Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Monitoring, Immunologic: Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Mice, Inbred BALB CKiller Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLHepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina (May 2003). "Tumour-cell invasion and migration: diversity and escape mechanisms". Nature Reviews ... However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this regulatory network are still poorly understood. Extensive work done in ... Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism ... "A quest for the mechanism regulating global planar cell polarity of tissues". Trends in Cell Biology. 19 (7): 295-305. doi: ...
2008). "Exosomes as a tumor immune escape mechanism: possible therapeutic implications". J Transl Med. 6: 37. doi:10.1186/1479- ... The area radiated typically includes the tumor and an area surrounding the tumor. For metastatic brain tumors, radiation is ... Fetal tumors are sometimes diagnosed while still in utero. Teratoma is the most common type of fetal tumor, and usually is ... since the donor's immune cells will often attack the tumor in a phenomenon known as graft-versus-tumor effect. For this reason ...
Increase in AXL function has been linked to key mechanisms of drug resistance and immune escape by tumor cells, leading to ... In: Akslen L., Watnick R. (eds) Biomarkers of the Tumor Microenvironment. Springer, Cham. pp. 351-376.. ... The Role of Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase in Tumor Cell Plasticity and Therapy Resistance. ... from Rigel Pharmaceuticals by BerGenBio and currently undergoing six Phase II trials in various solid and hematological tumors ...
"Tumour-cell invasion and migration: diversity and escape mechanisms". Nature Reviews Cancer. 3 (5): 362-374. doi:10.1038/ ... When tumor cells metastasize, the new tumor is called a secondary or metastatic tumor, and its cells are similar to those in ... the doctor determines that the lung tumor is a secondary tumor. Still, the determination of the primary tumor can often be very ... In rare cases (e.g., of melanoma), no primary tumor is found, even on autopsy. It is therefore thought that some primary tumors ...
Bubanovic IV., of blood-thymus barrier as a mechanism of tumor and trophoblast escape. Lühikokkuvõte., Med Hypotheses. märts ... Douglas Symmers, FROM THE PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORIES OF BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, Malignant Tumors and Tumor-like Growths of the Thymic ... Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus., Nature. 22. mai 2014;509(7501):465-70. doi: 10.1038/ ... Kyung-Jae Jung, Kyung Soo Lee, Joungho Han, Jhingook Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Eun A. Kim, Malignant Thymic Epithelial Tumors: CT- ...
Different antigens are able to escape through a variety of mechanisms. For example, the African trypanosome parasites are able ... This can be achieved when the tumor recruits immunosuppressive cell subsets into the tumor's environment. Such cells include ... The most common of antigenic escape mechanisms, homologous recombination, can be seen in a wide variety of bacterial pathogens ... Cnops, Jennifer; Magez, Stefan; De Trez, Carl (2015). "Escape Mechanisms of African Trypanosomes: Why Trypanosomosis Is Keeping ...
Disruption of normal feedback mechanisms in cancer threatens tissue integrity and enables a malignant tumor to escape the ... Velnar T, Bailey T, Smrkolj V (2009-10-01). "The wound healing process: an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms". ... As a model the mechanism of fibroplasia may be conceptualised as an analogous process to angiogenesis (see above) - only the ... Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 119 (3): 149-57. doi:10.1016/S0047-6374(00)00177-9. PMID 11080534.. ...
The precise mechanisms that control escape from X-inactivation are not known, but silenced and escape regions have been shown ... Parsons, BL (2008). "Many different tumor types have polyclonal tumor origin:evidence and implications". Mutat Res. 659 (3): ... Studies in the mouse suggest that in any given cell type, 3% to 15% of genes escape inactivation, and that escaping gene ... so it is postulated that these regions of DNA have evolved mechanisms to escape X-inactivation. The genes of pseudoautosomal ...
... collectively known as tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM) can allow tumor cells to enter blood vessels. Tumors can use ... Other mechanisms include invasion through basement membranes, extravasation, and colonization of distant metastatic sites. ... Intravasation is one of several carcinogenic events that initiate the escape of cancerous cells from their primary sites. ... Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to be abundantly present in the microenvironments of metastasizing tumors. ...
The precise mechanisms that control escape from X-inactivation are not known, but silenced and escape regions have been shown ... Parsons BL (2008). "Many different tumor types have polyclonal tumor origin: evidence and implications". Mutation Research. 659 ... so it is postulated that these regions of DNA have evolved mechanisms to escape X-inactivation. The genes of pseudoautosomal ... Mechanism. Cycle of X chromosome activation. X-inactivation is part of the activation cycle of the X chromosome ...
If there is a valve mechanism which allows air to enter the skull but prevents it from escaping, a tension pneumocephalus can ... It is usually associated with disruption of the skull: after head and facial trauma, tumors of the skull base, after ...
Emerging evidence suggests that IDO becomes activated during tumor development, helping malignant cells escape eradication by ... It was originally thought that the mechanism of tryptophan oxidation occurred by base-catalysed abstraction, but it is now ... overexpress human IDO (hIDO). In tumor cells, IDO expression is normally controlled by the tumor suppressor Bin1, which is ... It has been shown that IDO permits tumor cells to escape the immune system by depletion of L-Trp in the microenvironment of ...
Tumors have the ability to escape from immune surveillance by secreting immunosuppressive TGF-β. This inhibits proliferation ... TGF-β production is the most potent mechanism of immune avoidance used by tumors. TGF-β inhibits expression of five different ... Although a tumor may be in its beginning stage and very weak, it may be giving off chemicals that inhibit the function of the ... Almost all people have suitable immune cells to fight off tumors in the body. Studies have shown that the immune system even ...
As tumors are very often capable of escaping the immune system by many ways, upregulation of specific ligands on the tumor ... "The mechanisms controlling the recognition of tumor- and virus-infected cells by NKp46". Blood. 103 (2): 664-672. doi:10.1182/ ... Therefore, the recognition of "induced self" is an important strategy for surveillance of infection or tumor transformation - ... Hayakawa, Yoshihiro (June 2012). "Targeting NKG2D in tumor surveillance". Expert opinion on therapeutic targets. 16 (6): 587- ...
"Interleukin-6 affects cell death escaping mechanisms acting on Bax-Ku70-Clusterin interactions in human colon cancer ... Other pathways CLU participates in to downplay apoptosis in tumor cells include the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and NF-κB pathway. ... As evident by its key roles in cancer development, CLU can serve as a therapeutic target for fighting tumor growth and ... Studies revealed that inhibition of CLU resulted in increased effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents to kill tumor cells. In ...
... is a dark pigment released into water by most species of cephalopod, usually as an escape mechanism. All ... Recent studies have shown that cephalopod ink is toxic to some cells, including tumor cells. In soil science, Sepia officinalis ... Charles D. Derby (2007), "Escape by Inking and Secreting: Marine Molluscs Avoid Predators Through a Rich Array of Chemicals and ... allowing the cephalopod to escape (this behaviour is often referred to as the "blanch-ink-jet manoeuvre"). ...
Cancer cells can escape apoptosis through mechanisms that suppress BIM expression or by increased proteolysis of BIM. ... Two theories of the direct initiation of apoptotic mechanisms in mammals have been suggested: the TNF-induced (tumor necrosis ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ... Krysko DV; Vandenabeele P. Phagocytosis of dying cells: from molecular mechanisms to human diseases. ISBN 978-1-4020-9292-3.. ...
van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek TB (2003). "DC-SIGN: escape mechanism for pathogens". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3 (9): 697-709. doi:10.1038/ ... though the detailed mechanism is not yet known. DC-SIGN together with other C-type lectins is involved in recognition of tumors ... Aarnoudse CA, Garcia Vallejo JJ, Saeland E, van Kooyk Y (February 2006). "Recognition of tumor glycans by antigen-presenting ...
Mechanism. PAI-2 uses a suicide inhibition mechanism (a common mechanism for serpins) to irreversibly inactivate tPA and ... as PAI-2 may have tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects. Notably, it is high expression of PAI-2 by tumor cells, not the ... At this point, two outcomes are possible: the protease escapes, leaving an inactive PAI-2; or the protease forms a permanent, ... A possible regulatory mechanism of urokinase activity". FEBS Letters. 323 (3): 279-84. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)81357-6. PMID ...
Smith, L. M.; May, R. C. (2013). "Mechanisms of microbial escape from phagocyte killing". Biochemical Society Transactions. 41 ... Boulton, S. J. (2006). "Cellular functions of the BRCA tumour-suppressor proteins". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (Pt 5 ... Morris, L. J. (1970). "Mechanisms and stereochemistry in fatty acid metabolism". The Biochemical Journal. 118 (5): 681-93. doi: ... Laskey, R. A. (1981). "Molecular mechanisms of chromatin assembly". Biochemical Society Transactions. 9 (4): 263-70. doi: ...
Cancer cells can escape apoptosis through mechanisms that suppress BIM expression or by increased proteolysis of BIM. ... Two theories of the direct initiation of apoptotic mechanisms in mammals have been suggested: the TNF-induced (tumor necrosis ... The Mechanisms of Apoptosis Kimball's Biology Pages. Simple explanation of the mechanisms of apoptosis triggered by internal ... Green D (2011). Means to an End: Apoptosis and other Cell Death Mechanisms. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor ...
This process could function as an escape mechanism to remove excess cholesterol from the cell. Heart disease is twice as common ... A study published in 2008 on mouse brain tumors supporting Warburg's cancer theory shows major abnormalities in CL content or ... 2008). "Cardiolipin and electron transport chain abnormalities in mouse brain tumor mitochondria: lipidomic evidence supporting ... composition in all tumors. Patients with anti-cardiolipin antibodies (Antiphospholipid syndrome) can have recurrent thrombotic ...
Escape loss variants (that target a single tumor antigen are likely to be less effective. Tumors are heterogeneous and antigen ... Disease stage too advanced: bulky tumor deposits actively suppress the immune system using mechanisms such as secretion of ... shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are expressed by many tumors. Unique tumor antigens result ... This enhances the anti-tumor immune response to tumor antigens released following viral lysis and provides a patient-specific ...
"Chromosomes, Leukemias, Solid Tumors, Hereditary Cancers". atlasgeneticsoncology.org. Archived from the original on 28 January ... Baarends WM, van der Laan R, Grootegoed JA (2001). "DNA repair mechanisms and gametogenesis". Reproduction. 121 (1): 31-9. doi: ... Meiotic inter-strand DNA damages caused by melphalan can escape paternal repair and cause chromosomal aberrations in the zygote ... or loss of tumor suppressor genes (see the "Mitelman Database"  and the Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and ...
When tumor cells metastasize, the new tumor is called a secondary or metastatic tumor, and its cells are similar to those in ... By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the ECM and escape. The location of the metastases is not always ... The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis ... the doctor determines that the lung tumor is a secondary tumor. Still, the determination of the primary tumor can often be very ...
In a more recent work of al-Rifaie et al., "Swarmic Sketches and Attention Mechanism", introduces a novel approach ... the possibility of using swarm intelligence to control nanobots within the body for the purpose of killing cancer tumors. ... Symmetry breaking of escaping ants. *The Wisdom of Crowds. *Wisdom of the crowd ... "Swarmic sketches and attention mechanism". Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design. Springer Berlin ...
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Tumor Escape. Defective T-cell function represents one of the major mechanisms of tumor ... Tumor Escape Mechanism Governed by Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Srinivas Nagaraj and Dmitry I. Gabrilovich ... Tumor Escape Mechanism Governed by Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Mechanism of MDSC-Inducible CD8+ T-Cell Tolerance. Although previous studies have implicated MDSC in tumor-associated CD8+ T- ...
Analysis of the genetic basis of the tumors reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms for the patient subgroups. Hypermutated ... Characterization of the immunophenotypes and antigenomes of colorectal cancers reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms and ... Characterization of the immunophenotypes and antigenomes of colorectal cancers reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms and ... Characterization of the immunophenotypes and antigenomes of colorectal cancers reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms and ...
Cancer-induced defective cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector function: another mechanism how antigenic tumors escape immune- ... This permits tumor escape from immune-mediated killing. The possibility that defects in T-cell signal transduction can be ... we hypothesize a biochemical mechanism that accounts for the unusual phenotype of antitumor T-cell accumulation in tumors, but ... suggesting that tumors or host cells recruited to the tumor site actively down-regulate antitumor T-cell immune response. ...
Analysis of the genetic basis of the tumors reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms for the patient subgroups. Hypermutated ... Non-hypermutated tumors are enriched with immunosuppressive cells, and the expression of immunoinhibitors and MHC molecules is ... We apply our strategy to a large colorectal cancer cohort (n = 598) and show that subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating ... The immunophenotypes of the tumors and the cancer antigenome remain widely unexplored, and our findings represent a step toward ...
In this paper we place the exosome-immune suppression concept in perspective of other tumor immune evasion mechanisms. We ... Interestingly, exosomes secreted by cancer cells have been demonstrated to express tumor antigens, as well as immune ... Advances in cancer therapy have been substantial in terms of molecular understanding of disease mechanisms, however these ... In this paper we place the "exosome-immune suppression" concept in perspective of other tumor immune evasion mechanisms. We ...
Evidence that tumors are immunogenic continues to accumulate. Although they frequently do express antigens in a form ... Escape Mechanisms in Tumor Immunity: An Update. Ludmila Muller Tubingen Aging and Tumour Immunology Group (TATI), Section for ... Mechanisms of Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-Mediated Apoptosis and Relationship with the Tumor Suppressor p53 Critical Reviews™ in ... Although they frequently do express antigens in a form recognizable by the host immune system, tumors commonly "escape" the ...
Not so Fas: Re-evaluating the mechanisms of immune privilege and tumor escape *Nicholas P. Restifo ... Rights & permissionsfor article Not so Fas: Re-evaluating the mechanisms of immune privilege and tumor escape . Opens in a new ... Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes *Hung T. Khong ... Rights & permissionsfor article Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes . Opens in a ...
Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas With a five-year survival rate of less than six percent, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ( ... Mechanisms of Escape from TGF? Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas Huang, Yun-Han Weill Medical College of Cornell University, ... Mechanisms of Escape from TGF? Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas With a five-year survival rate of less than six percent, ... Mechanisms of Escape from TGF? Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas. Huang, Yun-Han / Weill Medical College of Cornell University ...
Tumor-induced escape mechanisms and their association with resistance to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Publikation: Bidrag til ... Overcoming these escape mechanisms is a great challenge, but might lead to a better clinical outcome of patients and is ... This attributes to escape of the tumor from immune surveillance and development of acquired resistances during therapy. In this ... CTLA-4 blockade boosts the expansion of tumor-reactive CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer. Publikation: ...
Thus, enforcing the endosomal escape of anti-tumor toxins without affecting the integrity of other cellular membranes is of ... Figure 1. Mechanisms of endosomal escape. The three most relevant mechanisms of endosomal escape are depicted in this figure: ... Figure 1. Mechanisms of endosomal escape. The three most relevant mechanisms of endosomal escape are depicted in this figure: ... Thus, recombinant targeted toxin secreted by tumor and also possibly by stroma cells within the tumor targeted adjacent tumor ...
The acidity of the tumor microenvironment is a mechanism of immune escape that can be overcome by proton pump inhibitors ... The acidity of the tumor microenvironment is a mechanism of immune escape that can be overcome by proton pump inhibitors ... The acidity of the tumor microenvironment is a mechanism of immune escape that can be overcome by proton pump inhibitors: ... Altogether, our findings show that the acidification of the tumor microenvironment is a novel mechanism of immune escape that ...
There are also new findings on tumor immune escape mechanisms, gene amplification in drug resistance, the molecular ... The Cycle Between Angiogenesis, Perfusion, and Hypoxia in Tumors Mark W. Dewhirst, Yiting Cao, Benjamin Moeller, Chuan-Yuan Li ... The authors review physiological resistance based tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic ... Highlights include new insights into resistance to antiangiogenic therapies, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in ...
The present work shows the role of SOCS1 in murine melanoma development and the potential of SOCS1-silenced tumor cells in ... The present work aimed at analyzing the SOCS1 cell signaling and expression of proteins relevant to tumor development. An RNA ... Subcutaneous immunization with shR-SOCS1-transduced viable tumor cells rendered protection against melanoma in a syngeneic ... Tumor cells have different mechanisms to escape immunological attacks. Oncogenic driver genes can create an immunosuppressive ...
Tumor escape and primary/acquired drug resistance mechanisms * Adaptive immune cell receptor clonotypes and repertoire ... providing a multidimensional view of the tumor- and immune-related components of the tumor microenvironment from a single ... Were excited to be one of the first commercial providers of this analysis as part of ImmunoID NeXT™, the premier tumor ... incorporating several additional features that are pivotal to the understanding of tumor and immune cell interactions and how ...
Sweet escape: Sialic acids in tumor immune evasion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1846, 238-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Viral fusogenic membrane glycoproteins kill solid tumor cells by nonapoptotic mechanisms that promote cross presentation of ... Tumor selective replication of Newcastle disease virus: Association with defects of tumor cells in antiviral defence. Int. J. ... Cooperation of the tumour suppressors IRF-1 and p53 in response to DNA damage. Nature. 382, 816-818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
4. Counterregulation Mechanisms That May Lead to Posttherapy Tumor Escape. It is not uncommon both in clinical studies and ... complete tumor eradication), or prolonged remission (persistence of dormant residual tumors), or relapse (tumor escape and ... suggesting the occurrence of tumor immune escape. Many factors may contribute to tumor escape under the immune pressure imposed ... 5. Overcoming Tumor Escape with Combinatorial Treatment Strategy. The immune-tolerizing mechanisms discussed in the preceding ...
... can protect tumor cells from CTL-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo and thereby provide a mechanism of tumor escape. To analyze this ... Using two murine tumors, we directly demonstrate that cFLIP does result in escape from T cell immunity in vivo. Moreover, tumor ... mechanism for tumor clearance than has so far been anticipated and that blockade of this pathway can result in tumor escape ... can indeed serve as an efficient mechanism of immune escape by tumors. ...
New insights into the role of EMT in tumor immune escape. Stéphane Terry, Pierre Savagner, Sandra Ortiz-Cuaran, Linda Mahjoubi ... An immune escape screen reveals Cdc42 as regulator of cancer susceptibility to lymphocyte-mediated tumor suppression ... Identification of target actin content and polymerization status as a mechanism of tumor resistance after cytolytic T ... Identification of target actin content and polymerization status as a mechanism of tumor resistance after cytolytic T ...
... help prevent tumor cells from escaping immune-mediated destruction. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to ... 5. Marincola FM, Jaffee EM, Hicklin DJ, Ferrone S. Escape of human solid tumors from T-cell recognition: molecular mechanisms ... These mechanisms help tumor cells escape immune-mediated destruction. However, anti-PD-1 antibodies inhibit PD-1 binding to PD- ... Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Proc Natl ...
recently documented similar tumor escape mechanisms ( 38). In addition to the loss of MHC or P1A expression, they also ... Additional escape mechanisms must be operational, because half of the recurrent tumors continued to express MHC class I and ... Tumors that recurred after the initial regression might have escaped via tumor immunoediting mediated by memory pmel-1 T cells ... Examination of MHC class I and gp100 expression on recurrent tumors revealed that at least half of the tumors that escaped ...
Mechanisms of Immune Escape in Lymphoid Cancers. Nancy J. Boudreau, NCI, National Institutes of Health, USA Short Talk: ... Role of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils in Cancer. Johanna A. Joyce, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Tumor-Associated ... Short Talk: Targeting Colon Cancer Cell NF-kappaB Regulates Tumor-Associated Macrophage Polarization and Enhances Anti-Tumor ... These immune cells enhance tumor progression and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis, enhancing tumor cell migration, invasion ...
Team discovers new mechanism allowing tumor cells to escape immune surve. March 18, 2014 The immune system plays a pivotal role ... Cancer metastasis, the migration of cells from a primary tumor to form distant tumors in the body, can be triggered by a ... However, tumor cells are smart and have developed ways to avoid immune detection. A collaborative team of researchers at ... How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism. January 18, 2018 ...
Mechanisms promoting escape from mitotic-stress induced tumor cell death. Sinnott R, Winters L, Larson B, Mytsa D, Taus P, ... Multiple cancer testis antigens function to support tumor cell mitotic fidelity. Cappell KM, Sinnott R, Taus P, Maxfield K, ...
Escape from immunotherapy: possible mechanisms that influence tumor regression/progression. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004;53( ... tumor-associated antigen, neu in a rat mammary tumor model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;82(3):169-183.. View this article via ... One approach is to use a viral vector to deliver antigen to in situ DCs, which then activate tumor-specific T cell and antibody ... This was expected to cause infected DCs at the injection site to process and appropriately present CEA tumor antigen. Prior to ...
Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor ... Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor ... In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as ... In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as ...
Solid tumorsImmunotherapyImmunityMetastasisLymphocytesApoptosisCancersPathwaysCancerInduced tumor cellResistanceGenesLymph nodesImmunotherapiesEvasionVivoMoleculesAntitumorClinicalMetastasesImmunosuppressiveRegressionEvadePhenotypeMutationsContribute to tumorTherapeuticTargetsRole in the control of tumorSingle tumorInflammationHost immuneVaccinesSurvivalPancreatic
- It is well established that low oxygen (O 2 ) availability is a hallmark of most solid tumors in which infiltrating leukocytes experience severe hypoxia once away from nurturing blood vessels ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. (mdpi.com)
- The lungs , liver , brain , and bones are the most common metastasis locations from solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR) regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM), a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. (plos.org)
- However, enthusiasm for tumor immunotherapy is maintained by the realization that most tumor responses are durable, leading to rare chances of cure in patients with widely metastatic solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Surgical therapy for solid tumors of the abdomen and retroperitoneum carries a history replete with dogma and folklore. (cancernetwork.com)
- Minimally invasive approaches to resection of solid tumors are growing exponentially. (cancernetwork.com)
- This article reviews historical, theoretical, and technical aspects of laparoscopic resection of solid tumors. (cancernetwork.com)
- Together they undertook studies focused on genetics in acute myeloid leukemia and solid tumors, for which Dr. Eisfeld assumed a senior role. (thyroid.org)
- In patients, the status of the TSLN is one of the most significant predictors of overall survival for most clinical stage I/II solid tumors [ 3 , 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Several ICIs are already approved by the regulatory authorities, and many more are currently used in studies of several solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. (carcinogenesis.com)
- BCs have some of these markers positive only in subsets but less frequently expressed than most other solid tumors, for example, malignant melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer. (carcinogenesis.com)
- Historically the first American immuno-oncotherapy dates to the late 1800s with the use of Coley's toxin derived from bacterial exotoxins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescans that were injected into patients to treat solid tumors [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- While the roles of the adaptive immune cells and oncoviruses are well documented in many cancer types, HLA LOH has emerged as an important, potential resistance mechanism to immunotherapy. (businesswire.com)
- It is increasingly recognized that tumor cells can antagonize therapy-induced immune attacks through a variety of counterregulation mechanisms, which represent a fundamental barrier to the success of cancer immunotherapy. (hindawi.com)
- Thus, the goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit an effective antitumor immunity by engendering productive immune responses and breaking tumor-induced immune tolerance. (hindawi.com)
- One of the most promising approaches to immunotherapy for cancer is based on the recognition of tumor antigens by T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- The identification of a large number of well-defined tumor-associated antigens offers an unprecedented opportunity for cancer immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- The major goal of active-specific immunotherapy is to generate tumor-specific T cells in tumor-bearing hosts. (aacrjournals.org)
- The primary obstacle to the success of active-specific immunotherapy has been the inability of the current vaccines to elicit a strong and persistent immune response to tumor antigens, which for most tumors, particularly melanoma, are primarily self-antigens ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Lastly, potential strategies to counteract tumor immune suppression and immune escape mechanisms are discussed, because these approaches may improve the outcome of immunotherapy in patients with malignant disease. (springer.com)
- Durable tumor regression and potential cures of metastatic solid cancers can be achieved by a variety of cellular immunotherapy strategies, including cytokine therapy, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and immune-activating antibodies, when used in so-called immune-sensitive cancers such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, these immunotherapy strategies have very low tumor response rates, usually in the order of 5% to 10% of treated patients. (aacrjournals.org)
- We propose that the antitumor activity of adequately stimulated tumor antigen-specific T cells is limited by local factors within the tumor milieu and that pharmacologic modulation of this milieu may overcome tumor resistance to immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- We restrict the definition of tumor immunotherapy to mean to activate cellular cytotoxic antitumor immune responses, mostly mediated by CD8 + CTLs and natural killer (NK) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, although we have the proof of concept about the effectiveness of tumor immunotherapy, major improvements are needed in many key aspects of this type of therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- There are many factors that influence tumor response to immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Figure 1 depicts a hypothetical model of tumor immunotherapy highlighting the key steps in generating an effective antitumor immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
- Brain Tumor Immunotherapy: What have We Learned so Far? (semanticscholar.org)
- Moreover, PD-1/PDL-1, MSI high (and dMMR), and tumor mutational burden are the currently "best" predictive markers for benefit from immunotherapy. (carcinogenesis.com)
- Escape mutations can develop over time and prevent an immunotherapy from working. (drugs.com)
- The superiority of oncoviral immunotherapy relative to other approaches relies in its specificity against tumor cells and not exclusively for targeting replicating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, tumor acidity negatively regulates tumor-specific effector T cells in both human and murine experimental settings (Fig. 1A), and might indeed contribute to the dysfunction of anti-tumor immunity. (nutriforce.cn)
- The immunoediting process consists of three distinct phases: elimination (host immune cells act to destroy tumor cells), equilibrium (residual tumors persist but their outgrowth is held in check by host immunity), and escape (outgrowth of tumor cells with reduced immunogenicity and/or increased capacity to attenuate or subvert host immunity). (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, the presence of clinically apparent tumors indicates a failed attempt to control tumor progression by the host immunity due to its ineffectiveness or acquired tolerance. (hindawi.com)
- It has been proposed that the cancer immunoediting process also occurs in humans and in therapeutic settings when established tumors are confronted by the host immunity that has been subjected to therapeutic manipulations [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This calls into question whether cFLIP is sufficient to allow escape from T cell-dependent immunity. (rupress.org)
- Using two murine tumors, we directly demonstrate that cFLIP does result in escape from T cell immunity in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Here, we set out to analyze whether cFLIP overexpression can affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to T cell immunity in vivo and permit tumorigenesis. (rupress.org)
- We demonstrate that overexpression of cFLIP results in their escape from T cell immunity. (rupress.org)
- Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor immunity. (frontiersin.org)
- Nevertheless, these remarkable advances are being counteracted for striking effects on anti-tumor immunity exerted by particular molecular species of tumor-secreted glycolipids and, hence, strategies involving the use of glycolipid synthesis inhibitors are being considered. (frontiersin.org)
- This also appears to apply to tumor cells, against which the body could develop immunity as it does against pathogens, e.g. against viruses. (healthcanal.com)
- Restifo NP, Wunderlich JR. Principles of tumor immunity: biology of cellular immune responses. (springer.com)
- In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity. (mdpi.com)
- The ectodomain of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) is shed from tumor cells, and may be an important means of evading antitumor immunity. (wiley.com)
- An outcome of successful tumor immunity is the evolution of antigen-loss tumor variants. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mifepristone (RU486) treatment can interfere with cortisol signaling that can lead to suppression of tumor immunity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, novel therapies that override TSLN immunosuppression may restore effective tumor immunity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis. (mdpi.com)
- Oncolytic viruses can potentiate or restore already existing but ineffective anti-tumor immunity or induce a novel non-self antigen response. (biomedcentral.com)
- the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor. (wikipedia.org)
- Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer , distinguishing it from benign tumors . (wikipedia.org)
- Metastasis involves a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the bloodstream, via the lymphatic system, or by direct extension. (wikipedia.org)
- The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors , of which about a dozen are known. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we report that a prototypic tumor-penetrating peptide iRGD (amino acid sequence: CRGDKGPDC) potently inhibits spontaneous metastasis in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- The irregular structure leads to leakiness and predisposes tumors to metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Factors that increase vascular permeability, such as VEGF, bradykinin, and nitric oxide, improve drug distribution into tumor tissue, but can also promote metastasis by enhancing tumor cell access to and from blood vessels ( 2-4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Forced expression of miR105 in nonmetastatic tumor cells leads to enhanced vascular permeability and metastasis, whereas inhibition of miR105 in highly metastatic tumor cells suppresses metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- These effects were receptor mediated, as pretreatment with CB1/CB2 antagonists abrogated CB1/CB2 agonist-mediated effects on tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Invasion is the initial critical step in metastasis and describes changes in cell adhesion, degradation of the cell surroundings, and importantly, the motility acquired by the tumor cell that confers a migratory phenotype and allows the cell to travel through tissues. (dovepress.com)
- Accordingly, we have developed a three-dimensional in vitro culture system representative of the environment present upon secondary metastasis to quantitatively measure tumor cell invasion in this setting three-dimensionally. (aacrjournals.org)
- The majority (90%) of cancer deaths arise from the spread and dissemination of a primary tumor to secondary sites of metastasis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Current in vivo approaches to study metastasis generally involve the s.c. injection of tumor cells followed by subsequent monitoring of metastatic tumor formation at a distal site ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Recent advances in the study on tumor-initiating cells, a small subpopulation of tumor cells that contribute to tumor initiation, metastasis and drug-resistance ( 2 ), suggest that targeting these cells may lead to novel therapies that can be utilized in the reduction of risk of tumor recurrence. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Through its pro-migratory properties, c-Met has been implicated specifically in the process of tumour metastasis, demanding a better understanding of the underlying signalling pathways. (biologists.org)
- Through different pathways, tumor cells efficiently recruit stromal cells, which in turn, provide tumor cell growth signals, intermediate metabolites, and provide a suitable environment for tumor progression as well as metastasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Profound immune suppression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a well-documented fact ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We apply our strategy to a large colorectal cancer cohort (n = 598) and show that subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with distinct molecular phenotypes. (nih.gov)
- Reconstruction of the interaction network of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immunomodulatory molecules followed by a validation with 11 independent cohorts (n = 1,945) identifies BCMA as a novel druggable target. (nih.gov)
- The notion that a deficit in immune cell functions permits tumor growth has received experimental support with the discovery of several different biochemical defects in T lymphocytes that infiltrate cancers. (nih.gov)
- We have recently reported that lowering the pH to values that are frequently detected in tumors causes reversible anergy in both human and mouse CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. (nutriforce.cn)
- We have recently shown that lowering the pH to values most frequently detected within the tumor mass (pH 6 C6.5) causes the establishment of a state of anergy in both human and mouse tumor-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. (nutriforce.cn)
- We have also found that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) obtained from B16 melanomas, whose extracellular pH is approximately 6.5 (as specifically measured by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy), display a similar anergic phenotype. (nutriforce.cn)
- 50% of melanoma patients experienced tumor regression after they were reconstituted with a large number of activated tumor reactive lymphocytes after chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion ( 11 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Immunosurveillance is exerted mostly by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) while specific immune suppression is associated with tumor malignancy and progression. (hindawi.com)
- Migration of dendritic cells (DC) from the tumor environment to the T cell cortex in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) is essential for priming naïve T lymphocytes (TL) to tumor antigen (Ag). (jove.com)
- In addition, we found that combination therapy increased the capacity of TSLN lymphocytes to produce Granzyme B in response to tumor cell targets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Efficient presentation of tumor epitopes by MHC class I molecules on the cell surface is a prerequisite for the elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes. (hu-berlin.de)
- Human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are potent effector cells involved in clearance of virus-infected cells and tumors. (bloodjournal.org)
- However, cytotoxic T cell-induced apoptosis, which is critically involved in tumor control in vivo, is not inhibited by cFLIP in vitro, as only CD95- and not perforin-dependent lysis is affected. (rupress.org)
- Therefore, our data indicate that CD95-dependent apoptosis constitutes a more prominent mechanism for tumor clearance than has so far been anticipated and that blockade of this pathway can result in tumor escape even when the perforin pathway is operational. (rupress.org)
- Several mechanisms have been proposed over the last few years that can interfere with death receptor-induced apoptosis ( 7 )( 9 ). (rupress.org)
- Reduced proliferation and vascularization, along with increased apoptosis, were observed in tumors obtained from animals treated with JWH-133 and Win55,212-2. (aacrjournals.org)
- Upon further elucidation into the molecular mechanism, we observed that both CB1 and CB2 agonists inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, a key signaling molecule controlling cell survival, migration, and apoptosis, and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and activity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Overexpression of antiapoptotic genes is one of mechanisms to escape cancer cell apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- But when the team experimentally inhibited apoptosis, tumor-like growths emerged at the base of the cell layer. (medindia.net)
- Characterization of the immunophenotypes and antigenomes of colorectal cancers reveals distinct tumor escape mechanisms and novel targets for immun. (nih.gov)
- PhD candidates within CANBIO will be engaged in a collaborative and interdisciplinary endeavour to deliver novel insight into tumour escape mechanisms, disease monitoring and large scale data analysis in highly malignant cancers. (crp-sante.lu)
- Whole exome sequencing revealed that colorectal cancers with high mutational load (MSI-H) predominantly use "immunoediting" to escape immune surveillance while colorectal cancers with low mutational load (MSS) use oncogenic signaling to escape from the immune response, according to data presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, held Oct. 26-30. (medicalxpress.com)
- Cancers of the brain and spine are the second most common kind of tumor in children, after cancers of the blood and bone marrow. (elifesciences.org)
- The fact that loss of p27 in epithelial cancers correlates significantly with high tumor grade indicates that p27 might play crucial roles in tumor progression ( Slingerland and Pagano, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
- Other cancers may only be accessible for immunological check-point inhibitors if microsatellite instability is present and a high number of mutations are characterizing the tumor genome. (uib.no)
- When these small molecule inhibitors fail -because most will sooner or later fail in solid cancers - various escape mechanism may have been trigged. (uib.no)
- Whether Scribble or Discs Large act as tumor suppressors in human cancers is under investigation. (medindia.net)
- mediates tumor suppression in the pancreas and to identify targetable signaling pathways that cause failure of TGF? (grantome.com)
- competent PDAC and (b) to define a mechanism for the crosstalk between the two pathways using gene expression profiling. (grantome.com)
- Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas Understanding the signaling pathways that determine the success of TGF? (grantome.com)
- This review focuses on the role of the WASP/WAVE family in breast cancer cell invasion and migration and how this relates to the molecular mechanisms of WASP/WAVE activity, their exact contributions to the stages of cancer progression, and how this can lead to the development of anticancer drugs that target the WASP/WAVE family and related pathways. (dovepress.com)
- We designed this comprehensive assay with input from our scientific advisory panel to further explore areas of immuno-oncology research, including immunophenotyping, tumor inflammation status, and immune-resistance pathways. (pharmiweb.com)
- Because it targets these three major angiogenesis signaling pathways it might prevent further tumor growth and related tumor escape mechanisms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Aberrations in components of these signal transduction pathways can lead to tumour dissemination and invasion to surrounding tissues (reviewed by Friedl and Wolf, 2003 ), playing a major role in cancer development and progression. (biologists.org)
- Half of the recurrent tumors had re-expression of the inducible Kras transgene, while the other half had no sign of the oncogene or of activation of its related molecular pathways. (eurekalert.org)
- These escape mechanisms include the simple point mutation of the binding site of the therapeutic molecule target, parallel compensatory signaling pathways and unrelated mechanisms like cell death rheostat systems that are retuned to cell survival. (uib.no)
- Poor metabolic health may therefore be a universal mechanism for colorectal cancer, acting across multiple developmental pathways. (diva-portal.org)
- Current anti-cancer immunotherapies consist of a wide range of strategies including the systemic use of monoclonal antibodies targeting co-regulatory pathways, small molecules, anti-tumor vaccines, cytokines, cell therapies and bacterial toxins (such as Coley's toxin). (biomedcentral.com)
- The mechanisms by which these immune therapies work on a cellular level include direct receptor-ligand signaling disruption, suppression of dominant tolerogenic pathways present in the tumor, and direct immune cell stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Elucidation of this mechanism of T-cell tolerance offers new opportunities for therapeutic corrections of immune escape in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Defective T-cell function represents one of the major mechanisms of tumor escape and one of the critical factors limiting the success of cancer vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
- The immunophenotypes of the tumors and the cancer antigenome remain widely unexplored, and our findings represent a step toward the development of personalized cancer immunotherapies. (nih.gov)
- Cancer-induced defective cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector function: another mechanism how antigenic tumors escape immune-mediated killing. (nih.gov)
- Summarizing the literature concerning tumor-induced T-cell dysfunction, we focus on the end stage of immune response to human cancer, that of defective cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing function. (nih.gov)
- This knowledge could be exploited for gaining mechanistic insights into tumor progression and for the development of cancer immunotherapies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Advances in cancer therapy have been substantial in terms of molecular understanding of disease mechanisms, however these advances have not translated into increased survival in the majority of cancer types. (uwo.ca)
- Tumor Suppression in the Pancreas With a five-year survival rate of less than six percent, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to become the second most common cause of cancer deaths by 2030 in the United States-unless progress is made in preventing or treating it. (grantome.com)
- mediated tumor suppression in the premalignant pancreas will provide insights into the progression of pancreatic cancer. (grantome.com)
- With a better grasp of the mechanisms of signal crosstalk in pancreatic cancer progression, we will be able to design more rational treatment strategies. (grantome.com)
- MENLO PARK, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Personalis, Inc. (Nasdaq: PSNL), a leader in advanced genomics for cancer, today announced the latest expansion of its universal cancer immunogenomics platform, ImmunoID NeXT , incorporating several additional features that are pivotal to the understanding of tumor and immune cell interactions and how the nature of these interactions can impact cancer patients' ability to respond to immunotherapies and combination therapies. (businesswire.com)
- We're excited to be one of the first commercial providers of this analysis as part of ImmunoID NeXT™, the premier tumor immunogenomics platform for comprehensive biomarker evaluation in both solid and hematologic cancer indications. (businesswire.com)
- Compatible with the cancer immunoediting hypothesis, there is mounting evidence that a natural, unmanipulated host immune system can detect and respond to a developing tumor. (hindawi.com)
- This finding has important implications for diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and may be relevant to wound healing mechanisms in other tissues," said Dr. Joshua Mendell, CPRIT Scholar in Cancer Research, Professor of Molecular Biology, and member of the UT Southwestern Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center. (medicalxpress.com)
- Intrinsic escape mechanisms are based on cancer-inherent properties to evolve independently and circumvent the body's defence mechanisms, whereas induced escape mechanisms are evasion strategies developed in response to therapy. (crp-sante.lu)
- The CANBIO PhD training programme will tackle the major challenges of tumour escape mechanisms with the aim to develop more effective anti-cancer strategies. (crp-sante.lu)
- CANBIO aims at providing state-of-the-art training in cancer biology to next generation scientists covering molecular mechanisms of tumour progression, treatment resistance, biomarker discovery, therapeutic applications in pre-clinical disease models, as well as building computational disease models to facilitate innovative translational research. (crp-sante.lu)
- phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating Tregs could contribute differently to cancer prognosis and clinical outcomes. (mdpi.com)
- The tumor in the lung is then called metastatic breast cancer , not lung cancer . (wikipedia.org)
- Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- This problem is also integrated with the problem of cancer inflammation that has captured the attention of tumor biologists focused on transgenic mouse models and clinical settings. (keystonesymposia.org)
- The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. (plos.org)
- By understanding the mechanisms of cancer cell immune escape, it may be possible to design rational combinatorial approaches of novel therapies able to target immunosuppressive or antiapoptotic molecules in an attempt to reverse resistance to immune system control. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the Halstedian model of cancer progression, tumors grow locally, then spread to the lymph nodes, then to the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
- A single cancer cell is invisible to the naked eye but can regrow into a new tumor, a process called recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
- The data suggest that promoting immune-cell infiltration into MSS colorectal tumors by blocking certain cancer genes could potentially make them respond to immunotherapies. (medicalxpress.com)
- Grasso and colleagues used colorectal tumor exome data from 592 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 619 cases from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to examine immunoediting in MSI-H (179 cases) and MSS (1,032 cases) tumors. (medicalxpress.com)
- Surgery for cancer carries concerns of tumor dissemination related to tumor manipulation, tumor violation, and wound seeding. (cancernetwork.com)
- Kinase inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but tumors frequently develop resistance. (elifesciences.org)
- Yet brain and spine tumors kill more children than any other cancer, in part because many become resistant to treatment. (elifesciences.org)
- A recent study of BRAFi resistance in colorectal cancer highlighted difficulties with this approach with a single tumor often harboring more than one mechanism of resistance. (elifesciences.org)
- The human PC3, LNCaP or murine TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer cell lines were used to generate subcutaneous tumors in NOD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The traditional subcutaneous tumor model is less than ideal for studying colorectal cancer. (jove.com)
- Pancreatic cancer tumors addicted to mutant Kras signaling for their growth and progression have a ready-made substitute to tap if they're ever forced to go cold-turkey on the mutant oncogene, scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report in the journal Cell . (eurekalert.org)
- When researchers dialed up mutant Kras to spur pancreatic cancer growth in mice, and then shut it down, a group of recurrent tumors grew back independently of mutant Kras, reliant on a different oncogene. (eurekalert.org)
- The concept of cancer immunosurveillance was first proposed in 1909 by Ehrlich who suggested that evolving tumors are constantly identified and eradicated by the host immune system even before clinical manifestations occur. (carcinogenesis.com)
- Two major challenges seem to limit contemporary targeted treatment of cancer: i) mapping of tumor clonality at diagnosis and during therapy, and ii) identification of patients responding to immunological check-point inhibitors. (uib.no)
- In a recent Advaxis Phase I clinical trial, a live Lm vaccine directed against the tumor-associated antigen HPV-16-E7 was safely administered to fifteen (15) women with advanced metastatic cancer of the cervix. (drugs.com)
- The work done in the laboratory has allowed us to describe how cancer activated fibroblasts (CAFs) modulate the organization of the stromal compartment and how the new physical parameters facilitate oriented tumour cell invasion. (imim.es)
- This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invites applications from researchers with broad ranges of expertise to study the mechanisms by which alcohol increases cancer risk. (nih.gov)
- These strategies have shown improved overall survival in diverse tumor types and at different stages of progression, even in metastatic and previously incurable cancer [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The authors review physiological resistance based tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic changes that neutralize or bypass drug cytotoxicity, and genetic changes that alter drug target molecules by decreasing or eliminating drug binding and efficacy. (springer.com)
- The tumor and the immune system are at an impasse, but the tumor evolves to develop resistance to the immune system by knocking out surveillance. (medicalxpress.com)
- It seems apparent that resistance and escape mechanisms exist that prevent complete response to selective BRAF inhibitors. (thyroid.org)
- Several resistance mechanisms have already been identified, including increased expression of BRAF 's upstream regulator, RAS. (thyroid.org)
- We report here that targeting a completely different process, autophagy, can overcome multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms in brain tumors. (elifesciences.org)
- We previously reported that these tumors are autophagy-dependent and a patient was successfully treated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine after failure of the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib, suggesting autophagy inhibition overcame the kinase inhibitor resistance. (elifesciences.org)
- Genetic and pharmacological autophagy inhibition overcame molecularly distinct resistance mechanisms, inhibited tumor cell growth, and increased cell death. (elifesciences.org)
- This provides a fundamentally different strategy to circumvent multiple mechanisms of kinase inhibitor resistance that could be rapidly tested in clinical trials in patients with BRAF V600E brain tumors. (elifesciences.org)
- These findings suggested that blocking autophagy might make the medications more effective against BRAF V600E mutant tumors and overcome the resistance. (elifesciences.org)
- who include most of the researchers involved in the 2014 study - report that blocking autophagy does indeed overcome this kind of resistance in multiple types of tumor. (elifesciences.org)
- In addition to discovering a resistance mechanism for Kras-dependent tumors, the team found tumors dependent on Yap1 resemble a specific type of pancreatic tumor that provides a poor prognosis for patients who have it. (eurekalert.org)
- Tumorigenesis is a complicated and multistep process, in which successive mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes virtually result in enhanced proliferation and resistance to cell death. (spandidos-publications.com)
- HTG Molecular Diagnostics has launched the HTG EdgeSeq Precision Immuno-Oncology Panel, a research-use-only profiling panel that provides a large, comprhensive set of genes involved in the host immune response to tumors. (genomeweb.com)
- They used the MutSigCV algorithm and identified highly mutated genes that are unique for MSI-H (40 genes) and MSS (nine genes) tumors, and those that were present in both types of tumors (13 genes). (medicalxpress.com)
- This Research Use Only profiling panel provides a large, comprehensive set of genes involved in the host immune response to tumors. (pharmiweb.com)
- To identify the driving molecular mechanism for the non-Kras recurrent tumors, the team conducted an analysis to identify copy number variations of genes in the tumors. (eurekalert.org)
- In some B-cell tumors, such as CLL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), asymmetric usage of certain IGV genes occurs, consistent with a (super)antigenic drive on the COO. (bloodjournal.org)
- Researchers everywhere are fired up about the possibility of combining various types of these immunotherapies, which don't work for everybody, but do appear to work against multiple tumor types and, in some cases, to provoke long-term remissions. (xconomy.com)
- It is important to study colorectal tumors prior to treatment to assess whether the tumor is being attacked by the immune system, because immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockade will not work if the tumor is not being attacked, explained Grasso. (medicalxpress.com)
- In 3D invasion assays, and in in vivo tumor cell migration, the inhibition of Smurf1 induces a mesenchymal-amoeboid-like transition that is associated with a more invasive phenotype. (rupress.org)
- Thus, our work suggests that Smurf1, through its regulation of RhoA signaling, is a pivotal regulator of tumor cell movement in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Based on the data from several laboratories, we hypothesize a biochemical mechanism that accounts for the unusual phenotype of antitumor T-cell accumulation in tumors, but with defective killing function. (nih.gov)
- Tumor-mediated inhibition of antitumor immune responses and a high mutational burden are common features of HNCs. (aacrjournals.org)
- In 1891, Coley [ 1 ] noted a patient with small cell sarcoma cleared of disease following an erysipelas infection, proposing an anti-infectious mechanism with antitumor effects. (mdpi.com)
- Overcoming these escape mechanisms is a great challenge, but might lead to a better clinical outcome of patients and is therefore currently a major focus of research. (regionh.dk)
- In clinical trials, significant reduction or even complete elimination of primary tumors and established metastases has been reported. (springer.com)
- we investigate i) the mechanisms of severe malaria, focusing on the role of type I interferon promoting poor clinical outcomes. (yu.edu)
- We also discuss the impact of current therapeutic modalities on Treg biology and the therapeutic opportunities for targeting Tregs to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and clinical benefits. (mdpi.com)
- Dr. Antonio Di Cristofano, Chair, ATA Research Committee, says, "The ATA research grant program represents a unique and invaluable mechanism to foster the development of a new generation of basic, translational, and clinical researchers. (thyroid.org)
- Lymphoid tumors have been pivotal in connecting cell biology to clinical observation, and this continues. (bloodjournal.org)
- Targeted protein toxins therefore have greatest potential for the treatment of residual disease and metastases in addition to surgically inaccessible, disseminated and hematopoietic tumors. (mdpi.com)
- Along with these new approaches, new anxieties have been expressed regarding oncologic outcomes for these patients, as reports of port-site metastases and widespread tumor dissemination have surfaced. (cancernetwork.com)
- Interestingly, centers of excellence for tumor surgery did not keep pace with the laparoscopy boom, primarily due to early reports of tumor dissemination and port-site metastases. (cancernetwork.com)
- Our research examines the formation of this desmoplastic response and the influence of the tumour micro-environment properties on the formation of metastases. (imim.es)
- MDSCs may exert an immunosuppressive effect in both an antigen-specific and nonspecific manner depending on their localization and the specific characteristics of the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
- It seems that in the tumor site, the immunosuppressive activity of MDSC is antigen-nonspecific and is primarily mediated by the production of nitric oxide (NO) in combination with a high arginase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Importantly, this antigen-specific nature of immune suppression may address an apparent paradox: why a number of studies have reported a lack of profound systemic immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice despite the presence of a very high number of immunosuppressive MDSC. (aacrjournals.org)
- These mechanisms are linked to genetic aberrations, so that HNCs with a high mutational load are also highly immunosuppressive. (aacrjournals.org)
- Finally, linear regression modeling identifies major determinants of tumor immunogenicity, which include well-characterized modulators as well as a novel candidate, CCR8, which is then tested in an orthologous immunodeficient mouse model. (nih.gov)
- Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall CRC and CRC subtypes by metabolic factors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression, using multiple imputation to handle missing exposure and tumor data. (diva-portal.org)
- Tumors may therefore progress by evolving variants that can evade immune responses or by developing other strategies to avoid immune control. (begellhouse.com)
- The investigators aim to learn how the immune system reacts to sarcomas and how the tumors manage to evade the immune system and continue growing. (sarcomahelp.org)
- The mechanisms leading to the establishment of a const CIITA/HLA-II tumor cell phenotype are poorly understood. (uni-due.de)
- Moreover we hypothesize that phenotype switching is further enhanced by the const CIITA-mediated 'tumor-immune circuitry' via pro-inflammatory T cell cytokines. (uni-due.de)
- ABSTRACT: Positive feedback loops drive immune cell polarization toward a pro-tumor phenotype that accentuates immunosuppression and tumor angiogenesis. (scirp.org)
- Our results highlight the importance of immune cell reprogramming as a viable strategy to eradicate a highly vascularized tumor when the strength of the immune response is characteristically weak and cell polarization to the pro-tumor phenotype has occurred. (scirp.org)
- BRAF V600E mutations occur in many pediatric brain tumors. (elifesciences.org)
- Mouse model experiments, including work by DePinho, Ying and colleagues, have demonstrated critical roles for those mutations in tumor initiation and progression. (eurekalert.org)
- Such plasticity appears in tumors that also show clonal heterogeneity, implicating that various mutations with various phenotypical properties are present in large tumors. (uib.no)
- Epitope spreading is a mechanism which can provide a continued therapeutic response when escape mutations arise in one or another antigen. (drugs.com)
- Exosomes as a Tumor Immune Escape Mechanism: Possible Therapeutic Impl" by Thomas E. Ichim, Zhaohui Zhong et al. (uwo.ca)
- These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR. (plos.org)
- Treatment of human PC3 prostate xenograft or TRAMP-C1 tumors with combination Ad5IL-12 vector and RU486 produced significantly better therapeutic efficacy in comparison to controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The finding of epitope spreading adds to the growing list of therapeutic mechanisms associated with live Lm therapy. (drugs.com)
- ADXS11-001 is a therapeutic vaccine that treats human papilloma virus (HPV) related tumors. (drugs.com)
- The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. (mdpi.com)
- Intravenously injected iRGD first targets αv integrins specifically expressed on tumor vasculature ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. (plos.org)
- Tumor immune escape mechanisms are being regarded as suitable targets for tumor therapy. (jove.com)
- NORTH BRUNSWICK, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Oct 8, 2009 - Advaxis, Inc . (OTCBB: ADXS) , the live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm ) vaccine company, in collaboration with its scientific founder and Scientific Advisory Board Chair Dr. Yvonne Paterson, have shown that epitope spreading occurs in response to a form of the Company's proprietary technology that targets tumor blood vessels (anti angiogenic antigen). (drugs.com)
- The measurement of airway DC maturation and migration allows for assessment of the kinetics of immune response during airway allergic inflammation and also assists in understanding the magnitude of the subsequent immune response along with the underlying mechanisms. (jove.com)
- Nonetheless, numerous studies have shown that tumors can be recognized and contained for extended periods by the immune response through the concerted action of the innate (via chronic inflammation orchestrated by the innate immune system) and adaptive immune responses. (carcinogenesis.com)