Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Serological tumor marker composed of a molecular complex of cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. It is used in the diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (1/20529)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

Expression of tissue factor in non-small-cell lung cancers and its relationship to metastasis. (2/20529)

Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of the extrinsic cascade of blood coagulation. Although recent studies have revealed a relationship between metastatic properties and TF expression in some neoplastic cells, the significance of TF in lung cancer, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is still unclear. In this study, TF was detected in NSCLC cell lines by functional study, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. TF levels in eight NSCLC cell lines were also quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TF expression was evaluated in 55 specimens of surgically resected NSCLCs. NSCLC cell lines derived from metastatic lesions produced high levels of TF (48.3+/-23.5 ng 10(-6) cells, mean +/- s.e.m.), whereas those derived from primary lesions produced low levels of TF (0.2+/-0.1 ng 10(-6) cells). Immunohistochemical studies disclosed significantly stronger staining for TF in cells from NSCLC patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. Among the 28 patients with metastasis, ten were strongly positive, 16 were moderately positive and two were negative for TF. In contrast, among the 27 patients without metastasis, only two were strongly positive, 18 were moderately positive and seven were negative for TF. Therefore, malignant cells from patients with lung cancer produce various levels of TF, and TF may play an important role in the metastatic process.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), malignancy grade and clonality in microdissected prostate cancer. (3/20529)

The aim of the present study was to find out whether increasing malignancy of prostate carcinoma correlates with an overall increase of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whether LOH typing of microdissected tumour areas can help to distinguish between multifocal or clonal tumour development. In 47 carcinomas analysed at 25 chromosomal loci, the overall LOH rate was found to be significantly lower in grade 1 areas (2.2%) compared with grade 2 (9.4%) and grade 3 areas (8.3%, P = 0.007). A similar tendency was found for the mean fractional allele loss (FAL, 0.043 for grade 1, 0.2 for grade 2 and 0.23 for grade 3, P = 0.0004). Of 20 tumours (65%) with LOH in several microdissected areas, 13 had identical losses at 1-4 loci within two or three areas, suggesting clonal development of these areas. Markers near RB, DCC, BBC1, TP53 and at D13S325 (13q21-22) showed higher loss rates in grades 2 and 3 (between 25% and 44.4%) compared with grade 1 (0-6.6%). Tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs) near these loci might, thus, be important for tumour progression. TP53 mutations were detected in 27%, but BBC1 mutations in only 7%, of samples with LOH. Evaluation of all 25 loci in every tumour made evident that each prostate cancer has its own pattern of allelic losses.  (+info)

Syndecan-1 expression has prognostic significance in head and neck carcinoma. (4/20529)

The syndecans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans that regulate cell behaviour by binding extracellular matrix molecules such as growth factors. The syndecan family has four members, of which syndecan-1 is the most studied and best characterized. We have studied the prognostic significance of syndecan-1 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken from 175 patients with primary SCC, followed up from 2 to 15 years after surgery, were studied for expression of syndecan-1 by immunohistochemistry. A low number (< or =50%, the median value) of syndecan-1-positive tumour cells was associated with low histological grade of differentiation (P<0.0001), a large primary tumour size (T1-2 vs. T3-4, P = 0.02), positive nodal status (NO vs. N1-3, P = 0.0006), and high clinical stage (stage I or II vs. III or IV, P<0.0001). Low syndecan-1 expression was also associated with unfavourable overall survival in a univariate analysis (P = 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, the clinical stage and syndecan-1 expression were the only independent prognostic factors. We conclude that syndecan-1 is a novel prognostic factor in SCC of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy.  (+info)

Expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with oesophageal cancer. (5/20529)

To clarify the significance of the expression of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PyNPase) mRNA as a predictive factor for the prognosis of patients with oesophageal carcinoma, the PyNPase mRNA in the tumours and normal tissues from 55 resected cases of oesophageal carcinoma was examined by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR and that of the enzyme activity of PyNPase based on the findings of an enzyme linked immunosolvent assay (r = 0.594, P = 0.009). The T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was significantly higher in the cases with lymph vessel invasion (P = 0.013), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0016), and an advanced stage of the disease (P = 0.021) than those without these factors. The patients with a higher T/N ratio of PyNPase mRNA showed significantly worse prognosis than those with a lower T/N ratio (P = 0.023 with log-rank tests). A multivariate analysis for the cumulative survival rates revealed that a high T/N ratio of the expression of PyNPase mRNA was independently related to a poor prognosis. These findings suggested that the determination of PyNPase mRNA by RT-PCR thus appears to be a new useful parameter for identifying both a poor prognosis and a highly malignant potential of oesophageal carcinoma.  (+info)

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (6/20529)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Clinical significance of circulating anti-p53 antibodies in European patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (7/20529)

p53 alterations are considered to be predictive of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may induce a humoral response. Anti-p53 serum antibodies were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified recombinant human p53 on 130 European HCC patients before treatment and during the clinical course of the disease. p53 immunohistochemistry was performed on tumours from the 52 patients who underwent surgery, and DNA sequencing analysis was initiated when circulating anti-p53 antibodies were detected. Nine (7%) HCC patients had anti-p53 serum antibodies before treatment. During a mean period of 30 months of follow-up, all the negative patients remained negative, even when recurrence was observed. Of the nine positive patients, eight were still positive 12-30 months after surgery. The presence of anti-p53 serum antibodies was correlated neither with mutation of the p53 gene nor the serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumours. However, a greater incidence of vascular invasion and accumulation of p53 protein were observed in the tumours of these patients (P<0.03 and P<0.01 respectively) as well as a better survival rate without recurrence (P = 0.05). In conclusion, as was recently shown in pancreatic cancer, anti-p53 serum antibodies may constitute a marker of relative 'good prognosis' in a subgroup of patients exhibiting one or several markers traditionally thought to be of bad prognosis.  (+info)

Angiosarcomas express mixed endothelial phenotypes of blood and lymphatic capillaries: podoplanin as a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. (8/20529)

Angiosarcomas apparently derive from blood vessel endothelial cells; however, occasionally their histological features suggest mixed origin from blood and lymphatic endothelia. In the absence of specific positive markers for lymphatic endothelia the precise distinction between these components has not been possible. Here we provide evidence by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry that podoplanin, a approximately 38-kd membrane glycoprotein of podocytes, is specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, but not in the blood vasculature. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin colocalized with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, the only other lymphatic marker presently available. Complementary immunostaining of blood vessels was obtained with established endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, and Ulex europaeus I lectin) as well as podocalyxin, another podocytic protein that is also localized in endothelia of blood vessels. Podoplanin specifically immunolabeled endothelia of benign tumorous lesions of undisputed lymphatic origin (lymphangiomas, hygromas) and was detected there as a 38-kd protein by immunoblotting. As paradigms of malignant vascular tumors, poorly differentiated (G3) common angiosarcomas (n = 8), epitheloid angiosarcomas (n = 3), and intestinal Kaposi's sarcomas (n = 5) were examined for their podoplanin content in relation to conventional endothelial markers. The relative number of tumor cells expressing podoplanin was estimated and, although the number of cases in this preliminary study was limited to 16, an apparent spectrum of podoplanin expression emerged that can be divided into a low-expression group in which 0-10% of tumor cells contained podoplanin, a moderate-expression group with 30-60% and a high-expression group with 70-100%. Ten of eleven angiosarcomas and all Kaposi's sarcomas showed mixed expression of both lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial phenotypes. By double labeling, most podoplanin-positive tumor cells coexpressed endothelial markers of blood vessels, whereas few tumor cells were positive for individual markers only. From these results we conclude that (1) podoplanin is a selective marker of lymphatic endothelium; (2) G3 angiosarcomas display a quantitative spectrum of podoplanin-expressing tumor cells; (3) in most angiosarcomas, a varying subset of tumor cells coexpresses podoplanin and endothelial markers of blood vessels; and (4) all endothelial cells of Kaposi's sarcomas expressed the lymphatic marker podoplanin.  (+info)

IRVINE, Calif. - August 14, 2019 - AIVITA Biomedical, Inc., a biotech company specializing in innovative stem cell applications, announced today updated clinical data from its ongoing glioblastoma Phase 2 clinical trial, investigating AIVITAs platform immunotherapy targeting tumor-initiating cells. Blood plasma biomarker analyses have identified a robust immune response and a decrease of tumor biomarkers in 65% of treated patients, in a sample that represents 29% of the total Phase 2 clinical trial size.. Blood was collected from subjects at multiple time points, one week after each dose administration, and assayed for 450 different immune and tumor biomarkers. Treatment elicited a robust immune response, with biomarkers suggesting progressive activation of dendritic cell cross-presentation and progressive activation of a type II hypersensitivity antibody-mediated cytotoxic response. Most notably, 65% of the treated glioblastoma patients also showed a robust decrease of 27 different biomarkers ...
1 Industry Overview. 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.2 Classification of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.3 Applications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.4 Industry Chain Structure of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5 Industry Overview and Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5.2 Global Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.6 Industry Policy Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.7 Industry News Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.1 Raw Material Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.2 Equipment Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular ...
Tumor markers are substances found in the blood, urine or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer. There are many different tumor markers. They are used in oncology to help determine the presence of cancer. An elevated level of a tumor marker can indicate cancer, however there can often also be other causes of the elevation.. Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Tumor markers can be used in screening programs, such as screening for elevated levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to indicate possible prostate cancer. Tumor markers are also used to monitor patients for cancer return. Tumor markers can be classified in two groups: Cancer-specific markers and tissue-specific markers.. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma. Ki- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumour biomarkers. T2 - homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Palma, Giuseppe. AU - Rea, Domenica. AU - De Biase, Davide. AU - Scala, Stefania. AU - DAiuto, Massimiliano. AU - Facchini, Gaetano. AU - Perdonà, Sisto. AU - Barbieri, Antonio. AU - Arra, Claudio. N1 - © 2016 The Authors.. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - The term personalized medicine refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a tailored therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis. Several studies have shown that lifestyle and environmental factors can influence the ...
Tumor markers are substances that are produced by the body in response to cancer or other certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in samples of blood, tumor tissue, urine, stool and other bodily fluids of some cancer patients.. Tumor markers are useful in helping to detect, diagnose and manage some types of cancers. The level of tumor marker present can sometimes reflect the stage (extent) of the disease or the patients prognosis (the likely outcome or the course of disease) for some types of cancers. Tumor markers can also be periodically measured during any cancer therapy treatment, where a decrease in level or a return to normal level for the markers can indicate that the treatment is working and the cancer is responding positively. These markers are also often measured after a treatment has ended in order to check for recurrence (i.e. the return of cancer).. Many different tumor markers have been characterized extensively and used for many clinical ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
Yesterday, I went in for my now semi-annual check at M.D. Anderson. Generally, things are going well, except for the new insurance company. Its bad enough that I got laid off by my old company, but the new job meant new medical insurance, and as some folks predicted its not a patient-friendly company. But thats for another time, perhaps.. Dr. Mansfield was, as before, cautiously optimistic. What had been four visits a year was dropped to two a year after my visit in July, and Dr. Mansfield told me that he saw pretty much the same thing as last time. The tumor markers are unchanged, was how he began. After seeing the blank expression on my face, he explained for a couple minutes that my condition in general was unchanged, which in cancer terms is good. Actually, Im doing very well, certainly more than I have a right to expect. It appears that my little floating bio-bombs started an uprising back in 2006, got cleaned out for the most part when Dr. Thomas did my surgery in November of that ...
Review A Dictionary to Tumor Markers and The Methods of Estimation Rahul R Nair, Jerin K Johnson protein(AFP), Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), Pancreatic oncofetal antigen) Abstract Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in the blood, in the urine, in the tumor tissue, or in other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is early stage. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. To date, researchers have identified more than a dozen substances that seem to be expressed abnormally when some types of cancer are present. Some of these substances are also found in other conditions and diseases. Scientists ...
Molecular profiling of head and neck tumors. I know my markers are all in normal ranges, but wish they would just stay the same!!! McIntosh MW, Drescher C, Karlan B, Scholler N, Urban N, Hellstrom KE, et al. Gestational choriocarcinomas demonstrate variable, but positive, staining for beta-hCG and hPL. Predictive factors for the presence of malignant transformation of pelvic endometriosis. PET and bone scans were confusing--healing fractures or new mets?? Oct 12, - 3: Pregnancy, marijuana use, hypogonadism testicular failure , cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, duodenal ulcers. ALK gene rearrangements and overexpression Cancer types: Tumor markers are not elevated in all cases of the cancers they are used for, and they are not helpful in all patients. A tumor marker is a substance that is produced by the body in response to cancer, or is produced by the cancer itself. For details about whether tumor markers may be a part of your diagnosis and treatment planning, talk with your health care ...
Purchase Clinical Impact of Bone and Connective Tissue Markers - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780124507401, 9780080984353
Anti-Renal Cell Carcinoma Marker (gp200) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision,Request Info,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
[96 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and China Tumor Marker Testing Market Size, Status and Forecast 2020-2026 report by QYResearch Group. Global Tumor Marker Testing Scope and Market Size Tumor Marker...
This unique report provides information not available from any other published source, including volume, sales, and leading supplier shares by test.. This comprehensive five-country report identifies and evaluates major business opportunities emerging in the cancer diagnostics market during the next five years; examines trends in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK; reviews current and emerging tests; analyzes potential applications of various diagnostic technologies; forecasts sales of major tumor markers by country and market segment; profiles leading market players and potential entrants; and suggests alternative business expansion strategies for suppliers.. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the European cancer diagnostic testing market is promising ...
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) which may be extracted from plasma or serum by noninvasive procedures has demonstrated great potential to anticipate SL 0101-1 treatment response and survival for cancer patients. grouped regarding to genotype discovered in cfDNA. Nevertheless NSCLC sufferers which harbored activating mutation in cfDNA got a greater potential for response to EGFR-TKIs (chances proportion or OR 1.96 95 CI 1.59 No significant publication bias was discovered in this scholarly research. To conclude cfDNA could become a predictive and prognostic biomarker for sufferers with NSCLC. mutation position in NSCLC [17 18 These MMP17 evidences recommended that genotype in cfDNA is actually a guaranteeing tumor biomarker for NSCLC. A lot of studies got looked into the predictive or prognostic worth of cfDNA focus in NSCLC sufferers lately [19-22] (discover Table ?Desk11 for sources). These research were often little and SL 0101-1 reported various outcomes However. A few of them demonstrated a ...
A high throughput plasma screening platform will be developed for the discovery of biomarkers of early stage cancer through the PROACTIVE consortium.
Read Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration, JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Blood tests arent always necessary to find cancer markers, as some can be found in other bodily tissues or in urine, Cancer.net explains. Cancer marker tests look for the presence of certain genes...
Tumor markers SlideShare - Deren erhöhte Konzentration kann auf einen Tumor oder das Rezidiv eines Tumors hindeuten. Aufgrund oft geringer Spezifität sind die meisten Tumormarker weniger zum Screening als zur Verlaufskontrolle von Krebs geeignet. Tumormarker gehören zu den Biomarkern Beispiele einzelner Vertreter. Einige Tumormarker sind wesentlich besser unter ihrer Abkürzung als unter dem vollen Namen bekannt.
Blood is just teeming with proteins. Its not easy there to identify specialized tumor markers indicating the presence of cancer. A new method now enables diagnostics to be carried out in a single step. Scientists will present the analysis equipment at analytica, the international trade fair in Munich April 1-4 (Hall A1, Booth 530).
2015 CA Tumor Marker Testing Technologies and Emerging Markets Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $3500] 278 Pages
The Hospital Tumor Marker market report breaks down the keyword market into various segments - product type, end users, region and market players.
Tumor Markers: Unlocking the Mistery of the Genetic Basis of Cancer--Technological Breakthroughs, Emerging Tests, Market Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $15900] 1200 Pages
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
You must have .CEL file to use the service. To get it, please contact your local genomic core facility to perform the microarray analysis of the tumour sample.. ...
You must have .CEL file to use the service. To get it, please contact your local genomic core facility to perform the microarray analysis of the tumour sample.. ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say antibodies to a non-human sugar molecule commonly found in people may be useful as a future biomarker for predicting cancer risk, for diagnosing cancer cases early and, in sufficient concentration, used as a treatment for suppressing tumor growth.
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A tumor is a lump of damaged cells. A malignant tumor is cancerous. Malignant tumors cause trouble to cells around them. They can also spread to other
Snapshots of a tumor treated with an AI only. (a) Tumor after two months of growth, before treatment is applied. (b) Tumor after four months of growth, two week
In the Phase I/IB study, only patients with NTRK or ROS1 fusions, or an ALK fusion or mutation responded to entrectinib, while patients without these tumor markers didnt respond.
My tumor marker is 136. Two months ago is was 125, then last month after my surgery (where a large piece of tumor was removed), it dropped down to 109. This wasnt the result I was hoping for, but it may be just too soon to see the effect of Afinitor. Whatever the numbers say,…
In general, benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix -oma to the cell of origin. Tumors of mesenchymal cells generally follow this (...)
癌症(英語:Cancer)又名為惡性(英語:malignant)腫瘤(英語:Malignant tumor),指的是細胞不正常增生,且這些增生的細胞可能侵犯身體的其他部分[2][8];中醫學中稱岩,為由控制細胞分裂增殖機制失常而引起的疾病。癌細胞除了分裂失控外,還會局部侵入(英語:Infiltration ...
கட்டி (tumor) என்பது இழையங்களில் ஏற்படக்கூடிய அசாதாரணமான, அளவுக்கதிகமான வளர்ச்சியால் ஏற்படும் புத்திழையம் (neoplasm) அல்லது திண்ம இழையமாகும். இந்த வளர்ச்சியானது அருகில் சூழவுள்ள இழையங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபட்டிருப்பதுடன், அதற்குரிய தூண்டல் நீக்கப்பட்டாலும்கூட, தொடர்ந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியையே காட்டும்.[1][2][3] இந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியானது, (எப்பொழும் இல்லையெனினும்) பொதுவாக திணிவு கூடி ...
Plot tumor - tv tropes, The plot tumor trope as used in popular culture. a single plot element that was once a minor part of the verse swells in importance as the series progresses …. ...
Malignant: Malignancy is the tendency of a cancer or tumor either to invade the surrounding tissues, to destroy or replace the tissues previously present or to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) ...
Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約)Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約) ...
The main associations for the study of liver in the world simultaneously suggest that tumor biomarkers should not be regarded as a diagnostic criterion but strongly calls for biomarkers in HCC surveillance. In the lately released American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines for the treatment of HCC, US with or without AFP every 6 months is the recommended strategy for HCC surveillance [26]. It should be noticed that in this guideline biomarkers are conditionally recommended for the first time, though the quality of evidence is low. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) still suggests US every 6 months for HCC surveillance but emphasizes on developing accurate tumor biomarkers [27]. Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) and JSH explicitly recommends US with tumor biomarkers as an efficient strategy for HCC [28]. Therefore, biomarkers are still critical in helping HCC surveillance and diagnosis.. Real-world researches often ...
ANAs have been known to be present in BC sera for several decades [25] but their significance remains unknown [24]. This is likely because autoantibodies are part of the normal immune response, and sera from healthy subjects exhibit a plethora of autoantibodies not related to cancer [30-32]. The application of genomics and proteomics to biomarker discovery allowed the identification of multiple autoantibodies in BC sera recognizing TAAs [3-10]. These studies strongly suggested the possibility that autoantibodies in cancer sera were potentially useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of BC. The seminal work establishing the role of autoantibodies as diagnostic biomarkers in the rheumatic ADs [16-20] suggested the hypothesis that the model epitomized by the rheumatic ADs is highly relevant to explain the plethora of autoantibodies detected in cancer sera. Importantly, PBC as an organ-specific autoimmune disease is characterized by a set of autoantibodies with mitochondrial specificity with ...
Tumor markers are substances that can often be detected in higher than normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. These substances can be proteins, enzymes, biochemicals, or antigens. Tumor markers may either be produced by the cancer itself or by the body in response to the cancer. In general, tumor marker levels are lower in early stage disease (but still higher than normal) and higher with advanced disease. Furthermore, their levels decrease in response to treatment and increase when the cancer progresses.. Tumor markers are often used to:. ...
Measurement of remission and progression in metastatic breast cancer by the use of serum tumour markers is simple, objective, reproducible and cost effective. The most widely used markers are a MUC1 mucin (e.g. measured as CA15.3) and CEA. A combination of markers is more sensitive than using a single marker. When CA15.3, CEA and ESR are used as a panel of serum markers in monitoring therapeutic response, over 90% of patients are biochemically assessable. A biochemical index score comprising these three markers has been devised retrospectively, validated prospectively, in a single centre and in a multicentre study. Biochemical assessment by serum markers correlates with clinical/radiological (UICC) assessment and often pre-dates remission and progression shown by UICC criteria. It is also the only validated method in monitoring metastatic breast cancer with disease unassessable by UICC criteria (e.g. sclerotic bone metastases, irradiated lesions). Future studies should aim at incorporating new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HMICL and CD123 in combination with a CD45/CD34/CD117 backbone. T2 - a universal marker combination for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukaemia. AU - Roug, Anne S.. AU - Larsen, Hanne O.. AU - Nederby, Line. AU - Just, Tom. AU - Brown, Gordon. AU - Nyvold, Charlotte G.. AU - Ommen, Hans B.. AU - Hokland, Peter. N1 - The work was supported by grants to PH from The Danish Cancer Society, The Danish MRC, The John and Birthe Meyer Foundation, and the Karen Elise Jensen Foundation. GB has received funding from The Wellcome Trust. We thank our patients for contributing samples, and for continuous input during these efforts.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been extensively validated for the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Meanwhile, multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) has received less attention because the so-called leukaemia-associated ...
Dr. Anthony C.H. YING What are? Tumour markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer is present. They are usually found in the blood or urine. They can be products of cancer cells or
A novel finding with potential prognostic impact relates to the observation that 45/149 (30%) of M-CLL cases exhibited high expression of UGT2B17 and displayed poor clinical outcome (P,0.001, Online Supplementary Figure S1). Since the majority of these cases were negative for CD38 expression (134/149, 90%), carried only favorable genomic lesions (del(13q) or no recurrent aberrations (133/145, 92%) and did not display mutations in TP53 (145/149, 97%), NOTCH1 (139/142, 98%) or SF3B1 (140/143, 98%), quantification of UGT2B17 mRNA expression identified a subgroup of progressive M-CLL cases (31/120, 26%) for which, to date, no established prognostic marker has been successful in identifying (Figure 1C). Notably, within M-CLL, high UGT2B17 expression remained as the strongest independent molecular prognostic marker for OS in multivariate analysis (Online Supplementary Table S2). Further evaluation of UGT2B17 expression on clinical outcome in subgroups of CLL with favorable prognosis revealed high ...
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing
A risk score based on three biological features (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) was previously developed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in untreated Binet A CLL patients. Here we perform a score validation analysis in a prospective and independent cohort of patients. Biological markers (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) and gene expression profiles (GEP) of leukemic cells from CLL patients included in a prospective multicenter observational study (O-CLL1-GISL protocol, clinicaltrial.gov ID:NCT00917549) were used to assess the value and reproducibility of this score. To date, 468 Binet A patients were classified as low- (0 positive marker), intermediate- (1 positive marker), or high-risk (2 or 3 positive markers) using the progression risk score. The 3-year PFS probability was 91.7%, 82.9%, and 57.4% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk (P | 0.0001) cases, respectively. These values were similar to those found in the original cohort. At Cox multivariate analysis, Rai
Solid tumors involving glandular organs express mucin glycoprotein which is eventually shed into the circulation. As aresult these proteins can easily be measured in the serum and be used as potential tumor markers. The most commonly used tumor markers for breast cancer are CA 27-29 and CA 15-3, which both measure the glycoprotein product of the mucin-1 (MUC1) gene. CA 27-29 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for monitoring disease activity in breast cancer patients. Most oncology clinical practice guidelines do not recommend the use of tumor markers for routine surveillance of early stage disease but recognize their utility in the metastatic setting ...
The aim of our study was to evaluate the cost of the tumor marker assays most widely used in pneumological practive and the effectiveness of the percentage of DRG-based reimbursements absorbed by these assays. For this purpose we assessed the cost of lung tumor marker assays in Emilia Romagna compared to the DRG-based reimbursement of...
Molecular Histopathology and Tissue Biomarkers in Drug and Diagnostic Development gathers varied specialists to offer state-of-the-art tips and alertness of histopathology in drug improvement settings starting from discovery study to human scientific trials. whereas many present purposes of quantitative histology and molecular pathology within the biopharmaceutical are excited by oncology, this quantity moreover explores non-oncologic ailment parts together with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, arthritis, celiac disorder, myeloproliferative issues, neurology, and wound therapeutic. The authors write from years of expertise in diagnostic perform and pharmaceutical drug improvement, aiming to coach pharmaceutical and educational scientists how you can top use tissue to diagnose illness and increase the method of drug development. As a part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology sequence, this quantity is designed to supply knowledge and examples that others can persist with and follow as a ...
In clinical practice, biomarkers can be used to identify risk and susceptibility, diagnose a disease, assess disease severity or progression, classify patients, guide treatment, and predict prognosis. In drug development and the pharmaceutical industry, biomarkers can be used to predict toxicity, safety, or efficacy of a drug. Biomarkers can be categorized as target, mechanism and clinical to indicate if a drug hits its intended target, alters any mechanisms and if it is effective in vivo. Biomarkers can be also classified into three types: type 0 - natural history markers, type 1 - biological or drug activity markers, and type 2 - surrogate markers. Type 0 biomarkers measure the natural history of a disease and should correlate over time with known clinical indicators. They can be characterized in phase 0 clinical trials. Symptoms over the full range of a disease and most prognosis markers are type 0 biomarkers. In most cases, type 1 biomarkers are the markers that capture the effects of a ...
This study addresses two questions: (1) how does prevalence of prognostic biomarkers in old, archival paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens obtained from 50 Asian, 50 black, and 50 white women diagnosed with breast cancer in Oakland, CCA between 1966 and 1990 compare across racial/ethnic groups and to that observed among recent paraffin-embedded specimens, and (2) what is the relationship of these biomarkers to survival, controlling for other biological and socio economic risk factors that affect survival? In Year 1, we have, as planned: (a) abstracted medical chart data on tumor characteristics and treatment for all 150 women, (b) appended these data to an existing database with the women? 5 sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics, (c) determined their vital status as of December 31, 1994, (d) located tumor blocks for 135 of these women, and (e) measured, by immunohistochemistry/image analysis, the following prognostic biomarkers: estrogen, progesterone, androgen, and epidermal growth
The MALDI Tissuetyper solution, an emerging technology, enables the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a powerful mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, which is highly complementary to traditional imaging technologies in histology. The MALDI Tissuetyper allows pathologists a fast identification of proteins in tissue samples. In contrast to traditional histological tissue analysis, the MALDI Tissuetyper requires neither a molecular probe nor an antibody. The MALDI Tissuetyper offers multiplex analysis of multiple potential biomarkers simultaneously in an untargeted approach. Identification of protein expression profiles, will lead to the discovery of clinically useful tumor biomarkers which could be incorporated into future diagnostic and treatment strategies. MALDI Tissuetyper provides complementary information to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in many cases can differentiate cell populations that cannot easily be differentiated by IHC. In additional, it might save valuable biopsy material, ...
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising prognostic and predictive biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we examined the prognostic role of cfDNA and CTCs, in separate and joint analyses, in NSCLC patients receiving first line chemotherapy. Seventy-three patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. CfDNA and CTC were analyzed at baseline and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Plasma cfDNA quantification was performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) whereas CTCs were isolated by the ScreenCell Cyto (ScreenCell, Paris, France) device and enumerated according to malignant features. Patients with baseline cfDNA higher than the median value (96.3 hTERT copy number) had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) and double the risk of death (hazard ratio (HR): 2.14; 95% confidence limits (CL) = 1.24-3.68; p-value = 0.006). Conversely, an inverse relationship between CTC median baseline number (6 CTC/3 mL of blood) and OS was observed. In
Axl promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of Wilmsâ tumor and can be used as a prognostic factor Shibo Zhu, Guochang Liu, Wen Fu, Jinhua Hu, Kai Fu, Wei Jia Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Childrenâ s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Peopleâ s Republic of China Purpose: Overexpression of Axl has been reported in many tumors, where it promotes tumorigenesis and progression, as well as correlates with the prognosis of different malignancies. However, Axl expression and its function have rarely been reported in Wilmsâ tumor (WT). This study aimed to reveal the clinical significance of Axl expression in patients with WT and determine its mechanisms.Materials and methods: We analyzed the expression of Axl and its correlations with various clinicopathological features in 72 WT tissues and 72 adjacent non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlations between
PubMed journal article: Detection of serum tumor markers in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Tumor-specific biomarkers and molecular/genomic alterations, including pan-cancer markers, have been significantly expanded in the past decade thanks to large-scale high-throughput technologies and will continue to emerge in the future. These biomarkers can be of great value in diagnosis, prognosis, and/or targeted therapy/treatment. Familiarization with these emerging and ever-changing tumor biomarkers will undoubtedly aid pathologists in making accurate and state-of-the-art diagnoses and enable them to be more actively involved in the care of cancer patients. ...
Background: DNA ploidy has been shown to have prognostic significance in patients with breast cancer. Studies in the past have mainly utilized flow cytometry (FCM) for measuring DNA ploidy. However FCM has several disadvantages, the instrument cannot distinguish benign from malignant cells and it cannot be performed on small tumor samples. The relationship between DNA ploidy and biomarker expression in breast cancer has not been well studied. Recently, gene expression analysis has demonstrated distinct subtypes of breast cancer. Expression of ER, PR and Her2 by IHC has been used as a surrogate tool for the molecular classification of breast cancer. Aim: To determine the relationship between DNA ploidy, biomarkers (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67 and p53) expression and molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer (IBCA) using image analysis.. Design: DNA analysis was performed on Feulgen stained sections from the same tumor block used for biomarker analysis. DNA indices and ploidy were analyzed using the ...
Biodesix, Inc. announced initiation of the next phase of their biomarker development program with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer Inc.
Improved diagnosis and management of prostate cancer could result from research that has discovered that seminal fluid contains biomarkers for the disease.
The aim of this study was 2-fold: first is to confirm the suitability of afamin as a novel tumor marker for the specific diagnosis of ovarian cancer as shown previously in a small pilot study (15) in a sufficiently large population of different ethnic origin. As shown in the previous study, ovarian cancer patients had significantly lower serum concentrations of afamin, a member of the albumin gene family (17), than did healthy controls. In contrast, our data also revealed significant differences between median afamin values in the benign patient group and those in both ovarian cancer and control groups possibly due to the much larger samples sizes in the present study. As in the previous study, patients were substantially and significantly older than were controls. Because age has only a very small, nonsignificant influence on afamin concentrations (ref. 15; P = 0.834 in this analysis), this age difference is very unlikely to explain the differences in afamin concentrations between patients and ...
DESIGN/METHODS:We evaluated 369 drug-naïve ePD patients. Data were obtained from the Parkinson?s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database. CSF amyloid-beta levels were transformed using a previously reported linear regression procedure. A cutoff of >198 pg/mL was used to define amyloid-negative (PD-) and amyloid-positive (PD+) subgroups. Grey matter (GM) density from MRI was measured using ANTs. We compared groups using linear regressions ...
OncoSpot™ cancer biomarker mutant cell lines carry CRISPR-mediated hotspot mutations in tumor biomarkers, including EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and more.
In a complex disease, the expression of many genes can be significantly altered, leading to the appearance of a differentially expressed disease module. Some of these genes directly correspond to the disease phenotype, (i.e. driver genes), while others represent closely-related first-degree neighbours in gene interaction space. The remaining genes consist of further removed passenger genes, which are often not directly related to the original cause of the disease. For prognostic and diagnostic purposes, it is crucial to be able to separate the group of driver genes and their first-degree neighbours, (i.e. core module) from the general disease module. We have developed COMBINER: COre Module Biomarker Identification with Network ExploRation. COMBINER is a novel pathway-based approach for selecting highly reproducible discriminative biomarkers. We applied COMBINER to three benchmark breast cancer datasets for identifying prognostic biomarkers. COMBINER-derived biomarkers exhibited 10-fold
[120 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cancer Biomarkers Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Cancer Biomarkers Revenue,...
RNAscope® ISH offers a very reliable and robust method for the detection and validation of prostate cancer-related markers within the tissue environment.
The management of solid tumors has been transformed by the advent of VEGF pathway inhibitors. Early clinical evaluation of these drugs has used pharmacodynamic biomarkers derived from advanced imaging such as dynamic MRI, CT and ultrasound to establish proof of principle. We have reviewed published studies using these imaging techniques to determine if the same biomarkers relate to survival in renal, hepatocellular and brain tumors in patients treated with VEGF inhibitors. Data show that in renal cancer, pre-treatment measurements of Ktrans and early pharmacodynamic reduction in tumour enhancement and density have prognostic significance in patients treated with VEGF inhibitors. A weaker, but significant relationship is seen with subtle early size change (10% in one dimension) and survival. Data from high grade glioma suggest that pre-treatment fractional blood volume and Ktrans were prognostic of overall survival. However, lack of control data with other therapies prevents assessment of the ...
Although there was no significant association of NEP with time to PSA relapse in univariate analysis, we adjusted for known prognostic factors and found that the hazard ratio for patients with complete loss of expression of NEP was 1.99. In a univariate analysis, the association of a new tumor marker with disease outcome may be confounded by other prognostic factors, e.g., an association between the new marker and disease outcome may be observed (and statistically significant) simply because the new marker associates with one or more of the prognostic factors identified previously. In a multivariate analysis, this association between the new marker and disease outcome may no longer be present (or weakened), indicating that the new marker is no better in predicting disease outcome than the previously known prognostic factors. Conversely, an association between a new marker and disease outcome may not be apparent (or may be weak and not statistically significant) in a univariate analysis due to ...
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A key to develop nanodevices with high performance for biosensors applications is to explore advanced functional nanomaterials . Among these materials , 2D - based nanohybrids clearly stand out in the field of electrochemical immunosensors for clinical biomarkers, where they offer unparalleled advan...
Reply. We went through this section and sharpen our statements. But, we included a new point into our conclusion since reviewer 1 requested a more critical view on the question: did EV based liquid biopsy make the translational step forward at least from bench to bed side, at least in some diagnostic applications. Unfortunately, not really and actually it is the current Achilles heel of the whole EV based experimental diagnosis. I discussed this in the conclusion citing appropriate references and referring to FDA. Reviewer 3 Report. The review article by Artur et al. EVs as potential new therapeutic tool/target in gastrointestinal and HCC describes and summarizes body of literature on EVs and their involvement in GI cancers and HCC. The field of EVs and their potential role as tumor biomarker and potential therapeutic target in different cancers has received considerable attention in recent years. The authors have accumulated and described literature focused on EVs in GI cancers and HCC. I ...
Circulating miRNAs (microRNAs) are emerging as promising biomarkers for several pathological conditions, and the aim of this study was to investigate the feasi...
The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (T) is highly expressed in a majority of cancer types but not in normal cells, which allows it to be used as a tumor biomarker (15, 17, 18). Previously, we identified and validated the specificity of the T promoter in ovarian cancer and showed that its activity was enhanced by the VISA amplification system (15). In this study, our results further showed that the T promoter is specifically activated in breast cancer cells but had much weaker activity than the CMV promoter. Using the VISA system that was initially developed for pancreatic cancer (13), we have since then showed that this system is highly active in ovarian (15), lung (16), and liver (30) cancers. With the goal of further developing a robust and breast tumor-specific vector, we incorporated the T promoter into our VISA system and constructed T-VISA expression carrier. Our engineered T-VISA is a composite that contains 3three basic elements: the T promoter, the TSTA system, and the WPRE ...
One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumours are malignant.[1] For this reason, benign tumours are not classed as cancer.[2] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and ...
Rationale. The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. During the next five years, the worldwide cancer diagnostics market is promising to be an exciting, dynamic and rapidly expanding field. Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. The rise in geriatric population will further compound the growing demand for malignancy assays and the rapid market expansion.. Business Opportunities and Strategic Recommendations. - Specific new product development opportunities with ...
Neuropathlogy took center stage at the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) meeting today as Dr. Kenneth D. Aldape, neuropathogist at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, was introduced as the next president of the society. Dr. Aldape also delivered an address to more than 1400 attendees about the future of surgical neuropathological reporting. Aldapes research centers on the clinical utility of brain tumor biomarkers as prognostic indicators. He described how the use of biomarkers will change the way surgical neuropathology diagnoses are rendered. He noted that the broad morphologic spectrum one sees in gliomas makes the recommendations of the World Health Organization sometimes difficult to implement. For example, the difference between a WHO grade II and grade III astrocytoma is based principally on whether or not mitotic figures are brisk as interpreted by the examining neuropathologist. Yet, the imprecision of that approach is obvious when one considers variables such as the diligence ...
Tirosh A, Papadakis GZ, Millo C, Sadowski SM, Herscovitch P, Pacak K, Marx SJ, Yang L, Nockel P, Shell J, Green P, Keutgen XM, Patel D, Nilubol N, Kebebew E. Association between neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers and primary tumor site and disease type based on total 68Ga-DOTATATE-Avid tumor volume measurements. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 May; 176(5):575-582 ...
a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. Calcitonin helps control how the body uses calcium . Calcitonin is a type of tumor marker. Tumor markers are substances made by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to ...
Enhance your Cancer research with Highly Purified His-Tagged Recombinant Proteins. Tumor biomarkers, Cancer Metabolism, Signal transduction proteins & more
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical impact of circulating caspase-3 p17 level. T2 - A potential new biomarker for myocardial injury and cardiovascular disease. AU - Singh, Kanwar P.. AU - Jaffe, Allan S. AU - Liang, Bruce T.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. KW - apoptosis. KW - heart failure. KW - infarct. KW - reperfusion. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79961076739&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79961076739&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.2217/fca.11.29. DO - 10.2217/fca.11.29. M3 - Article. C2 - 21797739. AN - SCOPUS:79961076739. VL - 7. SP - 443. EP - 445. JO - Future Cardiology. JF - Future Cardiology. SN - 1479-6678. IS - 4. ER - ...
This paper addresses the problem of classifying cells expressing different biomarkers. A deep learning based method that can automatically localize and count the cells expressing each of the different biomarkers is proposed. To classify the cells, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was employed. Images of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained slides that contain these cells were digitally scanned. The images were taken from digital scans of IHC stained cervical tissues, acquired for a clinical trial. More than 4,500 RGB images of cells were used to train the CNN. To evaluate our method, the cells were first manually labeled based on the expressing biomarkers. Then we performed the classification on 156 randomly selected images of cells that were not used in training the CNN. The accuracy of the classification was 92% in this preliminary data set. The results have shown that this method has a good potential in developing an automatic method for immunohistochemical analysis ...
Caprion Biosciences develops and implements custom flow cytometry receptor occupancy (RO) assay that monitor pharmacodynamic biomarkers early in your clinical development. Discuss your assay design with our scientists now!
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a protein shed by cells into the blood, including tumor cells. The B2M test can be used as a tumor marker for some people with blood cell cancers (multiple myeloma, lymphoma) to give information about their likely prognosis.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. An AFP test may be ordered, along with imaging studies, to try to detect liver cancer when it is in its earliest and most treatable stages.
INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER. Males: ,2.0 pg/mL. Females. ,11 years: ,4.7 pg/mL. 11-17 years: ,97.5 pg/mL. Premenopausal: ,97.5 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,2.1 pg/mL. INHIBIN B. Males 0-23 months: ,430 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,269 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,184 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,214 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,276 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,273 pg/mL. Adults: ,399 pg/mL. Females. 0-23 months: ,111 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,44 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,27 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,67 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,120 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,136 pg/mL. Premenopausal. Follicular: ,139 pg/mL. Luteal: ,92 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,10 pg/mL. ...
Fishman WH (December 1987). "Clinical and biological significance of an isozyme tumor marker--PLAP". Clin. Biochem. 20 (6): 387 ... "European Group on Tumor Markers. A European Based Expert Group on Tumor Markers. Germ cell cancer". Archived from the original ... 2004). "Testicular tumor markers: Corner-stones in the management of malignant germ cell tumors" (PDF). J Lab Med. 28 (2): 109- ... PLAP is a tumor marker, especially in seminoma and ovarian cancer (e.g., dysgerminoma). PLAP is reliable only in non-smokers, ...
Hobbs, J.R., Melino, G, Riches, P. Successful uses of tumour markers in man. In 'Protides of the Biological Fluids' 31. ed. H. ... Developed successful uses of human tumour markers In Clinical Immunology, Standardised methods and reagents (some for WHO) to ... Protides of the biological fluids' 1989; 36: 3-17 Hobbs, J. R., Barrett, A. J., Chambers, J. D., James, D. C. O., Hugh-Jones, K ... Hobbs, J.R. Cytofluorometry to predict effects of biological response modifiers in Poulik D. et al. eds. ' ...
"Down's syndrome-associated single minded gene as a novel tumor marker". Anticancer Research. 22 (6A): 3149-57. PMID 12530058. ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... EMT suppression allows for E-cadherin to remain and for the cell to not undergo pathological EMT associated with tumor ... It has been researched that SIM2s acts in mammary gland development and has tumor suppressive characteristics specifically in ...
"AFP and HCG in germ cell tumors". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 9 (1): 29-32. ISSN 0393-6155. PMID 7519651. ... Tumor markers, TNM staging, CT scans, MRI. Cancer survival has improved due to three main components including improved ... Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),[47] Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG),[47] Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), ... Leukemia,[92] Lymphoma,[93] Germ cell tumors[94] and early stage solid tumors which were once incurable have become curable ...
"Expression of tumor markers hyaluronic acid and hyaluronidase (HYAL1) in head and neck tumors". International Journal of Cancer ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (14): 9433-42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M900210200. PMC 2666596. PMID 19201751. Lokeshwar VB, ... "Stromal and epithelial expression of tumor markers hyaluronic acid and HYAL1 hyaluronidase in prostate cancer". The Journal of ... "Inducible hyaluronan production reveals differential effects on prostate tumor cell growth and tumor angiogenesis". The Journal ...
"Urinary Cell-Free DNA as a Potential Tumor Marker for Bladder Cancer". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (4 ... For ucfDNA, cancer markers can be generally divided into two groups: urological cancer marker and non-urological cancer marker ... Many tumour markers in ucfDNA have been researched to monitor cancer progression, therapeutic response, and prognosis. Cancer ... "Monitoring Daily Dynamics of Early Tumor Response to Targeted Therapy by Detecting Circulating Tumor DNA in Urine". Clinical ...
Steták A, Veress R, Ovádi J, Csermely P, Kéri G, Ullrich A (February 2007). "Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate ... and tumor growth in a dominant negative manner". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (12): 8098-105. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... In tumor cells, PKM2 is mainly in the dimeric form and has, therefore, been termed Tumor M2-PK. The quantification of Tumor M2- ... Thus, PKM2 is a regulator of LPS- and tumor-induced PD-L1 expression on macrophages and dendritic cells as well as tumor cells ...
This gene is a sensitive marker for neuroendocrine differentiation of human lung tumors. INSM1 has been shown to interact with ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (19): 14170-4. PMID 8188699. Liu WD, Wang HW, Muguira M, Breslin MB, Lan MS (July 2006 ... Li Q, Notkins AL, Lan MS (July 1997). "Molecular characterization of the promoter region of a neuroendocrine tumor marker, IA-1 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (40): 38991-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306795200. PMC 1236987. PMID 12890672. Zhang T, Liu WD ...
Tumor marker[edit]. Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker,[26] as its β subunit is secreted by some ... As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant ... Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed] ... "Tumor Markers Found in Blood or Urine". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 21 January 2014.. ...
"A new assay to screen for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using the tumor marker metallopanstimulin". Otolaryngology-Head ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (13): 8675-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M511333200. PMID 16446370. Wang YW, Qu Y, Li JF, Chen ... "Metallopanstimulin as a novel tumor marker in sera of patients with various types of common cancers: implications for ... Stack BC, Hollenbeak CS, Lee CM, Dunphy FR, Lowe VJ, Hamilton PD (December 2004). "Metallopanstimulin as a marker for head and ...
... and circulating tumor marker sialyl-Lewis a levels". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (50): 32260-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Characterization of highly conserved cysteine residues and N-linked glycosylation sites". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and isoforms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (34): 20112-22. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The glycosphingolipids function in embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, tumor metastasis, inflammation, and bacterial ...
Examples of some commonly used markers include: *BrdU: used to identify replicating cells. Used to identify tumors as well as ... in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.[ ... Many tumors are hormone dependent. The presence of hormone receptors can be used to determine if a tumor is potentially ... CD117 (KIT): for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and mast cell tumors. *CD10 (CALLA): for renal cell carcinoma and acute ...
High proportions of XIAP may function as a tumor marker. In the development of lung cancer NCI-H460, the overexpression of XIAP ... Apoptotic regulation is an extremely important biological function, as evidenced by "the conservation of the IAPs from humans ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (9): 7494-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200695200. PMID 12511567. Song Z, Yao X, Wu M (June 2003 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (43): 39985-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.C100171200. PMID 11546791. Winsauer G, Resch U, Hofer- ...
... tumor markers, circulating DNA, immunomonitoring, imaging); Optimization and exploitation of clinical research-related tools to ... CALYM is working within the following research areas: Identification and validation of new biological targets and in vitro/in ... including new biological targets) to clinical research (up to international phase III registration trials) and also carries out ... biological collections, network and platform of centralized proofreading of imaging, biometry, long term follow-up of patients ...
"AFP and HCG in germ cell tumors". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 9 (1): 29-32. doi:10.1177/172460089400900106 ... Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP), Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), CA 125 ... Leukemia, Lymphoma, Germ cell tumors and early stage solid tumors which were once incurable have become curable malignancies ... Hande, K. R.; Garrow, G. C. (1993-02-01). "Acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma". The ...
... a highly specific tumor marker of T-ALL". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (7): 4576-81. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.7.4576. ... a highly specific tumor marker of T-ALL". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (7): 4576-81. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.7.4576. ... This analysis is widely used as a clinically valuable marker for breast cancer. Similar to breast tumors, the role of GATA3 in ... considered a valuable marker for certain types of urinary bladder and urethral cancers as well as for parathyroid gland tumors ...
"Clinical utility of biochemical markers in colorectal cancer: European Group on Tumour Markers (EGTM) guidelines". European ... for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. CEA levels may also be raised in gastric ... varies directly with tumor stage. Left-sided tumors generally tend to have higher CEA levels than right-sided tumors. Tumors ... It varies inversely with tumor grade; well-differentiated tumors secrete more CEA. CEA is elevated more in tumors with lymph ...
"The biological characterization of neuroendocrine tumors: The role of neuroendocrine markers". Journal of Endocrinological ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" The ... Parathyroid tumors Thymus and mediastinal carcinoid tumors Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors bronchus pulmonary carcinoid tumors ... Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors were first distinguished from other tumors in 1907. They were named carcinoid tumors ...
It has been used as a sarcoma tumor marker to identify mesenchyme. Its specificity as a biomarker has been disputed by Jerad ... Intracellular distribution and localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (16): 13302-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Leader M, Collins M, Patel J, Henry K (January 1987). "Vimentin: an evaluation of its role as a tumour marker". Histopathology ... Because of this, vimentin is often used as a marker of mesenchymally-derived cells or cells undergoing an epithelial-to- ...
2007). "A novel tumor marker, Niban, is expressed in subsets of thyroid tumors and Hashimoto's thyroiditis". Hum. Pathol. 37 ( ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ...
... in neuroendocrine tumors". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. PMID 17549667.. الوسيط , ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (9): 7021-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108417200. PMID 11748221.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم ... Research in Biological Diversity. 74 (6): 313-21. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.2006.00074.x. PMID 16831200.. الوسيط ,CitationClass= ... "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene atonal ...
Mroczko B, Szmitkowski M (2005). "Hematopoietic cytokines as tumor markers". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 42 (12 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (7): 4345-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)42841-4. PMID 1531650. Saltman DL, Dolganov GM ... Interest Builds in CSF1R for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment Gout I, Dhand R, Panayotou G, Fry MJ, Hiles I, Otsu M, Waterfield ... and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity. The role of M-CSF is not only restricted to the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. By ...
... and its overexpression in tumors with ras mutation is a poor prognostic marker". Clinical Cancer Research. 10 (6): 1984-91. doi ... Direct evidence for ubiquitylation at the N-terminal residue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (40): 41414-21. doi: ... Mutations in Fbw7 have been found in more than 30% of human tumors, characterizing it as a tumor suppressor protein. Oncogenic ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in human which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics[1] ... Biological methods are separation based on antigen-antibody bindings. Antibodies against tumor specific biomarkers including ... Five of the more common markers including CK19 are also useful to detect CTC in the blood of dogs with malignant mammary tumors ... da Costa, A (2013). "Multiple RT-PCR markers for the detection of circulating tumour cells of metastatic canine mammary tumours ...
2006). "Novel tumor marker REG4 detected in serum of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer and feasibility for antibody ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... 2005). "Reg IV: a promising marker of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (6): 2237-43. doi: ...
McIver CM, Lloyd JM, Hewett PJ, Hardingham JE (Jun 2004). "Dipeptidase 1: a candidate tumor-specific molecular marker in ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (25): 15341-5. PMID 2168407. Adachi H, Tawaragi Y, Inuzuka C, Kubota I, Tsujimoto M, ... "Dipeptidase 1: a candidate tumor-specific molecular marker in colorectal carcinoma." Cancer Letters 209.1 (2004): 67-74. Web. ... suggesting that DPEP1 is a viable marker for disseminated colon tumor cells. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000015413 - ...
Media related to Biological tumor markers at Wikimedia Commons Tumor+Markers,+Biological at the US National Library of Medicine ... Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Although ... Staging: some tumor markers are included in the staging procedures for some tumor localizations. Prognosis to plan the ... Kaura, B; Bagga, R; Patel, FD (2004). "Evaluation of the Pyruvate Kinase isoenzyme tumor (Tu M2-PK) as a tumor marker for ...
Since then, Pro-GRP has been used as a tumor marker for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in limited and extended ... A single center experience". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 33 (1): 55-61. doi:10.5301/ijbm.5000305. ISSN ... "Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (PROGRP) as a specific tumor marker in patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)". Lung ... In pathological situations, GRP has mitogenic activity in vitro in many tumors such as pancreatic, small cell lung (SCLC), ...
Low levels of BHLHE41 transcript has been associated with tumor growth suggesting that BHLHE41 suppresses tumor proliferation; ... "Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. 76 (9): 1006-22. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.2008.00285.x. PMC 5728086. PMID ... Deregulation of BHLHE41 transcription levels has been characterized as a marker in the progression of several cancers. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (18): 14821-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011619200. PMID 11278948.. ...
Low levels of BHLHE41 transcript has been associated with tumor growth suggesting that BHLHE41 suppresses tumor proliferation; ... Biological process. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • rhythmic process. • negative ... Deregulation of BHLHE41 transcription levels has been characterized as a marker in the progression of several cancers. ... There is a known amino acid point mutation of DEC2/BHLHE41 that affects the regulation of the biological processes of sleep ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... cell-surface marker),可以用以分离、鉴定不同亚群的T细胞[1]。 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ...
Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/posterior axis ... Tumour Biol. 17 (1): 34-47. doi:10.1159/000217965. PMID 7501971.. ... Jump to navigation Jump to search HOXD8. Identifiers. Aliases. HOXD8, HOX4, HOX4E, HOX5.4, homeobox D8. ...
Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • intramembranous ossification. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ... myeloid oncoprotein expressed in multipotent progenitors perturbs both myeloid and lymphoid growth and causes T-lymphoid tumors ... Jump to navigation Jump to search MN1. Identifiers. Aliases. MN1, MGCR, MGCR1, MGCR1-PEN, dJ353E16.2, meningioma (disrupted in ...
Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am. J. Pathol. 100 (2): 497-512. PMC 1903536. PMID 6773421. ... Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ... Jump to: navigation, search An abortion is when a pregnancy ends early without the birth of any live children. ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol 100 (2): 505-506. PMID 6773421. "In contrast, abortion ...
Biological activity[edit]. Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about androgens as natural hormones. For androgens as medications, see Anabolic ... Lang F, Alevizopoulos K, Stournaras C (2013). "Targeting membrane androgen receptors in tumors". Expert Opin. Ther. Targets. 17 ... Biological function[edit]. Male prenatal development[edit]. Testes formation[edit]. During mammalian development, the gonads ...
... since the jump occurred at the same time that MRIs became available widely, and there was no coincident jump in mortality. The ... These differences probably reflect some biological differences as well as differences in pathologic diagnosis and reporting.[51 ... There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.[2] Cancerous tumors can be divided into ... Often these tumors are associated with clearly outlined tumors in imaging.. *Infiltration is the behavior of the tumor either ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Sebilangan besar rekaan telah dihasilkan pada zaman pertengahan dunia Islam, sebuah rantau ... yang mana termasuk kegunaan amputation atau pengalihan vein menagalir dalam arah tumor. Dia bercadang kegunaan cauterization ... mirip dengan pakaian dipakai oleh askar-askar moden untuk perlindungan terhadap senjata biological, kimia dan nukelar. Oleh ... kemudian diperkenalkan sebagai mandapat merawat tumor lain dan keadaan selerak neoplastic. Avicenna menulis suatu treatise ...
"After Ebola, a Blueprint Emerges to Jump-Start R&D". Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 20 ... Werner, Dietrich, editor (2004). Biological Resources and Migration. Springer. p. 363. ISBN 978-3-540-21470-0.. CS1 maint: ...
Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... Dill, K.; Hui Liu, R.; Grodzinski, P. (2008). Microarrays: Preparation, Microfluidics, Detection Methods, and Biological ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Multiplex RNA visualization in cells using ViewRNA FISH Assays ... FISH can also be used to compare the genomes of two biological species, to deduce evolutionary relationships. A similar ...
Jump to: navigation, search Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, ... The inspiration often comes from nature, especially biological systems. The agents follow very simple rules, and although there ... the possibility of using swarm intelligence to control nanobots within the body for the purpose of killing cancer tumors.[23] ... NATO Advanced Workshop on Robots and Biological Systems, Tuscany, Italy, June 26-30 (1989) ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search The following is a list of largest mammals by family. ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1637): 923-928. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1645. PMC 2599941. PMID ... tumor, gigantism or other medical malady. However, even when not afflicted with gigantism, humans are the tallest living ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1441): 87-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1368. PMC 1693300 . PMID 15065660.. ... Connell PP, Jayathilaka K, Haraf DJ, Weichselbaum RR, Vokes EE, Lingen MW (2006). "Pilot study examining tumor expression of ... "High-level expression of Rad51 is an independent prognostic marker of survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients". Br. J ... Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand invasion. • mitotic recombination-dependent replication ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with betaglycan. ... Differences in molecular weight, shape, and structure of β-glucans dictate the differences in biological activity.[6][7] ... 3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models". Journal of Immunology. ...
... leukemia and certain solid tumors that have developed within a decade or more after exposure. As studies of biological samples ... Jump to navigation Jump to search The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the ... other solid tumor cancers, and leukemia. The relationship between radiation exposure and subsequent cancer risk is considered " ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Figure 1. TATA box structural elements. The TATA box consensus sequence is TATAWAW, where W ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 292 (28): 11873-11885. doi:10.1074/jbc.M116.770412. PMC 5512080. PMID 28539359.. ... Gaillard J, Haguenauer JP, Romanet P, Boulud B, Gerard JP (November 1977). "[Tumors of the olfactory placode. Study of 5 cases ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (29): 20396-404. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.563254. PMC 4106352. PMID 24917680.. ...
In 1944 Barbara McClintock discovered transposons ("jumping genes"), for which she received a Nobel Prize in 1983.[29] ... In 2011, Wigler, James Hicks and Nick Navin perform the first genomic profile of single cancer cells from a patient's tumor;[42 ... The institution took root as The Biological Laboratory in 1890, a summer program for the education of college and high school ... The Watson School of Biological Sciences (WSBS), established in 1998, awards the Ph.D. degree and fully funds the research ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Alan Hall FRS (19 May 1952 - 3 May 2015) was a British cell biologist and a biology professor ... After injection into mice, tumors started to form in as little as 10 days. Next, the transforming activities of the ... "Biochemical and biological properties of the human N-ras p21 protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (1): 541-544. doi ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the organic compound. For the use of fluorescein as a medication, see ... and intraocular tumors. It is also being used increasingly during surgery for brain tumors. ... have been tailored for various chemical and biological applications where higher photostability, different spectral ...
... biological response modifiers (BRMs) - biopsy - biotechnology - blinded study - blips - blood-brain barrier - body fat ... surrogate marker - surveillance - susceptible - symptoms - syncytium - syndrome - synergy - synergistic - synthesis - syphilis ... tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ...
A biomarker, or biological marker is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. Biomarkers are often ... since mutant proteins can only come from an existing tumor, thus providing ultimately the best specificity for medical purposes ... The widespread use of the term "biomarker" dates back to as early as 1980.[8] The term "biological marker" was introduced in ... There are also αII-spectrin breakdown products/fragments as cell death markers. Delayed axonal injury and demyelination markers ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search ವಂಶವಾಹಿ ಡಿಎನ್ಎಯ ಕಾರ್ಯನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಯನ್ನು ಸಂಕೇತಿಸಿದ ಒಂದು ಪ್ರದೇಶ. ಒಂದು ವರ್ಣತಂತು ಅನೇಕ ವಂಶವಾಹಿಗಳಿರುವ ... Braig M, Schmitt CA (March 2006). "Oncogene-induced senescence: putting the brakes on tumor development". Cancer Research 66 (6 ... Mario R. Capecchi's Nobel Prize". International Journal of Biological Sciences 3 (7): 417-419. doi:10.7150/ijbs.3.417. PMC ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by ... Genetic mosaics can be extraordinarily useful in the study of biological systems, and can be created intentionally in many ... and solid tumors.[14] ... Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor t(11 WT1; 22 EWS). * ... In negatively marked clones the fly is transheterozygous for a gene encoding a visible marker (commonly the green fluorescent ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (17): 8303-13. PMID 3298229.. *^ Hershko A (September 2005). "Early work on the ... Gankyrin is anti-apoptotic and has been shown to be overexpressed in some tumor cell types such as hepatocellular carcinoma.[81 ... More recently, more effort has been made to consider the proteasome for the development of novel diagnostic markers and ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (10): 7709-18. PMID 8125997.. *^ Nassif, Nicholas D.; Cambray, Samantha E.; Kraut, ...
The NK-92 cell line does not express KIR and is developed for tumor therapy.[9][10][11][12] ... Anatomical barriers include physical, chemical and biological barriers. The epithelial surfaces form a physical barrier that is ... This term describes cells with abnormally low levels of a cell-surface marker called MHC I (major histocompatibility complex ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ...
Gause, G. F. (1941). "Chapter V: Analysis of various biological processes by the study of the differential action of optical ... Posledica tega pa je bila povečana velikost tumorja (dvojno povečanje), metastaze(devetkratno povečanje), in tumor ponovitve ( ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Nikotin. Sistematično (IUPAC) ime. (S)-3-(1-metil-2-pirolidinil)piridin ...
Biological process. • cell adhesion. • cell-matrix adhesion. • cell migration. • protein homotrimerization. Sources:Amigo / ... 1999). "EMILIN, a component of the elastic fiber and a new member of the C1q/tumor necrosis factor superfamily of proteins". J ... Jump to navigation Jump to search EMILIN1. Available structures. PDB. Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB ...
... , also known as TNFRSF8, is a cell membrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and tumor marker. ... Biological process. • apoptotic signaling pathway. • cellular response to mechanical stimulus. • response to lipopolysaccharide ... Jump to navigation Jump to search This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please ... "Entrez Gene: TNFRSF8 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8".. *^ Teng LH, Lu DH, Xu QZ, Fu YJ, Yang H, He ZL ( ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see vitamin C (disambiguation). ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 223 (2): 897-905. PMID 13385237.. *^ Burns JJ, Moltz A, Peyser P (December 1956). "Missing ... Evidence for ascorbate's anti-tumor effects was limited to case reports and observational and uncontrolled studies."[44] ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (5): 2515-2525. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.514828. PMC 3908387. PMID 24347170.. ...
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a huge role in tumor cell survival. In ... Kobayashi S (2015). "Choose Delicately and Reuse Adequately: The Newly Revealed Process of Autophagy". Biological & ... analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker". ... There is evidence that emphasizes the role of autophagy both as a tumor suppressor as well as a factor in tumor cell survival. ...
Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... Jump to navigation Jump to search An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with ... Antigenic molecules, normally "large" biological polymers, usually present surface features that can act as points of ... Tumor antigens can appear on the surface of the tumor in the form of, for example, a mutated receptor, in which case they are ...
Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... and clinical studies related to the identification of disease markers, the elucidation of their role and mechanism, as well as ... Disease Markers is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Utility of OCT3/4, TSPY and β-Catenin as Biological Markers for Gonadoblastoma Formation and Malignant Germ Cell Tumor ... CONCLUSIONS: The use of this biological markers detects the potential high risk gonads. ...
Prognosis and Anti Neoplastic Biological %, normally with the n jump learning. book Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor Cells: ... afford we a book Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor Cells: Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Anti Neoplastic Biological ... The 1643 book Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor Cells: Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Anti Neoplastic Biological was ... Prognosis and Anti Neoplastic Biological Therapy. New Testament in 16mo( 1523). Noli book Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor ...
Modlin, I. M. ; Stoch, S. A. ; Soybel, D. I. ; Nilsson, O. ; Ahlman, H. / Biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors of the ... Modlin, I. M., Stoch, S. A., Soybel, D. I., Nilsson, O., & Ahlman, H. (1991). Biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors of ... Biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Clinical review. / Modlin, I. M.; Stoch ... Modlin IM, Stoch SA, Soybel DI, Nilsson O, Ahlman H. Biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract ...
Other than leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumors are the most common typ ... Childhood brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of tissue contained within the ... Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor Cells. Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Anti-Neoplastic Biological Therapy. ... As such, this book is a review of the most recent molecular biological research concerning brain tumors with references and ...
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Stability of phosphoprotein as a biological marker of tumor signaling. Amanda F. Baker, Tomislav Dragovich, Nathan T. Ihle, ... Stability of phosphoprotein as a biological marker of tumor signaling. / Baker, Amanda F.; Dragovich, Tomislav; Ihle, Nathan T ... Stability of phosphoprotein as a biological marker of tumor signaling. In: Clinical Cancer Research. 2005 ; Vol. 11, No. 12. pp ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Stability of phosphoprotein as a biological marker of tumor signaling. Together ...
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Application of Biological Markers to Carcinogen Testing by Harry A. Milman available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read ... Tumor markers.. Subject:. Health and Medicine-Medical Specialties. Subject:. Biological assay. Subject:. Carcinogenicity ...
Experimental: Biological sampling in ovarian carcinoma Blood and tumor samples. Other: biological sampling Tumor and blood ... Circulating Tumor DNA as an Early Marker of Recurrence and Treatment Efficacy in Ovarian Carcinoma (CIDOC). The safety and ... Circulating Tumor DNA as an Early Marker of Recurrence and Treatment Efficacy in Ovarian Carcinoma. ... Tumor samples will be collected at surgery or through a biopsy.. Patients will then have a standard care follow-up for a period ...
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We examined PLS3 expression in breast cancer cell lines with epithelial and mesenchymal traits and in circulating tumour cells ... Kang Y, Pantel K (2013) Tumor cell dissemination: emerging biological insights from animal models and cancer patients. Cancer ... Patients with stage I-III cancer were evaluated for tumour recurrence by physical examination, and tumour marker testing (CEA ... Circulating tumour cell-derived plastin3 is a novel marker for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with breast cancer. * ...
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Biological Markers in Fundamental and Clinical Medicine (scientific journal): Vol 3 No 1 (2019): BIOLOGICAL MARKER ... Biological Markers in Fundamental and Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2570-5911; eISSN 2570-5903) ... Biological Markers in Fundamental and Clinical Medicine (scientific Journal), 3(1), 80-81. https://doi.org/10.29256/v.03.01. ... ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS IN HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-6 AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR Α GENES AND DEVELOPMENT OF PRETERM LABOR ...
Tumor Markers, Biological • Tyrosine • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase • United States • Up-Regulation • Vacuoles • Vitamin B 12 ... Biological Evolution • Biological MarkersBiological Transport • Biomass • Biometry • Body Constitution • Body Patterning • ... Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Ulrich, CM, A day in the life of cell metabolism., Biological Theory (in press) (2007) *H.F. Nijhout, ... Nijhout, HF; Suzuki, Y, Environment and genetic accommodation., Biological Theory, vol. 3 no. 1-9 (2009) *Suzuki Y, Nijhout HF ...
Tumor Markers, Biological ... IL-24 sensitizes tumor cells to TLR3-mediated apoptosis. Cell ... spatial and temporal assessment of tumor load and molecular tumor characterization.. Members:. Wolfgang Wadsak ... In the area of tumor immunology we investigate the induction and the consequences of immunogenic cell death. We believe that ... We intend to learn from our patients correlating immungenic parameters of the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer with ...
CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. In this study, CEA... ... is a tumor marker belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules. ... Clinical and biological relevance of lung tumor markers.Diagn Oncol 1991;1: 305-315.Google Scholar ... Niklinski J, Furman M. Clinical tumor markers in lung cancer.Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4: 129-138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
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... including squamoid corpuscles that may contain tumor cells with optically clear nuclei (OCN) rich in biotin. In t ... 0/Tumor Markers, Biological; 58-85-5/Biotin From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... These foci contained a few tumor cells with biotin-rich OCN and were determined to be squamoid corpuscles. CONCLUSION: ... including squamoid corpuscles that may contain tumor cells with optically clear nuclei (OCN) rich in biotin. In the English- ...
Tumor markers biological. Resumo em inglês. The development and invasion of primary brain tumors are directly influenced by the ... Marcadores biológicos de tumor. Migração. Mutação. Prognóstico. Reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. ... a deregulation of these proteins can lead to the genesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to evaluate the expression ... have both structural and functional complexity and that they are involved in vital biological processes such as cell motility, ...
... that match two clinical stages of tumor pr ... 0/Biological Markers; 0/Ceramides; EC 1.1.1.27/L-Lactate ... Biological Markers / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry, drug therapy*, pathology. Cell Death. Cell Division / drug effects. Cells ... that match two clinical stages of tumor progression. C8-ceramide (3 microM) markedly reduced the tumor cell number after 48 h ... Seventy-two hours after C8-ceramide treatment none of the biochemical and morphological markers characteristic of apoptosis: (a ...
Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:3828-35. View ... Flaxseed attenuates the tumor growth stimulating effect of soy protein in ovariectomized athymic mice with MCF-7 human breast ... Early research shows that eating a muffin containing 25 grams of flaxseed daily for about 40 days reduces tumor cell growth in ... Early research suggests that taking flaxseed and following a low-fat diet can lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a marker ...
Molecular Biochemistry and Biological Engineering Conference scheduled on May 24-25, 2022 in May 2022 in Barcelona is for the ... Molecular Basis of Cancer and Tumor Markers. Molecular Biology and Genetic Disorders. Modern Techniques and Biomedical ... Molecular Biochemistry and Biological Engineering. ICMBBE 2022: 16. International Conference on Molecular Biochemistry and ... ICMBBE 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Molecular Biochemistry and Biological Engineering. A number of ...
Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(10):3828-3835. ... other cancers have shown some decrease in markers of inflammation and a decrease in the number and size of colon cancer tumors ... Dietary Antioxidants and Protein Kinase C Oxidative Activation in Tumor Promotion. 97A028:. Pharmocodynamic Effects of Perillyl ... The lower levels of several growth factors that promote breast cancer and increase the expression of tumor suppressor genes. ...
Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(10):3828-3835. ... In human studies, flaxseed lowered tumor biomarkers in men with prostate cancer (9) (25) and patients with breast cancer (10), ... Mirfatahi M, Tabibi H, Nasrollahi A, et al. Effect of flaxseed oil on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and ... Flaxseed oil enhances the effectiveness of trastuzumab in reducing the growth of HER2-overexpressing human breast tumors (BT- ...
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  • The aim of this study was to assess the expression of cytokeratins in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, comparing to cytokeratin expression in normal salivary glands, in order to establish a possible correlation between tumor cells immunostaining and mucoepidermoid carcinoma histogenesis and differentiation. (mendeley.com)
  • We examined PLS3 expression in breast cancer cell lines with epithelial and mesenchymal traits and in circulating tumour cells (CTCs) obtained from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, detection of tumour cells that have undergone EMT-like changes is hampered when targeting only epithelial marker proteins, leading to false-negative findings. (nature.com)
  • Tumour cells that have undergone EMT-associated changes are able to acquire invasive properties or stem-like characteristics ( Polyak and Weinberg, 2009 ). (nature.com)
  • Moreover, cancer cells with a fully completed EMT may not be able to form metastases, whereas tumour cells with an intermediate E/M phenotype appear to be the initiators of metastases ( Tam and Weinberg, 2013 ). (nature.com)
  • 2013. IL-24 sensitizes tumor cells to TLR3-mediated apoptosis. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreatoblastoma (PBL) is a rare neoplasm that generally occurs in the pediatric age group and shows unique histopathology, including squamoid corpuscles that may contain tumor cells with optically clear nuclei (OCN) rich in biotin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These foci contained a few tumor cells with biotin-rich OCN and were determined to be squamoid corpuscles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ceramide promotes the death of human cervical tumor cells in the absence of biochemical and morphological markers of apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • C8-ceramide, a synthetic cell-permeable analog of endogenous ceramides, interfered with cell proliferation, and was cytotoxic to papilloma virus-containing human cervix carcinoma cells, CALO, INBL, and HeLa, that match two clinical stages of tumor progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The vaccine is unique to the individual participant and is engineered to trigger an immune system response to kill tumor cells that may remain following surgery. (medindia.net)
  • A major strategy for destroying cancer cells has been to disrupt the growing blood vessels that support tumor growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers systematically examined gene expression patterns in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels derived from normal resting tissues, regenerating tissues, and tumors. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers also report that in many of the tumors examined CD276 was also overexpressed by the tumor cells, making this protein a particularly attractive target because a suitable inhibitory molecule might be able to deliver a double blow: one to the tumor cells themselves and the other to the blood vessels that feed it. (innovations-report.com)
  • The present invention relates to tumor tropic stem cells, and particularly to neural stem cells, and their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic gene products to neoplastic foci. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The stem cells with tumor tropic potential are selected based on the stem cells exhibiting CXCR4 receptors or an affinity for the chemokine SDF-1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The stem cells may additionally exhibit markers characteristic of astrocytic progenitors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits markers characteristic of a precursor for astrocytic differentiated stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An Inhibitor of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain of CNK1 Selectively Blocks the Growth of Mutant KRAS Cells and Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • If protein markers are identified in cells present in the diseased tissue we can check the patient's serum and urine to see if the proteins can be detected. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A method and apparatus for delivery of genes, enzymes and biological agents to tissue cells, including a method and apparatus wherein treatment fluids, including genes, enzymes and biological agents, are injected into a target area of a body providing selective attachment to the specific target cells without affecting normal tissue cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • ALDH1-positive cells were more frequent in basal-like and HER2+ than in luminal tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD44+/CD24− cells were detected in 69% of all tumors with 100% of the basal-like and 52% of HER2+ tumors having some of these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that in breast cancer, the frequency of tumor cells positive for stem cell-like and more differentiated cell markers varies according to tumor subtype and histologic stage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics within primary invasive breast tumors have been shown to correlate with higher risk of distant metastasis and poor clinical outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, distant metastases frequently are composed of tumor cells with more differentiated luminal epithelial features. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The clonal evolution model emphasizes diversity for heritable traits that in combination with continuous selection allows for the expansion of tumor cells with the most favorable characteristics ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, cancer stem cells, defined as a subset of tumor cells with stem cell-like features, have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate, giving rise to a heterogeneous tumor cell population ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recently, additional markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity ( 14 ), CD133 ( 15 , 16 ), and ITGA6 ( 17 , 18 ) have also been proposed as putative markers of mammary epithelial and breast cancer stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma is a rare thyroid tumor originating from neural crest cells, the C-cell that implies several special features, secretion of different neuroendocrine markers, association with other endocrine tumors and familial appearance. (exlibris.ch)
  • Endogenous activation of the Notch pathway results in a neuroendocrine to non-neuroendocrine fate switch in 10-50% of tumour cells in a mouse model of small-cell lung cancer and in human tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Non-neuroendocrine Notch-active small-cell lung cancer cells are slow growing, consistent with a tumour-suppressive role for Notch, but these cells are also relatively chemoresistant and provide trophic support to neuroendocrine tumour cells, consistent with a pro-tumorigenic role. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, small-cell lung cancer tumours generate their own microenvironment via activation of Notch signalling in a subset of tumour cells, and the presence of these cells may serve as a biomarker for the use of Notch pathway inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy in select patients with small-cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • of Hes1 pos cells in TKO tumors at different stages of tumor development. (nih.gov)
  • At this time point, drug-sensitive BRCA1-deficient tumors showed DNA damage, but cells were largely viable. (mcponline.org)
  • Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. (mdpi.com)
  • Selection directed to tumoral cells' surfaces lead to the identification of unknown tumoral markers. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibodies developed for biomarker ELISA can also be used in cancer therapy, especially for a marker(AGR2) that is on the cell surface of cancer cells but inside of normal cells. (dtic.mil)
  • This method can be used to detect extracellular vesicles that express general extracellular markers, such as tetraspanins or specific markers of epithelial cells, such as EpCAM. (news-medical.net)
  • In order for distant metastasis to occur, primary tumor cells must disseminate through the blood vessels and invade a distant organ site (Brabletz, 2012). (jyi.org)
  • At this distant organ site, the cancer cells undergo a Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET), the reverse process of EMT, in order to colonize and form a secondary epithelial tumor. (jyi.org)
  • Once EMT is complete, the mesenchymal cells migrate away from the primary tumor body and into the blood stream, allowing them to disseminate throughout the body and invade distant organ sites. (jyi.org)
  • Finding new treatments for cancer requires detailed studies of tumor cells, but when cells are grown in a lab on Earth, gravity affects the way they grow and the shapes they take. (nasa.gov)
  • The cells are expected to form three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), which clearly resemble the respective originating tumor. (nasa.gov)
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) allow selective targeting of cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells presenting tumor-associated surface markers, thereby minimizing systemic toxicity. (pnas.org)
  • The resulting conjugates demonstrated excellent pharmacokinetics, potent in vitro cytotoxic activity against Her2 + cancer cells, and complete tumor regression in rodent xenograft treatment models. (pnas.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is necessary for growth and survival of tumor cells and is a promising drug target for oncology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC). (plos.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that TMV contain numerous types of bioactive molecules and affect normal stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. (plos.org)
  • Here we showed that TMV isolated from tumor cells were taken up by NEC through endocytosis. (plos.org)
  • These findings offer new insights into cancer therapies and the crosstalk between tumor and endothelial cells mediated by TMV in the tumor microenvironment. (plos.org)
  • Tumor blood vessels provide nutrition and oxygen, promote tumor progression, and serve as gatekeepers for tumor cells to metastasize to other organs. (plos.org)
  • Furthermore, there are many differences at the molecular and functional levels between tumor endothelial cells (TEC) and normal EC (NEC) [3] , [4] . (plos.org)
  • Recent studies report that crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells are important for tumor progression or acceleration of tumor malignancy by secreting microvesicles (MVs) [11] , [12] . (plos.org)
  • MVs are released from various tumor cells and some progenitors of differentiated cells [14] . (plos.org)
  • Down-regulation of Id-1 and Id-3 inhibits mammary tumor-initiating capacity, induces cell apoptosis, and blocks breast cancer cells invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo [ 8 - 11 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The percent of Glut1-positive cancer cells in each tumor was correlated with known prognostic markers, and with patient outcome. (nih.gov)
  • There was no correlation between the percent of Glut1-immunoreactive cancer cells and estrogen receptor status, tumor size, or lymph node status. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments reintroducing SIM2s in human breast cancer cells allowed for the tumor suppressive characteristics to be observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of tissue contained within the skull. (springer.com)
  • Other than leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumors are the most common type of neoplasms that occur in children. (springer.com)
  • The leading cause of death from childhood neoplasms among persons up to 19 years is brain tumors. (springer.com)
  • As such, this book is a review of the most recent molecular biological research concerning brain tumors with references and comparisons to a variety of neoplastic disorders. (springer.com)
  • Patients and their families will also find the book useful as it offers a comprehensive update on new, non-classical therapeutic modality options and contains a detailed description and analysis of brain tumors. (springer.com)
  • Such an endeavor has yet to be undertaken by any other book and may prove to be the most comprehensive book on brain tumors thus far. (springer.com)
  • The development and invasion of primary brain tumors are directly influenced by the extracellular matrix. (usp.br)
  • Further study will be needed to see if this vaccine could potentially be approved to treat recurrent brain tumors. (medindia.net)
  • Avastin is a drug that is known to shrink brain tumors and is a standard therapy for recurrent GBM. (medindia.net)
  • Shirin Farivar, Reza Zati Keikha, Reza Shiari, and Farzaneh Jadali, "Expression of Bmi-1 in Pediatric Brain Tumors as a New Independent Prognostic Marker of Patient Survival," BioMed Research International , vol. 2013, Article ID 192548, 5 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The proposed models were tested on four published datasets: (1) Leukemia (2) Colon cancer (3) Brain tumors and (4) NCI cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecules, substances or altered pathways constitute tumor markers or biomarkers useful in clinical monitoring of cancer patients, because they have demonstrated to be suitable for the valuation of the patient's treatment and it efficiency. (urosario.edu.co)
  • In this proof-of-concept study, a general tumor marker pattern was developed to detect cancer based on shared biomarkers, likely indicative of cancer-related features. (nature.com)
  • Duffy MJ, Harbeck N, Nap M, Molina R, Nicolini A, Senkus E et al (2017) Clinical use of biomarkers in breast cancer: updated guidelines from the European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM). (springer.com)
  • This study examined, in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effects of dietary flaxseed on tumor biological markers and urinary lignan excretion in postmenopausal patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stability of phosphoprotein as a marker of signaling activity in human tumors using clinical samples and xenografts. (elsevier.com)
  • Experimental Design: The expression of phospho-Ser 473 -Akt (p-Akt) was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded samples from patients enrolled in a Southwest Oncology Group clinical trial of gastroesophageal junction tumors and by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in human colon tumor xenografts at various times after removal from the animal. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Clinical samples had evaluable p-Akt staining only when obtained as biopsies (9 of 13) and no staining was observed in tumors obtained as surgically resected samples (0 of 15). (elsevier.com)
  • The main objective is to explore the capacity of ctDNA to be an early marker of ovarian carcinoma recurrence after front-line treatments, i.e. to show significant modifications before clinical diagnosis of disease relapse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prognostic value of ctDNA increase for predicting a subsequent clinical, radiological (RECIST v1.1) or biological (CA-125 according to GCIG criteria) diagnosis of disease relapse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our data supported the clinical significance of PLS3 as marker for poor prognosis in lymph node-negative and triple-negative breast cancer cases, emphasising the importance of this molecule. (nature.com)
  • Clinical and biological relevance of lung tumor markers. (springer.com)
  • Niklinski J, Furman M. Clinical tumor markers in lung cancer. (springer.com)
  • Then we will study the biological and clinical significance of ATM-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Breast cancer is not a single disease but a heterogeneous group of diseases with different pathologies, biological characteristics, and clinical behavior ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors in different subtypes follow different clinical courses and respond differently to treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects: Tumor Markers. (exlibris.ch)
  • Importantly, Notch blockade in combination with chemotherapy suppresses tumour growth and delays relapse in pre-clinical models. (nih.gov)
  • PET/CT with 18 F-FDG is the gold standard for in vivo evaluation of tumor glucose metabolism and is widely used in clinical oncology. (snmjournals.org)
  • Prostate Specific Antigen as a Tumor Marker in Prostate Cancer: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. (urotoday.com)
  • The chapter provides an overview of biological and clinical aspects of PSA. (urotoday.com)
  • In contrast to several prognostic signatures for clinical outcome, markers that predict treatment efficacy have been difficult to define. (mcponline.org)
  • Actually, they comprise the second-largest category of biological medicines in clinical development, after vaccines [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Generally, cancer classification has been based primarily on the morphological appearance of the tumor, but tumors with similar histopathological appearance can follow significantly different clinical courses and show different responses to therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the time of diagnosis and again at definitive surgery, tumor tissue was analyzed for the rate of tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67 labeling index, primary end point), apoptosis, c-erbB2 expression, and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A third theme is that a large number of specific peptides, amines, and enzymes can be detected in plasma samples or tissue preparations, which identify the neuroendocrine origin of these tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Evaluation of neuron-specific enolase, tissue polypeptide antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen as markers for staging and monitoring response to therapy of lung cancer. (springer.com)
  • We also measured telomere length in 32 colorectal tumor samples and matched normal tissue. (stir.ac.uk)
  • An analysis found that patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with an experimental vaccine made from the patient's own resected tumor tissue showed an improved survival compared with historical patients who received the standard of care alone. (medindia.net)
  • We are talking about fast-growing tumors that invade normal brain tissue and are very difficult to treat," said Orin Bloch, MD, a neurosurgeon at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and lead author of the study. (medindia.net)
  • The vaccine, HSPPC-96, is produced individually for each patient using that patient's own resected tumor tissue. (medindia.net)
  • By collecting tissue from multiple epithelial sites (sampled by the physician) it is possible to compare the molecular changes seen in preinvasive to those that occur in invasive neoplasia for differential expression profiles of potential markers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • wherein said treatment fluid is selected from the group consisting of genes, viruses, proteins, inhibitors, tissue markers, bioabsorbable polymers and other biological agents and chemotherapeutic agents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Similarly, because this specialized form of radiation involves the use of multiple radiation beam angles, expert Radiation Oncologists specialized in this technique are able to safely deliver high doses of radiation, with very sharp dose gradient outside the tumor and into the surrounding normal tissue ( Figure 3 ). (uclahealth.org)
  • Tumor tissue will be analyzed for the relationship between biological markers and resistance to treatment. (knowcancer.com)
  • Considering that lysyl oxidase (LOX) and other lysyl oxidase family members (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3 e LOXL4) have both structural and functional complexity and that they are involved in vital biological processes such as cell motility, cell signaling and gene regulation, a deregulation of these proteins can lead to the genesis and tumor progression. (usp.br)
  • This method can be a robust and reproducible assay to detect various tumor markers and can be used to determine the presence and progression of the disease without enriching the sample. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemopreventive Efficacy of Inositol Hexaphosphate against Prostate Tumor Growth and Progression in TRAMP Mice. (baselinenutritionals.com)
  • Moreover, the activation of the ER pathway has been shown to contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC and in vitro studies showed that its inhibition leads to tumor regression [ 5 - 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for solid tumor progression and metastasis [1] . (plos.org)
  • 4. Germ Cell Tumors of the Ovary: Pathology, Behavior and Treatment. (exlibris.ch)
  • Pathology researchers at The Johns Hopkins University will perform centralized review of prostate tumor samples collected from 3,000 African-American men. (eurekalert.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between tumor blood flow and glucose metabolism as evaluated by dynamic first-pass 18 F-FDG PET and by proliferation and endothelial pathologic markers in the setting of newly diagnosed breast cancer. (snmjournals.org)
  • A static acquisition was performed 90 min after injection for quantification of delayed 18 F-FDG tumor uptake (standardized uptake value maximal index [SUV max ]), reflecting tumor metabolism. (snmjournals.org)
  • Tumor blood flow quantified by dynamic first-pass 18 F-FDG PET/CT is significantly associated with tumor angiogenesis as evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the setting of breast cancer, whereas tumor metabolism appears to be more associated with markers of proliferation. (snmjournals.org)
  • Thus, determination of tumor blood flow and metabolism with a single injection of 18 F-FDG could be an exciting alternative to more complex and less available techniques. (snmjournals.org)
  • Because of the Warburg effect ( 1 ), breast tumors are typically associated with an increase in tumor blood flow due to angiogenesis and an increase in glucose metabolism, but glucose metabolism and blood flow are often mismatched in breast cancer ( 2 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Major discriminatory markers that were up-regulated in the resistant model were predominantly involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty-acid synthase. (mcponline.org)
  • The new study conducted by a team of researchers led by Giles Duffield , associate professor of biological sciences and a member of the Eck Institute for Global Health at Notre Dame, undertook a series of discrete behavioral and physiological experiments to determine the relationship between the circadian system and glucose metabolism. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dietary flaxseed has the potential to reduce tumor growth in patients with breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As the molecular mechanisms that trigger metastasis are still under investigation, it has been shown that cancer metastasis involves a series of pathological changes, starting from local invasion, followed by tumor cell intravasation towards lymphatic and blood vessels and subsequent extravasation to distant organs and tissues leading to secondary tumor formation. (nature.com)
  • In the current study, we investigated whether PLS3 was a suitable marker for CTCs and for predicting prognosis in breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • We intend to learn from our patients correlating immungenic parameters of the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer with the course of the disease. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The lower levels of several growth factors that promote breast cancer and increase the expression of tumor suppressor genes. (aicr.org)
  • Maxwell F, McGlynn LM, Muir HC, Talwar D, Benzeval M, Robertson T, Roxburgh CS, McMillan DC, Horgan PG & Shiels PG (2011) Telomere attrition and decreased fetuin-A levels indicate accelerated biological aging and are implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Publications] Kaieda T.: 'Identification of a tumor-associated target antigen,ATM-1,for a human T-cell clone with sctivated killer activity and its existence in sera of cancer patients' Cancer Res. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Conclusions: Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dr. Brad St. Croix and colleagues from the National Cancer Institute at Frederick executed a series of studies aimed at identifying markers that can be used to distinguish between proliferating blood vessels in normal and diseased tissues. (innovations-report.com)
  • This proposal seeks to retain 'discard' pieces of human gynecologic tissues and 'discard' ascites fluid collected during normal surgical procedures, along with corresponding blood samples and urine, for research involving prognostic markers of disease/cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Assess the specimens for prognostic markers of gynecologic disease/cancer by molecular techniques such as DNA arrays,immunohistochemistry and ELISA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Research using human tissues and sera is making great strides in the effort to define possible markers of developing neoplasia and will promote the design of targeted cancer treatments and possible prevention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tumor cell phenotypic plasticity and intratumor diversity have significant effect on the efficacy of cancer preventative and therapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ABSTRACT The value of serum tumour markers in the prognosis of patients with breast cancer is controversial. (who.int)
  • This prospective study in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran, assessed the value of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 in 159 patients with primary breast cancer. (who.int)
  • It is best known as a marker for ovarian cancer , but it may also be elevated in other malignant cancers, including those originating in the endometrium , fallopian tubes , lungs , breast and gastrointestinal tract . (bionity.com)
  • In a study published in the journal NPJ Breast Cancer, Charles M. Perou, PhD, Melissa Troester, PhD, graduate student Heather D. Couture and colleagues reported they used a form of artificial intelligence to train a computer to identify certain features of breast cancer tumors from images. (unclineberger.org)
  • In small-cell lung cancer, an aggressive neuroendocrine lung cancer, loss-of-function mutations in NOTCH genes and the inhibitory effects of ectopic Notch activation indicate that Notch signalling is tumour suppressive. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that Notch signalling can be both tumour suppressive and pro-tumorigenic in small-cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Notch signaling triggers the tumor heterogeneity of small cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In that day cervical cancer claimed more women's lives than any other malignancy and was described by Wil liam P. Graves, the second professor of gynecology at Harvard as follows: 'Cancer of the cervix may rightly be termed of all tumors one of the most deadly and most ghastly. (exlibris.ch)
  • 7. Lymph Node Metastases from Gynecologic Cancer - Biological Concepts and Therapeutic Implications. (exlibris.ch)
  • Lung cancer candidates for SBRT are patients with small tumors - five centimeters or less - who are poor candidates for surgery due to the risk of functional deficit. (uclahealth.org)
  • In the setting of breast cancer, 18 F-FDG uptake has also been found to correlate with markers of proliferation, such as Ki67 ( 5 , 6 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • In this chapter the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a tumor marker for prostate cancer is discussed. (urotoday.com)
  • The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (prnewswire.com)
  • Anticipated technological breakthroughs will create numerous opportunities for determining genetic predisposition, detecting specific tumors, and monitoring biological response to cancer therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • In contrast to various signatures that predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients, markers that predict chemotherapy response are still elusive. (mcponline.org)
  • Furthermore, levels of marker MMP9 can be used to distinguish significant cancer from low-risk cancer because MMP9 shows an increased expression in Gleason pattern 4 tumor glands than pattern 3 tumor glands. (dtic.mil)
  • A total of 192 tumour specimens of NET of the lungs were collected, with 58 surgical specimens of typical carcinoids, 42 of atypical carcinoids, 32 of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 60 of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (omicsonline.org)
  • RESPOND will focus on both biological and social factors that may influence the development of prostate cancer in this group. (eurekalert.org)
  • The samples will be used to identify genetic markers for prostate cancer and tumor characteristics, with a special emphasis on aggressive prostate cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase as a tumor marker: its extracellular expression in human breast cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tumor blood vessels have been recognized as an important target for cancer therapy since Folkman introduced the concept that tumor growth is dependent on angiogenesis. (plos.org)
  • Therefore, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. (plos.org)
  • By analyzing data from multiple cancer types, we could evaluate prognostic models and identify gene alterations that led to tumor formation," he says. (mdanderson.org)
  • This wouldn't have been obtained by looking at tumor data from just one cancer type. (mdanderson.org)
  • After reviewing more than 2,800 samples from patients with seven types of cancer, Liang concluded that the largely ignored pseudogenes may very well be the new targets for helping medical experts discover new biological markers. (mdanderson.org)
  • These markers will allow doctors to both personalize treatments for individual patients and better equip them to predict cancer survival rates. (mdanderson.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the biological significance of Glut1 expression in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • PLAP is a tumor marker, especially in seminoma and ovarian cancer (e.g., dysgerminoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been researched that SIM2s acts in mammary gland development and has tumor suppressive characteristics specifically in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms corresponding to 1-3% of pediatric tumors. (scielo.org.co)
  • not, a more resistive book Molecular Markers of what is an version h visa is been. (nuttyb.com)
  • B book Molecular Markers of Brain confession to the invention identify I, only the L spiritus brain d: If any life occurs a information that plans completely, and she do supposed to judge with care im, depended following im successfully was her away. (nuttyb.com)
  • files Celestial and Roy Do the download molecular markers of brain tumor of both the new scale and the New South. (kir.jp)
  • find and add your Molecular markers of brain a technology or food you are to contend to cholesterol not? (eure4.de)
  • Recently, greater attention is being paid to tumor molecular markers, including inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) protein. (omicsonline.org)
  • The study also revealed 13 genes that are selectively overexpressed in tumor blood vessels. (innovations-report.com)
  • El cáncer es el resultado de la acumulación de alteraciones en moléculas con importante función en procesos celulares como proliferación, apoptosis, muerte celular y reparación génica. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Seventy-two hours after C8-ceramide treatment none of the biochemical and morphological markers characteristic of apoptosis: (a) nuclear chromatin condensation, (b) DNA fragmentation, (c) proteolysis of the caspase-3 substrate poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), and (d) appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external cell membrane, were observed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tumors were assessed for proliferation (Ki-67, the primary endpoint) and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 11. The isolated stem cell of claim 8, wherein said polypeptide is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Further studies are planned to assess the pattern value to monitor patients for tumor recurrence. (nature.com)
  • The study shows good results in the management of gonadal germ cell tumors with the established protocol and low recurrence rate in the evaluated period and high rates of children free of disease, were found a low rate of recurrence in the assessment period and high percentage of free of disease. (scielo.org.co)
  • Although current Delphi Consensus guidelines do not recommend a specific definition of biochemical recurrence after partial gland therapy, these guidelines acknowledge that serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests remain the best marker for monitoring disease after treatment. (urotoday.com)
  • The serum tumor markers arise, as a useful tool to obtain information about the disease progress and constitute as a scientific challenge to improve its applicability in early diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of the disease and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. (urosario.edu.co)
  • This article takes a retrospective review compiling 20 years of experience in diagnosis and management of these tumors in the Fundación Hospital de La Misericordia. (scielo.org.co)
  • Biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacology of fatty acid synthase, an emerging therapeutic target and diagnosis/prognosis marker. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In general, patients with basal-like tumors have worse prognosis whereas those with luminal A tumors have more favorable outcomes ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These tumors share the expression of neuroendocrine markers but present different biological features concerning e.g. mitotic rate, development of metastases and prognosis. (omicsonline.org)
  • They will grade and stage the tumors for changes related to adverse prognosis for further review. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hence, the discovery of new marker proteins for CTCs with both epithelial and mesenchymal attributes is essential for the identification of a true marker for CTCs with metastatic potential. (nature.com)
  • Although the function of most of the newly identified genes in tumor blood vessels is unclear, many of the genes encode cell surface proteins, making them appealing targets for the development of new therapeutic agents. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tumor markers in the blood help determine whether the patient is afflicted with a malign tumor and whether it is excreting markers more vigorously - involving highly specific proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Targeted mass spectrometry proteomics was developed (identifying the most suitable surrogate peptides) to measure a set of proteins secreted by cell types of prostate tumors in voided urine. (dtic.mil)
  • Tumor-derived MVs (TMV) contain bioactive molecules such as microRNAs (miRNA), mRNAs, and/or proteins inside themselves [15] . (plos.org)
  • These observations might suggest that the machinery for synthesizing and secreting currently recognizable hormones has little to do with the properties which lead to cell proliferation, tumor invasiveness or potential for metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • After MET has occurred and a second epithelial tumor is established, the process of metastasis is complete. (jyi.org)
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor, composed of several different cell types, with controversial histogenesis. (mendeley.com)
  • We previously identified a tumor-associated target antigen, ATM-1, for a human killer T-cell clone 5B5, and found the existence of ATM-1 in sera of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Physico-chemical analyses of a new tumor marker, ATM1-17, for hepatocellular carcinoma recognized by a human killer T-cell clone, and studies on the expression of the antigen in hepatoma tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The proteome of cisplatin-sensitive BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors was compared with that of cisplatin-resistant mammary tumors resembling pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma. (mcponline.org)
  • These actions show the tumor suppressive effects of SIM2s in mammary epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules. (springer.com)
  • Patients whose tumors are located centrally or close to airways or the heart have sometimes been considered poor candidates for SBRT due to higher complication rates. (uclahealth.org)
  • Moreover, our results suggest that ERβ represents a favourable prognostic factor for SCLC male patients and all SCLC patients whose tumors co-expressed chromogranin A. (omicsonline.org)
  • The most aggressive form of primary brain tumor, GBM tumors are often resistant to standard therapies and median survival is approximately three to nine months for a recurrent tumor. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast, there was no significant correlation between SUV max and endothelial markers (CD34 and CD105). (snmjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadoblastoma (GB) is regarded as an in situ form of germ cell tumor in dysgenetic gonads, and 30% of patients with GB develop a dysgerminoma/seminoma tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with rectal tumors had significantly higher levels of fetuin-A than those with colonic tumors (P = 0.045). (stir.ac.uk)
  • This phase 2 trial enrolled 41 adult patients with recurrent tumors between 2007 and 2011. (medindia.net)
  • 70.9% of patients were diagnosed with stage I. In 84,8% measuring tumor markers were obtained. (scielo.org.co)
  • Despite the fact that SBRT delivers higher biological dosage of radiation, patients have experienced fewer side effects, including radiation pneumonia. (uclahealth.org)
  • In this group, the patients will receive comprehensive cryosurgery to clear all big tumors and then receive multiple NK immunotherapies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It's a technique scientists use to analyze individual patients' tumors to identify genetic characteristics and any unique biological markers. (mdanderson.org)
  • To assess whether administrating chemoradiotherapy in patients whose tumor is controlled after 4 months of induction chemotherapy (CT) increases survival compared with continuation of the same CT in patients with unresectable, locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (knowcancer.com)
  • Given this wide range of outcomes, the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group was created to stratify patients based on presenting characteristics and tumor biology in order to guide intensity of treatment strategies. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of this biological markers detects the potential high risk gonads. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusions: Caution should be used when using phosphoprotein levels in human tumor specimens to measure intrinsic signaling activity or drug effects because of the potential for rapid dephosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Flaxseed, the richest source of mammalian lignan precursors, has previously been shown to reduce the growth of tumors in rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The identification of specific growth factors in neuroendocrine tumors may be an important area for developing predictive indices of mitogenic rate, biosecretory activity, and angiogenic invasion. (elsevier.com)
  • 2017. Oncolytic influenza A virus expressing interleukin-15 decreases tumor growth in vivo. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The researchers found that flax appears to have the potential to reduce human breast tumor growth in just a matter of weeks. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The knowledge about the biology and the prognostic markers of lung NETs is scarce and in particular it is still unclear which tumour growth factors or pathways have significant prognostic impact for each tumour subtype. (omicsonline.org)
  • Rapidly process and store the collected specimens to preserve biological integrity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The assays allow quantification of many markers simultaneously in the same bio specimens. (dtic.mil)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that 99mTc-BnAO-NT could be a hypoxia-sensitive radiotracer for monitoring hypoxic regions in a sarcoma S180 tumor. (sinap.ac.cn)
  • These results demonstrated that TEC maintain distinct biological differences from NEC as observed in tumor blood vessels in vivo. (plos.org)
  • 2004). "Testicular tumor markers: Corner-stones in the management of malignant germ cell tumors" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor Markers in Testicular Cancers" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • To make a description of gonadal germ cell tumor types in pediatric referral center in Colombia. (scielo.org.co)
  • Based upon this cursory review of peptides and other substances which may act as markers for the presence of islet cell tumors or gastrointestinal carcinoids, certain themes seem to emerge. (elsevier.com)
  • The in vitro results suggested that S180 may be better than H22 cell line in hypoxic biological evaluation of BnAO complexes. (sinap.ac.cn)
  • In the area of tumor immunology we investigate the induction and the consequences of i mmunogenic cell death . (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • C8-ceramide (3 microM) markedly reduced the tumor cell number after 48 h of treatment, an effect that endured even after the removal of C8-ceramide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3. The isolated stem cell of claim 2, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits an A2B5 astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The isolated stem cell of claim 2, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and assessing tumor tropic potential of the stem cell based upon said expression level of CXCR4, said affinity for the chemokine SDF-1, or both. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14 . The method of claim 14, wherein said stem cell exhibits an A2B5 astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 16. The method of claim 14, wherein said stem cell exhibits a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To evaluate the expression of stem cell-related markers at the cellular level in human breast tumors of different subtypes and histologic stage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, a single tumor at any given time can contain tumor cell populations with distinct molecular profiles and biological properties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Notch signalling pathway mediates cell fate decisions and is tumour suppressive or oncogenic depending on the context. (nih.gov)
  • Biopsy samples of each tumor were used to assess the Ki67 index of proliferation and immunostaining for CD34 (a panendothelial cell marker) and CD105 (a proliferation-related endothelial cell marker). (snmjournals.org)
  • The check indexes are CT scan and blood tests (including tumor markers, lymphocyte subsets and circulating tumor cell). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As there is a lot of cell to cell variability, choosing universal markers can be less efficient. (news-medical.net)
  • A fatty acid synthase blockade induces tumor cell-cycle arrest by down-regulating Skp2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The international risk stratification depends on age, stage, histology, MYCN gene amplification status, tumor cell ploidy and segmental chromosomal abnormalities. (springer.com)
  • EMT suppression allows for E-cadherin to remain and for the cell to not undergo pathological EMT associated with tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tumors occur in up to 23,000 Americans annually, and are typically treated with surgical resection of the tumor followed by chemotherapy and radiation treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Results from a new study have made it easier for scientists to distinguish between growing blood vessels in healthy tissues and those that are associated with tumors. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tumor blood vessels are different from their normal counterparts and have altered morphology, altered blood flow, enhanced leakiness, structural abnormalities in the basement membrane, and abnormal pericytes [2] . (plos.org)
  • Nevertheless, few, if any, of these markers has as yet been shown to reliably distinguish the invasive or metastatic potential of such tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Determination of tumor markers has not been very successful due to the low sensitivity and specificity of the techniques used and the requirement of large volumes of biological samples or the use of invasive methods for collecting them. (urosario.edu.co)
  • CD44 and EPCR expression was different among the four histologic groups and was lower in invasive compared with in situ tumors, especially in luminal A subtype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The goal of this study was to analyze if similar divergence in cellular phenotypes also occurs between in situ and invasive breast carcinomas and if this is associated with a particular tumor subtype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the only invasive part of the treatment, gold seeds, called fiducials, are sometimes implanted into the tumor before images are taken. (uclahealth.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining measurement of angiogenesis with antibodies to CD34 and CD105 can be used to evaluate tumor vascularization ( 10 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • We for the first time showed that endocytosis of TMV contributes to tumor angiogenesis. (plos.org)
  • This information will enable us to screen and possibly identify these protein markers in patient serum and urine to correlate with the presence of a premalignant or malignant state. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood and the most common in the first year of life. (springer.com)
  • Other animal studies found that the intake of flaxseed combined with tamoxifen can reduce tumor size to a greater extent than taking tamoxifen alone. (frontiersin.org)
  • The samples and investigation are not just exposed to the coated beads, but also to additional antibodies that have fluorescent markers bound to them. (eurekalert.org)
  • Not only can numerous biological molecules such as antibodies be detected, but also nucleic acids that indicate an infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methods of imaging tumors and infectious lesions using labeled antibodies and antibody fragments which specifically bind markers produced by or associated with tumors or infectious lesions have been disclosed, inter alia, in Hansen et al. (google.com)
  • Assays for these tumor markers are still widely marketed by a large number of manufacturers. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Contents: Biological Aspects: Regulation of Calcitonin Secretion and Calcitonin Gene Expression. (exlibris.ch)
  • Moreover, most previous studies focused on the analysis of gene expression to identify useful markers. (mcponline.org)
  • First, gene expression profiles are summarized by optimally selected Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), followed by tumor sample classification by Fuzzy C-means clustering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current microarray technology (such as high density oligonucleotide arrays and cDNA arrays) enables researchers to partially overcome this limitation, by enabling tumor subclass identification through global gene expression analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She said the study will be the first in any racial group to fully integrate genetic alterations with gene expression data, social determinants of health and markers of tumor aggression. (eurekalert.org)
  • The complex 99mTc-BnAO-NT showed a selective enrichment in tumor tissues: At 4 h, the tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.79 ± 0.98 and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 2.31 ± 0.34. (sinap.ac.cn)
  • Demonstration at tumor specific antigens in human colonic carcinomata by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. (springer.com)
  • When it comes to brain tumor research, I picture our Northwestern Medicine team climbing a mountain and with every new discovery that shows the potential to prolong survival, we are establishing a new base camp," said Andrew Parsa, MD, PhD, corresponding author of the study and chair of neurological surgery at Northwestern Memorial and the Michael J. Marchese Professor and chair of the department of neurological surgery at the Feinberg School. (medindia.net)
  • We also analyzed 73 IDCs with adjacent DCIS to determine the differences in the expression of markers by histology within individual tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knowledge about the biology and prognostic markers of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the lungs is scarce. (omicsonline.org)
  • The advantage of this visualization technique is that the optical signal provides immediate insight about whether a tumor marker protein is present in the blood, for example. (eurekalert.org)
  • Urinary profiling datasets, previously acquired by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass-spectrometry were investigated to identify a general urinary marker pattern for detection of solid tumors by targeting common systemic events associated with tumor-related inflammation. (nature.com)
  • NATO organizes a workshop to improve the detection and decontamination of biological and chemical agents. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, these strategies often lead to heterogeneous products, which make optimization of the biological, physical, and pharmacological properties of an ADC challenging. (pnas.org)
  • Changes in the composition of extracellular vesicles in the event of tumors, for example, are not very well understood. (news-medical.net)
  • In biological samples, such as urine the extracellular vesicles may be diluted to a large extent. (news-medical.net)
  • In cases such as this, additional markers for tumor or stress are used to capture the relevant extracellular vesicles. (news-medical.net)
  • Removing Id2 from the biological system therefore impacts the switching off and on of other downstream genes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Then, the prediction of marker genes is accomplished by either manual feature selection (visualizing the weighted/mean SOM component plane) or automatic feature selection (by pair-wise Fisher's linear discriminant). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our models identify marker genes with predictive potential, often better than other available methods in the literature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All Biosciences graduates in Biological Sciences are eligible for graduate membership of the Royal Society of Biology. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, we illustrated two limitations in tumor classification from microarray data related to the biology underlying the data, in terms of (1) the class size of data, and (2) the internal structure of classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A biological phenomenon known as the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a key facilitator of this process. (jyi.org)