Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Rats, Inbred F344Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Neuroectodermal Tumors: Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (1/52805)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (2/52805)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (3/52805)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (4/52805)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (5/52805)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (6/52805)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Detailed methylation analysis of the glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) gene in prostate cancer. (7/52805)

Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of isoenzymes that provide protection to mammalian cells against electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that the CpG-rich promoter region of the pi-class gene GSTP1 is methylated at single restriction sites in the majority of prostate cancers. In order to understand the nature of abnormal methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate cancer we undertook a detailed analysis of methylation at 131 CpG sites spanning the promoter and body of the gene. Our results show that DNA methylation is not confined to specific CpG sites in the promoter region of the GSTP1 gene but is extensive throughout the CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore we found that both alleles are abnormally methylated in this region. In normal prostate tissue, the entire CpG island was unmethylated, but extensive methylation was found outside the island in the body of the gene. Loss of GSTP1 expression correlated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in both prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues whereas methylation outside the CpG island in normal prostate tissue appeared to have no effect on gene expression.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (8/52805)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

*MACPF

Wright KO, Messing EM, Reeder JE (2004). "DBCCR1 mediates death in cultured bladder tumor cells". Oncogene. 23 (1): 82-90. doi: ... Perforin is stored in granules within cytotoxic T-cells and is responsible for killing virally infected and transformed cells. ... Perforin is released by cytotoxic T cells and lyses virally infected and transformed cells. In addition, perforin permits ... Cell. 121 (2): 247-56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.033. PMID 15851031. Huang Y, Qiao F, Abagyan R, Hazard S, Tomlinson S (2006 ...

*DBC1

Wright KO, Messing EM, Reeder JE (2004). "DBCCR1 mediates death in cultured bladder tumor cells". Oncogene. 23 (1): 82-90. doi: ... Nishiyama H, Hornigold N, Davies AM, Knowles MA (Nov 1999). "A sequence-ready 840-kb PAC contig spanning the candidate tumor ... 2005). "Frequent silencing of DBC1 is by genetic or epigenetic mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancers". Hum. Mol. Genet. 14 ... "Entrez Gene: DBC1 deleted in bladder cancer 1". Habuchi T, Yoshida O, Knowles MA (June 1997). "A novel candidate tumour ...

*Omega-6 fatty acid

Tokar, Steve (2005-09-02). "Omega-6 fatty acids cause prostate tumor cell growth in culture". Medical News Today. MediLexicon ... after the cell damage has been repaired. The conversion of cell membrane arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to omega-6 prostaglandin ... Mammalian cells lack the enzyme omega-3 desaturase and therefore cannot convert omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. ... A ratio of 2.5:1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4:1 had no effect. ...

*Saos-2 cells

Fogh J, Fogh JM, Orfeo T (1977). "One hundred and twenty-seven cultured human tumor cell lines producing tumors in nude mice". ... Gundle R, Beresford JN (1995). "The isolation and culture of cells from explants of human trabecular bone". Calcif. Tissue Int ... Hausser HJ, Brenner RE (2005). "Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ... the possibility to obtain large amounts of cells in short time, and the fact that Saos-2 cells can be fully differentiated in a ...

*Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

For example, nelfinavir and atazanavir are able to kill tumor cells in culture (in a Petri dish). This effect has not yet been ... examined in humans; but studies in laboratory mice have shown that nelfinavir is able to suppress the growth of tumors in these ...

*Panobinostat

In the study, investigators found that this combination destroyed up to 65 percent of cultured pancreatic tumor cells. The ... Comparison of HDAC inhibitors in clinical development: Effect on HIV production in latently infected cells and T-cell ... Panobinostat was able to selectively target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by inducing hyperacetylation and cell ... These resting cells are not recognized by the immune system as harboring the virus and do not respond to antiretroviral drugs. ...

*Morphogenesis

... can take place also in a mature organism, in cell culture or inside tumor cell masses. Morphogenesis also ... In cell culture cells that have the strongest adhesion move to the center of a mixed aggregates of cells. Moreover, cell-cell ... One of the ways this can occur is when cells share the same cell-to-cell adhesion molecules. For instance, homotypic cell ... such as cell adhesion or cell contractility. For example, during gastrulation, clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to- ...

*INH1

Oct 15, 2008). "Small molecule targeting the Hec1/Nek2 mitotic pathway suppresses tumor cell growth in culture and in animal". ... Experiments show that INH1 potently inhibits the proliferation of multiple human breast cancer cell lines, cervical HeLa cells ... INH1, a thiazolyl benzamide compound, is a cell-permeable Hec1/Nek2 mitotic pathway inhibitor I. INH1 controls the biological ... and colon cancer cells in vitro. "biological activity of INH1 by selleckchemicals". selleck. Wu G, et al. ( ...

*Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa

"In vitro culture studies of Sutherlandia frutescens on human tumor cell lines". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 93 (1): 9-19. doi ... The village was primary designed for tourism to promote African culture and was generally ignored by the Sowetan locals, partly ... each representing the traditional cultures of the main South African tribal peoples. The Kwa-Khaya Lendaba cultural village in ...

*Temozolomide

In the laboratory, this combination indeed showed increased temozolomide activity in tumor-cell culture in vitro and in animal ... This methylation damages the DNA and triggers the death of tumor cells. However, some tumor cells are able to repair this type ... Because tumor cells that express the MGMT gene are more resistant to the effects of temozolomide, researchers investigated ... In some tumors, epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene prevents the synthesis of this enzyme, and as a consequence such tumors ...

*Pancreatic stellate cell

For example, culture supernatants from human pancreatic tumour cell lines induce PaSC proliferation and the production of ECM ... Pancreatic tumour cells stimulate the proliferation of PaSCs through the secretion of PDGF, and induce PaSC production of ECM ... Watari likened these cells to hepatic stellate cells. The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the ... Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are classified as myofibroblast-like cells that are located in exocrine regions of the ...

*Formazan

... of a soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth and drug sensitivity in culture using human and other tumor cell lines ... These formazan dyes are commonly used in cell proliferation and toxicity assays like the EpiDerm and EpiSkin tests since they ... When reduced in a cell, either enzymatically or through direct reaction with NADH or NADPH, the classical tetrazolium salt, MTT ... "A critical assessment of the use of microculture tetrazolium assays to measure cell growth and function". Growth Regul. 5 (2): ...

*Isothermal microcalorimetry

2008). Analogous successful use of IMC to determine the effects of antitumor drugs on tumor cells in culture within a few hours ... the size of the donor animal has no effect on the metabolic rate of the cell when cultured in vitro. Mammalian cells in culture ... Degradation of a culture medium in which metabolism and growth of living cells is being studied. Thus great care must be taken ... 33,000 cells is detectable. Based on this sensitivity, IMC was used to perform a large number of pioneering studies of cultured ...

*Secreted frizzled-related protein 1

... but also markedly inhibited tumor cell growth in culture, soft agar and xenografts in athymic nude mice. Growth in culture and ... showed that SFRP1 expression in UMRC3 cells (clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line) resulted in a growth-inhibited ... There are 3 types of tumor suppressor genes: Genes that affect cell growth Genes that limit the cell cycle and induce apoptosis ... should be simultaneously expressed in myeloma cells and growth of tumour cells should be inhibited upon addition of SFRP1. Chim ...

*Robert Huebner

Wallace Rowe first tried to use adenoid and tonsil tissue, before using a culture based on tumor cells. From that culture they ... After culturing and isolating the organism in laboratory mice, the pathogen they named Rickettsia akari was identified as the ... could cause normal cells to mutate and become cancerous. A specific gene matching the theorized description was discovered and ... which was discovered to be a trigger for normal cells turning cancerous. Huebner was born in Cheviot, Ohio, a western suburb of ...

*Histone deacetylase inhibitor

... are a new class of cytostatic agents that inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in culture and in vivo by inducing cell ... Histone deacetylase inhibitors exert their anti-tumour effects via the induction of expression changes of oncogenes or tumour ... "Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor CG200745 induces clonogenic cell death by modulating acetylation of p53 in cancer cells". ... The goal is for HDAC inhibitors to flush HIV from the reservoirs it builds within the DNA of infected cells, followed by a ...

*Neutron capture therapy of cancer

... of brain tumors and have shown high uptake by brain tumor cells in tissue culture (in vitro). Third, gamma rays and internal ... The selective destruction of brain tumor (glioma) cells in the presence of normal cells represents an even greater challenge ... "Quantitative imaging and microlocalization of boron-10 in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells by SIMS ion microscopy: ... In principle, NCT is a radiation therapy that could selectively deliver lethal doses of radiation to tumor cells while sparing ...

*Celecoxib

However, when the ability of all these compounds to kill tumor cells in cell culture was investigated, the antitumor potency ... For example, a recent study with malignant tumor cells showed celecoxib could inhibit the growth of these cells in vitro, but ... "COX-2 inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for celecoxib to suppress tumor cell proliferation and focus formation in ... Different from cancer prevention, cancer treatment is focused on the therapy of tumors that have already formed and have ...

*Ganglioside

... and very low concentrations of a specific ganglioside can induce differentiation of cultured neuronal tumor cells. One NANA ("M ... It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events, and appears to concentrate in ... and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell ... Ultimately the ganglion cells in the nervous system swell enormously, disturbing the normal functions of neurons. Gangliosides ...

*COX-2 inhibitor

However, when the ability of all these compounds to kill tumor cells in cell culture was investigated, it turned out that the ... a recent study with various malignant tumor cells showed that celecoxib could inhibit the growth of these cells, even though ... Functional p53 allows DNA damaged neuroblastoma cells to commit suicide through apoptosis, halting tumor growth. COX-2 up- ... itself and this anticancer effect could also be verified in highly drug-resistant tumor cells and in various animal tumor ...

*Lipoplatin

... by endocytosis by tumor cells as shown from Lipoplatin containing fluorescent lipids and imaging of the tumor cells in culture ... Lipoplatin nanoparticles once inside the tumor cell mass can fuse with the cell membrane because of the presence of the ... inside the cytoplasm to kill the tumor cell. The cell membrane is considered a significant barrier to transportation of the ... toxic molecules of cisplatin across and inside the tumor cell. The results of a Phase III trial were published in October 2011 ...

*Oncolytic herpes virus

... which may be the reason why HSV1716 effectively kills a wide range of tumour cell lines in tissue culture. An HSV1716 variant, ... while still allowing replication in tumor cells), although it also reduces replication in tumor cells as compared to wild type ... The study assessed tumour response by CT scan and FDG-PET scans, showing 67% of patients had an initial increase in tumour size ... However, tumour cells have much weaker PKR-linked defences, ... largely overcomes the reduction in replication in tumor cells ...

*MTOR inhibitors

Thus, this data is based on preclinical assays, based on in vitro cultured tumor cell lines, which suggest that the effects of ... Another reason for the limited success is that there is a feedback loop between mTORC1 and AKT in certain tumor cells. It seems ... It appears that genetic determinants predispose cancer cells to be sensitive or resistant to these compounds. Tumors that ... A G0-G1 cell-cycle blockage can be the consequence of inactivation of mTOR in hypoxia-activated pericytes and endothelial cells ...

*H295R

The initial polyclonal populations of tumor cells obtained from the patients' tumor were cultured and the resultant cell line ... All three strains grow as adherent monolayer cultures. Wang T, Rainey WE (2012). "Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines". ... Rainey WE, Saner K, Schimmer BP (2004). "Adrenocortical cell lines". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 228 (1-2): 23-38. doi:10.1016/j.mce ... Cell. Endocrinol. 351 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.08.041. PMC 3288152 . PMID 21924324. Gazdar AF, Oie HK, Shackleton CH ...

*ATP-binding cassette transporter

Discovery of the first eukaryotic ABC transporter protein came from studies on tumor cells and cultured cells that exhibited ... In addition to conferring MDR in tumor cells, ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they ... For example, the ABCB1 protein (P-glycoprotein) functions in pumping tumor suppression drugs out of the cell. Pgp also called ... ABCB1 was discovered as a protein overexpressed in certain drug resistant tumor cells. It is expressed primarily in the blood ...

*Scarring hair loss

... tumors, or traction. Primary cicatricial alopecias are further classified by the type of inflammatory cells that destroy the ... In addition, if pustules are present, cultures are taken to identify which microbes, if any, may be contributing to the ... If the stem cells and sebaceous gland are destroyed, there is then no possibility for regeneration of the hair follicle, and ... The goal of treatment is to decrease or eliminate the lymphocytic inflammatory cells that are attacking and destroying the hair ...
Conditioned medium (CM) from a human mammary carcinoma cell line, MCF-7, and ten individual clones derived from these cells was examined for the presence of transforming growth factors (TGFs). Concentrated CM from all of the MCF-7 cell lines was found to stimulate the anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney cells in soft agar and to inhibit the binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and to A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell membranes. The soft agar stimulating activity was heat stable but sensitive to treatment with dithiothreitol. EGF receptors were measured on the MCF-7 cell lines to determine whether the amount of TGFs associated with the CM from the various cell lines was correlated with the level of EGF receptors being expressed on these cells. Moreover, the intrinsic cloning efficiency of these lines in soft agar was measured to ascertain if any correlation might exist between the level of TGFs associated with these cells and the ability of these ...
Recombinant human sHer2 produced by HEK 293 and sHer2 isolated from the supernatant of the primary tumor cell culture from breast cancer patients was used in the experiments. The oligomeric status was estimated using the method of gel-filtration chromatography and electrophoresis. The stability of Her2 was determined by the change in the protein secondary structure under variation of temperature and pH values by means of CD spectroscopy. The inhibitory activity of sHer2 was analyzed in tests with Her2-expressing cell cultures. The content of sHer2 in the supernatant of primary tumor cell cultures from breast cancer patients was determined using the sandwich ELISA. Amplification of the HER2 gene in the primary tumor cells was verified employing the FISH. ...
We investigated the antiproliferative effects of extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide against human malignant CaCo-2 (colon carcinoma), Hep
Zhang M, Lykke-Andersen S, Zhu B, et al. Characterising-regulatory variation in the transcriptome of histologically normal and tumour-derived pancreatic tissues. Gut. 2018;67(3):521-533. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313146. ...
Zhang M, Lykke-Andersen S, Zhu B, et al. Characterising-regulatory variation in the transcriptome of histologically normal and tumour-derived pancreatic tissues. Gut. 2018;67(3):521-533. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313146. ...
Cytokine production by the human bladder carcinoma cell line T24 in the presence of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).: The study was initiated as an in vitro appr
BioAssay record AID 222802 submitted by ChEMBL: Growth inhibitory effect was assessed against the human prostate tumor cell line PC-3 using MTT assay.
Substantial multiplication in vitro of cloned cells from a human embryonal carcinoma cell line, Tera 2, has been obtained in a basal medium (DMEM/Hams F12,50:50, v/v) supplemented with 10 micrograms low density lipoprotein/ml, 100 micrograms high density lipoprotein/ml, 100 ng multiplication stimulating activity/ml, 100 ng insulin/ml and 1 microgram transferrin/ml. The growth rate appears to be similar to that obtained in 10% serum. Furthermore, studies on the expression of cell surface receptors revealed that cloned Tera 2 cells express high-affinity receptors for IGF-II but not for insulin. The cells also express receptors for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) even though the addition of EGF does not stimulate their proliferation in serum-free medium. These results suggest that the expression of specific growth factor receptors is not an absolute determinant of hormone responsiveness. ...
Apoptosis is a form of cell death in which the cell actively participates. Apoptosis was induced in two human leukaemic cell lines, U937 and HL-60, by incubation with a diverse array of chemical agents. Cell death was assessed by gel electrophoresis, light microscopy and flow cytometry. It was demonstrated that apoptosis involved the formation of large kilobase pair DNA fragments (20-50, 145-245 and 580 kilobase pairs) prior to, or accompanying, internucleosomal cleavage. Degradation of DNA to large kilobase pair sizes also occurred in some forms of necrosis. These fragments were similar, but not identical, to those generated during apoptosis. The identity of the endonuclease(s) responsible for DNA cleavage to large kilobase pair fragments is as yet unknown. One suggestion is that topoisomerase II might be involved. Using an HL-60 subclone with reduced topoisomerase II expression, it was shown that topoisomerase II was not necessary for the formation of large kilobase pair DNA fragments and ...
BioAssay record AID 103718 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro cytotoxicity against human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 at 8.1*10e-5M.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the CG&D Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options. ...
Polyamines (PAs) are involved in regulation of cell growth and cellular survival by interacting with processes like translation, transcription or ion transport. It is described that polyamines can induce apoptosis in mesenchymal cell lines. The aim of our study was to analyze whether the physiological PAs (putrescine, spermidine or spermine) or the PA-derivate deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel immunosuppressant, induce apoptosis in immunocompetent cells. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate which molecular mechanisms are involved in the execution of the cell death program. By means of flow cytometric analysis we found an induction of apoptosis by spermine (Spm) and DSG in quiescent and activated PBMCs, PHA generated lymphoblasts, and various tumor cell lines (Jurkat, SKW-3, U937). Moreover, DSG and Spm triggered apoptosis in human Fas-deficient cells and in cell lines MV4.11. and RS4.11., which are described to be resistant to apoptosis induction by many conventional chemotherapeutic agents. ...
1 Growth of Human Lung Tumor Cells in Culture Reen Wu Center for Comparative Respiratory Biology and Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, California,
Tumour cells release membrane micro(nano)fragments called tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV) that are believed to play an important role in cancer progression. TMV suppress/modify antitumour response of the host, but there is also some evidence for their direct interaction with cancer cells. In cancer patients TMV are
3020 A variety of human carcinoma cells express high levels of interleukin-13 receptorα2 chain, a primary binding subunit of IL-13R complex in vitro and in vivo. These receptors could be targeted by a chimeric fusion protein consisting of Interleukin-13 and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-13PE38). Microarray analysis of adrenomedullin (AM) transfected human prostate tumor PC-3 cells showed that human and rat AM up-regulated the IL-13Rα2 chain gene. We now demonstrate that IL-13Rα2 chain is also up regulated in two human breast tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and one prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line after treatment with AM. RT-PCR results confirmed that mRNAs for IL-13Rα2 were enhanced 2.5 to 4 fold in 24 and 48 hr AM treated cells, respectively compared to control cells. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that protein level of IL-13Rα2 were also increased in AM treated breast and prostate carcinoma cells. To understand the mechanism of up-regulation, ...
Choong et al. used a database of expressed proteins for a hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell line (HCC-M), separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, that they had developed previously. The separated proteins were fingerprinted by using peptide mass spectrometric techniques. From these data they could identify novel proteins that were not present in the SWISS-PROT or National Center for Biotechnology Infromation (NCBI) databases. One such protein was then taken for further analysis and was subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and the products were sequenced using mass spectrometry. The sequences were then used to search an expressed sequence tag (EST) database and 40 DNA sequences obtained were assembled into a putative open reading frame. On the basis of this consensus DNA sequence, the authors named the protein HCC-1, and confirmed and extended the sequence using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends).. A battery of bioinformatics tools was used to analyze the predicted protein, ...
Buy our SK N SH (human neuroblastoma cell line) whole cell lysate. ab3956 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers a 12-month guarantee.
By analysing a human lung tumour cell line subtraction cDNA library, we have identified and characterized a novel member of the human S100 gene family that we designated S100A14. The full-length cDNA is 1067 bp and encodes a putative protein of 104 amino acids. The predicted protein contains the S100-specific EF-hand calcium-binding domain. The gene is ubiquitously expressed in normal human tissues of epithelial origin. S100A14 transcript was found to be down-regulated in many immortalized and tumour cell lines from diverse tissues. In contrast to the tumour cell lines, S100A14 shows up-regulation at the mRNA and protein level in many human primary tumours, including lung and breast carcinomas. To elucidate mechanisms whereby S100A14 expression is enhanced in lung and breast tumours, we studied the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) on its expression. Both are ligands of ERBB receptor and induced S100A14 expression in the immortalized ...
Blockade of the ERK pathway has antitumor effects against malignant tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of JTP-70902, a novel specific MEK inhibitor, against human fibrosarcoma cells in which the ERK pathway is constitu
Cellular Biology:, Neoplasm:, Serology: Antigen, Tissue Culture:, Types of Tumors:, Transplantable Tumors: YCAB, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, Strains: BALB/C. ...
IL-13Rα2 chain has been shown to play a unique role in tumor biology. It is overexpressed in a variety of primary tumor cell cultures and tumor cell lines (13, 15-18, 25, 34), whereas normal cells including lymphoid cells, endothelial cells, and astrocytes (13, 15, 17, 26) do not express or express low levels of this cytokine receptor chain. Recent studies have demonstrated that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 chain in certain breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines resulted into loss of tumorigenicity, whereas unmodified control tumor cells formed enlarging tumor nodules when injected in immunodeficient mice (46). In another study, Terabe et al. (47) have demonstrated that the soluble form of IL-13Rα2 chain (5) can modulate immune environment and shift Th2 phenotype to a dominant Th1 phenotype. This shift resulted into resistance of 15-12RM cell-derived tumor recurrence. Thus, further investigation of the role of IL-13Rα2 chain in tumor immunology and targeting has become extremely ...
Work in this thesis was primarily involved with the characterisation of four receptors, the turkey and bovine P2Y1, and the human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, transfected into the human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1. It also describes the preliminary characterisation of two vascular smooth muscle cell types, and the generation of P2Y1-GST fusion proteins for the production of antibodies.;1321N1 cells were found to release nucleotides in response to sheer stress, but this was overcome by adaptation of the stimulation method. 1321N1 cells expressing the four receptors were assayed for PLC activity, and the rank order of agonist potency for each receptor was generally consistent with reports in the literature. Nucleotide interconversion at the surface of 1321N1 cells was also examined indirectly using the ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 and hexokinase. Although there was no significant effect of nucleotide breakdown on the agonist concentration-responses, it was found that upstream conversion of ...
Many cancer patients develop tumor-reactive immune responses against antigens that are either expressed on the surface of tumor cells or released from them into the peripheral circulation. In this study, tumor-reactive immunoglobulins, present in the sera of ovarian cancer patients, were used to identify commonly recognized tumor-associated antigens on ovarian tumor cells. Western immunoblot analysis of cellular proteins, obtained from UL-1 ovarian tumor cell line, demonstrated several commonly recognized immunoreactive proteins. Two of these proteins (Mr 32,000 and 71,000) were selected for further investigation. Cellular proteins isolated from normal human ovarian epithelia, in a similar fashion, failed to exhibit corresponding immunoreactivity to these proteins. As an additional control, sera from normal (nontumor-bearing) individuals failed to identify these proteins on Western immunoblots. Furthermore, the absorption of the ovarian cancer patients sera with normal ovarian epithelial tissue ...
Cell culture. Six gastric cancer cell lines (KE-39, KE-97, HuG1-N, HuG1-PI, ECC-10, and ECC-12) were incubated in RPMI 1640 with 10% FCS (Life Technologies/Invitrogen Corp.) at 37°C. Other tumor cell lines were maintained in DMEM with 10% FCS (Life Technologies/Invitrogen Corp.) at 37°C. FK228 (a gift from Fujisawa Corporation) was used at concentrations of 1.0 to 2.5 ng/mL.. Plasmids and transfection. pCAGF1-IG (empty vector), pCAGF1-IG-Brm, pCAGF1-IG-Brm-KR, pCAGF1-IG-BRG1, and pCAGF1-IG-BRG1-KR were prepared as described previously ( 26). All transfections were done using Lipofectamine Plus (Invitrogen Corp.).. Western blotting. An anti-Brm antibody (Transgenic, Inc.), anti-BRG1 antibody (H-88; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and anti-BAF47/Ini1 antibody (BD Transduction Laboratories) were used, and immunostaining was done as described previously ( 24).. Immunohistochemistry. Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde at 37°C for 1 h. After treatments with 0.2% Triton-X100 for 20 min at room ...
A stable LifeAct-TagGFP2 expressing human fibrosarcoma cell line Long-term actin visualization - 25 passages guaranteed Characteristics proven to be identica...
Aberrant growth factor production is a prevalent mechanism in tumourigenesis. If T-cells responded positively to a cancer-derived cytokine, this might result in selective enhancement of function within the tumour microenvironment. Here, we have chosen colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) as a candidate to test this concept. CSF-1 is greatly overproduced in many cancers but has no direct effects upon T-lymphocytes, which do not express the c-fms-encoded CSF-1 receptor. To confer CSF-1-responsiveness, we have expressed the human c fins gene in immortalized and primary T-cells. Addition of soluble CSF-1 resulted in synergistic enhancement of IL-2-driven T-cell proliferation. CSF-1 also co-stimulated the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma by activated T-cells. These effects required Y809 of the CSF-1R and activation of the Ras-MEK-MAP kinase cascade, but were independent of PI3K signalling. T-cells that express c-fins are also responsive to membrane-anchored CSF-1 (mCSF-1) which, unlike its soluble ...
IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL is a targeted fusion protein that specifically attaches to cells expressing IL-4Rs reported to be present on many different solid tumor cells of varying pathology (21) . After binding to the IL-4R, the fusion protein is internalized, and then the toxin portion of the molecule causes the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor 2 and arrests protein synthesis (22) . The cell dies by apoptosis attributable to the lack of new protein synthesis (23) . Human brain tumor cells are particularly enriched in the expression of IL-4Rs on their cell surface (9 , 10) . Although numerous preclinical safety and efficacy experiments have been performed with IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, this targeted drug has not been administered to humans before. Here we demonstrate for the first time that intraglioma administration of IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL to patients is safe. No treatmentrelated deaths or life-threatening toxicities were observed in any patient. In six of nine patients, administration of ...
Great progress has been made over the past two decades in the development of animal models for ovarian cancer. Each generation of animal model has had its advantages and limitations. The earliest models used a xenograft approach in which human ovarian tumor cells or tissues were grown in immunodeficient mice (17, 27, 32, 33, 36). The xenograft model preserved the complex interactions that occur between cancer cells and their microenvironment, including stromal-epithelial cell interactions, as well as influences of matrix proteins, growth factors, and angiogenesis. Thus, this model was a great advance over cell culture model systems and advanced the study of therapeutic interventions. However, an important weakness in the xenograft model was the lack of host immunity, which severely limited the ability to reliably predict the effect of noncancer immune-host influences on outcomes. In addition, tumors were introduced in the xenograft model rather than arising as primary lesions in the ovary, thus ...
1. Lai ZF, Shao ZQ Chen Y.-Z, He M, Huang Q and Nishi K. Effects of sasanquasaponin on ischemia and reperfusion injury in mouse hearts. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 94:313-324; 2004. 2. Nishimura Y,Chen YZ, Uemura Y, Tanaka Y, Tsukamoto H, Kanai T, Yokomizo H, Yun C, Matsuoka T, Irie A, Matsushita S. Degenerate recognition and response of human CD4+ Th cell clones: implications for basic and applied immunology. Mol Immunol. 2004 Feb;40(14-15):1089-94. Review. 3. Chen YZ, Lai ZF. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling during T cell activation and its significances (I). Chinese J. Cardiovasc. Review. 2(4):243-245; 2004. . 4. Chen YZ, Lai ZF. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling during T cell activation and its significances (II). Chinese J. Cardiovasc. Review. 2(4):328-330; 2004. . 5.Chen Y.-Z, Lai ZF, Nakatsura T, and Nishimura Y. supernatant obtained from the culture of CD4 T cells specific to non-self- or self-antigen induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cell lines. Eur. J. Immuol. Submitted ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasma-activated media (PAM) on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) obtained using HCT116 colon carcin...
This unit describes the use of retroviral vectors that can be successfully employed for gene transfer into both primary tumor cultures and established cell lines
CLS weist eine Sammlung von insgesamt 30 verschiedenen Tumorzellen des Gehirns auf (Stand: Dezember 2016). Eine bersicht ber alle derzeitigen Zelllinien isoliert aus Hirntumoren k nnen Sie unter Panel Brain Tumor cell lines. als PDF herunterladen. Die Informationen sind unterteilt in Tabelle 1, die allgemeine Daten enth lt, sowie in Tabelle 2, die Zellmarker, Tumorantigene, Mutationen sowie Zytokine, soweit bekannt, auflistet. ...
CLS weist eine Sammlung von insgesamt 30 verschiedenen Tumorzellen des Gehirns auf (Stand: Dezember 2016). Eine bersicht ber alle derzeitigen Zelllinien isoliert aus Hirntumoren k nnen Sie unter Panel Brain Tumor cell lines. als PDF herunterladen. Die Informationen sind unterteilt in Tabelle 1, die allgemeine Daten enth lt, sowie in Tabelle 2, die Zellmarker, Tumorantigene, Mutationen sowie Zytokine, soweit bekannt, auflistet. ...
Tumor-derived cell lines matched to either normal or metastatic cell lines obtained from the same patient provide a valuable resource for cancer studies. The availability of such models allows researchers to compare tumor lines to their normal counterparts.
Tumor-derived cell lines matched to either normal or metastatic cell lines obtained from the same patient provide a valuable resource for cancer studies. The availability of such models allows researchers to compare tumor lines to their normal counterparts.
Pdpk1 - Pdpk1 (untagged ORF) - Rat 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdpk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Diagnostics Market Driven by Increasing incidences of cancer : Size, Share, Trends, Growth and Forecast 2021
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To investigate the patterns of genetic lesions in a panel of 23 human multiple myeloma cell lines (HMCLs), we made a genomic integrative analysis involving FISH, and both gene expression and genome-wide profiling approaches. The expression profiles of the genes targeted by the main IGH translocations showed that the WHSC1/MMSET gene involved in t(4;14)(p16;q32) was expressed at different levels in all of the HMCLs, and that the expression of the MAF gene was not restricted to the HMCLs carrying t(14;16)(q32;q23). Supervised analyses identified a limited number of genes specifically associated with t(4;14) and involved in different biological processes. The signature related to MAF/MAFB expression included the known MAF target genes CCND2 and ITGB7, as well as genes controlling cell shape and cell adhesion. Genome-wide DNA profiling allowed the identification of a gain on chromosome arm 1q in 88% of the analyzed cell lines, together with recurrent gains on 8q, 18q, 7q, and 20q; the most frequent ...
It was reported previously that the specific aim of screening agents that would induce apoptosis in the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was completed, and that calyculin A was the most effective compound tested. Since then Cdc25 phosphatases were reported as possible key oncogenes in human breast carcinoma. In light of our results with calyculin A, it was decided that a more promising focus for the project would be the biochemical basis for the oncogenic actions of Cdc25 phosphatases in human breast carcinoma. At this time we have examined 18 compounds and discovered a Cdc25 phosphatase inhibitor, called 1f, that selectively inhibits Cdc25A,B, and C, has antiproliferative activity against and causes a G1 block in MDA-MB-231 cells. The pure form of this compound and two other compounds which selectively inhibit Cdc25 phosphatases have been made and also demonstrate an equal if not better inhibition of Cdc25 phosphatases as their combinatorial form.*HUMANS
In the present study we describe the establishment and characteristics of a new human tumor cell line (OV-1063) positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) originating from ovarian metastatic tumor cells. Analysis of the cultured cells during their in vitro adaptation period revealed while the primary culture exhibited a low proportion of CEA-positive cells, this proportion increased with culture passages and eventually more than 90% of the cells in the established line were CEA-positive. Thus, during the period of adaptation to in vitro growth, a selection for CEA-positive cells took place but the amount of CEA secreted per each positive cell seemed to be constant. Several tumor-associated characteristics were found positive on the established OV-1063 cell line. The in vitro growing cell line exhibited an abnormal chromosome pattern with a near-trisomy karyotype for some chromosomes, colony formation in soft agar as well as positive staining with a monoclonal antibody B38.1. Culture supernatants of the
A team of researchers at the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine has developed a technique for growing ovarian cancer cell lines that mimic the original tumor in long-term cultures. The technique offers hope for quickly advancing precision medicine applications for a variety of cancers by enabling clinicians to test therapies on cells from a patients own tumor in the laboratory, thus identifying the most targeted therapy for that patient. The results of the research, which was led by Tan A. Ince, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology, Scientific Director of Sylvesters Live Tumor Culture Core and Tissue Bank Core Facility, and Director of the Tumor Stem Cell Division at the Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, have been published online in the journal Nature Communications in an article entitled "Characterization of Twenty-Five Ovarian Tumour Cell Lines that Phenocopy Primary Tumours." The key to Inces research is his development ...
Cell lines are invaluable tools for biomedical research. Cancer cell lines are the foundation of cancer biology and the quest for drug treatments. Adenocarcinoma is a cancer of the epithelium (including colon) and originates in glandular tissue, such as skin surface layer and glands.. Product. These human adenocarcinoma cell lines have been previously licensed to commercial parties for research into human adenocarcinoma treatments.. These cell lines are available through Public Health England ECACC. Please make your purchase through the links below.. Imperial Innovations requests that commercial/for profit parties contact them first to discuss the terms of supply prior to Innovations authorising the release of supplies from ECACC.. ...
MMP-2 production by tumor cells has been demonstrated to play a fundamental role in ECM degradation and tumor cell invasion (for review see 5 . The recent finding of reduced tumor progression in MMP-2-deficient mice (57) highlights the importance of this molecule. In this study, we wished to determine how MMP-2 gene expression is regulated in human astroglioma cells, as a strong correlation has been observed between astroglioma invasion and MMP-2 expression (17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 27). Our results indicate that two cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, partially inhibit MMP-2 gene expression and can function together in an additive manner for near-complete inhibition of MMP-2 expression in human astroglioma cells. TNF-α/IFN-γ inhibition of MMP-2 expression was observed at several levels: on gelatinolytic activity as determined by zymography, on protein expression (both ProMMP-2 and activated MMP-2) as assessed by immunoblotting, on MMP-2 mRNA expression, and on MMP-2 promoter activity. Our results also ...
MDA-MB-435, a member of the NCI-DTP panel of 60 human tumor cell lines, has been used for decades as a model of metastatic human breast cancer. This cell line was derived at M.D. Anderson in 1976 from a pleural effusion from a 31-year old woman with a history of breast cancer (Cailleau R, Olive M, Cruciger QV. Long-term human breast carcinoma cell lines of metastatic origin: preliminary characterization. In Vitro. 1978 Nov;14(11):911-5.; Brinkley BR, Beall PT, Wible LJ, Mace ML, Turner DS, Cailleau RM. Variations in cell form and cytoskeleton in human breast carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer Res. 1980 Sep;40(9):3118-29.) Further background information on this cell line may be found at the M.D. Anderson Breast Cancer Cell Line Database.. Recent advances in gene expression analysis allow the opportunity to more fully characterize tumor cell lines. Analysis of MDA-MB-435, in conjunction with the rest of the NCI60 panel, revealed that the pattern of gene expression for MDA-MB-435 more closely ...
4Discussion. This study addressed the question of which are the cellular processes that sensitive leukemic cells induced to achieve tolerance to vincristine. To this end, the B-ALL cell line CCRF-SB was gradually exposed until cell proliferation was observed in the presence of 6nM vincristine, and the corresponding proteomic profile was compared to that of cells grown in the absence of the chemotherapeutic drug.. Chemoresistance may be intrinsic or acquired.18 The ability to tolerate high concentrations of chemotherapeutics of an intrinsically resistant cancer cell is not developed as a result of an exposition to the drugs; instead it is the result of genetic abnormalities the cell carries before exposition.18 By contrast, acquired chemoresistance is developed after the cancer cell is exposed to the drug and may be the result of molecular evolution of resistant clones.19 Experimental settings to study acquired chemoresistance include the comparison of matched paired samples at diagnosis and ...
Increase of daunorubicin and vincristine accumulation in multidrug resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells by a monoclonal antibody reacting with P- ...
Detail záznamu - Neoplastic progression of the human breast cancer cell line G3S1 is associated with elevation of cytoskeletal dynamics and upregulation of MT1-MMP - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
The cyclin-dependent kinase member, Cdk5, is expressed in a variety of cell types, but neuron-specific expression of its activator, p35, is thought to limit its activity to neurons. Here we demonstrate that both Cdk5 and p35 are expressed in the human astrocytoma cell line, U373. Cdk5 and p35 are present in the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction of this cell line and Cdk5 localizes to filopodia and vinculin-rich regions of cell-matrix contact in lamellopodia. When exposed to a 46(o)C heat shock, U373 cells change shape, lose cell-matrix contacts and show increased levels of apoptosis. To test whether Cdk5 activation might play a role in these events, U373 cells were stably transfected with histidine-tagged or green fluorescent protein-tagged constructs of Cdk5 or a dominant negative mutation, Cdk5T33. Under normal growth conditions, growth characteristics of the stably transfected lines were indistinguishable from untransfected U373 cells and Cdk5 localization was not changed. However, ...
Amphiregulin (AR) is a newly discovered glycosylated, 84-amino acid residue polypeptide growth regulator which has sequence homology to the EGF family of proteins. To obtain immunological reagents to study the biological role of AR, two synthetic peptides containing sequences corresponding to distinct regions of AR were used to generate polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. One preparation of antipeptide antibodies directed against residues 26-44 of AR (AR-Ab2) was most effective in the detection of native AR, whereas another preparation of antibodies against residues 8-26 (AR-Ab1) was found to be most efficacious in the detection of AR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. The growth of a colon carcinoma cell line, Geo, which proliferates autonomously under serum-free conditions, was stimulated by the exogenous addition of AR or EGF. Half-maximal stimulation of this growth was observed at 40 and 200 pM of EGF and AR, respectively. A mAb to the extracellular domain of the EGF receptor ...
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Additional comment: After the equilibration, the IPG gel strips were cut to size. Six mm were removed from the anodic end and 14 mm from the cathodic end. The second dimension gels were overlayered with a solution containing agarose (0.5% w/v) and Tris-glycine-SDS (25 mM-198 mM-0.1% w/v) pH 8.3 heated at about 70o C and the IPG gel strips were immediately loaded through it ...
Scale bar: 100 μm. B. The proliferation of atypical tumor cells with osteoid formation is shown. Xenografted tumor cells resemble original tumor cells. Scale bar: 50 μm. Cell growth and morphological findings in vitro UTOS-1 cells were spindle-shaped, contained several nucleoli, and formed clumps. Two weeks after initial cultivation in primary culture, the tumor cells reached subconfluence with some Pictilisib piled-up foci selleck products of cells (Figure 4A). After the cells were serially subcultured for about 3 months, they began to grow rapidly at passage 6 (Figure 4B). Figure 4 Morphology under phase-contrast microscopy. A. In primary. culture, spindle-shaped tumor cells reach subconfluence with some piled-up foci of cells. Scale bar: 100 μm. B. At passage. 6, the tumor cells begin to grow rapidly. The configuration of tumor cells is equalized after the 6th generation. Scale bar: 100 μm. This new cell line has been maintained in vitro for more than 50 passages over more than 2 years. ...
Single Cell Profiling of Circulating Tumor Cells: Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Diversity from Breast Cancer Cell Lines. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in an ovary. It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. SK-OV-3, NIH:OVCAR-3 and HO-8910 are the ovarian carcinoma cell lines derived from human ovarian tumor. Studies were carried out to determin
Abstract We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpan..
MiRNA-21 ASO reduced the colony formation capacity of human colon carcinoma cells. Human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 cells were transiently transfected wit
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 CTC CTPC Analysis of Cells Migrating from Tumor Cultures Cell Count CTC CTPC Test (Viable/ Clus- Clus- Group Sample Total) CTCs ters CTPCs ters 1 Day 2, 5, 7 ,1%/nd .sup. 70 4 44 0 Pool1,2 Day 9, 13, ,1%/nd .sup. 44 2 20 0 15 Pool1,2 Day 17, 19, 1360/12,600 0 0 4 2 21 Pool1,2 Day 23, 26, 1340/10,800 26 2 30 4 28 Pool1 Day 33 2,230/2,800.sup. 32 0 40 0 Day 35 1,700/8,500.sup. 54 0 46 0 Day 40 190/1,000 74 0 44 0 2 Day 2, 5, 7 ,1%/nd .sup. 166 0 76 2 Pool1,2 Day 9, 13, ,1%/nd .sup. 18 0 16 0 15 Pool1,2 Day 17, 19, 880/2,600 6 0 10 0 21 Pool1,2 Day 23, 26, 740/3,000 0 0 28 4 28 Pool1 Day 33 2,450/2,800.sup. 52 0 48 0 Day 35 1,420/3,500.sup. 62 0 50 0 Day 40 740/2,000 84 2 64 4 3 Day 2, 5, 7 ,1%/nd .sup. 80 0 74 0 Pool1,2 Day 9, 13, ,1%/nd .sup. 12 0 6 0 15 Pool1,2 Day 17, 19, 340/15,600 6 2 20 2 21 Pool1,2 Day 23, 26, 640/10,200 32 2 8 0 28 Pool1 Day 33 3,350/3,500.sup. 140 0 92 0 Day 35 980/2,000 46 0 34 0 Day 40 280/1,500 160 0 122 0 1Individual samples were frozen and ...
The liver is a common site of metastases from a variety of organs such as lung, breast, colon and rectum. When liver metastases occur at the time of initial diagnosis of the primary tumor, they are described as synchronous. If detected after the initial diagnosis, they are described as metachronous. The liver is frequently involved since it receives blood from the abdominal organs via the portal vein. Malignant cells detach from the primary cancer, enter the bloodstream or lymphatic channels, travel to the liver, and grow independently. We do not understand the mechanism of how a tumor cell can leave the primary site and grow in specific organs. Potentially, the environment of the liver is suitable to the growth of certain tumor cells. Once a tumor begins to grow in the liver, it receives its blood supply from the hepatic artery ...
This invention provides pharmaceutical compositions containing compounds for the treatment of neoplasia in mammals. The increase in PKG activity of a compound is determined along with COX inhibitory activity. Growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects on cultured tumor cells are also determined. Compounds that exhibit increase PKG activity, growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, but preferably not substantial prostaglandin inhibitory activity, are desirable for the treatment of neoplasia.
Ribose, Adp, Adp-ribose, Cultured Tumor Cells, DNA, Gene, Gene Expression, Gene Network, Genes, Homologous Recombination, Interferon, Mutation, Mutation, Deletion, Recombination, Suppressor Genes, Tumor, Tumor Suppressor Genes
Oligonucleotides having approximately 8 to 18 nucleotide units and a 3-tail which includes asteroid structure attached to the 3-end through the A ring of the steroid skeleton and which form substantially stable duplexes at physiological temperature, have selective cytotoxic activity against certain tumor cell lines.
Buy our Raji (human Burkitts lymphoma cell line) membrane lysate, tumor cell line. ab30126 has been validated in western blot. Abcam now offers…
Discover our worklow for the generation and culture of primary human tumor cell lines, and find out how to retain the primary tumors heterogeneity. - USA
Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abd Rahman is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Time-Lapse 2D Imaging of Phagocytic Activity in M1 Macrophage-4T1 Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells in Co-cultures
Before starting treatment some of the cancer cells will be taken from the patient and separated in the laboratory. A specially produced human virus (adenovirus) that carries the IL-2 gene will be put into the cells. The rest of the cancer cells will be stimulated to express on their surface a substance called the human CD40 ligand. These substances (IL-2 and CD40L), already naturally present in the body, are meant to help the immune system fight the cancer.. In this study, the modified cancer cells will be injected under the skin. There will be up to six shots. We do not know the best amount of special cells to use, so different patients will get different numbers of cells.. After the first three shots (if more modified cancer cells are available), patients may be able to have three additional shots. After they have received six shots, they may be able to have additional shots if the cancer has gotten smaller and more of the cells are available.. A complete history and physical examination is ...
Acid-Prepared Mesoporous Spheres (APMS) Increase Efficacy of Doxorubicin Transfer and Toxicity in Human Mesothelioma Cells, S. R. Blumen, K. Cheng, M. MacPherson, M. E. Ramos-Nino, T. A. James, D. J. Taatjes, C. C. Landry, and B. T. Mossman, Int.J. Cancer., doi: 10.1002/ijc.25666 ...
Rhomboid protease RHBDL2 is shown to cleave mammalian EGF, producing an active form that stimulates EGFR signalling. EGFR signalling is crucial in development and disease, and endogenous RHBDL2 activity is present in several tumour cell lines, suggesting that it could regulate EGFR signalling in vivo and that one should look beyond ADAMs to see the whole picture. ...
O human hepatoma cells and also virus entry into Huh 7.5 cells in infectious cell culture system.PBS and pelleted at 30,000 rpm for 2 h and stored at 270uC.
Critical Outcome Technologies Inc. released important new test results today proving that COTI-2, the companys lead oncology candidate, stops cancer cells from replicating by correcting the effects of ...
Thought to be genetically stable and identical, cancer cell lines harbor significant levels of genetic variation, which may help explain why it can be hard to reproduce findings in cell line-based research.
PromoCells Primary Cancer Culture System is a standardized, animal component-free and serum-free system for the isolation and culture of human primary tumor cells. It supports the long-term culture of cancer cells while maintaining the original tumor properties and heterogeneity with controlled stroma support. Prolonged culture allows for functional selection of malignant cells giving access to an enriched population of primary cancer cells.. An innovative solution for culturing primary cancer cells: ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Cell Lines products, including eukaryote, prokayote and stem cell lines on SelectScience.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are very important targets for cancer research. Their detection and molecular characterization enable researchers to gain new insights in the mechanism of cancer. However, detecting them against the background of normal cells in whole blood can be challenging, as it requires selective enrichment of CTCs or removal of other nucleated cells while maintaining the variability of tumor cell expression. ...
In article ,Pine.SOL.3.91.970204092639.10836C-100000 at post,, Rachel Teitelbaum ,teitelba at aecom.yu.edu, wrote: ,There was a while back a treatment I thought was promising, but have lost ,sight of the follow-up. Anyone out there know what happened? They were [description of transfecting B7 into tumor cells] Well, yeah, there are a lot of things you can transfect into a tumor cell line to make it more easily rejected when you inject it into a host (mouse); costimulatory molecules, cytokines, MHC overexpressing constructs, etc. The problem is how to direct the immunity to a pre-existing tumor. I suppose the following approach is theoretically possible: Surgical oncologist removes a tumor from patient x. A sample of the tumor cells is transfected with an immunostimulatory construct, then injected back into the patient. The injected cells might raise specific anti-tumor effector cells, and if the tumor cells were irradiated, they would be prevented from growing themselves. This would be a ...
門川 佳央 , 久保 肇 , 坂井 義治 日本消化器外科学会雑誌 40(5), 693, 2007-05-01 CiNii PDF - オープンアクセス J-STAGE 医中誌Web 参考文献3件 ...
Manassas, VA (PRWEB) February 07, 2012 -- Searching for appropriate tumor cell models often entails a time-intensive review of the literature and genomic
An increasing number of chromosomal aberrations is being identified in solid tumors providing novel biomarkers for various types of cancer and new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We applied next generation sequencing technique to analyze the transcriptome of the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line H2228 and discovered a fusion transcript composed of multiple exons of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase) and PTPN3 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor Type 3). Detailed analysis of the genomic structure revealed that a portion of genomic region encompassing Exons 10 and 11 of ALK has been translocated into the intronic region between Exons 2 and 3 of PTPN3. The key net result appears to be the null mutation of one allele of PTPN3, a gene with tumor suppressor activity. Consistently, ectopic expression of PTPN3 in NSCLC cell lines led to inhibition of colony formation. Our study confirms the utility of next generation sequencing as a tool for the ...
Cell lines are invaluable tools for biomedical research. Cancer cell lines are the foundation of cancer biology and the quest for drug treatments. Adenocarcinoma is a cancer of the epithelium (including colon) and originates in glandular tissue, such as skin surface layer and glands.. Product. These human adenocarcinoma cell lines have been previously licensed to commercial parties for research into human adenocarcinoma treatments.. These cell lines are available through Public Health England ECACC. Please make your purchase through the links below.. Imperial Innovations requests that commercial/for profit parties contact them first to discuss the terms of supply prior to Innovations authorising the release of supplies from ECACC.. ...
The low molecular weight thiol (-SH) content of a human prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCap), important to the cellular resistance to drugs and irradiation, was investigated using three forms of thiol assay each utilizing different chemistries. The composition of the mixture was examined by derivatization of the thiols with a three-fold excess of the Ellman reagent to give mixed aromatic disulfides. The components were isolated by chromatography on C18 reverse phase silica gel followed by DE52 anion exchange separation, and then analyzed by capillary electrophoresis against prepared standards. The glutathione adduct (GSSE) and an unknown disulfide (RSSE) were the major components isolated on DE52 together with two minor ones. However, from the absorbance at 325 nm, it was found that the GSSE isolated (1.5 ± 0.2 femtomoles/cell) could only account for 28.5 ± 4.3% of the total ASF thiols. It appeared that the bulk of the thiol material had not formed a stable mixed disulfide with Ellmans reagent, and
Objectives: Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) is a plant that grows in northeastern Iran; it has been used traditionally to treat various inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to investigate cytotoxic effects of S. striata extract, on the Jurkat human leukaemia cell line (T-cell leukaemia). Materials and methods: Phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography and 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picryl- hydrazyl were used to evaluate main compounds and antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on Jurkat cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, cell cycle distribution and apoptotic cell death were evaluated by propidium iodide and annexin VFITC/ propidium iodide staining. Results: These showed that the main components present in S. striata extract included flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids. Treatment with extract was significantly cytotoxic to the tumour cell line. In addition, flow cytometry analysis indicated that S. striata ...
1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D; also know as calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D, can inhibit the proliferation and promote the differentiation of human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. However, little is known about the effects of 1,25 D on the invasive ability of prostate cancer cells. We used an in vitro bioassay of cell invasion (Amgel assay) to examine the effects of 1,25 D and a "noncalcemic" vitamin D analogue, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-cholecalciferol (16-23-D3), on the invasiveness of three well-characterized human prostate carcinoma cell lines: DU 145, PC-3, and LNCaP. PC-3 and LNCaP cells were poorly invasive in Amgel and were hardly affected by treatment with 1,25 D or 16-23-D3 (, 3%). Conversely, DU 145 cells were highly invasive in Amgel, and their invasion was markedly inhibited by 1,25 D and 16-23-D3 (maximally 66 and 59.4% respectively). This effect was both dose-dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1 x 10(-7) M and 72 h. Significant inhibition of invasion was ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Prostaglandins can be synthesized in an adrenocortical carcinoma, and they can work in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. In rabbit chondrocyte and human squamous carcinoma cell lines, EGF induced the secretion of PGE2 via up-regulation of the activities of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and COX-2 (Sato et al. 1997, Huh et al. 2003). This may suggest that PGE2 acts as a secondary factor to EGF in the up-regulation of aromatase expression. Therefore, we checked whether PGE2 was secreted from NCI-H295R cells in response to EGF. In this study, NCI-H295R cells secreted PGE2 in response to EGF (Fig. 13), and PGE2 increased aromatase activity to a greater extent than other prostaglandins (Fig. 6). The inhibition of EGF-induced aromatase expression with PGE2 receptor antagonists confirmed that PGE2 is the secondary factor of aromatase expression with EGF (Fig. 14). PGE1 also increased aromatase activity to a degree similar to that of PGE2, but EGF could not stimu- late NCI-H295R cells to secrete a sufficient ...
Autophagy plays an important role in cancer because of its tumour suppressing and tumour protecting function. For tumour suppressing function at the initiation stage, ATG Beclin-1 (Fig. 1) was identified as a tumour suppressor gene as it is mono-allelically deleted in many cases including ovarian cancers (75%), breast cancers (50-70%) and prostate cancers (40%) [5]. Also, Beclin-1 is allelically deleted and weakly expressed in most human breast carcinoma cell lines while the normal epithelium cells demonstrated a much higher expression [6]. In addition, overexpression of Beclin-1 in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 cells could reduce tumourigenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation in a xenograft model [2]. Thus, low expression of Beclin-1 could favour the development of cancer. For colorectal and gastric cancers, associations were found with the down-regulation of Bif-1 and Atg2B, Atg5, Atg9B and Atg12 mutations, which led to inhibition of programmed cell death in colon cancer (Fig. 1). ...
Vitamin D (VD) protects against colon carcinogenesis by mechanisms not fully understood. We had earlier reported on the similarity in the biologic action of VD and that of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in human colon carcinoma cells. At the molecular level, the CaSR gene contains 2 VD response elements and VD stimulates the expression of CaSR. In this study, we investigated on the relationship between VD action and CaSR function. We determined and compared the action of VD in human colon carcinoma cells (CBS, Moser, Caco-2 and HCT116) and their CaSR knocked-down counterparts. VD inhibited cellular proliferation, cellular invasion, and anchorage-independent growth and stimulated the expression of p21/Waf1 but not in CaSR knocked-down cells. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the known tumor-suppressive function of VD requires functional CaSR and knocking down CaSR expression abrogated this function of VD. We recently reported that activation of CaSR in human colon carcinoma ...
Principal Investigator:YAMAGUCHI Koji, Project Period (FY):2000 - 2001, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Digestive surgery
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their high-affinity receptors contribute to the autocrine growth stimulation in several human malignancies. Here, we describe that FGF18 expression is up-regulated in 34/38 colorectal tumours and is progressively enhanced during colon carcinogenesis reaching very high levels in carcinoma. Moreover, our data suggest that FGF18 affects both tumour cells and tumour microenvironment in a pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic way. Addition of recombinant FGF18 to the culture media of slowly growing colorectal tumour cell lines LT97 and Caco-2 stimulated proliferation. Phosphorylation of externally regulated kinase 1/2 and S6 was increased already 5 min after growth factor addition. SW480 cells, endogenously producing large amounts of FGF18, were not affected in this setting, but recombinant FGF18 supported tumour cell survival under conditions of serum starvation. Down-modulation of endogenous FGF18 production by small interference RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced ...
Many types of mammalian cells can aggregate and differentiate into 3-D multicellular spheroids when cultured in suspension or a nonadhesive environment. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, multicellular spheroids resemble real tissues better in terms of structural and functional properties. Multicellular spheroids formed by transformed cells are widely used as avascular tumor models for metastasis and invasion research and for therapeutic screening. Many primary or progenitor cells on the other hand, show significantly enhanced viability and functional performance when grown as spheroids. Multicellular spheroids in this aspect are ideal building units for tissue reconstruction. Here we review the current understanding of multicellular spheroid formation mechanisms, their biomedical applications, and recent advances in spheroid culture, manipulation, and analysis techniques. ...
The nature of the signal transducing the change in cell volume to the activation of osmolyte efflux pathways for RVD in osmotically swollen cells is not clear. Two major models have been proposed, one involving Ca2+ as an intracellular second messenger and the other in which RVD is mediated through Ca2+-independent mechanisms. According to the first model, cell swelling causes an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that activates volume regulatory mechanisms. The increase in [Ca2+]i may result from Ca2+ influx, via plasma membrane channels (Christensen, 1987), or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores (McCarty and ONeil, 1992; Wu et al., 1997). The proposed effectors are mostly Ca2+-activated cation and anion channels and carriers. This model has been widely accepted as a paradigm for the involvement of Ca2+ as a transducing signal for RVD. Nevertheless, the existing evidence backing up this model is often weak and fragmentary, and the comprehensive analysis necessary to establish an active role of ...
Previously, we have demonstrated that interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is overexpressed on a variety of human cancers and can serve as target for IL-4 immunotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin. However, its expression and association with grade and clinical stage of bladder cancer has not been studied. IL-4Rα expression was examined in human bladder cancer cell lines, mouse xenografts, and biopsy specimens at mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and IHC/ISH techniques. We also examined the effect of IL-4 on proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cell lines. For tissue microarray (TMA) results, we analyzed the precision data using exact binomial proportion with exact two-sided P-values. We used Cochran-Armitage Statistics with exact two-sided P-values to examine the trend analysis of IL-4Rα over grade or stage of the bladder cancer specimens. The influence of age and gender covariates was also analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. IL-4Rα ...
Scientists discovered a new way breast cancer cells dodge the immune system and promote tumor growth, providing a fresh treatment target in the fight against the disease. While comparable mechanisms to avoid the immune system have been identified in mice with breast and other cancers, the study tested human breast tumor cells, putting researchers closer to understanding how the disease progresses in real patients.. The study, published in the journal Cancer Research, found high levels of the protein Hsp27 (heat shock protein 27) are released from human breast cancer cells and may not only render immune cells unresponsive to the tumor, but increase blood flow to the tumor as well, both of which fuel tumor growth.. "Our study is very unique because we used human breast cancer cells, which are extremely difficult to get," said Asit De, Ph.D., lead author and research associate professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Rochester Medical Center, who worked closely with physicians at ...
Phosphorylation state and protein levels measured by imaging in BRAF(V600E/D) melanoma cell lines following treatment with combinations of two compounds (immunofluorescence dataset 4 of 4) - Dataset (ID:20277) ...
We sought to optimize the conditions under which B7-mediated gene transfer could effect antitumor immunity. Transduction of murine mammary carcinoma cell lines and human breast cancer cell lines with adenoviruses expressing B7-1 led to high levels of B7 expression. The expression - of mB7-1 on melanoma cells but not mammary carcinoma cells results in reduced growth rate. Interestingly, adenovims-mediated expression of mB7-1 on mammary carcinoma cells did not result in a reduced tumor growth rate.*GENES
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been described as a population of cells that may seed metastasis, which is a reliable target for the prevention of metastases in lung cancer patients at the early stage. The culturing of CTCs in vitro can be used to study the mechanism of lung cancer metastasis and to screen antimetastasis drugs. This study aims to establish CTC cell line in vitro and explore the potential mechanism of its metastasis. A mixture of EpCAM- and EGFR-coated immunomagnetic microbeads in microfluidic Herringbone-Chip was used to capture CTCs. The CTCs, 95-D and A549 cells was evaluated by cell proliferation assays, clonal formation assays, migration assays and drug resistance. Flow cytometry and cytokine protein chip were used to detect the difference in phenotype and cytokine secretion between CTCs, 95-D and A549 cells. The NOD/SCID mice were used to study tumorigenicity, lung organ colonization and metastasis of CTCs. The H&E staining, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assay
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a precursor for coenzymes involved in energy production, biosynthesis, detoxification, and electron scavenging. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiated riboflavin (IR)...
The role of estrogen in the growth and survival of ovarian cancer cells is controversial. In this study, we investigated the changes in cell-cycle regulatory proteins in ovarian cancer cell lines after estrogen treatment to explore the role of estrog
The deleted in liver cancer (DLC-1) gene is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene for human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It can inhibit the growth and induce morphological changes of NSCLC cells in gene transfection studies. To explore the association between morphological change and DLC-1s tumor suppression function, we performed a further investigation utilizing gene transfectio
Purpose: : 2-Amino-4,4α-dihydro- 4α,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one (Phx) is known to have growth-inhibitory effects on various cell lines such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and leukemia cell lines. In this study, we examined the efficacy of Phx on the proliferation of a human retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79) both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: : We evaluated the in vitro effect of Phx on the viability and apoptosis of Y-79 cells using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of Phx on apoptosis of Y-79 cells was also evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin-V. The in vivo efficacy of subcutaneous injection of Phx was analyzed histopathologically in BALB/c nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with Y-79 cells. Results: : Phx inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Y-79 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The data obtained by flow cytometry suggest that the mechanism of proliferation inhibition is associated with apoptosis. In vivo, no ...
Purpose : The effects of zeaxanthin on uveal melanoma in experimental animal models remain unknown. We found that zeaxanthin inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of human uveal melanoma cells in vitro. We hypothesize that zeaxanthin may also have effects on uveal melanoma in vivo. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of zeaxanthin on human uveal melanoma in a nude mouse model. Methods : Cultured human uveal melanoma cells from an immortal cell line were inoculated into the choroid of nude mice. Mice were randomly divided into control group (without treatment of zeaxanthin), zeaxanthin low group and zeaxanthin high group (treated with intra-choroidal injection of zeaxanthin at 0.171 mg and 0.684 mg, respectively). After 21 days, mice were sacrificed and the eyes enucleated. Gross appearances and tumor mass was determined. Histopathological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections. Melanoma developed rapidly in the control group. Results : ...
Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting human glioblastoma cell lines as a cancer-homing transporterIdentification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting human glioblastoma cell lines as a cancer-homing transporterAA11542044 ...
The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435) and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740) at ~70X coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular loss of stop codon events). This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumour suppressor Capicua (CIC) contributes to primary tumour relapse and metastatic progression; potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell ...
Traditional Chinese medicines have been considered to be effective in treatment for thousands of years, suggesting that Chinese herbal medicines may serve as suitable candidates in drug development. In the present study, the antitumor effects of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines on H1299 NSCLC cells were screened using an in vitro kinase assay based on the activity of MAP4K3. Two candidates, APS and HCPT, were identified. HCPT was initially used as a positive control in the present study. In previous experiments, HCPT exhibited significant antitumor activity against various tumors, including lung cancer cells, human SMS-KCNR neuroblastoma cells, DU145-TxR prostate cancer cells, and hepatoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer cells (24-29). It was found that HCPT inhibited MAP4K3 kinase activity in vitro and S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in H1299 cells, however, whether HCPT was able to induce autophagy in H1299 cells remained to be elucidated. Therefore, the expression of ...
The cell lines of the NCI-60 panel represent different cancer types and have been widely utilized for drug screening and molecular target identification. Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) revealed that one cell line, EKVX, was a candidate for production of an infectious gammaretrovirus. The presence of a retrovirus infectious to human cells was confirmed by the cell-free transmission of infection to the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Amplification and sequencing of additional proviral sequences from EKVX confirmed a high degree of similarity to X-MLV. The cell line EKVX was established following passage of the original tumor cells through nude mice, providing a possible source of the X-MLV found in the EKVX cells.

tumor cells cultured Protocols and Video...'tumor cells cultured' Protocols and Video...

Isolation and Culture Expansion of Tumor-specific Endothelial Cells, An In Vitro System to Study Tumor Dormancy and the ... Capture and Release of Viable Circulating Tumor Cells from Blood, A Brain Tumor/Organotypic Slice Co-culture System for ... In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis, An Enzyme- and Serum-free Neural Stem Cell Culture Model for ... Isolation of Primary Human Colon Tumor Cells from Surgical Tissues and Culturing Them Directly on Soft Elastic Substrates for ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/tumor+cells+cultured

Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses.  -...Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses. -...

Several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells have been established and characterized in terms of gonadotropin receptors ... Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses.. ... Although freshly isolated cells derived from the M5480P tumor have functional hCG receptors, only two of the five clonal lines ... The most obvious change is an increase in the ability of the cultured cells to synthesize 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6257492?dopt=Abstract

WO/2017/156341 TUMOR CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES AND RELATED METHODSWO/2017/156341 TUMOR CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES AND RELATED METHODS

... and related methods of evaluating the potential responsiveness of the tumor cells and the patient to one or more therapeutic ... Provided are suspension-based cell culture systems and media for the timely and efficient proliferation of human tumor cell ... TUMOR CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES AND RELATED METHODS. Abstract:. Provided are suspension-based cell culture systems and media for ... and related methods of evaluating the potential responsiveness of the tumor cells and the patient to one or more therapeutic ...
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017156341

Histones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture | ScienceHistones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture | Science

Histones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture ... Histones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture ... Histones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture ... Histones and Basic Polyamino Acids Stimulate the Uptake of Albumin by Tumor Cells in Culture ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/150/3695/501

Cultured circulating tumor cells reveal genetic profile of breast cancer cells - ONACultured circulating tumor cells reveal genetic profile of breast cancer cells - ONA

... in order to track ongoing genetic mutation within a tumor. ... created a microchip device that can capture circulating tumor ... Cultured circulating tumor cells reveal genetic profile of breast cancer cells Circulating tumor cells captured with a ... Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are living solid-tumor cells that separate from either primary or secondary tumors and go on to ... Cultured circulating tumor cells reveal genetic profile of breast cancer cells. Share this content: *facebook ...
more infohttp://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/headlines/cultured-circulating-tumor-cells-reveal-genetic-profile-of-breast-cancer-cells/article/361324/

Interaction of cholera enterotoxin with cultured adrenal tumor cells. | Infection and ImmunityInteraction of cholera enterotoxin with cultured adrenal tumor cells. | Infection and Immunity

Interaction of cholera enterotoxin with cultured adrenal tumor cells.. R M Wishnow, E Lifrak, C Chen ... Interaction of cholera enterotoxin with cultured adrenal tumor cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... In the adrenal tumor cell system ganglioside Gm1 inhibited cholera enterotoxin (CT)-induced steroidogenesis if it was ... Further studies showed that pretreatment of cultured adrenal cells with a maximal dose of CT increased cyclic adenosine 3-5- ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/12/4/768

Stealth dissemination of macrophage-tumor cell fusions cultured from blood of patients with pancreatic ductal..."Stealth dissemination" of macrophage-tumor cell fusions cultured from blood of patients with pancreatic ductal...

Single cell RNASeq analyses showed that the MTFs express many transcripts implicated in cancer progression, LINE1 ... When cultured MTFs were transplanted orthotopically into mouse pancreas, they grew as obvious well-differentiated islands of ... and immunophenotypic characterizations showed that the MTFs express markers characteristic of PDAC and stem cells, as well as ... Here we describe isolation and characterization of macrophage-tumor cell fusions (MTFs) from the blood of pancreatic ductal ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184451

Omega-6 fatty acids cause prostate tumor cell growth in culture; potential drug target identified | UC San FranciscoOmega-6 fatty acids cause prostate tumor cell growth in culture; potential drug target identified | UC San Francisco

... has demonstrated that omega-6 fatty acids such as the fat found in corn oil promote the growth of prostate tumor cells in the ... Omega-6 fatty acids cause prostate tumor cell growth in culture; potential drug target identified By Steve Tokar ... When introduced into prostate tumor cells in culture, omega-6 fatty acid causes the production of cPLA2, which then causes the ... Working with human prostate cancer cells in tissue culture, Hughes-Fulford and her fellow researchers identified for the first ...
more infohttps://www.ucsf.edu/news/2005/08/5301/omega-6-fatty-acids-cause-prostate-tumor-cell-growth-culture-potential-n

Vascular mimicry in cultured head and neck tumour cell lines.Vascular mimicry in cultured head and neck tumour cell lines.

... by which some genetically deregulated and aggressive tumour cells generat ... Vascuologenesis is the de novo establishment of blood vessels and vascular networks from mesoderm-derived endothelial cell ... lined by tumour cells alone, without endothelial cells. Including examination of the cultured cell networks for PAS matrix or ... 1] in their investigation of ocular malignant melanomas, studying the tumour cells both cultured in vitro and in tumour tissue ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Vascular-mimicry-in-cultured-head/22196216.html

Phenotypic properties of cultured tumor cells: integrin alpha IIb beta 3 expression, tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation,...Phenotypic properties of cultured tumor cells: integrin alpha IIb beta 3 expression, tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation,...

We first investigated the effects of cell source and culture conditions on lung colony formation by i.v. injected B16a (B16 ... cells and inhibition of tumor colony formation by the thromboxane A2 synthase ... The present study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in determining the metastatic potential of cultured cells ... Phenotypic properties of cultured tumor cells: integrin alpha IIb beta 3 expression, tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation, ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/phenotypic-properties-cultured-tumor-cells-integrin-alpha-iib-beta-3-expression-tumor

A Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells | ScienceA Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells | Science

A Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells ... A Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells ... A Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells ... A Small-Molecule Modulator of Poly-α2,8-Sialic Acid Expression on Cultured Neurons and Tumor Cells ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/294/5541/380

Abnormal Insulin-Receptor Down Regulation and Dissociation of Down Regulation from Insulin Biological Action in Cultured Human...Abnormal Insulin-Receptor Down Regulation and Dissociation of Down Regulation from Insulin Biological Action in Cultured Human...

... breast tumor cell lines MCF-7, T-47D, and colon tumor cell line HCT-8). Insulin receptors on breast tumor cells were resistant ... The sensitivity of insulin receptors to down regulation by insulin has been measured in cultured human tumor cells ( ... Down Regulation and Dissociation of Down Regulation from Insulin Biological Action in Cultured Human Tumor Cells. Kathleen G. ... Maximum down regulation of receptors in all three types of tumor cell by prior exposure to insulin did not significantly alter ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/47/24_Part_1/6500?ijkey=7f252631390585786e3ab4369f824d03037d51f4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways. | Sigma-Aldrich3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways. | Sigma-Aldrich

3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways.. [Peter DelNero, ... Microarray gene expression analysis of tumor cells cultured in 2D versus 3D under ambient or hypoxic conditions revealed ... unbiased data sets describing tumor cell gene expression as a function of oxygen levels within three-dimensional (3D) culture. ... Here, we utilized alginate-based, oxygen-controlled 3D tumor models to study the interdependence of culture context and the ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25934456

Circulating Tumor Cell Cultures as a Predictive Marker during Salvage Therapy of Refractory Merkel Cell Carcinoma with...Circulating Tumor Cell Cultures as a Predictive Marker during Salvage Therapy of Refractory Merkel Cell Carcinoma with...

... resulting in significant periods of tumor regression and prolonged survival. A novel circulating tumor cell (CTC) culture assay ... Tumor colonies were cultured from the patients peripheral blood and CTC colony counts were correlated with clinical treatment ... Metastatic MCC is generally treated with small cell lung cancer chemotherapy regimens, because the tumor consists of ... The pathogenesis of MCC has recently been attributed to the Merkel Cell polyoma virus. This virus activates the cellular ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=35986

Targeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-labeled molecules : unexpected and expected dose-effect relations in cultured tumor cellsTargeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-labeled molecules : unexpected and expected dose-effect relations in cultured tumor cells

Targeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-labeled molecules: unexpected and expected dose-effect relations in cultured tumor cells. ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:217056

Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), isolated and cultured  | Open-iCirculating tumour cells (CTCs), isolated and cultured | Open-i

... isolated and cultured from murine blood, demonstrate a distinct response to hypoxia compared with parental MDA-MB-231cells. (Ai ... fig3: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), isolated and cultured from murine blood, demonstrate a distinct response to hypoxia ... fig3: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), isolated and cultured from murine blood, demonstrate a distinct response to hypoxia ... Circulating tumour cells demonstrate an altered response to hypoxia and an aggressive phenotype. ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2805847_6605491f3&req=4

Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human...Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human...

Tumor cell plasticity enables highly malignant tumor cells to express endothelial cell-specific markers and form vessel-like ... hepatoma cells [17], melanoma cells, fibrosarcoma cells [18], colon cancer cells [19], and prostate cancer cells [20-22]. ... Cells were cultured in a humidified cell incubator at 37 oC and 5% CO2 and passaged every 3-4 days or when cells reached about ... Breast cancer cells were seeded at the concentration of 5 × 105 cells/60 mm tissue culture plate. After adherence, cells were ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-11-129/

OPUS Würzburg | Influence of 3D tumor cell/fibroblast co-culture on monocyte differentiation and tumor progression in...OPUS Würzburg | Influence of 3D tumor cell/fibroblast co-culture on monocyte differentiation and tumor progression in...

... which can be used as a promising tool to study complex cell-cell interactions between different cell types within the tumor ... monocyte as well as T cells. Using this model, we analysed the influence of tumor cells and fibroblasts on monocytes and their ... and the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and their cross-talk play a significant role in tumor immune escape ... 3D co-culture of monocytes with pancreatic cancer cells and fibroblasts induced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/frontdoor/index/index/searchtype/all/start/1405/rows/10/institutefq/Theodor-Boveri-Institut+f%C3%BCr+Biowissenschaften/sortfield/year/sortorder/asc/docId/15622

Eosinophil MBP Extract Modulates Oncogene Expression in Prostate Tumor Cells: A Preliminary Study with Monolayer CulturesEosinophil MBP Extract Modulates Oncogene Expression in Prostate Tumor Cells: A Preliminary Study with Monolayer Cultures

... and prostate tumor cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, PC-3, and HPC8L (established in our laboratory from a tumor resected from an ... Treated prostate tumor cell lines trended toward apoptosis-induction, as evident in bcl-xl/bax ratios ... cell growth inhibition assays were used to evaluate the proteins growth inhibitory activity against prostate tumor cells; and ... to inhibit prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. This study investigates the effect of eosinophil MBP extract on the expression ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=56804

Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture.  - PubMed - NCBIIsolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture. - PubMed - NCBI

Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture.. Matsuda K1, Ohga N, Hida Y, Muraki C, ... Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are more relevant to the study of tumor angiogenesis than ... Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. Cultured TECs maintain ... However, it is challenging to isolate and culture large numbers of pure ECs from tumor tissue since the percentage of ECs is ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20302845

KAKEN - Research Projects | Extracellular matrix production by salivary gland tumor cells in three-dimensional culture system ...KAKEN - Research Projects | Extracellular matrix production by salivary gland tumor cells in three-dimensional culture system ...

In the collagen gel culture, the cells formed spherical colonies and the tumor cell nests contained vacuolar structures that ... we successfully cultured ACC cells in collagen gel and examined the process of pseudocyst formation in tumor cell colonies. At ... Thus, we planned to establish a three-dimension-culture system of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells in which the tumor nest ... Extracellular matrix production by salivary gland tumor cells in three-dimensional culture system. Research Project ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-07671965/

Targeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-Labeled Molecules: Unexpected and Expected Dose-Effect Relations in Cultured Tumor Cells |...Targeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-Labeled Molecules: Unexpected and Expected Dose-Effect Relations in Cultured Tumor Cells |...

Targeting EGFR and HER2 with 211At-Labeled Molecules: Unexpected and Expected Dose-Effect Relations in Cultured Tumor Cells. ... Unexpected and Expected Dose-Effect Relations in Cultured Tumor Cells ... Conclusion: The well-known high effectiveness of alpha particles to kill tumor cells was confirmed in all four studies. However ... Conclusion: The well-known high effectiveness of alpha particles to kill tumor cells was confirmed in all four studies. However ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/92826/article

Liquid biopsy and therapeutic response: Circulating tumor cell cultures for evaluation of anticancer treatment | Science...Liquid biopsy and therapeutic response: Circulating tumor cell cultures for evaluation of anticancer treatment | Science...

Cell culture of MCF-7 cancer cell line. MCF-7 (HTB-22TM, American Type Culture Collection), a human breast adenocarcinoma cell ... Availability of cultures from tumor biopsies will also enable comparison with primary cancer cell cultures after treatment to ... Optimization of cancer cell line culture parameters.. fig. S9. Phase-contrast images of 2-week cultures under different culture ... several methods of in vitro cultures of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were established (7-10). CTCs are primary cancer cells ...
more infohttps://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/7/e1600274.full
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in determining the metastatic potential of cultured cells derived from solid tumors. (rti.org)
  • Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most challenging solid tumors to treat with a high unmet medical need as patients poorly respond to standard-of-care-therapies. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • To identify the key cellular mechanisms induce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, we established 3D co-culture model with pancreatic cancer cells, Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most challenging solid tumors to treat with a high unmet medical need as patients poorly respond to standard-of-care-therapies. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The use of nonphenolic linker did not improve retention of the radioactivity in A431 carcinoma cell line. (diva-portal.org)
  • II: Effects of 211At-EGF in combination with the lysosomotropic base ammonium chloride were studied in A431 cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • III: Therapy effects of combined 211At-EGF and gefitinib treatment were studied using gefitinib sensitive A431 and resistant U343MG cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by jasmonic acid (JA) and to distinguish between the responses of cultured immortalized non-tumorigenic HaCaT cells and epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells to this plant hormone. (springer.com)
  • Xenografts generated from CTCs and parental cells were compared. (nih.gov)
  • At the same time, we examined xenografts of ACC2 in SCID mice and compared the nature of pseudocystic spaces formed in the transplants with that in the collagen gel cultures. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we have successfully purified murine TECs from four different human tumor xenografts and NECs from murine dermal tissue. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, horse serum anticholeragenoid neutralized the steroidogenic response to cell-bound CT by 50% if it was added to adrenal monolayer cultures 15 min after the toxin. (asm.org)
  • A study conducted at the San Francisco VA Medical Center (SFVAMC) has demonstrated that omega-6 fatty acids such as the fat found in corn oil promote the growth of prostate tumor cells in the laboratory. (ucsf.edu)
  • The study also identifies a potential new molecular target for anti-tumor drugs: an enzyme known as cPLA2, which plays a key role in the chain leading from omega-6 fatty acids to prostate tumor cell growth. (ucsf.edu)
  • Working with human prostate cancer cells in tissue culture, Hughes-Fulford and her fellow researchers identified for the first time a direct chain of causation: When introduced into prostate tumor cells in culture, omega-6 fatty acid causes the production of cPLA2, which then causes the production of the enzyme COX2. (ucsf.edu)
  • Protein extracts were fractionated on Sephadex G-50 columns, and prostate tumor cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, PC-3, and HPC8L (established in our laboratory from a tumor resected from an African American patient) were treated with MBP extracts from the pooled third peaks. (scirp.org)
  • Similar to our previous observations in human bladder cancer cells, Boswellia sacra essential oil induces breast cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Induces the Expansion of Virus-Specific Activated and Atypical Memory B Cells. (ac.be)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that LD/LP tumor cells induced aggregation of homologous platelets, whereas HD/HP B16a cells failed to induce significant platelet aggregation. (rti.org)
  • To identify the key cellular mechanisms induce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, we established 3D co-culture model with pancreatic cancer cells, CAFs, monocyte as well as T cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Cultured TECs maintain distinct biological differences from NECs as in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • We have proposed that their frequent invasion of peripheral nerves, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles can be interpreted to mean that adenoid cystic carcinoma cells have an affinity for basement membranes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When established 3D melanoma cultures were inoculated with HSV-1 by placing virus on the surface of cultures, virus infection caused extensive death of melanoma cells growing on the surface of the 3D matrix and significantly decreased the number of tumor cell spheroids within the matrix. (asm.org)
  • Acyclovir treatment inhibited HSV-1-induced tumor cell killing but did not block the virus infection-induced increase in spheroid size. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that HSV-1 infection of neoplastic cells during natural infections or vaccinations may promote the growth of tumors. (asm.org)
  • Our study indicates that HSV-1 infection of 3D tumor cell cultures provides an experimental platform in which mechanisms of HSV-1-mediated promotion of tumor cell growth can be effectively studied. (asm.org)
  • Oncolytic HSV-1 therapy is dependent upon virus replication in tumor cells and is augmented by host antiviral and infection-induced antitumor immune responses ( 1 , 3 - 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Cultured Kaposi's sarcoma tumor cells exhibit a chemokine receptor repertoire that does not allow infection by HIV-1. (ac.be)
  • RESULTS: There were observable differences in growth of the cells on laboratory plastic and collagen matrix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results indicate that our collagen gel culture system provides physiological conditions for ACC2 cells to secrete particular extracelluar matrix molecules and form pseudocystic spaces. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Munakata, R.: 'Pseudocyst tormation by adenoid cystic carcinoma cells collagen gel culture and in SCID mice' J Oral Pathol Med. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, JA induced ER stress in both cell lines, but the consequences of ER stress were different for the epidermal immortalized non-tumorigenic and tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • We present experimental evidence of vasculogenic mimicry in HNSCC cell lines and compare them with other tumours and a positive control vascular cell line. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pathologically relevant tissue culture models to study the complex physical and chemical processes by which the cancer microenvironment mediates new vessel formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Maximum down regulation of receptors in all three types of tumor cell by prior exposure to insulin did not significantly alter the responsiveness of any of the cell lines to insulin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LDH) release in cell supernatant and the measurement of Neutral Red (NR) uptake are used for cytotoxicity as- says. (scribd.com)
  • The study was led by Millie Hughes-Fulford, PhD, director of the Laboratory of Cell Growth at SFVAMC and scientific advisor to the U.S. Undersecretary of Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs. (ucsf.edu)
  • In chronic hypoxia, CTCs demonstrated greater colony formation than parental cells. (nih.gov)
  • We first investigated the effects of cell source and culture conditions on lung colony formation by i.v. injected B16a (B16 amelanotic melanoma) cells and inhibition of tumor colony formation by the thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, CGS14854. (rti.org)
  • The differences in lung colony formation between LD, HD and elutriated B16a cells were not due to differential cell-cycle distribution. (rti.org)
  • NR incorporation in viable cells was statistically re- duced by 27 to 36% at DMSO concentration of 20% up to 100% (ANOVA, p.0.05). (scribd.com)
  • The differences were unexpected since it is assumed that different types of cells should have a similar sensitivity to high-LET radiation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • As of early 2016, there are three families belonging to the MACPF superfamily: 1.C.12 - The Thiol-activated Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin (CDC) Family 1.C.39 - The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) Family 1.C.97 - The Pleurotolysin Pore-forming (Pleurotolysin) Family Proteins containing MACPF domains play key roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic proteins and polyamino acids are taken up by mammalian cells at rates up to 3000 times greater than serum albumin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The MACPF domain is structurally similar to pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that MACPF proteins create pores and disrupt cell membranes similar to cytolysin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. (nih.gov)
  • M. Agelli and L. X. Clegg, "Epidemiology of Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma in the United States," Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2003, pp. 832-841. (scirp.org)
  • S. Donepudi, R. C. Deconti and W. E. Samlowski, "Recent Advances in the Understanding of the Genetics, Etiology and Treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma," Seminars in Oncology, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2012, pp. 163-172. (scirp.org)
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma is histologically characterized by a cribriform appearance that results from formation of multi-pseudocystic spaces in each tumor cell nest. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, we planned to establish a three-dimension-culture system of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells in which the tumor nest architecture could be analyzed in a longer period than a monolayr culture system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Cheng, J.: 'Biosynthesis of basement membrane molecules by salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells : an immunofluorescence and confocal microscopic study. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Further studies showed that pretreatment of cultured adrenal cells with a maximal dose of CT increased cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate formation in response to a maximal stimulating dose of adrenocorticotropin. (asm.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of DMSO on Caco2/TC7 cells and determinate the maximal concentration usable in permeation experiments. (scribd.com)
  • B-F) Induction of HIF1α in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 cells and CTCs. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxic induction of (E) GLUT1 and (F) CAIX, BNIP3 in CTCs, compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)