In pathological situations, GRP has mitogenic activity in vitro in many tumors such as pancreatic, small cell lung (SCLC), ...
The term "biological marker" was introduced in 1950s. In 1987, biological markers were defined as "indicators signaling events ... Endophenotype Imaging biomarker Marker gene Molecular marker Saliva testing Sponge biomarkers Tumor marker Hirsch MS, Watkins J ... "Biological markers in environmental health research. Committee on Biological Markers of the National Research Council". ... In biomedical contexts, a biomarker, or biological marker, is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. ...
Because of this, thymidine kinase activity is closely correlated with the cell cycle and used as a tumor marker in clinical ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 302 (1108): 3-11. Bibcode:1983RSPTB.302....3K. doi:10.1098/rstb.1983.0033. PMID 6137005. ... A common point of confusion arises when thinking about the different ways a cell achieves biological regulation. There are ... CDK mutations can be found in lymphomas, breast cancer, pancreatic tumors, and lung cancer. Therefore, inhibitors of CDK have ...
MGMT serves as a prognostic marker in glioblastoma. Hypermethylation of MGMT is associated with the regression of tumors. ... DMNT inhibitors are being explored in the treatment of malignant tumors. Recent in-vitro studies show that DNMT inhibitors can ... Target theory concerns the models of how radiation kills biological cells and is based around two main postulates: "Radiation ... The DNA repair enzymes attracted by the marker convert 5hmC to an unmethylated cytosine base resulting in the hypomethylation ...
Examples of some commonly used markers include: BrdU: used to identify replicating cells. Used to identify tumors as well as in ... in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Many tumors are hormone dependent. The presence of hormone receptors can be used to determine if a tumor is potentially ... CD117 (KIT): for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and mast cell tumors. CD10 (CALLA): for renal cell carcinoma and acute ...
... to confirm and expand these relationships and determine if the expression of CMTM5 isoforms can be used as tumor markers for ... Wu J, Li L, Wu S, Xu B (August 2020). "CMTM family proteins 1-8: roles in cancer biological processes and potential clinical ... Shao L, Cui Y, Li H, Liu Y, Zhao H, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Ng KM, Han W, Ma D, Tao Q (October 2007). "CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor ... These findings suggest that the CMTM5 gene may act as a tumor suppressor gene, i.e. a normal gene whose product(s) inhibit the ...
Mulder LC, Muesing MA (Sep 2000). "Degradation of HIV-1 integrase by the N-end rule pathway". The Journal of Biological ... More recently, more effort has been made to consider the proteasome for the development of novel diagnostic markers and ... Moreover, the UPS regulates the degradation of tumor suppressor gene products such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in ... The CP and RPs pertain distinct structural characteristics and biological functions. In brief, 20S sub complex presents three ...
In tumors, CD34 is found in alveolar soft part sarcoma, preB-ALL (positive in 75%), AML (40%), AML-M7 (most), ... Sidney LE, Branch MJ, Dunphy SE, Dua HS, Hopkinson A (June 2014). "Concise review: evidence for CD34 as a common marker for ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (19): 11056-11061. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)38556-4. PMID 1694174. Sutherland DR, ... This is generally a useful marker for cell dosing although there is some evidence that the CD34+ quantification may not be ...
The DNA oxidation product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a well-established marker of oxidative DNA damage. In persons with ... Mair, R (2019). "Measurement of plasma cell-free mitochondrial tumor DNA improves detection of glioblastoma in patient-derived ... Taylor RW (February 2005). "Gene therapy for the treatment of mitochondrial DNA disorders". Expert Opinion on Biological ... Butler, John M. (2005). Forensic DNA typing : biology, technology, and genetics of STR markers (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier ...
Through his published work, he is a proponent of the theory that male infertility is an early marker for other diseases that ... Racial disparities among boys with testicular germ cell tumors in the United States. J Urol. 2008, 179(5):1961-5. Epub 2008 Mar ... Belknap Prize in the Biological Sciences, and co-authored several scientific publications from work in the laboratory of Dr. ... Non-Palpable Leydig Cell Tumors Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration. Journal of Urology, 158: 543-544, 1997, Black LD, Nudell ...
These effects seem to be largely mediated by mutations at guanine in codon 249 of the p53 gene, a tumor suppressing gene, and ... For instance, biological decontamination involving the use of a single bacterial species, Flavobacterium aurantiacum has been ... One study estimated that while individuals with urinary aflatoxin bio-markers were at a threefold greater risk than the normal ... "Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003". Coulombe R. A. (1993). "Biological action of mycotoxins". J ...
Fuchs A, Colonna M (October 2006). "The role of NK cell recognition of nectin and nectin-like proteins in tumor ... June 2007). "CD96 is a leukemic stem cell-specific marker in human acute myeloid leukemia". Proceedings of the National Academy ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (4): 2235-2244. doi:10.1074/jbc.M807698200. PMID 19056733. Davila S, Froeling FE, Tan ...
She has a difficult time using her senses in low light areas, due to the tumor in her brain. The Megalodon is criticized for ... This caused Bigfoot to attack in order to correct its biological imbalance of sense of time. Bigfoot is noted to have a short ... Its only know capability is the ability to jump far. The Runners are the faster and more predatory versions of the standard VM2 ... This robotic suit could also easily jump around 30 feet in the air. The Floater Bug Aliens appear in the 2012 movie American ...
He found two proteins as potential markers for freshness of royal jelly protein and named them royal jelly proteins (RJP-1 and ... They also show an ability to lower blood pressure, fats in the blood (hypercholesterolemia), stop tumour growth in vitro, and ... Other than their nutritional value, their exact biological function is yet to be confirmed. In 2011, Masaki Kamakura published ... Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 89 (2): 255-69. doi:10.1111/brv.12052. PMID 23855350. Hanes J, ...
2013 demonstrated that high SINE RNA expression correlates with post-transcriptional downregulation of BRCA1, a tumor ... making them useful markers of divergent evolution between species. Copy number variation and mutations in the SINE sequence ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (27): 17897-901. doi:10.1074/jbc.R900012200. PMC 2709356. PMID 19342379. Nätt D, ... "Transposable elements as drivers of genomic and biological diversity in vertebrates". Chromosome Research. 16 (1): 203-15. doi: ...
This gene is also a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. FABP3 is known to interact with TNNI3K in the ... Alhadi HA, Fox KA (Apr 2004). "Do we need additional markers of myocyte necrosis: the potential value of heart fatty-acid- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (26): 18541-50. doi:10.2210/pdb2hmb/pdb. PMID 1526991. Peeters RA, Veerkamp JH, Geurts ... Pelsers MM, Hermens WT, Glatz JF (Feb 2005). "Fatty acid-binding proteins as plasma markers of tissue injury". Clinica Chimica ...
Mulder LC, Muesing MA (Sep 2000). "Degradation of HIV-1 integrase by the N-end rule pathway". The Journal of Biological ... Recently, more effort has been made to consider the proteasome for the development of novel diagnostic markers and strategies. ... Moreover, the UPS regulates the degradation of tumor suppressor gene products such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (13): 8145-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.13.8145. PMID 9079628. McCusker D, Jones T, Sheer D ...
For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as ... For example, a star jump requires the legs to be abducted. Internal rotation (or medial rotation) and external rotation (or ... The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, ...
Mroczko B, Szmitkowski M (2004). "Hematopoietic cytokines as tumor markers". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 42 (12): 1347-54. doi: ... Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease ... This β subunit sharing explains the biological functional similarities of different hematopoietic growth factors. IL-3 ...
Soker S, Takashima S, Miao HQ, Neufeld G, Klagsbrun M (March 1998). "Neuropilin-1 is expressed by endothelial and tumor cells ... September 2002). "Neuropilin-2 is a novel marker expressed in pancreatic islet cells and endocrine pancreatic tumours". The ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (22): 18688-94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006909200. PMID 11278319. Cohen T, Gluzman-Poltorak Z ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (24): 18040-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M909259199. PMID 10748121. Handa A, Tokunaga T, ...
This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. ... p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker in gynecologic pathology. Strong and diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression ... "Capturing the biological impact of CDKN2A and MC1R genes as an early predisposing event in melanoma and non melanoma skin ... Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been implicated in various cancers. In 2013, a meta-analysis revealed an ...
... which led to its use as a prognostic marker for these cancers. Elevated Hsp70 levels in tumor cells may increase malignancy and ... Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (Aug 1972). "Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue ... thereby promoting tumor cell proliferation. As a result, tumor vaccine strategies for Hsp70s have been highly successful in ... Miki K, Eddy EM (Apr 2002). "Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is an ATPase regulated by silencer of death domain". Molecular ...
The biological properties which determine whether or not a tumour is visible on MRI is poorly understood. One theory is that ... Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers to determine the origin of malignant cells that ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or tumor cells ... Sharma S (January 2009). "Tumor markers in clinical practice: General principles and guidelines". Indian Journal of Medical and ...
The expression of hTERT can also be used to distinguish benign tumors from malignant tumors. Malignant tumors have higher hTERT ... The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon ... 2018). "TA-65, A Telomerase Activator improves Cardiovascular Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome". Current ... Of the tumors without TERT activation, most employ a separate pathway to maintain telomere length termed Alternative ...
NAA can also be used to find trace elements in biological materials. This can be especially useful in plant or animal nutrient ... Ongoing projects include Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research, especially that research for a cure for brain tumors, ... the reactor jumps in power from ~80 watts to over a 1 billion watts and back down again in 50 milliseconds, causing a bright ... as well as several Biology graduate students use the source as a means for sterilization of biological samples as it is much ...
"Placental alkaline phosphatase as a tumor marker for seminoma". Cancer Research. 42 (8): 3244-7. PMID 7093962. Dugdale DC. "ALP ... Schiele F, Vincent-Viry M, Fournier B, Starck M, Siest G (November 1998). "Biological effects of eleven combined oral ... Rao SR, Snaith AE, Marino D, Cheng X (2017). "Tumour-derived alkaline phosphatase regulates tumour growth, epithelial ... Kidney tumors and infections as well as malnutrition have also shown abnormal level of alkaline phosphatase in blood. Alkaline ...
The specific cell-surface markers for Tr1 cells in humans and mice are CD4+ CD49b+LAG-3+ CD226+ from which LAG-3+ and CD49b+ ... Tr1 cells express high levels of regulatory factors, such as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), OX40 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (36): 27571-27580. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.127100. ISSN 1083-351X. PMC 2934624. PMID ... CD134), and tumor-necrosis factor receptor (TNFRSF9). Resting human Tr1 cells express Th1 associated chemokine receptors CXCR3 ...
It is proposed that ALDOA overexpression enhances glycolysis in these tumor cells, promoting their growth. In LSCC, its ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (19): 14309-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.m611505200. PMID 17329259. Pfleiderer G, Thöner M, ... "Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase a is a potential metastasis-associated marker of lung squamous cell carcinoma and promotes lung ... upregulation correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis, while its downregulation reduces tumor cell motility and ...
A potential source of spontaneous mutations". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (27): 25421-6. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 31191. Bibcode:2016NatSR... ... "The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase HERC2 modulates the activity of tumor protein p53 by regulating its oligomerization". The ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (22): 19410-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.205211. PMC 3103319. PMID 21493713. Harlalka GV, ...
In 1960 Maurice Hilleman of Merck Sharp & Dohme identified the SV40 virus, which was later shown to cause tumors in many ... based on the company's experience with large scale purification of biological materials. Chemist George B. Walden of Eli Lilly ... Retail sales of prescription drugs jumped 250 percent from $72 billion to $250 billion, while the average price of ... In the United States, increased regulation of vaccines and other biological drugs was spurred by tetanus outbreaks and deaths ...
In a xenograft model the mice showed inhibited tumor cell migration and suppressed tumor growth in a dose dependent manner when ... The spectrum of biological effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and MSM differ, but those of DMSO may be mediated, at least in ... MSM has been shown to improve immune function markers. RCT found that in blood samples taken after bouts of exhaustive exercise ... A small 2021 Randomized Controlled Trial on cardiometabolic markers found a possible relationship between a daily dose of 3 g ...
The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory School of Biological Sciences, formerly the Watson School of Biological Sciences, was founded ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... "jumping genes") in 1944; received Nobel Prize in 1983. Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey, conducted "Waring blender experiments ... or contributing in a major way to biological and biomedical research. Salk Institute for Biological Studies Whitehead Institute ...
Leydig cell tumors of the testis and pancreatic acinar cell tumors and dietary PFOA consumption. The C8 Science Panel ... Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DC (June 2006). "Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review ... April 2022). "Exposure to per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Markers of Liver Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta- ... Two mechanisms have been proposed by which PFOA could cause Leydig cell tumors. Both mechanisms start by proposing that PROA ...
Kodevirion Kodecyte FSL Constructs: A Simple Method for Modifying Cell/Virion Surfaces with a Range of Biological Markers ... They have also been used to modify the surface of viruses with the intention of targeting them to be used to attach tumors ( ... A Simple Method for Modifying Cell/Virion Surfaces with a Range of Biological Markers Without Affecting their Viability". ... Functional-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) Kode constructs can be synthesized to mimic the bioactive components present on biological ...
In these tumors, the INI1 gene (SMARCB1)on chromosome 22q functions as a classic tumor suppressor gene. Inactivation of INI1 ... Acquired UPD can serve as the 2nd hit in the Knudson Two Hit Hypothesis of Tumorigenesis, and thus can be the biological ... It contains 1.8 million polymorphic and non-polymorphic markers for a practical resolution of 10-20kb-about the size of a gene ... Deletions in tumor cells may represent the inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene, and may have diagnostic, prognostic, or ...
Serial tumour markers serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 assays in detecting symptomatic metastasis in ... International Journal of Biological Markers, 1989, 4:207-214.. *Sölétormos G et al. A novel method for monitoring high-risk ... Other useful markers (oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, CerB2 and P53 tumour markers) were included for comparison. ... Evaluation of CA M26, CA M29, CA 15-3 and CEA as circulating tumor markers in breast cancer patients. Tumour Biology, 1991, 12: ...
The expression of CA125 mRNA had negative correlation with the other markers and with tumor stage and therapy response ( ... our results indicated a better clinical significance of tumor-specific markers (CEA and HE4 mRNAs) compared to epithelial- ... CEA expression was correlated with tumor stage (r = 0.594, p = 0.000) before chemotherapy, whereas its expression after ... as putative markers of CTCs, in the blood of 51 EOC patients before and/or after adjuvant chemotherapy. Our results ...
Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, et al.: Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin ... Tumors among women in the hormone replacement therapy group were slightly larger and more advanced than tumors among women in ... Furthermore, the biological activity of various over-the-counter supplements has yet to be determined and is far from ... At 12 months, physiological markers such as endometrial thickness, estradiol, estrone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex ...
The relationship between FDG uptake in PET scans and biological behavior in breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 2007;14:260-268. ... tumor metabolism assessed by delayed 18F-FDG uptake was associated better with the marker of tumor proliferation (Ki67). ... whereas tumor metabolism appears to be more associated with markers of proliferation. Thus, determination of tumor blood flow ... Endoglin (CD105): a marker of tumor vasculature and potential target for therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1931-1937. ...
Organ specific tumor markers: What s new?. Vaidyanathan, K. and Vasudevan, D.M.. ... Our study also showed that larger-sized tumors had more overexpression of ErbB-2 compared with smaller-sized tumors, with T4 ... Tavarish FA, Devilee P. World Health Organization Classification of tumors. Pathology and Genetics. Tumors of breast and female ... Novel frame shift mutations ( A deletion) observed in exon 9 of Wilms tumor (WT1) gene in a patient reported with ...
These genes are part of a biological system to "fix" DNA errors--but they also play a critical role in suppressing HER2. When ... Tumor marker may help overcome endocrine treatment-resistant breast cancer Testing may identify patients who benefit from early ... Tumor marker may help overcome endocrine treatment-resistant breast cancer. Sanford Burnham Prebys ... May 19, 2021 - A study led by scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute has identified a tumor marker ...
Another useful tumor cell marker for differentiating between LCNEC and bronchial carcinoid is neuroectodermal stem cell marker ... 8. Biological landscape of lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs). LNETs occur from diffused localized neuroendocrine cells from ... lung tumors, pulmonary tumors, small cell tumors, large cell tumors. Initially 103 studies were identified; after ... Bronchial carcinoid tumors represent 10% of all carcinoid tumors and 4% of the total lung tumors (12). Large cell ...
Tumour marker measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews. 26(2), 91-102 ... Biological effects of fulvestrant on estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer: Short, medium and long-term effects based ... Bony metastases from breast cancer - a study of foetal antigen 2 as a blood tumour marker. World journal of surgical oncology. ... Pilot randomised study of early intervention based on tumour markers in the follow-up of patients with primary breast cancer. ...
Tumor Markers, Biological, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases, ... Tumor Markers, Biological, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases, ... Kuivanen T. Matrix metalloproteinases as biomarkers in premalignant and malignant tumors of the human skin. [Espoo]: [T. ... Kuivanen, T. (2008). Matrix metalloproteinases as biomarkers in premalignant and malignant tumors of the human skin. [T. ...
Tumor markers (TM) are different molecules (eg, carbohydrates, proteins, peptides) produced or induced by the tumor or by ... tissues in response to the presence of the tumor, and they can be detected and quantified in serum, biological fluids, and ... CA19.9, carbohydrate antigen 19.9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; PC, pancreatic cancer; TM, tumor marker. ... CA19.9, carbohydrate antigen 19.9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; PC, pancreatic cancer; TM, tumor marker. ...
Tumor Markers, Biological, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53",. author = "Sak Kudahetti and Gabrielle Fisher and Laurence Ambroisine ... Standard biological variables, including diagnostic serum PSA, contemporary Gleason scoring, clinical staging and cancer extent ... Standard biological variables, including diagnostic serum PSA, contemporary Gleason scoring, clinical staging and cancer extent ... Standard biological variables, including diagnostic serum PSA, contemporary Gleason scoring, clinical staging and cancer extent ...
One context specific miRNA regulation module can uncover one critical biological process and its involved miRNAs that are ... and thus such markers always lack discriminative capability in the other data sets. In this work, a new ensemble classifier, on ... For investigating the biological significance of those selected modules, case studies have been done by us and the results ... which results from the situation that markers selected by one method are very different from those obtained by anohter mothod, ...
Such a tumor alteration can be identified through biological markers, or biomarkers - and may be used to identify appropriate ... whose tumors have an abnormal mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) gene. Your healthcare provider will perform a test to ... The opportunity to identify an actionable rare mutation in one of my patients tumors is incredibly exciting because it opens ... More than half of people with NSCLC may have genetic alterations driving their tumor growth. Using comprehensive biomarker ...
Telomerase as a tumor marker in diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Prostate. 2014 Jul. 74(10 ... from morphological and biological characterization to chemoprevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun. 963:169-84. [QxMD MEDLINE ... The PSA and other tumor markers such as Exosome and Decipher do not assist when HGPIN or ASAP is present. ... Additional prognostic markers. Fusion of the TMPRSS2 and ERG gene fusions is the most common gene fusion seen in prostate ...
... and apoptotic markers (BCL-2 and BAK) in human EGE cells cocultured with SW872 cells. EGE cells were also evaluated in SW872- ... We observed an upregulation of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK-1, and BCL-2 and decrease in BAK (,svg style= ... Adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, play an important role in initiation of endometrial cancer. The aim of this ... Adipokines are specific biological factors secreted from the adipose tissue, including several proinflammatory markers such as ...
Markers of tumor formation, resulting from exposures to tumor promoters or cocarcinogens, are discussed. In-vivo and in-vitro ... Toxic-effects; Tumorigens; Physiology; Carcinogenicity; Physiological-measurements; Toxic-materials; Biological-effects; ... The distinction between tumor promotion and cocarcinogens is explained. Properties of initiators, promoters, and cocarcinogens ... Promising state of the art screening systems for identifying and assessing tumor promoters and cocarcinogens are described. ...
... marker explained as changes in composition of cells or fluids of body which.. ... Functional imaging advances provide an insight of metabolism and biological pathways occurring in tumor by studying blood flow ... Type 1 also known as biological activity marker. They respond to therapy. This marker activity is evaluated in relation to ... defined biological markers as cellular, biochemical or molecular alterations that are measurable in biological media such as ...
Tumor Markers, Biological. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. alpha-Macroglobulins. en_US. ... Alpha-2 macroglobulin--new tumour marker? Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 1987 Apr; 35(4): 257. en_US. ...
Moreover, our results are also enriched for tumor markers which are predictive of clinical features like tumor stage and we ... Recurrent Copy Number Alterations in BRCA1-Mutated Ovarian Tumors Alter Biological Pathways HUMAN MUTATION Leunen, K., Gevaert ... Accurate detection of benign and malignant renal tumor subtypes with MethylBoostER: An epigenetic marker-driven learning ... Tumor diameter changes as defined by immunotherapy Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (iRECIST) were studied to ...
A study published this week suggests that some anticancer treatments speed up the biological aging process, and this aging ... Carroll and colleagues concluded that these findings point to a significant association between biological markers of aging and ... and levels of the inflammatory marker soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNF-RII). Cognitive function was assessed ... Cognitive performance in survivors of breast cancer and markers of biological aging [published online November 26, 2018]. ...
Azodyes as markers for tumor hypoxia imaging and therapy: An up-to-date review. Kumari, R., Sunil, D., Ningthoujam, R. S. & ... Biological implications of the immune factors in the tumour microenvironment of oral cancer. Shetty, S. S., Padam, K. S. R., ... A., 01-07-2019, In: Chemico-Biological Interactions. 307, p. 91-104 14 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review ... Biological implications and therapeutic significance of DNA methylation regulated genes in cervical cancer. Bhat, S., Kabekkodu ...
Stability of phosphoprotein as a biological marker of tumor signaling. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11:4338-40. ... Therefore total tumour cell p-p65 may be employed as a possible prognostic marker, or predictive marker for therapies targeting ... and tumour recurrence (P=0.001). When associations with the tumour microenvironment were investigated, high total tumour cell ... In addition to the increased prognostic power observed for total tumour cell p-p65 compared to nuclear p-p65, total tumour cell ...
Biological bank from brain tumors and tools to study the main markers of these tumors. ... Biological bank and primary cells from varied species such as monkey, mouse, rat, but also dog or pig. ... A complete biological bank (tissue sections, DNA, RNA, proteins) from differents structures of fetal brain. ... Different brain cells such as neurons, astrocytes, oligendendrocytes ... well as specific media for these cells and biological ...
For example, tumour markers are useful tests when used in the appropriate clinical context, e.g. patients receiving cancer ... of biological variation and allowable medical errors. Clin Chim Acta 2003;333(2):169-76. ... Walker P, Crook M. Tumour marker requesting in primary care and the role of the laboratory. J Clin Pathol 2011;64(5):443-6. ... In a United Kingdom-based study, requests for tumour marker tests from General Practitioners were studied retrospectively over ...
Tumor Markers, Biological. M. van de Rijn, Perou, C. M., Tibshirani, R., Haas, P., Kallioniemi, O., Kononen, J., Torhorst, J., ...
Stromal and Epithelial Expression of Tumor Markers Hyaluronic Acid and HYAL1 Hyaluronidase in Prostate Cancer. Lokeshwar, V. B. ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276, 15, p. 11922-11932 11 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer- ... Stro-1/CD44 as putative human myometrial and fibroid stem cell markers. Mas, A., Nair, S., Laknaur, A., Simón, C., Diamond, M. ... Stress-induced worsening of left ventricular diastolic function as a marker of myocardial ischemia. Mansour, M. J., Aljaroudi, ...
Tumor Markers, Biological -- analysis. Note générale:. Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt. ... Predictive molecular markers in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer: state of the art in the year 2002.. ... Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte stratification of prognostic staging of early-stage triple negative breast cancer par Loi, ... Predictive molecular markers in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer: state of the art in the year 2002. ...
D23 - Biological Factors. Biological Markers. Biomarkers. Tumor Markers, Biological. Biomarkers, Tumor. D08 - Enzymes and ...
  • [ 6 ] One of the main causes of such a poor prognosis for PC is its detection at advanced stages, especially because of the lack of specific symptoms, the absence of sensitive and specific tumor biomarkers, and the difficulties in performing imaging studies in early stages. (
  • Such a tumor alteration can be identified through biological markers, or biomarkers - and may be used to identify appropriate treatment options. (
  • Biomarkers, Tumor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biomarkers, Tumor" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biomarkers, Tumor" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Biomarkers, Tumor" by people in Profiles. (
  • The project encompasses two overarching aims in relation to breast cancer and colorectal cancer: (1) identifying epigenetic biomarkers of exposure and cancer risk (EpiSIGNATURES), and (2) examining the impact of interventions on epigenetic markers associated with cancer risk (EpiTRIALS). (
  • Therefore, the detection of CTCs in the blood of patients with solid tumors may have valuable information with regard to an evident diagnostic and prognostic approach. (
  • Cancer cells in hypoxic areas of solid tumors are to a large extent protected against the action of radiation as well as many chemotherapeutic drugs. (
  • NMR-based metabolomic analysis correctly detected the presence of solid tumors in 19 out of 20 patients with cancer in the study. (
  • Development of most solid tumors is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells or tumor-associated fibroblasts. (
  • Collectively, our results indicated a better clinical significance of tumor-specific markers ( CEA and HE4 mRNAs) compared to epithelial-specific markers ( EPCAM and MUC1 mRNAs). (
  • PET/CT with 18 F-FDG is the gold standard for in vivo evaluation of tumor glucose metabolism and is widely used in clinical oncology. (
  • Standard biological variables, including diagnostic serum PSA, contemporary Gleason scoring, clinical staging and cancer extent were available. (
  • However, few of them has been applied in clinical practice because of the bad generalization, which results from the situation that markers selected by one method are very different from those obtained by anohter mothod, and thus such markers always lack discriminative capability in the other data sets. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: WHO grade is the main prognostic tool in CNS SFT/HPC, but it could be integrated by other markers, like CD34 and Bcl-2, in the clinical practice. (
  • In our current research efforts, we will be testing patient tumor/serum samples from SPORE and other clinical studies along with mouse models of cancer. (
  • The determination of tumor markers represents an integral part of clinical therapy concepts. (
  • New labeling/imaging methods for cancer diagnosing and imaging of hypoxic cancer tissue are now being tested in xenograft models and are also in early clinical testing, while new potential anti-cancer drugs are undergoing tests using xenografted tumor cancers. (
  • An important area of clinical Neuro-Oncology and Brain Tumour that is increasingly relevant as survivorship increases and as patients experience potential morbidities associated with new therapies. (
  • Childhood neuroblastic tumors are characterized by heterogeneous clinical courses, ranging from benign ganglioneuroma (GN) to highly lethal neuroblastoma (NB). (
  • Here we report that Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in multiple biological functions that has already acquired diagnostic relevance in specific clinical settings, is variably expressed in most differentiated and less aggressive neuroblastic tumors, such as GN and ganglioneuroblastoma, as well as in a subset of NB cases. (
  • Here, we review brain tumor MRE studies with particular attention to clinical applications. (
  • Thus, further rigorous studies are needed to determine specific clinical applications of MRE for surgical planning, disease monitoring and molecular stratification of brain tumors. (
  • By detecting these chemical markers in DNA circulating in blood, scientists can identify the source tissue of each DNA molecule and determine which cells in the body have recently died, which is tremendously important for clinical diagnosis of different diseases. (
  • This study takes advantage of the unique epidemiological study, coordinated by IARC, of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-incidence populations, which provides a large series of tumour, tumour-adjacent normal, and surrogate tissue samples with high-quality epidemiological and clinical data. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Recently, researchers have been considering as adverse prognostic factors in primary glioblastomas not only clinical indicators but also various cellular, genetic and immunological markers. (
  • CONCLUSION: Molecular-biological and immunological analyses support the hypothesis that glioblastoma multiforme is presented by a heterogeneous group of glial tumors with different clinical course and prognosis. (
  • The high expression levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40, and IL-6 indicate that the tumor can be categorized as mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme, which accounts for the rapid clinical course and lethal outcome of the condition. (
  • Radiology, Seoul National University Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their Tel. +82-2-2072-1862 tumor characteristics. (
  • And what we were trying to do was to not only confirm what we were finding on our clinical exam, but also study more in-depth what was going on in these patients, from a blood marker standpoint and from a cerebrospinal fluid standpoint. (
  • ABSTRACT The value of serum tumour markers in the prognosis of patients with breast cancer is controversial. (
  • CEA expression was correlated with tumor stage (r = 0.594, p = 0.000) before chemotherapy, whereas its expression after chemotherapy was correlated with serum levels of CA125 antigen (r = 0.658, p = 0.000). (
  • The expression of CA125 mRNA had negative correlation with the other markers and with tumor stage and therapy response (evaluated by the measurement of serum CA125 antigen). (
  • Tumor markers (TM) are different molecules (eg, carbohydrates, proteins, peptides) produced or induced by the tumor or by tissues in response to the presence of the tumor, and they can be detected and quantified in serum, biological fluids, and tissues. (
  • First, we will use mass spectrometry to characterize tumors/serum for protein profiles, and then we will develop corresponding antibodies/aptamers that will be linked to nanosensors for high sensitivity target cell surface antigens and potentially intracellular targets. (
  • Measurements of serum and CSF tumor markers are valuable components of the preoperative evaluation. (
  • Serum and transcription levels of TNF-α, CD44, YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined by molecular-biological and immunological analyses. (
  • Markers of oxidative stress (DNA damage, AOPP, LPx, TBARS, nitrothyrosine, total oxidant status), levels of paraoxonase with lactonase activity (PON-L) and cytokine IL-10 measured in plasma/serum or whole blood at baseline and 3 month after intervention, 4. (
  • About 20% of breast cancers are also HER2-positive at diagnosis, and these tumors tend to be more aggressive and fast-growing, as HER2 is a receptor that when active, promotes the rapid growth of breast cancer cells. (
  • The main purpose of this review, was the analysis of the available literature in all aspects while mainly focusing on molecular diagnosis data and secondly, by using this molecular landscape to establish a differentiation of lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs). (
  • Combined types of LNETs remain a controversial topic of discussion regarding diagnosis and treatment, a topic on which further studies are required in order to improve diagnosis in this group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy. (
  • They are biological marker explained as changes in composition of cells or fluids of body which are helpful to understand various chronic diseases in terms of screening, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic management and chances of recurrence. (
  • The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (
  • Diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion with combinations of multiple tumor markers: A comparison study of five machine learning models. (
  • Neither of these proteins has proved valuable in the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal cell tumors. (
  • Numerous keynote and scientific presentations as well as poster exhibition presented during this 2-day conference will highlight some of the exciting developments in the fields of Neuro-oncology, brain tumor, pediatric neurooncology and diagnosis process, cancer imaging technologies, and cancer treatment. (
  • Reported tumor and normal appearing white matter stiffness values were extracted and compared as a function of tumor histopathological diagnosis and MRE vibration frequencies. (
  • The diagnosis of the highly aggressive collecting duct carcinoma is based on six histological features: medullary location, infiltrative growth pattern, tubular architecture, desmoplastic stromal reaction, high-grade atypia, and that the tumor is neither an RCC nor a transitional cell carcinoma. (
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) being the most promising marker has potentially offered new methods to prognosticate and plays an essential role in early diagnosis and treatment apart from tumor, node and metastasis staging which has been used till now. (
  • At diagnosis half of the patients have a metastatic tumour and recurrence is very common. (
  • By triggering concentration-dependent state changes in the expression of transcription factors or induction of epigenetic processes, metabolites are able to influence cancer pathogenesis and therefore may play a critical role during tumor progression. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a major source of tumor progression and treatment resistance. (
  • High ALDH1A1 activity is closely related to stemness phenotype of several tumors, possibly contributing to cancer progression and diffusion in the body. (
  • Cancer is highly dynamic as tumor cells become more heterogeneous during the progression of the disease. (
  • By observing shared transcriptomic and epigenetic changes across a large and diverse set of tumors, this analysis identifies those shared signals that are likely to be important for both the onset and progression of cancer cells. (
  • Houlka BS (1990) defined biological markers as 'cellular, biochemical or molecular alterations that are measurable in biological media such as human tissues, cells or fluids. (
  • High total p-p65 was associated with increase grade tumour grade (P=0.010), ER positivity (P=0.023), molecular subtype (P=0.005), lower Klintrup-Makinen grade (P=0.013) and decreased CD138 count (P=0.032). (
  • DI-fusion Predictive molecular markers in the adjuvant therapy of. (
  • Predictive molecular markers in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer: state of the art in the year 2002. (
  • Molecular subtypes were classified using the above surrogate markers. (
  • In addition to their histologic characteristics, germ cell tumors retain molecular characteristics of their primordial lineage. (
  • There are, however, two different aspects of the problem caused by tumor hypoxia when cancer therapy is concerned: One is due to the chemical reactions that molecular oxygen enters into therapeutically targeted cells. (
  • There are new opportunities to using data from molecular and cellular studies in order to bring together a fuller biological understanding of how chemicals induce neoplasia. (
  • The goal of this project is to understand the underlying molecular causes of cancers in children and adolescents by investigating epigenetic changes driven by risk factors and identifying epigenetic markers for cancer risk stratification and early detection. (
  • The goal of this project is to understand the underlying biological causes of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-incidence regions by investigating epigenetic (DNA methylation) aberrations driven by risk factors and identifying molecular markers for risk stratification and early detection. (
  • In 2016, the World Health Organization released an updated classification of renal cell tumors that expanded the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on tumor histology, chromosomal alterations, and molecular pathways. (
  • They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. (
  • We conclude that gastrin precursors may provide a target for therapies directed against the cells responsible for tumour development and recurrence. (
  • Patients may also receive systemic chemotherapy depending on severity and recurrence of the tumors. (
  • Not recommended for stage TaG1 papillary tumors, unless diagnosed as high risk of tumor recurrence. (
  • The patients were evaluated for indicators of biological aging, including elevated levels of DNA damage, reduced telomerase enzymatic activity, shorter telomere length in blood cells, and levels of the inflammatory marker soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNF-RII). (
  • In the present study, we investigated the interaction of adipokine-secreting human adipocytes (SW872) with human endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EGE) to better understand the possible biological interplay of obesity and endometrial cancer. (
  • CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell Kit (Epithelial). (
  • The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood of a patient, as found in most forms of epithelial cancer 1 - 5 , has been identified as a reliable indicator of the prognosis of various cancer types. (
  • The hypothesized existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) and its markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in oral dysplastic tissues provides the potential for a more reliable assessment of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). (
  • Markers have been most helpful in the workup of patients with germ cell tumors. (
  • Other biological markers for germ cell tumors include lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and placental alkaline phosphatase, although these are less specific. (
  • AFP is a glycoprotein produced by fetal yolk sac elements and by a wide range of cancers , including gastric , liver, and colon adenocarcinoma , as well as extracranial germ cell tumors. (
  • Non-germ cell tumors can derive from pineal parenchymal cells, as well as from surrounding tissue. (
  • Reports increased during 2004-2008, especially for patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. (
  • We report 2 new cases of leishmaniasis involving patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases who received anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. (
  • After an X-ray revealed a large mass in my right lung, I had further testing that confirmed I had stage 4 metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, due to the size of the tumor (15 centimeters) and having spread to the lymph nodes, as well as a few nodules in the pleura. (
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) count using the CellSearch system (Janssen Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ, USA) has been proved to have good prognostic value for metastatic breast cancer (Bidard et al. (
  • EZH2 expression was examined in 44 hepatocellular carcinomas, 23 cholangiocarcinomas, 31 hepatoblastomas, 16 other childhood tumor types (rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor and rhabdoid tumor), 17 metastatic liver tumors 24 hepatocellular adenomas, 15 high grade dysplastic nodules, 3 biliary cystadenomas, 3 biliary hamartomas and 3 Caroli's diseases. (
  • Studies that investigated MRE in patients with intracranial tumors, both malignant and benign as well as primary and metastatic, were queried from the Pubmed/Medline database in August 2018. (
  • The literature search yielded 10 studies with a total of 184 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients. (
  • To evaluate the diagnostic value of this protein in hepatic tumors we have investigated the presence of EZH2 by immunohistochemistry in hepatocellular carcinomas and other common hepatic tumors. (
  • Hanash and colleagues found that a four-marker protein panel (4MP) - consisting of the precursor form of surfactant protein B (pro-SFTPB), cancer antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin-19 fragment - can potentially identify individuals at risk for lung cancer. (
  • Until now, no single protein marker has been able to unequivocally identify the CSCs. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSC) targeting was studied by mRNA and protein expression of CSC markers, by limiting dilution assay, and by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent evaluation of CSC mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress. (
  • Therefore, tumor dissemination and metastasis is the major cause of ovarian cancer-related deaths. (
  • Survival analysis on a sub-set of patients for whom survival data were available ( n = 179) revealed that ErbB-2 status (χ 2 =25.94, P ≤ 0.001), lymphnode status (χ 2 = 12.68, P ≤ 0.001), distant metastasis (χ 2 = 19.49, P ≤ 0.001) and stage of the disease (χ 2 = 28.04, P ≤0.001) were markers of poor prognosis. (
  • For investigating the biological significance of those selected modules, case studies have been done by us and the results suggested that our method do help to reveal latent mechanism in metastasis of breast cancer. (
  • One context specific miRNA regulation module can uncover one critical biological process and its involved miRNAs that are related to the cancer outcome, and several modules together can help to study the biological mechanism in cancer metastasis, thus the classifer based on ensembling multiple classifers which were built with different context specific miRNA regulation modules has showed promising performances in terms with both prediction accuracy and generalization. (
  • A significant association was observed between TS of EGFR expression and tumor grade but not with tumor stage or lymph node metastasis. (
  • Although a refined prognostic evaluation and risk stratification of each tumor patient is becoming increasingly essential to personalize treatment options, currently only few biomolecular markers (essentially MYCN amplification, chromosome 11q status and DNA ploidy) are validated for this purpose in neuroblastic tumors. (
  • Biological bank from brain tumors and tools to study the main markers of these tumors. (
  • Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. (
  • Although the type of tumor cannot be determined reliably from radiographic characteristics alone, some patterns are associated with specific tumors. (
  • The relationship between members of the canonical NF-κB pathway, components of tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast. (
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between tumour NF-κB activation, tumour microenvironment including local inflammatory response (LIR) and cancer-specific survival in patients with operable ductal breast cancer. (
  • The treatment efficacy could be curtailed by drug resistance resulting from poordrug penetration into tumor tissue and the tumor-specific microenvironment, such ashypoxia and acidosis. (
  • However, pH alteration in the tumor microenvironment affectedthe distribution of proliferation- and apoptosis-specific markers in the perifosine-treatedspheroid. (
  • Our innovative approach for accurate determination of drug efficiency in 3Dtumor tissue revealed that cytotoxicity of Akt inhibitors to CRC cells is strongly dependenton pH of the tumor microenvironment. (
  • and a protective microenvironment created by interaction with the tumor niche [ 5 , 6 ] . (
  • This results in a direct chemical protection against therapy by the hypoxic microenvironment, which has little to do with cellular biological regulatory processes. (
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can have multiple localizations in the human body however, most often, it appears in the in thorax at tracheobronchial tree and the thymus. (
  • Lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs) are a group of rare tumors with heterogenous malignancy originating in amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) neuroendocrine cells from Kulchitsky cells (argentaffin cells) ( 1 ). (
  • The neuroendocrine cells from which neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) derive are located in numerous places in the human body ( 8 ). (
  • [ 1 , 2 ] Most PCs are adenocarcinomas, although low prevalent neoplasia has also been described, such as neuroendocrine tumors (producing insulin or glucagon) or acinar carcinomas (producing digestive enzymes). (
  • In this study, using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the expression of EPCAM , MUC1 , CEA , HE4 and CA125 mRNAs, as putative markers of CTCs, in the blood of 51 EOC patients before and/or after adjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • HE4 mRNA showed the highest sensitivity both before and after chemotherapy (82.98% and 85.19%, respectively) and the persistence of this marker after chemotherapy was associated with advanced disease stage. (
  • Building on the knowledge that certain cancer treatments, such as radiation and many chemotherapy agents, work by damaging the DNA of cancer cells while collateral damage to the DNA of normal, healthy cells, a study published this week in Cancer, the journal of the American Cancer Society, suggests that some treatments speed up the biological aging process. (
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be considered for select patients with UTUC (eg, higher stage, grade tumor). (
  • High tumor expression of STMN1 was significantly associated with the presence of metastases (P=0.028), Enneking surgical stage (P=0.030), tumor response to chemotherapy (P=0.011), and the site of tumor origin (P=0.023). (
  • High tumor expression of STMN1 was a prognostic marker in patients with osteosarcoma for poor prognosis (P=0.016), poor response to chemotherapy (P=0.004), the presence of metastases (P=0.003), advanced Enneking surgical stage (P=0.014), and the chondroblastic osteosarcoma subtype (P=0.004). (
  • The aim of this study is to assess baseline mean leukocyte telomere length (TL) as a potential predictive factor for chemotherapy toxicity and a prognostic marker for long-term outcome in early breast cancer (BC) patients. (
  • There is increasing evidence that, in addition to their presence, the propensity of circulating tumour cells to form multi-cellular clusters bears significant information about both cellular resistance to chemotherapy and overall prognosis. (
  • Cai Y, Lu X, Zhu X, Ju H, Sun W, Wu W. Histological tumor response assessment in colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: impact of the variation in tumor regression grading and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the variation in tumor regression grade (TRG) and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). (
  • Additionally, a 5-point histological tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system according to the extent of intralesional residual tumor cells and fibrosis was established to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy in colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) [ 7 ]. (
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between tumor blood flow and glucose metabolism as evaluated by dynamic first-pass 18 F-FDG PET and by proliferation and endothelial pathologic markers in the setting of newly diagnosed breast cancer. (
  • A static acquisition was performed 90 min after injection for quantification of delayed 18 F-FDG tumor uptake (standardized uptake value maximal index [SUV max ]), reflecting tumor metabolism. (
  • Tumor blood flow quantified by dynamic first-pass 18 F-FDG PET/CT is significantly associated with tumor angiogenesis as evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the setting of breast cancer, whereas tumor metabolism appears to be more associated with markers of proliferation. (
  • Thus, determination of tumor blood flow and metabolism with a single injection of 18 F-FDG could be an exciting alternative to more complex and less available techniques. (
  • Because of the Warburg effect ( 1 ), breast tumors are typically associated with an increase in tumor blood flow due to angiogenesis and an increase in glucose metabolism, but glucose metabolism and blood flow are often mismatched in breast cancer ( 2 ). (
  • Modified nucleosides, which are degradation products of the cellular RNA metabolism, are suggested to be important as possible tumor markers. (
  • Accurate detection of benign and malignant renal tumor subtypes with MethylBoostER: An epigenetic marker-driven learning framework. (
  • This project builds on EGM's recent advances in identifying epigenetic markers of early-life factors and deciphering their precursor roles in childhood cancer and its predisposing (intermediate) phenotypes at critical ages of development, exploiting EGM's large, unique, and complementary networks of prospective and retrospective consortia (Figure 5). (
  • Another focus in this area is aimed at identifying epigenetic markers of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, focusing on high-incidence populations of the world (EpiESCC). (
  • 2019). Epigenetic clocks accurately estimate both chronological and biological age from methylation levels. (
  • Manel Esteller [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, (CNIO), Madrid,Spain] exemplified the scope of epigenetic influence by highlighting the biological variation that is observed between monozygotic twins and cloned animals. (
  • To figure out whether the effects of age could be reversed, they measured biological age using epigenetic clocks on several tissues. (
  • The epigenetic clocks revealed a reduced biological age for several organs in long-term treated genetically modified mice. (
  • This prospective study in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran, assessed the value of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 in 159 patients with primary breast cancer. (
  • Given the lack of specific symptoms and the paucity of satisfactory tests for the screening of ovarian cancer, about 70% of the patients are diagnosed at late stages when the tumor has metastasized to the peritoneal cavity and distant organs. (
  • It has also been reported that when the tumor is still in an early stage, and is confined to the ovaries, less than 10% of the patients will die of the disease 2 , 3 . (
  • LA JOLLA, CALIF. - May 19, 2021 - A study led by scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute has identified a tumor marker that may be used to predict which breast cancer patients will experience resistance to endocrine therapy. (
  • We know there is a subset of patients who are initially diagnosed with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast tumors, but their tumors convert to HER2-positive after they receive endocrine therapy," says Svasti Haricharan, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Aging, Cancer and Immuno-oncology Program at Sanford Burnham Prebys and senior author of the study. (
  • While the ErbB2 overexpression was significantly higher in patients with lymphnode (χ 2 = 12.06, P ≤ 0.001), larger tumor size (χ 2 = 8.22, P = 0.042) and ductal carcinoma (χ 2 = 15.42, P ≤ 0.001), it was lower in patients with disease-free survival (χ 2 = 22.13, P ≤ 0.001). (
  • Efficient management of these tumors is essential in the handling of symptoms and increase in life expectancy, especially in patients with functional tumors. (
  • Many calssifiers which are constructed with chosen gene markers have been proposed to forecast the prognosis of patients who suffer from breast cancer. (
  • A study published this week suggests that some anticancer treatments speed up the biological aging process, and this aging effect could be linked to the cognitive decline experienced by patients undergoing cancer treatment. (
  • Outcome can vary significantly among patients, thus reliable prognostic markers are warranted. (
  • A review of all published cases is provided, leading to the observation that trichomegaly also developed in patients whose tumors had a positive response to anti-EGFR therapy. (
  • After receiving neoadjuvant therapy, some patients achieve pathologic complete response (pCR), at which point, core needle biopsy (CNB) tissue is the only specimen for obtaining information about prognostic markers that could impact therapeutic plans. (
  • Although some patients still have tumor burden after neoadjuvant therapy, CNB might be the only specimen available in which to evaluate histological markers because neoadjuvant therapy can alter histological grade, expression of hormonal receptors, HER2 status, and Ki67. (
  • The cases data enrolled in this study were from primary or recurrent tumor patients who visited our hospital from August 2015 to March 2018. (
  • All patients who underwent CTCs examination during this period were analyzed in this retrospective study, including patients with NPC or other tumor types. (
  • Relapse-free survival was longer among patients with FMO5 -overexpressing tumors or NAT1 -overexpressing tumors ( P = 0.0066 and P = 0.000052, respectively), but only NAT1 status retained prognostic significance in Cox multivariate regression analysis ( P = 0.0013). (
  • The presence of ERα in breast tumors is used as a biological marker to identify patients who may respond to endocrine agents such as tamoxifen. (
  • However, one-half of the patients with ERα-positive tumors fail to respond favorably to antiestrogen treatment [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Although some studies suggest a less favorable prognosis for patients with germinomas secreting beta-HCG, no established prognostic significance has been established for tumor markers. (
  • The expression of STMN1 in tumor tissue from 94 patients with OS was detected and evaluated using an immunohistochemical score to divide the patients into low expression and high expression groups. (
  • Increased expression of STMN1 in tumor tissue was an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with osteosarcoma. (
  • from April 2008) after acquisition of a TP53 mutation or loss of 1p/19q, suggesting that IDH1 We assessed IDH1 mutations in brain mutations are very early events in tumors diagnosed in patients from 3 gliomagenesis and may affect a common families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (
  • Thus, a panel of putative CSC markers will help in identifying the patients with high risk for malignant transformation in OED. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is significantly widespread in patients with triple-negative tumors. (
  • Continuing with analysis of TCGA samples, I then analyze a large pan-cancer set of patients with both tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples profiled. (
  • 4. Patients with vestibular schwannoma hearing impairment beyond age-related sensor neurological disorder, more serious neurological or internal disease (tumour, stroke, vascular stenosis, Meniere's disorder, etc. (
  • 7. Patients who are unable/unwilling to provide samples of biological material as needed. (
  • To evaluate the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). (
  • Correlation between STMN1 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed with Fisher's test, the prognostic value of expression levels of STMN1 in tumor tissue was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis, and independent prognostic factors were identified using the Cox regression model. (
  • NETs are a group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy that evolve from neuroendocrine cells, with the lung being the second target organ after the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Based on these results EZH2 is a sensitive marker of malignancy in hepatic tumors. (
  • Irregular tumor borders can be suggestive of tumor invasiveness and associated histologic malignancy. (
  • We therefore developed MethylBoostER, a machine learning model leveraging DNA methylation data from 1228 tissue samples, to classify pathological subtypes of renal tumors (benign oncocytoma, clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCC) and normal kidney. (
  • A complete biological bank (tissue sections, DNA, RNA, proteins) from differents structures of fetal brain. (
  • Among the 20 remaining genes, seven genes ( CYP2A6 , CYP2B6 , FMO5 , NAT1 , SULT2B1 , GSTM3 and ABCC11 ) showed significantly higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in normal breast tissue, or showed higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in ERα-negative breast tumors. (
  • In the 97 ERα-positive breast tumor series, most alterations of these seven genes corresponded to upregulations as compared with normal breast tissue, with an incidence ranging from 25% ( CYP2A6 ) to 79% ( NAT1 ). (
  • One of the Achilles' heels of hypoxia research has always been the exact measurements of tissue oxygenation as well as the control of oxygenation in biological tumor models. (
  • MR elastography allows non-invasive quantification of the shear modulus of tissue, i.e. tissue stiffness and viscosity, information that offers the potential to guide presurgical planning for brain tumor resection. (
  • The bioink should not only provide structural, physical, and mechanical support to the embedded cells, but also supply them with the essential biological and chemical cues for cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation required for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. (
  • We measured cell proliferation and expression of cell-growth proteins-proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase-1, and apoptotic markers (BCL-2 and BAK) in human EGE cells cocultured with SW872 cells. (
  • Thus, they help to identify the hepatocytic origin of a tumor but do not reflect whether it is benign or malignant. (
  • [ 47 ] Tumor markers such as CA-125 are not good discriminators of benign lesions from malignant lesions in premenopausal women but have better accuracy in postmenopausal women. (
  • Papillary renal cell carcinomas are histologically and cytogenetically defined by two main subtypes, type 1 and type 2, but they represent a heterogeneous disease that includes both indolent and agressive tumors. (
  • Cases were appropriately staged, and paraffin-embedded tumor sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were graded. (
  • CD34 is a panendothelial marker that accurately reflects the degree of vascularization, whereas CD105 is a proliferation-related endothelial marker ( 11 ). (
  • Neoadjuvant therapy is important in advanced breast cancer as it can reduce tumor size, facilitating breast conserving surgery, and decrease distant micrometastasis. (
  • It is indicated for prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and/or T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection (TUR). (
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that are shed from the tumors to the circulation. (
  • These include sensitivity arising from homogeneity of the cells, rapidity, ease of quantification, economy, ability to study the response of human tissues, and the capability of studying biological events under controlled conditions with fewer variables than with in-vivo testing. (
  • Biological bank and primary cells from varied species such as monkey, mouse, rat, but also dog or pig. (
  • well as specific media for these cells and biological from these cell types. (
  • In this study, we investigated the role of external pH in controlof cytotoxicity of perifosine, the Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, to CRC cells using 2D and3D tumor models. (
  • Accurate co-registration of perifosine distribution and biological response in thesame spheroid section revealed dynamic changes in apoptotic and proliferative markersoccurring not only in the perifosine-exposed cells, but also in the perifosine-free regions.Cytotoxicity of perifosine to both 2D and 3D cultures decreased in an acidic environmentbelow pH 6.7. (
  • Expression of gastrin precursors by CD133-positive colorectal cancer cells is crucial for tumour growth. (
  • The surface glycoproteins CD133 and CD44 have been identified as possible markers for CRC stem cells. (
  • Moreover, downregulation of the gastrin gene in DLD-1 cells reduced the expression of cancer stem cell markers and abolished tumour development in SCID mice. (
  • Appropriate regulation of respective gene expressions is a bottleneck for the realization of artificial biological systems inside living cells. (
  • If its morphological characteristics are consistent with those of tumor cells, and the immune typing is shown as EpCAM+, CK+, DAPI+, and CD45-, it will be classified as tumor cells. (
  • We have documented the contribution of ALDH1A1 in tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer cells by the activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. (
  • Here, we analyze the involvement of ALDH1A1 in the acquisition of stemness phenotype in tumor cells, the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and metastases, and the acquisition of anticancer drug resistance and immune evasion. (
  • Tumor cells in the neoplastic mass, characterized by enhanced capacity of self-renewal and elevated ability to seed new tumors upon injection into new hosts, are termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • Effects of Selected Anti-Tumor-Promoting Chemicals on Metabolic Cooperation between Chinese Hamster V79 Cells. (
  • More than half of people with NSCLC may have genetic alterations driving their tumor growth. (
  • Using comprehensive biomarker testing is important to identify these genetic mutations or other markers that may help doctors make decisions about appropriate treatment plans. (
  • Microsatellites were evaluated as genetic markers for the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of Phytophthora cinnamomi for population studies. (
  • They are evenly distributed in the genome, so they are widely used in genetic cross breeding and mapping markers of chromosome genetic map. (
  • Unlike conventional blood-based tests for cancer, which look for genetic material from tumors, the NMR-based technique uses magnetic field and radio waves to analyze levels of metabolites in the blood. (
  • Arrigoni et al described atypical carcinoids (AC) as a histological presentation of bronchial carcinoid tumors ( 6 ). (
  • Although occurrence of the acneiform skin rash is clearly associated with favorable tumor responses and improvement in patient survival during the use of EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, the significance of trichomegaly is less clear. (
  • This is consistent with the hypothesis that canonical IKKβ-NF-κB signalling drives tumour survival. (
  • The aim of the present article was to report a case of primary glioblastoma multiforme with poor survival in a patient after surgical intervention, and to determine the unfavorable prognostic markers. (
  • I find that among HNSCC tumors TP53 mutation is frequently accompanied by loss of chromosome 3p and that the combination of these events is associated with a surprising decrease in survival time. (
  • The work is novel by identifying key factors in biological aging and connecting them to cognitive function, which initiates new avenues of research. (
  • related chemical compounds, physical agents (such as radiation) and biological factors (such as viruses). (
  • The main prognostic factors in chromophobe RCC are tumor stage, the presence of necrosis, a sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid component, and small vessel invasion. (
  • BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a rare neoplasm and its classification criteria have been redefined by the latest WHO Classification of CNS Tumours. (
  • The terms 'neoplasm' and 'tumour' are used interchangeably. (
  • In the setting of breast cancer, 18 F-FDG uptake has also been found to correlate with markers of proliferation, such as Ki67 ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • The first description of carcinoid tumors belongs to Siegfried Oberndorfer who considered these tumors to have a slow growth, being cancer-like tumors ( 2 ). (
  • Adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, play an important role in initiation of endometrial cancer. (
  • Cognitive performance in survivors of breast cancer and markers of biological aging [published online November 26, 2018]. (
  • The long noncoding RNA H19 regulates tumor plasticity in neuroendocrine prostate cancer. (
  • Immunotherapy, one of the most promising treatments for cancer, can cost up to $100,000 per patient - and choosing the wrong course of treatment can actually expand, rather than shrink, a tumor. (
  • Unfortunately, the established markers of breast cancer (e.g. (
  • According to market study, Market Value for Neuro Oncology (i.e. on Brain Cancer and CNS Tumors) will be more than double to $ 623 Million by 2021. (
  • More than 2,500 tumour genomes of 36 types of cancer were analysed and the team found DNA mutations pointing to one of the two known mechanisms to lengthen telomeres in 13 of the cases . (
  • Nearly 80% of breast tumors are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of a large panel of genes coding for the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (12 phase I enzymes, 12 phase II enzymes and three members of the ABC transporter family) in a small series of normal breast (and liver) tissues, and in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-negative and ERα-positive breast tumors. (
  • The third rapidly expanding group provides predictive information if the potential target molecule of the therapy is present on the examined tumor sample e.g. hormone receptors, Her-2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (
  • Indeed, following the development of ever improving bioinformatic tools, there was a greatly increase in the arsenal of in silico methodologies, which have already resulted in significantly improved prediction and elucidation of the dynamics surrounding complex biological phenomena [20,21]. (
  • The expression of CSC markers in OED and normal mucosa differs significantly with co-expression of all four markers located only in dysplastic tissues. (
  • In 3D settings, we employed an innovative strategy for simultaneousdetection of spatial drug distribution and biological markers of proliferation/apoptosisusing a combination of mass spectrometry imaging and immunohistochemistry. (
  • Tumour grade along with immunohistochemistry for Ki67, STAT6, PHH3, CD34 and Bcl-2 were assessed. (
  • Identification and assessment of tumor-oromoting and cocarcinogenic agents: state-of-the-art in vitro methods. (
  • In-vitro methods used for identifying and assessing tumor promoting and cocarcinogenic agents are reviewed. (
  • Rapid blood and lymphatic spread and breast tumor emboli are the main features ofIBC 4 . (
  • Pathologists are often faced with similar problem with specimens derived from hepatic tumors or tumor like lesions. (
  • The consequences of target modulation are then assessed by examining cellular signalling and biological endpoints in multiple tumour cell lines. (
  • More recently, the propensity of CTCs to occur in multi-cellular clusters (sometimes referred to as circulating tumour microemboli or CTM) has been observed by a number of groups using a number of technologies. (
  • Mice are treated for short and repeated intervals to avoid tumors and loss of cellular identity, resulting in partial reprogramming. (
  • Biopsy samples of each tumor were used to assess the Ki67 index of proliferation and immunostaining for CD34 (a panendothelial cell marker) and CD105 (a proliferation-related endothelial cell marker). (
  • L'ACE et le CA19-9 ont une bonne sensibilité et une spécificité relative qui leur permettent de suivre l'évolution des cancers digestifs en particulier les cancers colorectaux. (
  • As more with the interaction of an agent with a cell, through data become available on precursor events, and as physiological and tissuerorgan changes, resulting in our understanding improves about how chemicals tumour development. (
  • The idea is to predict ahead of time biological markers in the treatment of tumors," Prof. Ciechanover said. (
  • The discovery of an association between the occurrence of a specific skin findings and the development of objective responses to tumors has encouraged the search for markers that would predict the tumor response during EGFR blockade treatment. (
  • The National Institutes of Health in 1998, defined biomarker as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention [ 1 ]. (
  • For example, although women with ER-negative or HER2-negative tumors do not respond Ultrasound in Medicine (KSUM) to endocrine or HER2-targeted therapy, respectively, women with ER-positive or HER2-positive tumors tend to show varying responses to each targeted treatment [1]. (
  • They are also found to be more aggressive tumors compared with those that are negative. (
  • It is my privilege and sincere honor to have this opportunity to welcome our esteemed speakers and delegates from all around the world to the "7th Edition of International conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor ( Neuro Oncology 2021 ) . (
  • We are happy to welcome you to the official website of 7th International Conference on Neuro-Oncology and Brain Tumor ( Neuro Oncology 2021 ) webinar during May 24-25, 2021 with the theme of ' Neuro Oncology and Treating Brain Tumour challenges with COVID-19 pandemic ' which covers wide range of critically important sessions. (
  • The group mean tumor stiffness, as measured with MRE, correlated with intra-operatively assessed stiffness of meningiomas and pituitary adenomas. (
  • When adjusting for the same patient normal appearing white matter shear modulus values, meningiomas were the stiffest tumor-type. (
  • Immunohistochemical staining measurement of angiogenesis with antibodies to CD34 and CD105 can be used to evaluate tumor vascularization ( 10 ). (