The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain ardisiacrispins (oleanane triterpenoid saponins), ardicrenin, and cyclamiretin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

Graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation induces a CD8+ T cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor effect that is independent of the recognition of alloantigenic tumor targets. (1/2610)

Cure of hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is partially attributable to immunocellular antitumor reactions termed graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effect. GvT effects are heterogeneous with respect to effector cell populations, target antigens, and their interrelation with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In the present study, allogeneic parent-into-F1 murine transplantation models (BALB/c or C57BL/6 --> [C57BL/6 x BALB/c]F1) with different tumors derived from either parental strain were used to evaluate tumor-specific GvT effects. Compared with syngeneic F1-into-F1 controls, significant CD8+ T cell-mediated GvT effects occurred in both allogeneic transplantation models, even in the absence of histoincompatibilities between donor cells and host tumor. Identical genetic background of donor and tumor precluded allorecognition of tumor cells, indicating that tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) were targeted. With allowance made for selective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) disparities between donor cells and normal host tissue, GvHD was identified as a driving force for TAA-specific GvT effects. Adoptive transfer of the effector cells into secondary tumor-bearing recipients confirmed sustained antitumor activity and specificity of the T-cell response. The results provide experimental proof of a donor CD8+ T cell-mediated TAA-specific antitumor response in vivo that is driven by GvHD. It may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to GvT effects observed in allogeneic transplant recipients.  (+info)

Blood concentrations of alemtuzumab and antiglobulin responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia following intravenous or subcutaneous routes of administration. (2/2610)

Alemtuzumab is a humanized anti-CD52 antibody licensed for refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), when given intravenously at 30 mg thrice weekly. However, the intravenous route is associated with infusion-related reactions and is inconvenient. We measured blood concentrations in 30 relapsed patients treated with intravenous alemtuzumab and in 20 patients from a previously untreated group who received similar doses subcutaneously. Highest trough samples in the intravenous group were less than 0.5 microg/mL to 18.3 microg/mL (mean 5.4 microg/mL). The cumulative dose required to reach 1.0 microg/mL was 13 mg to 316 mg (mean 90 mg). Higher blood concentrations correlated with the achievement of better clinical responses and minimal residual disease. The highest measured concentrations in the subcutaneous group were similar (0.6 microg/mL to 24.8 microg/mL, mean 5.4 microg/mL). However, the cumulative dose to reach 1.0 microg/mL was higher: 146 mg to 1106 mg (mean 551 mg). No antiglobulin responses were detected in 30 patients given intravenous alemtuzumab whereas 2 of 32 patients given subcutaneous alemtuzumab made substantial anti-idiotype responses. Thus, subcutaneous alemtuzumab achieved concentrations similar to those for intravenous alemtuzumab, although with slightly higher cumulative doses. Subcutaneous alemtuzumab is more convenient and better tolerated but may be associated with some patients forming anti-alemtuzumab antibodies, particularly those patients who were previously untreated.  (+info)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging rapidly indicates vessel regression in human squamous cell carcinomas grown in nude mice caused by VEGF receptor 2 blockade with DC101. (3/2610)

The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in "amplitude" (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and k(ep) (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P =.02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 +/- 843 mm(3)) and control animals (596 +/- 384 mm(3)) were significantly different (P =.03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 +/- 93 mm(3)), whereas untreated tumors (1208 +/- 822 mm(3)) continued to increase (P =.02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent.  (+info)

The impact of mid-treatment MRI on defining boost volumes in the radiation treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. (4/2610)

Radiation therapy is a central modality in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Integral to adequate radiation therapy delivery is the appropriate determination of tumor volume and extent at the time treatment is being delivered. As a matter of routine practice, radiation therapy treatment fields are designed based on tumor volumes evident on pre-operative or immediate post-operative MRIs; another MRI is generally not obtained for planning boost fields. In some instances the time interval from surgery to radiotherapy initiation is up to 5 weeks and the boost or "cone-down phase" commences 4-5 weeks later. The contrast enhanced T1 MRI may not be a totally reliable indicator of active tumor, especially in regions where such blood-brain barrier breakdown has not occurred. Moreover, these volumes may change during the course of treatment. This may lead to a geographic miss when mid-treatment boost volumes are designed based on a pre-radiotherapy MRI. The goal of this study is to examine how a mid-treatment MRI impacts the delineation and definition of the boost volume in GBM patients in comparison to the pre-treatment MRI scan, particularly when the tumor-specific agent Motexafin-Gadolinium is used.  (+info)

Angiogenic effects of adrenomedullin in ischemia and tumor growth. (5/2610)

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that AM also possesses angiogenic properties. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, we found that AM stimulated recovery of blood flow to the affected limb in the mouse hind-limb ischemia model. AM exerted this effect in part by promoting expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic limb, and immunostaining for CD31 showed the enhanced flow to reflect increased collateral capillary density. By enhancing tumor angiogenesis, AM also promoted the growth of subcutaneously transplanted sarcoma 180 tumor cells. However, heterozygotic AM knockout mice (AM+/-) showed significantly less blood flow recovery with less collateral capillary development and VEGF expression than their wild-type littermates. Similarly, mice treated with AM22-52, a competitive inhibitor of AM, showed reduced capillary development, and growth of sarcoma 180 tumors was inhibited in AM+/- and AM22-52-treated mice. Notably, administration of VEGF or AM rescued blood flow recovery and capillary formation in AM+/- and AM22-52-treated mice. In cocultures of endothelial cells and fibroblasts, AM enhanced VEGF-induced capillary formation, whereas in cultures of endothelial cells AM enhanced VEGF-induced Akt activation. These results show that AM possesses novel angiogenic properties mediated by its ability to enhance VEGF expression and Akt activity. This may make AM a useful therapeutic tool for relieving ischemia; conversely, inhibitors of AM could be useful for clinical management of tumor growth.  (+info)

Morphometry of hepatic neoplasms and altered foci in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. (6/2610)

The goal of this study was to intensively sample a small number of livers from a population of mummichog exposed to PAH-contaminated sediments and evaluate them for lesion pathology, distribution, shape, and volume, and the number of histological sections needed to adequately describe the extent of various lesions. Volumetric data for each lesion type from each step section was derived from digitized section images. The total number of hepatic alterations ranged from 10-125 per fish. Alterations included: eosinophilic, basophilic, and clear cell foci; hepatocellular carcinomas; hemangiopericytomas; and cholangiomas. Lesion volumes ranged from 0.00012-64 mm3 and represented 0.21%-67% of total liver volume. There was a tendency for the lesions to be more dorsal-ventrally compressed than spherical or ropelike when observed from longitudinal sections. Periodic subsampling of the data indicated that. on average, 6 evenly spaced, longitudinal histological sections were required to accurately estimate lesion volume and extent in our model population. These data provide a formulation for histological sampling techniques and methodological support for piscine and other cancer study models that observe lesion volume changes over time. Further, this study fosters the development of early quantitative endpoints. rather than using a large number of animals and waiting for tumor progression or death to occur.  (+info)

Blockade of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta by CDP860, a humanized, PEGylated di-Fab', leads to fluid accumulation and is associated with increased tumor vascularized volume. (7/2610)

PURPOSE: CDP860 is an engineered Fab' fragment-polyethylene glycol conjugate, which binds to and blocks the activity of the beta-subunit of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-beta). Studies in animals have suggested that PDGFR-beta inhibition reduces tumor interstitial fluid pressure, and thus increases the uptake of concomitantly administered drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in tumor vascular parameters could be detected in humans, and to assess whether CDP860 would be likely to increase the uptake of a concurrently administered small molecule in future studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ovarian or colorectal cancer and good performance status received intravenous infusions of CDP860 on days 0 and 28. Patients had serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging studies to measure changes in tumor vascular parameters. RESULTS: Three of eight patients developed significant ascites, and seven of eight showed evidence of fluid retention. In some patients, the ratio of vascular volume to total tumor volume increased significantly (P < .001) within 24 hours following CDP860 administration, an effect suggestive of recruitment of previously non-functioning vessels. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that inhibition of PDGFR-beta might improve delivery of a concurrently administered therapy. However, in cancer patients, further exploration of the dosing regimen of CDP860 is required to dissociate adverse effects from beneficial effects. The findings challenge the view that inhibition of PDGF alone is beneficial, and confirm that effects of PDGFR kinase inhibition mediate, to some extent, the fluid retention observed in patients treated with mixed tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  (+info)

Raltitrexed increases tumorigenesis as a single agent yet exhibits anti-tumor synergy with 5-fluorouracil in ApcMin/+ mice. (8/2610)

The thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors raltitrexed (RTX) and 5-fluorouracil (FUra) have shown promising anti-tumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Though the effects of these two agents have been reasonably well-characterized in cell lines, knowledge of their modes of action in vivo is limited. Here, we utilize the Apc(Min/+) mouse, an animal model of intestinal tumorigenesis, to study the effects of RTX treatment alone and in combination with FUra. Rather surprisingly, RTX monotherapy resulted in a dose dependent 4-10-fold increase in tumor number. The majority of these adenomas (74-95%) were rather small (i.e., less than 1 mm in diameter) and exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the Apc locus, suggesting an increase in mutational events leading to tumor development. RTX augmented BrdU-labeling of crypt epithelial cells, and retarded the movement of these cells along the crypt-villus axis. Co-administration of FUra and RTX resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number compared to mice treated with either RTX or FUra alone (P < 0.0001). In addition, FUra abrogated the RTX-mediated increase in BrdU labeling. In all, the results show that RTX increases tumor burden in the Apc(Min/+) mouse, yet enhances the anti-tumor effect of FUra. This is the first illustration of in vivo synergy of RTX and FUra in a genetically predisposed animal model. Possible mechanisms underlying the current observations are discussed.  (+info)

Results: Patients with pT3 disease had much higher PCA3 score (median = 48.8, range =7.5-269.0) than pT2 patients (median = 18.7, range = 4.0-79.9), p = 0.02. Spearman analysis showed that PCA3 score significantly correlated with total tumor volume (n = 72, R = 0.38, P , .01). Patients with larger tumor volume (,2.0 cc) have significantly (p = 0.01) higher PCA3 score (median = 47.6, range = 7.5 - 269.0) compared to patients with smaller tumor volume (0.5 - 2.0 cc: median=17.5; ,0.5 cc: median=18.7). Adjusted by other pre-surgical variables (age, race, serum PSA, clinical stage, biopsy grade, etc.), stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that PCA3 score was an independent predictor of pT3 prostate cancer (p = 0.01) and for a total tumor volume of ,0.5 cc (p = 0.04). This is the first report of a urine assay predicting pathologic stage in prostate cancer ...
Tumor volume is increased in RT2/HRG−/− compared to RT2/HRG+/+ mice.Tumors were dissected and measured. Tumor volumes were calculated by the formula ((π/6)
And then - as a small unfortunate organism with all these(it) Cares will consult. So move, from the point of view look up in search engine of health, years preschool. As we see, the angular deviation(rejection) set right at the beginning of a vital way, Continues to accrue(increase) in relation to an optimum line. And in fact, figuratively Being expressed, each degree, let alone tens degrees of a deviation(rejection) in The beginning of a route, leads to falling of a body started into a vital orbit, Lets tell so: with a huge falling short, first, in absolutely other party(side), Secondly, with flight on very low trajectory, thirdly... These are reserves of physical health. And now we shall ponder: as business(affairs) are With reserves of development of intelligence Mentalities Sanguineous and multilateral We shall not forget that powerful spirit - one of The major, the basic firm health. With bitterness we shall tell, that These reserves at ours the Shred have been involved in even smaller ...
PURPOSE: Retrospective studies indicate that larger tumour volume is a strong prognostic indicator for poor tumour control after (chemo)radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. The impact of tumour volume on the outcome of patients treated within a prospective study comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR)+/-carbogen breathing and nicotinamide (ARCON) was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Of 345 patients with cT2-4 laryngeal cancer, pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans of 270 patients were available for tumour volume calculation. Contouring of the primary tumour and involved lymph nodes was reviewed by one experienced head and neck radiation oncologist. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for analysis of outcome. RESULTS: Of 137 AR and 133 ARCON patients, 57 and 80 versus 56 and 77 patients had glottic and supraglottic tumours, respectively. A correlation between primary tumour volume and T-stage was observed (Rs=.51, P,.01). In both treatment arms no correlation was detected between the primary ...
The model presented here is based on the model we described earlier (10), but we improved it by rewriting the entire set of differential equations to make the model quantitatively more precise, to recognize 3 rather than 2 cell types, and most importantly by including the effect of antigen shedding, which was not included in the original model.. An important advantage of this model is that it can handle tumors of any size and yields total tumor volume information dynamically while considering only one representative unit of a modest and constant size. Because the model assumes that the total cell density is uniform and unchanged, this is not a good model for poorly vascularized, necrotic regions of the tumor. However, the efficacy of RIT is an issue for well vascularized, rapidly growing tumor; it may be less important for slowly growing, necrotic regions of a tumor. Also, although the cell density is assumed constant for any one tumor model, one can study the effect of density changes by doing ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
Snapshots of a tumor treated with an AI only. (a) Tumor after two months of growth, before treatment is applied. (b) Tumor after four months of growth, two week
In general, benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix -oma to the cell of origin. Tumors of mesenchymal cells generally follow this (...)
Objective(s): Considering the fact that the standardized uptake value (SUV) of a normal lung tissue is expressed as x±SD, x+3×SD could be considered as the threshold value to outline the internal tumor volume (ITV) of a lung neoplasm. Methods: Three hollow models were filled with 55.0 kBq/mL fluorine18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) to represent tumors. The models were fixed to a barrel filled with 5.9 kBq/mL 18F-FDG to characterize normal lung tissues as a phantom. The PET/CT images of the phantom were acquired at rest. Then, the barrel was moved periodically to simulate breathing while acquiring PET/CT data. Volume recovery coefficient (VRC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of ITVs. For statistical analysis, paired t-test and analysis of variance were applied. Results: The VRCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 and significantly varied among gross tumor volumes for delineating ITV (P|0.01). In two-dimensional PET scans, the motion distance did not affect VRC (P|0.05), whereas VRC decreased with increasing
Prognostic value of tumor burden in nasopharyngeal carcinoma Chuanben Chen,1,2 Zhaodong Fei,1,2 Chaoxiong Huang,2 Jianming Ding,1,2 Lisha Chen1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2Provincial Clinical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China Background: The prognostic value of primary tumor volume (TV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been confirmed. However, studies of the prognosis value of tumor burden, including TV and nodal volume (NV), have been relatively infrequent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor burden in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.Methods: Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to determine rational cutoff points for TV and NV. The volumes identified included 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 mL, and 0, 12.5, and 25 mL, respectively.
Longitudinal multi-gene panel assessment of circulating tumor DNA revealed tumor burden and molecular characteristics along treatment course of non-small cell lung cancer
There are however some points that could work in favor. Patients proposed for Phase I typically have a serious tumor burden, so that % changes in tumor burden can be interpreted as being on a common scale (as compared to % changes of smaller tumor burden, which may be argued to be oversensitive to clinically irrelevant changes).. The doses or regimens that are proposed to be measured with the intent of showing an acceptable toxicity profile are the ones that will be used for Phase II and likely also Phase III. In other words, we can look for the therapeutic window as early as Phase I.. Some data will be shown on the possibility ‐ at least at an experimental level - to explore percent changes in tumor measurements as a quantitative variable, which should better enable correlative attempts as described above. Another point to consider is the potential comparative nature of early data. What do we mean by this? In late Phase trials, randomization is a necessity for valid comparison by minimizing ...
Synonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor. 2 synonyms for tumor: neoplasm, tumour. What are synonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor?
Indo Blog Malignant tumor symptoms (Characteristic And Types Of Tumor) baca selengkapnya tentang Malignant tumor symptoms (Characteristic And Types Of Tumor) disini
BioAssay record AID 39584 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for percent tumor volume against B16 melanoma in mice (T) at 1.6 mg/kg intravenous administration after 11 days ot that of control (C).
A tumor is a lump of damaged cells. A malignant tumor is cancerous. Malignant tumors cause trouble to cells around them. They can also spread to other
CANCER most often becomes deadly not from an initial tumour, but when cells from a separate tumour then spread throughout the body. However, new research might have found a way to fight it.
Researchers have found that a gene they call THOR produces a long, non-coding RNA that has a role in cancer, and whose silencing stops tumor growth.
Usefulness of CTAP in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Tumors. Comparison with Helical-CT in Tumor Detection, Especially Tumors Under 1cm in Diameter.:COMPARISON WITH HELICAL-CT IN TUMOR DETECTIN, ESPECIALLY TUMORS UNDER 1cm IN DIAMETER (1998 ...
My staffy x American bull dog is 10 years old now & hes had this lump for just over a year. The vet said it is a tumor but he cant say anything else...
Malignant: Malignancy is the tendency of a cancer or tumor either to invade the surrounding tissues, to destroy or replace the tissues previously present or to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) ...
Inclusion Criteria: I1. Male or Female patients ≥18 years of age or older. I2. Histologically or cytologically proven metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (from head and neck, oesophagus, lung, cervix, vagina, vulva or anus) with the following features: - Previously treated with at least one prior regimen (chemotherapy, signal transduction inhibitors or radiotherapy) - To be treated with radiotherapy at primary tumor site or metastatic site or menacing metastatic site. - The sites of metastases allowed are: soft tissue, peripheral lung, and liver. - Patients with brain and bone metastasis to be treated with radiotherapy are not allowed. Patients with asymptomatic brain metastasis can be included. - The total tumor volume to be irradiated must not exceed 400 cc. I3. At least one tumor lesion must be accessible to radiation therapy and at least another tumor site can be spared from radiation therapy (unirradiated site). I4. At least one unirradiated and one irradiated tumor site must be accessible ...
The adaptive trial design of this advanced Phase II study incorporates (i) a dosing schedule based on the patients estimated tumor burden and not on standard dosing per kilogram body weight or body surface area, and (2) a tumor response evaluation process that is unique to the manner in which osteosarcoma responds favorably to therapy, i.e., with necrosis and increasing calcification in metastatic tumors and decreased glucose utilization using PET-CT imaging studies.. Twenty to thirty patients will receive Rexin-G at either Dose Level 1 or 2. Patients will be assigned a dose level based on the estimated tumor burden as measured by PET-CT imaging studies. Estimated tumor burden is measured by multiplying the sum of the longest diameters of target lesions in cm by 10e9 cancer cells. If the tumor burden is less than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 1, if the tumor burden is greater than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 2.. *Treatment Cycle ...
The involvement of interleukin (IL-) 6 in malignant disease has been investigated in a variety of different malignancies. To evaluate whether serum IL-6 is a useful disease marker in metastatic malignant melanoma (MMM), we studied the time course of endogenous IL-6 secretion in 41 patients treated with cisplatinum, IL-2, and IFN-alpha. Furthermore, the relationship of endogenous IL-6 concentrations to the tumor burden and/or the clinical response was also evaluated. The baseline serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with MMM than in the control group (P = 0.002). When tumor burden was taken into consideration, we found that IL-6 levels were higher in patients with high tumor burden than in patients with low tumor burden. During treatment in the whole patient population, a higher serum IL-6 level was observed in nonresponding as compared to responding patients at days 7 (P = 0.0005), 21 (P = 0.002), and 35 (P = 0.009). The follow-up of serum IL-6 in patients with MMM according ...
Removing a tumor from your brain is hard to do because, very often, brain tumors do not have boundaries that are easy for your surgeon to find. In many cases, the surgeon cant tell exactly where the tumor begins or ends. The surgeon usually can remove most of your tumor by looking at the MRI images that were taken of your brain before surgery. However, the surgeon does not have any good way to tell if the entire tumor has been removed or not. Removing the entire tumor is very important because leaving tumor behind may allow it to grow back which could decrease your chances of survival.. It is possible to detect tumor cells by making them glow with a specific color of light (a process called fluorescence). This can be done by having you take the drug, ALA, before your surgery. ALA is a molecule that already exists in the cells of your body. Once enough of it is in your body, it gets converted into another molecule named PpIX. If blue light is shined on a tumor that has enough PpIX, it will glow ...
Our later investigations confirm our previous results.. 1. It is possible to increase markedly the effect of substances inhibiting tumor growth by using certain combinations of these substances which, when given alone, have some effect on tumor growth.. 2. Immunity acquired against the effect of these substances depends partly upon an active immunization of the tumor cells themselves against the action of these substances, and this immunity is transmitted to the following generations of tumor cells.. 3. The immunity against the substances inhibiting tumor growth is, as far as we have investigated the problem, specific.. 4. Our later experiments provide a more secure basis for the additional and more general conclusions which we mentioned tentatively in our previous paper.. ...
There are a few visual tests that may be performed to detect if the tumor is benign. Typically, benign tumors have a regular shape, regular edges, an even color and will not be very large. However, there are malignant tumors that may look like a benign tumor, especially during the initial stages. The benign tumors may be diagnosed by performing a biopsy. A small sample will be taken from the tumor and will be analyzed. The pathologist may establish if the cells are cancerous or benign. If the cells are benign, they resemble in structure with the cells that are found near the tumor. The benign cells will be inactive, do they wont divide or multiply like the malignant cells. Cancerous cells are differently structured and will be identified under the microscope. Malignant tumors will have an increased amount of chromosomes. ...
Global Tumor Blood Testing Market Report 2020 has complete details about market of Tumor Blood Testing industry, Tumor Blood Testing analysis and current trends. Global Tumor Blood Testing Market Report 2020 Full Report: 2350 USD Multi License (Section): 4700 USD Section Price: As below Page: 115 Chart and Figure: 124 Publisher: BisReport Delivery Time: 24 hour At the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 disease began to spread around the world, millions of people worldwide were infected with COVID-19 disease, .
Saenz DT, Fiskus W, Qian Y, Manshouri T, Rajapakshe K, Raina K, Coleman KG, Crew AP, Shen A, Mill CP, Sun B, Qiu P, Kadia TM, Pemmaraju N, DiNardo C, Kim MS, Nowak AJ, Coarfa C, Crews CM, Verstovsek S, Bhalla KN. Novel BET protein proteolysis-targeting chimera exerts superior lethal activity than bromodomain inhibitor (BETi) against post-myeloproliferative neoplasm secondary (s) AML cells. Leukemia. 2017 Sep; 31(9):1951-1961 ...
Discovering a tumor on your dog can be scary. Learn the types of dog tumors, find out which ones are cancerous, and read up on treatment options for tumors in dogs.
Surgery is the ideal treatment for tumors for people with NF2. While NF2 tumors are slow growing, it can allow the brain and body to have time to try to adapt and adjust which can allow a tumor to grow to a considerable size before treatment might be necessary. Continuously growth of any tumor or tumors can result a serious health issue with the need for surgical intervention dependent on tumor size, location and how bad the side effects are or can become if a tumor increases any further. Individuals with NF2 can develop two but up to hundreds of tumors, but not ever tumor that grows will require treatment.
The primary tumor is the original site where the tumor was first discovered or originated. This is like having a single mass thats in the lung. This
Finding a lump under your skin is alarming, but most of the time theyre harmless. Cysts and tumors are two common types of lumps. It can be hard to tell them apart because theyre often found in the same places….Identifying cysts and tumors.CharacteristicCystTumorfirm✓tender✓able to move around under skin✓4 more ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
癌症(英語:Cancer)又名為惡性(英語:malignant)腫瘤(英語:Malignant tumor),指的是細胞不正常增生,且這些增生的細胞可能侵犯身體的其他部分[2][8];中醫學中稱岩,為由控制細胞分裂增殖機制失常而引起的疾病。癌細胞除了分裂失控外,還會局部侵入(英語:Infiltration ...
類癌瘤(神經內分泌腫瘤的一種,依照胚胎時期不同的腸道細胞來源可大致區分為前腸、中腸及後腸三類) ...
One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumours are malignant.[1] For this reason, benign tumours are not classed as cancer.[2] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and ...
Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high a …
Synonyms for Burkitt's tumor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Burkitt's tumor. 2 synonyms for tumor: neoplasm, tumour. What are synonyms for Burkitt's tumor?
Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy Tumours use more glucose than normal, healthy ti
Looking for Buschke-Löwenstein tumor? Find out information about Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. see neoplasm neoplasm or tumor, tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to... Explanation of Buschke-Löwenstein tumor
Dr. Colen responded: Symptoms?. If the tumor is small and not pressing on vital areas of the brain, depending on the tumor type, if benign or cancerous, it can be present for a very long time and undiagnosed. A very aggressive tumor however, or a tumor that affects an important part of the brain will likely be diagnosed fairly quickly.
Regression of meningioma tumor growth by combination therapy Fifteen percent of meningiomas have malignant characteristics and these aggressive invasive tumors...
Vaginal Tumors Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs - The vaginal and vulvar areas are the most common sites for tumors of the female genital tract. These tumors tend to occur in older, sexually intact females, at an average age of 10 years.
Cancer is a leading killer in the United States. Treatment is itself dangerous, even lethal. However, studies show cannabis slowing tumor growth.
Intake of curcumin at physiologically attainable doses could help to slow the development of prostate cancers by jamming receptors linked to cancer tumour
Tumors are organ-like structures composed of different cell types whose interactions are required to promote their maintenance, growth and metastasis.
Before your doctor can recommend a treatment plan, he or she needs to know the grade of the cancer. The grade tells your doctor how malignant the tumor is and how it might respond to treatment.
Tumor Targeting: is a cancer treatment that uses drugs.... Targeted therapy works by targeting the cancers specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environ
CARLSBAD, Calif., July 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Genoptixs Immuno-Oncology Testing Now Covers Additional Tumor Types. Tests Can Identify More Cancer Patients Eligible for Mercks KEYTRUDA® Therapy.
A massive abdominal tumor measuring about 10 kg has been removed from a female patient, by surgeons in the western Croatian town of Gospic.
When surgeons remove tumors, they cannot determine exactly where the cancer ends and the tissue begins, so they make educated guesses. If they could l
Researchers have developed new nanorobotic agents capable of navigating through the bloodstream to administer a drug with precision by specifically targeting the active cancerous cells of tumours.
Its time to celebrate moving from brain tumor patient to brain tumor survivor by getting involved with the brain tumor community.
MTV announced their nominees for the 2007 VMAs yesterday and the list isnt particularly surprising. There are a few indie darlings in here--like White Stripes, Amy Winehouse, and Justice--but mostly its just the same old, same old. There are those who might say that MTV is on the decline and is slowly being taken over by crap. To those people, I say, No, Im pretty sure it was always crap ...
Plot tumor - tv tropes, The plot tumor trope as used in popular culture. a single plot element that was once a minor part of the verse swells in importance as the series progresses …. ...
Okay now this I guarantee you havent read before but I have to ask embarassing and weird of a topic as it may be in the hopes that some other newly...
கட்டி (tumor) என்பது இழையங்களில் ஏற்படக்கூடிய அசாதாரணமான, அளவுக்கதிகமான வளர்ச்சியால் ஏற்படும் புத்திழையம் (neoplasm) அல்லது திண்ம இழையமாகும். இந்த வளர்ச்சியானது அருகில் சூழவுள்ள இழையங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபட்டிருப்பதுடன், அதற்குரிய தூண்டல் நீக்கப்பட்டாலும்கூட, தொடர்ந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியையே காட்டும்.[1][2][3] இந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியானது, (எப்பொழும் இல்லையெனினும்) பொதுவாக திணிவு கூடி ...
... in order to identify the size and location of the tumour. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the presence of a bone tumour. ... General (US), Office of the Surgeon (2004). The Burden of Bone Disease. Office of the Surgeon General (US). Services, ... It is undifferentiated as under a microscope, the tumour cells appear different to the body cells in which it develops, and is ... The age of the patient and the location of the tumour are very important considerations in the diagnosis of bone tumours. The ...
The Purina group exhibited the greatest tumour burden. At the end of the experiment all animals continuously fed the whey ... Four weeks after the 24th DMH treatment the incidence of tumour and tumour area in the whey protein-fed mice was substantially ... and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway. It is considered ... and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. ... Similarly, the tumor area was less in the whey protein group in ...
"Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Early- and Late-Stage Human Malignancies". Sci Transl Med, vol. 6, no. 224, p. 224ra24, ... B. E. Miner, R. J. Stöger, A. F. Burden, et al. "Molecular barcodes detect redundancy and contamination in hairpin-bisulfite ... or circulating tumor DNA. Several library preparation strategies have been developed that increase accuracy of NGS platforms ... screening variants in circulating tumor DNA as a non-invasive biomarker, and prenatal screening for genetic abnormalities in a ...
"Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden". New England Journal of Medicine. 378 (22): 2093- ... The current theory is that the scar probably occurred secondary to the tumor, rather than causing the tumor. The adenocarcinoma ... EML4-ALK fusions tend to occur in tumors that do not carry EGFR or KRAS mutations and have also a lower frequency of TP53 ... Gandara, D. R.; Hammerman, P. S.; Sos, M. L.; Lara, P. N.; Hirsch, F. R. (2015-05-15). "Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: From Tumor ...
Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden. New England Journal of Medicine. 2018-04-16, 0 (0 ... Lung Carcinoma: Tumors of the Lungs. Merck Manual Professional Edition, Online edition. [2007-08-15]. (原始内容存档于2007-08-16).. ... Pancoast tumor)可能会侵犯局部交感神经系统,导致霍纳氏综合征(英语:Horner's syndrome)(眼睑低垂
... can control tumor burden but cannot prevent transformation or correct cytogenic abnormalities. The drug was recently ...
"Tumor Mutational Burden as an Independent Predictor of Response to Immunotherapy in Diverse Cancers". Mol. Cancer Ther. 16 (11 ... "Analysis of 100,000 human cancer genomes reveals the landscape of tumor mutational burden". Genome Med. 9 (34): epub. doi: ... followed by likely loss of heterozygosity in the tumor. Thus only 6 of 119 tumors lacking expression for Pms2 (5%) were due to ... In tumors classified as mismatch repair deficient and lacking, in a majority PMS2 expression is deficient because of lack of ...
Use high doses of chemotherapy to further reduce tumor burden Typical protocols use the following given as blocks (varies from ... Low dose palliative radiation may also help reduce the burden of tumor inside or outside the central nervous system and ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is used on painful bony areas, in high disease burdens, or as part of the preparations for ... Must monitor closely for tumor lysis syndrome after initiating therapy Monitoring initial response to treatment is important as ...
Higher mutational burden in the tumor is correlated with a greater effect of the anti-PD-1 treatment. In clinical trials, ... However, the correlation between higher tumor burden and the clinical effectiveness of PD-1 immune blockade is still uncertain ... PDL1 positive tumors were twice as likely to respond to combination treatment. However patients with PDL1 negative tumors also ... Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells inhibits anti-tumor activity through engagement of PD-1 on effector T cells. Expression of ...
... tissue distribution and antitumor activity of honokiol submicron lipid emulsions in tumor-burdened mice". Die Pharmazie. 68 (1 ... Honokiol also acts on the PI3K/mTOR pathway in tumor cells while maintaining pathway activity in T cells.[17] ... Inhibits Angiogenesis in Vitro and Tumor Growth in Vivo". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (37): 35501-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and RANTES/CCL5.[21] ... "Honokiol Crosses BBB and BCSFB, and Inhibits Brain Tumor ...
Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB, the number of mutations within a targeted genetic region in the cancerous cell's DNA) have been ... Tumor biopsies and healthy tissue (e.g., peripheral blood cells) of a patient diagnosed with cancer are examined by NGS. Tumor- ... After surgical resection of the tumor, the vaccine was injected. The results showed that the tumor did not reappear in four ... Somatic mutations in the tumor genome can cause tumors to express mutant proteins (neoantigens) that are recognized by ...
Huang, G., Ge, G., Izzi, V., & Greenspan, D. S. (2017). α3(V) chains of type V collagen regulate breast tumour growth via ... ". "Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent ... chain to be important to the functioning of certain highly specialized cell types and to be important to tumor growth and ... ". "α3 Chains of type V collagen regulate breast tumour growth via glypican-1". "Attenuated BMP1 function compromises ...
Residual or recurrent tumor is particularly likely in areas adjacent to heat sinks, such as larger blood vessels or airways. ... or extensive disease burden. For these patients, minimally invasive therapeutic options such as radiofrequency ablation, ... Tumor ablation of thoracic malignancies should be considered a viable treatment option for patients with early stage, primary ... MWA is regarded as a particularly efficient option for the treatment of lung tumors since unlike RFA it does not rely on ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is often performed, especially for T1b/T2+ tumors, mucosal tumors, ocular melanoma and tumors of the ... Advances in high resolution ultrasound scanning have enabled surveillance of metastatic burden to the sentinel lymph nodes.[161 ... The tumor thickness is usually more than 1 mm (0.04 in), and the tumor involves the deeper parts of the dermis. ... Greater than 4.0 mm primary tumor thickness, without ulceration. *. T4b. Greater than 4.0 mm primary tumor thickness, with ...
In vivo trials demonstrated a 50-70% reduction in tumor burden for xenografted pancreatic and prostate cancers; however, ... Although there were no notable tumor responses, a strong correlation was noted between dose and adverse events, with the ... Next, safety and tolerability were investigated in a Phase I trial involving 30 volunteers with advanced solid tumors or ... reduction of V617F JAK2 allele burden in 15% of patients. A Phase I study of 47 patients reported in 2010 that treatment of ...
The second category is dependent upon the tumor and includes the stage, tumor burden, and extranodal involvement. Finally, the ... Since these tumors are fast to grow and spread, immediate intervention is required after diagnosis.[citation needed] There are ... Patients most often present with a rapidly growing tumor mass in single or multiple, nodal or extranodal sites. The most ... Factors such as LDH serum level and proliferative fraction can give insight into the tumor microenvironment and proliferation ...
2016). "Analysis of circulating tumour DNA to monitor disease burden following colorectal cancer surgery". Gut. 65 (4): 625-634 ... 2016). "Monitoring the HER2 copy number status in circulating tumor DNA by droplet digital PCR in patients with gastric cancer ... 2015). "Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic ... Researchers have used liquid biopsy to monitor tumor load, treatment response and disease progression in cancer patients by ...
In the irRC, tumour burden is measured by combining 'index' lesions with new lesions. Ordinarily tumour burden would be ... Everything else is considered immune-related Stable Disease (irSD). The thinking here is that even if tumour burden is rising, ... The developers of the irRC based their criteria on the WHO Criteria but modified it: Measurement of tumour burden. ... For the WHO Criteria it had been >50% tumour shrinkage for a Partial Response and >25% tumour increase for Progressive Disease ...
However, these regimens need not be started in people with FL who are asymptomatic and have low tumor burdens: the outcomes in ... "Watchful waiting in low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: results of an F2-study database". Journal of ... encodes tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily which may function as a ... encoding p16INK4a and p14arf tumor suppressor proteins) or CDKN2B (encoding cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B multiple tumor ...
... can control tumor burden but cannot prevent transformation or correct cytogenic abnormalities. ...
It was shown, that patients with higher non-synonymous mutation burden in their tumors respond better to the treatment. Both ... In the cancer disease state, the interaction of PD-L1 on the tumor cells with PD-1 on a T-cell reduces T-cell function signals ... In 2017, it became the first immunotherapy drug approved for use based on the genetic mutations of the tumor rather than the ... but also increases chances of the immune system to recognize and attack to the tumor. ...
Typically, any tumour presenting as above WHO grade I (i.e. a malignant tumour as opposed to a benign tumour) will have a ... Unjudicious usage of Temozolomide might lower the prognosis of the patients further, or increase their burden. Further ... Often, tumor growth causes a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the vicinity of the tumor. As a rule, high-grade gliomas ... Glioma at the Human Protein Atlas American Brain Tumor Association: Malignant Gliomas Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ...
Tumors are also removed in cases where a patient is suffering from a high seizure burden. If a tumor is rapidly growing or ... Total removal of the tumor is curative. Surgery to remove intraventricular tumors also carries risks of complications or death ... After complete surgical removal, a SEGA tumor does not grow back. They do not metastasize to other parts of the body. However, ... "Supependymal Giant Cell Tumor (SGCT) or Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA)" (PDF). Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance. June ...
"FDA Accepts sBLA for First-Line Nivolumab Plus Low-Dose Ipilimumab in NSCLC With Tumor Mutational Burden ≥ 10 mut/mb". ASCO ... which may be a single tumor-specific peptide/protein or a tumor cell lysate (a solution of broken down tumor cells). These ... as an aggressive brain tumor were whole tumor lysate, CMV antigen RNA and tumor associated peptides like EGFRvIII. Dendritic ... In 2018 some genetic indications such as Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB, the number of mutations within a targeted genetic region ...
In some cancers the microRNA-223 down-regulation is correlated with higher tumor burden, disease aggressiveness, and poor ... significantly with the progression of these two diseases thus associating miR-223 down-regulation with higher tumor burden, ...
"Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Trap Decreases Tumor Burden, Inhibits Ascites, and Causes Dramatic Vascular Remodeling in an ... At the Conway Institute Byrne worked to establish the Tumour Xenograft Facility and translational Pre-clinical Imaging Centre. ... which trains scientists in brain tumour research, cancer systems medicine and multi-omics. Glioblastoma is the most aggressive ...
Nagalase accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical ...
... decreased tumor burden and increased cell differentiation in the remaining tumors in transgenic mice developing Wnt-induced ... Its expression has also been demonstrated in ovarian cancers, liver tumors and pancreatic tumors. Thus, several types of tumors ... hPG80 is therefore expressed at all stages by the tumor, from early stages to metastasis. hPG80 is found in different tumor ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the tumor, usually between 1 and 5%. But they are essential for tumor ...
In tumors however, vascular lock is of a longer duration and can contribute to the effectiveness of the electrochemotherapy. ... the patient's burden usually associated to chemotherapy is not present. In the clinical use of electrochemotherapy, limited ... Electrochemotherapy is also used in veterinary oncology for a variety of tumors in dogs, cats, horses, and rabbits. There are ... For treatment of deep-seated tumors in relative vicinity of the heart, pulses are synchronized with absolute refractory period ...
T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... The late phase of sepsis is characterized by an increased microbiological burden and death rate. Critical Care. July 2011, 15 ( ... T cells in multiple myeloma display features of exhaustion and senescence at the tumor site. Journal of Hematology & Oncology. ...
... the large tumor can compress adjacent structures.[citation needed] These tumors can compress the nerves that carry information ... The burden of Cushing's disease (CD): clinical and health-related quality of life aspects (RA Feelders, SJ Pulgar, A Kempel, ... Some tumors do not contain a discrete border between tumor and pituitary gland; therefore, careful sectioning through pituitary ... However, in 40% of Cushing's disease patients MRI is unable to detect a tumor.[7] In one study of 261 patients with confirmed ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545-1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16) ... and androgen-secreting tumors, can cause acne in affected individuals.[45][46] Conversely, people who lack androgenic hormones ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163-96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12) ...
Graft-versus-tumor effect[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-tumor effect. Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus ... and reduce the burden of disability in some patients" that have aggressive highly active MS, "in the absence of chronic ... a b Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , Blood & Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation , The Graft-versus-Tumor Effect Archived ... Graft versus tumor is mainly beneficial in diseases with slow progress, e.g. chronic leukemia, low-grade lymphoma, and in some ...
Radiotherapy may also be administered in cases of "low-grade" gliomas when a significant tumor burden reduction could not be ... There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.[2] Cancerous tumors can be divided into ... Often these tumors are associated with clearly outlined tumors in imaging.. *Infiltration is the behavior of the tumor either ... The signs and symptoms of brain tumors are broad. People with brain tumors will experience them no matter if the tumor is ...
"Global Burden of Disease". W.H.O. Global Burden of Disease/en/. Retrieved 7 October 2015.. ... of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of ... "The global burden of skin disease in 2010: an analysis of the prevalence and impact of skin conditions". IHME. 1 November 2013 ... One aspect of dermatoepidemiology is the determination of the global burden of skin diseases [34][35] From 1990 to 2013, skin ...
Fukuoka M, Yasuda K, Fujiwara H, Kanzaki H, Mori T. Interactions between interferon gamma, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012, 380 (9859): 2163-96. PMID 23245607. doi: ...
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ...
Wu EQ (2005). "The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002". J Clin Psychiatry 66 (9): 1122-9. PMID ... A stroke or brain tumor. *A metabolism (chemical reactions keeping the person alive) that is too high or too low ...
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver. ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545-1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16) ... එම සෛල එවිට ගුණනය වී ද්ව්තීයික අර්බුද (secondary tumour)බවට ශරීරයේ තැන් කිහිපයකදී පත්වීමට ලක්වේ. එවිට මෙම ද්ව්තීයික අර්බුද ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459-1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16) ...
However, invasive ventilation imposes a heavy burden on caregivers and may decrease their quality of life.[14] Attitudes toward ... such as a spinal cord tumor, multiple sclerosis, a herniated disk in the neck, syringomyelia, or cervical spondylosis.[4] ... behavioral dysfunctions have been found to correlate with reduced survival in people with ALS and increased caregiver burden; ...
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors *^ Tejani MA, Saif MW (2014). "Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Does chemotherapy work?". JOP ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095-128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/ ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [4] ... "Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ...
He graduated in 1839 upon a thesis titled A Life Full of Work and Toil is not a Burden but a Benediction. However, he chose ... he was the first to describe a type of tumour called chordoma that originated from the clivus (at the base of the skull).[37][ ... Experiments also show that drugs that block inflammation simultaneously inhibit tumour formation and development.[47] ...
Putri WC, Muscatello DJ, Stockwell MS, Newall AT (June 2018). "Economic burden of seasonal influenza in the United States". ... such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells.[24][97] In contrast to the rhinovirus that ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095-128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12) ...
... carcinoid tumors (resulting in carcinoid syndrome), and tumors within the thoracic cavity.[5] ... Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social ... Secondary hyperhidrosis may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause ...
2009-11-14]. Kapitola The Stop TB Strategy, case reports, treatment outcomes and estimates of TB burden, s. 187-300. Dostupné v ... Mutlu, G., Mutlu, E., Bellmeyer, A., Rubinstein, I. Pulmonary adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody ...
... and a vermian tumour[69] (which a few studies suggest are present 5-22% of the time). Furthermore, an abnormal neuroimaging ... If the burden of disease (lost well-being) is included, individuals bear 76% of the costs. ... A metabolism disorder or tumors in the nervous system may appear to be CP; metabolic disorders, in particular, can produce ... "Symptom Burden in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy". Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 47 (9): 863-67. doi ...
... imposes economic and social burdens. The cost of treating bacterial conjunctivitis alone was estimated to be $ ...
Tumor markers. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095-128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12) ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ... If cancer is present, the pathologist reports the grade of the tumor. The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from ...
Neoplastic: glioma, meningioma, brain tumors, spinal cord tumors. *Demyelination: multiple sclerosis, disseminated sclerosis, ... Evaluate the potential burden of care and monitor any changes based on either improving or declining scores ... Hemiplegia is not a progressive disorder, except in progressive conditions like a growing brain tumour. Once the injury has ... Hemiparesis and hemiplegia can be caused by different medical conditions, including congenital causes, trauma, tumors, or ...
By 1899, these had increased in severity, and by the summer of 1900, his doctors were suspecting a stomach tumour. Creighton ... "It is a frightful burden to lay on you: I hope you will use up everybody except yourself."[70] ...
Burden-Gulley, S.M.; Gates, T.J.; Craig, S.E.L.; Gupta, M.; Brady-Kalnay, S.M. (2010). "Stimulation of n-cadherin-dependent ... is a noninvasive analytical technique that has been used to study metabolic changes in brain tumors, strokes, seizure disorders ...
"The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol drinking". International Journal of Cancer 119 (4): 884-7. Awst 2006. doi:10.1002/ ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol 100 (2): 505-506. 1980. PMC 1903536. PMID 6773421. ... "Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life ... systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/bmj ...
Global burden of Parkinson's disease, measured in disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 no data ... as well as less frequent entities such as basal ganglia tumors and hydrocephalus.[65] ... due to reduced productivity and the burden on caregivers.[117] In addition to economic costs, PD reduces quality of life of ... 10,000 and the total burden around $23 billion.[117] The largest share of direct cost comes from inpatient care and nursing ...
Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma»։ Mol Clin Oncol 1 (4): 593-598։ 2013։ PMC 3915636։ PMID 24649215։ doi:10.3892/mco. ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.»։ Lancet 385: 117-71։ PMC 4340604։ PMID 25530442։ doi: ... 9,0 9,1 Emre S, McKenna, GJ (December 2004)։ «Liver tumors in children.»։ Pediatric transplantation 8 (6): 632-8։ PMID 15598339 ... Liver tumors in Children»։ Boston Children's Hospital։ Արխիվացված է օրիգինալից 2011-06-04-ին ...
Jackson survived a three-hour surgical removal of a benign tumor from her neck on May 7, 2008.[21][22] During the 2008 ... initial plan exempted Platinum and Executive card holders who were generally business travelers and placed an inordinate burden ...
His younger brother Edward M. Kennedy held that seat until his death from a brain tumor in 2009.[304] Since the 1950s, ... Depending on how it is calculated, state and local tax burden in Massachusetts has been estimated among U.S. states and ...
Shear MJ (1944). "Chemical treatment of tumors, IX: Reactions of mice with primary subcutaneous tumors to injection of a ... "Neonatal sepsis: A continuing disease burden" (PDF). The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics. 54 (5): 449-57. PMID 23427506 ... Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 may activate procoagulation factors in the cells ... "Assessing available information on the burden of sepsis: Global estimates of incidence, prevalence and mortality". Journal of ...
... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163-96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12) ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117-71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682 ...
Tumor mutations may seem like bad news, but researchers suggest they may provide valuable insights for treating cancer patients ... Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is a measurement of the number of mutations carried by tumor cells and an emerging area of focus in ... Tumor Mutation Burden: Unlocking Cancers Genetic Fingerprint. Tumor mutations may seem like bad news, but researchers suggest ... that reach a tumor. Tumors with more mutations may be more responsive to immunotherapy, Wherry says, "because the immune system ...
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is the total number of mutations per coding area of a tumor genome. ... The Promise of Tumor Mutational Burden for Cancer Immunotherapy Quantitative Biomarkers Could Be the Next Step for Precision ... A new, more quantitative biomarker called tumor mutational burden (TMB) could be the answer for immunotherapies. ... Tumor Biomarkers Culled from Errant Transcripts Potential for Blood Platelet-Derived Biomarkers to ID and Locate Tumors ...
Researchers have discovered a link between certain changes in the genome of a tumor and increased chances of death across ... Overall burden of tumor genome changes can predict patient outcomes New study suggests the overall burden of changes that occur ... Overall burden of tumor genome changes can predict patient outcomes. eLife Journal. eLife. Funder. Howard Hughes Medical ... The research also shows that the percentage of these alterations in a tumor genome, known as the CNA burden, can be measured ...
Anderson Circulating Tumor Cell Burden (CTCB) Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Circulating Tumor Cell Burden. CTCB. Spine pain. Coblation. plasma radiofrequency ablation. Plasma-mediated ablation technology ... Assessment of Circulating Tumor Cell Burden After Radiofrequency-Based Plasma Ablation (COBLATION®) in Conjunction With ... Phase 1: Time to Maximal Circulating Tumor Cell Burden (CTCB) [ Time Frame: Pre-procedure baseline blood draws through post ...
BMS amended an ongoing Phase III study of Opdivo and Yervoy to evaluate outcomes based on tumor mutational burden using ... Home » Diagnostics » Molecular Diagnostics » BMS Immunotherapy Combo Study Backs FoundationOne CDx Tumor Mutational Burden ... BMS Immunotherapy Combo Study Backs FoundationOne CDx Tumor Mutational Burden Indication. Feb 09, 2018 ... High-Definition Spatial Proteomics to Elucidate the Tumor Immune Microenvironment: A Dana-Farber Case Study. ...
MSK researchers showed that high TMB may be associated with improved survival across tumor types, but the cut-offs for high and ... Tumor Mutation Burden Predicts Immunotherapy Benefit Across Cancers, Though Cutoffs Differ. Jan 15, 2019 ... Home » Tumor Mutation Burden Predicts Immunotherapy Benefit Across Cancers, Though Cutoffs Differ ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Cancer patients with high tumor mutational burden who were treated with immunotherapy tended to live ...
NGS cost-effectively assesses tumor mutational burden and aids in the identification of neoantigens that can boost T cell- ... Estimating Tumor Mutational Burden. While the clinical utility of tumor mutational burden is being defined, continuing efforts ... Assessing Tumor Immunogenicity. Tumor mutational burden (TMB), the number of somatic mutations within the coding region of a ... Areas of Interest /Oncology /Cancer Genomics Research /Immunotherapy Research /Tumor Mutational Burden & Neoantigen Analysis ...
... antibody treatment is dependent on the extent to which exhausted CD8 T cells are reinvigorated in relation to the tumour burden ... Assessment of response and tumour burden. Tumour burden. Total measurable tumour burden was defined as the sum of the long axis ... d, Objective response rate for high and low ratio of Ki67 to tumour burden (left), tumour burden versus Ki67 by LOS (landmark ... Ki67 to tumour burden ratio: high, n = 13; low, n = 10). Kaplan-Meier data (Ki67 to tumour burden ratio: high, n = 13; low, n ...
2020). "Prevalence of High Tumor Mutational Burden and Association With Survival in Patients With Less Common Solid Tumors". ... "Methods of measurement for tumor mutational burden in tumor tissue". Transl Lung Cancer Res. 7 (6): 661-7. doi:10.21037/tlcr. ... Tumour mutational burden (abbreviated as TMB) is a genetic characteristic of tumorous tissue that can be informative to cancer ... 2019). "Development of tumor mutation burden as an immunotherapy biomarker: utility for the oncology clinic". Ann Oncol. 30 (1 ...
Keywords: prognostic value, tumor burden, primary tumor volume , nodal volume, nasopharyngeal carcinoma ... Hence, tumor burden, including TV and NV, should be incorporated into the current staging system for NPC to improve prognostic ... Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor burden in NPC patients treated with intensity- ... However, studies of the prognosis value of tumor burden, including TV and nodal volume (NV), have been relatively infrequent. ...
Tumor mutation burden (TMB) may be a relevant biomarker of response to ICIs in different tumor types; however, its clinical use ... A scalable solution for tumor mutational burden from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples using the Oncomine Tumor ... Yarchoan M, Hopkins A and Jaffee EM: Tumor mutational burden and response rate to pd-1 inhibition. N Engl J Med. 377:2500-2501 ... Fenizia F, Pasquale R, Roma C, Bergantino F, Iannaccone A and Normanno N: Measuring tumor mutation burden in non-small cell ...
Tumor Mutation Burden Testing. Vamsi Velcheti, MD, and David Rimm, MD, PhD, discuss the recent clinical trials that studied ... tumor mutation burden (TMB) as a biomarker and the mechanisms behind why tumors with high TMB respond to immunotherapy. ...
... ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive functions dependent on the presence of a local inflammatory or tumor ... CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G- cells show distinct function in mice with chronic inflammation or tumor burden BMC Immunol. 2012 Dec 12;13:69 ... Methods: CD11b(+)Ly6C(++) and Ly6G(+) cells were isolated from spleen, tumor tissue or inflammatory granulomas. S100A9, ... derived from tumors or a site of chronic inflammation, but was very low in the same cell populations isolated from the spleen. ...
Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. ... Salinomycin treatment reduces metastatic tumor burden by hampering cancer cell migration. In: Molecular Cancer 2014, 13:16 ... Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised ...
... to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden ... "Quantitative Assessment of Whole-Body Tumor Burden in Adult Patients with Neurofibromatosis." Edited by Karl Herholz. PLoS ONE ... Quantitative Assessment of Whole-Body Tumor Burden in Adult Patients with Neurofibromatosis. ... WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03 ...
... were analyzed to determine tumor burden in bone and bone-associated soft tissue tumor burden (A) and total tumor burden per ... the total cumulative tumor burden/animal amounted to 6.43 ± 2.00 mm2 in tumor-bearing animals, whereas the total tumor burden ... tumor area/animal was thus calculated and expressed as bone tumor burden and bone-associated soft tissue tumor burden. ... reduction in total tumor burden when compared with placebo control animals. In tumor-bearing animals, the amount of doxycycline ...
... or overall survival rate in selected patients with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma compared with patients initially ... Watch & Wait OK in Low-Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma. This article originally appeared here. ... The majority of patients (80%) had a low tumor burden and disseminated disease. ... or overall survival rate in selected patients with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma compared with patients initially ...
... compared with chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for people with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) in advanced non-small ... compared with chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for people with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) in advanced non-small ... Immunotherapy Combination Demonstrates Improved Progression-Free Survival in People with a High Tumor Mutational Burden in ... "This is the first phase III study to evaluate TMB, a measurement of the mutations carried by tumor cells, as a predictive ...
TriSalus Life Sciences Presents Data at American Association of Cancer Research Showing Reduced Liver Tumor Burden from Toll- ... TriSalus Life Sciences Presents Data at American Association of Cancer Research Showing Reduced Liver Tumor Burden from Toll- ... particularly in the setting of a large tumor burden.. The pre-clinical study presented at AACR, conducted by Chandra C. Ghosh ... resulting in reduced tumor burden of liver metastases in mice.1. ODNs bind and activate TLR9 to initiate an immune response ...
Foundation Medicine Publishes New Data in Nature Medicine Supporting Blood Tumor Mutational Burden (bTMB) as a Novel Predictor ... Foundation Medicine Publishes New Data in Nature Medicine Supporting Blood Tumor Mutational Burden (bTMB) as a Novel Predictor ... investigational assay to measure blood tumor mutational burden (bTMB) can help predict response to the anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy ...
Phase II Venetoclax, Obinutuzumab and Bendamustine in High Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma as Front Line Therapy (PrE0403). ... Patients with high tumor burden, low grade follicular lymphoma that has never been treated, will receive venetoclax in ... High Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma. Venetoclax. Obinutuzumab. Bendamustine. Bcl-2 Family Protein Inhibitor. Monoclonal ... High-risk patients with FL, defined as having advanced stage and high tumor burden have significantly shorter progression free ...
resp.). Our preliminary results found positive association between plasma level of OPN, tumor burden, and bone destruction. ... and find possible association between them and main clinical features and parameters of tumor burden in patient with multiple ... of Osteopontin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Association with Clinical Features and Parameters of Tumor Burden in ... should provide information about the possible use of OPN as useful clinical biomarker for monitoring bone disease and tumor ...
Frequencies of somatic mutations or tumor mutation burden (TMB) were associated with immunogenicity of breast cancer. This ... Keywords: breast cancer, tumor mutation burden, estrogen receptor, HER-2 ... is the process of eliminating highly immunogenic tumor cells by somatic evolution and protecting the host from tumor ... the 453 multigenes panel based on NGS was used to determine the TMB value of breast cancer in the patients primary tumor ...
... Participants show near doubling in response rate and 1-year ... Tumor Mutation Burden in SCLC. *In an exploratory analysis of CheckMate 032, tumor mutation burden was evaluated as a biomarker ... a high tumor mutation burden predicted better outcomes, as compared with a medium or low tumor mutation burden, Naiyer -Rizvi, ... with most SCLC tumors being PD-L1-negative. Emerging data in NSCLC have suggested tumor mutation burden may be an important ...
... which are both tumors with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB; ref. 17). Higher nonsynonymous mutational burden in NSCLC, ... High tumor mutational burden (TMB) may be a response biomarker for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in tumors such as melanoma and non-small ... NGS and assessment of tumor mutational burden. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were submitted for NGS to ... Tumor Mutational Burden as an Independent Predictor of Response to Immunotherapy in Diverse Cancers. Aaron M. Goodman, Shumei ...
... Ann ... Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was determined on 0.8-1.1 Mb of sequenced DNA and reported as mutations/Mb. Potential biomarkers ... Keywords: checkpoint inhibitor; colorectal cancer (CRC); immunotherapy; microsatellite instability (MSI); tumor mutational ...
Tumor Mutational Burden, and Hypermutation Signature were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... Additionally, tumor mutational burden (TMB) is reported, which identifies a subpopulation of hypermutated glioblastomas that ... Additionally, tumor mutational burden (TMB) is reported, which identifies a subpopulation of hypermutated glioblastomas that ... Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of 282 Pediatric Low- and High-Grade Gliomas Reveals Genomic Drivers, Tumor Mutational Burden, ...
We compared the ability of maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) derived by FDG-PET with tumor burden in predicting tumor ... the tumor metabolic information provided by FDG-PET is more significantly correlated with prognosis than tumor burden. ... of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for prediction of tumor recurrence in breast cancer beyond tumor burden. ... Recent advances gained from molecular studies suggest that tumor biology can be a good predictor of prognosis in breast cancer ...
In3+ or Ru3+ treatment significantly increased the tumor burden in all animals and In3+ increased the number of tumors larger ... Oral trivalent bismuth ions decrease, and trivalent indium or ruthenium ions increase, intestinal tumor burden in ApcΔ14/+ mice ... Oral trivalent bismuth ions decrease, and trivalent indium or ruthenium ions increase, intestinal tumor burden in ApcΔ14/+ mice ... and the incidence and size of intestinal tumors were assessed. Bi3+ treatment significantly decreased the number of tumors ...
Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Elevated Tumor Mutational Burden and Initiating Driver Mutations in African Men with Treatment- ... Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Elevated Tumor Mutational Burden and Initiating Driver Mutations in African Men with Treatment- ... Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Elevated Tumor Mutational Burden and Initiating Driver Mutations in African Men with Treatment- ... Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Elevated Tumor Mutational Burden and Initiating Driver Mutations in African Men with Treatment- ...
  • A new, more quantitative biomarker called tumor mutational burden (TMB) could be the answer for immunotherapies. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is a measurement of the number of mutations carried by tumor cells and an emerging area of focus in biomarker research. (
  • Additionally, the correlation between high tumor mutation burden and microsatellite instability was confirmed. (
  • Results from several studies have suggested that tumor mutation burden (TMB) may be an additional biomarker of response to ICIs in different tumor types ( 6 - 15 ). (
  • There is a large variability in mutation burden among and within tumor types, ranging from just a few to thousands of mutations ( 20 - 22 ). (
  • Vamsi Velcheti, MD, and David Rimm, MD, PhD, discuss the recent clinical trials that studied tumor mutation burden (TMB) as a biomarker and the mechanisms behind why tumors with high TMB respond to immunotherapy. (
  • Frequencies of somatic mutations or tumor mutation burden (TMB) were associated with immunogenicity of breast cancer. (
  • Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a high tumor mutation burden had a near doubling in response rate and 1-year overall survival when ipilimumab was combined with nivolumab, vs nivolumab alone, new findings from CheckMate 032 have shown. (
  • Regardless of the treatment arm, a high tumor mutation burden predicted better outcomes, as compared with a medium or low tumor mutation burden, Naiyer -Rizvi, MD, of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, reported at the 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 18th World Conference on Lung Cancer in Yokohama, Japan. (
  • The results from CheckMate 032 provide clear evidence supporting the power of tumor mutation burden as a biomarker, not only for nivolumab response, but even more so for the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab," Dr. Rizvi said. (
  • This may begin to impact prescribing practice in SCLC, where a tumor mutation burden biomarker can be used to select patients for combination immunotherapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab. (
  • In an exploratory analysis of CheckMate 032, tumor mutation burden was evaluated as a biomarker of response to nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab. (
  • In the study, 211 patients were divided into low, medium, and high tumor mutation burden tertiles. (
  • Patients in the high tumor mutation burden tertile had improved response rates, 1-year progression-free survival, and overall survival. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is the total exonic mutation count per megabase of tumor DNA. (
  • The different origins consequently contribute to tumors with a different gene expression and mutation profile. (
  • Conversely, LCC tumors are characterized by higher frequency of KRAS mutation and chromosomal instability [ 9 ]. (
  • Can someone help me with the formulae or a tool to identify the Tumor Mutation Burden from a Whole Exome Sequence? (
  • How to calculate TMB (Tumor Mutation Burden) from VCF file? (
  • For Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) usually people calculates non_synonym_mutations / Mb. (
  • Call mutations How to call mutation within a region by comparing the sequences between tumor and. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) predicts response to immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • Here, novel tumor mutation score (TMS) was defined as the number of genes with mutations in candidate genes and compared with TMB and PD-L1 in 240 NSCLC patients and validated in 34 NSCLC patients. (
  • Chan TA, Yarchoan M, Jaffee E, Swanton C, Quezada SA, Stenzinger A, Peters S (2019) Development of tumor mutation burden as an immunotherapy biomarker: utility for the oncology clinic. (
  • Tumor genome profiling revealed a high tumor mutation burden of 17 mutations per megabase in the absence of microsatellite instability. (
  • This is termed the mutation load or tumor mutational burden (TMB). (
  • 특히, Tumor Mutation Burden의 경우, TMB이 높을수록, 단백질의 변이에 의한 신항원(Neo-antigen)의 발현 확률도 높아지고, 이질적인 항원 발현에 의한 면역 반응으로 종양 세포가 제거될 확률도 높아지게 될 것 이기 때문에, 이미 이전부터 당연하게 예측되는 결과 이기도 했습니다. (
  • 이에 Tumor Mutation Burden의 의미와 영향을 미치는 인자들, 그리고 계산 방법 에 대해서 정리해보겠습니다. (
  • Researchers have hypothesized that the increased mutation rate leads to an increased number of mutated proteins, or neo-antigens, on the surface of tumor cells capable of eliciting an immune response. (
  • The measurement of TMB offers an alternative to neo-antigen detection, using the mutation rate itself as a proxy for the neo-antigenic burden. (
  • Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) is a measure of the somatic mutation rate within a tumor genome and is emerging as a quantitative indicator for predicting response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors such as KEYTRUDA®, across a wide range of malignancies. (
  • Kolkata, Nov 04 (UNI) MedGenome Labs, India's leading genomics-driven research and diagnostics company, had launched Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) test to help clinicians take informed decision on immuno-therapy for their cancer patients. (
  • They found that this mutation is required for tumor formation in the GCT mouse models and also responsible for downregulation of genes involved in muscle function. (
  • Each mutation was distinct demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor. (
  • The rationale of its use as a biomarker is based on the fact that somatic mutations may lead to the formation of tumor-specific neoantigens, which are able to trigger T-cell activation against tumor cells ( 16 - 19 ). (
  • This is the first phase III study to evaluate TMB, a measurement of the mutations carried by tumor cells, as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy as a co-primary endpoint. (
  • Further analysis should provide information about the possible use of OPN as useful clinical biomarker for monitoring bone disease and tumor mass, as well as a prognostic factor, or a possible target for pharmacological intervention. (
  • In contrast to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD‑L1) tumor expression has not been a useful biomarker for SCLC, with most SCLC tumors being PD-L1-negative. (
  • High tumor mutational burden (TMB) may be a response biomarker for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in tumors such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • The use of tumor PD-L1 expression as a biomarker has been studied extensively. (
  • Background Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. (
  • TUMOR MUTATIONAL burden is emerging as a predictive biomarker for the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as other tumor types. (
  • 1. Ramalingam S, et al: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) as a biomarker for clinical benefit from dual immune checkpoint blockade with nivolumab + ipilimumab in first-line, non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • IL8 is a potentially useful biomarker to monitor changes in tumor burden following anticancer therapy, and has prognostic significance. (
  • In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has shown great promise as a treatment for several cancers [ 10 - 12 ], and a few trials employed immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) on tumor cells and/or immune cells as a predictive biomarker to separate responders from non-responders [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • High tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors and has been shown to be more significantly associated with response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy than PD-1 or PD-L1 expression, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). (
  • An emerging biomarker for response to immunotherapy is the total number of mutations present in a tumor specimen. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB), the total number of somatic coding mutations in a tumor, is emerging as a promising biomarker for immunotherapy response in cancer patients. (
  • One such biomarker which has been associated with response to immunotherapy in multiple disease types is tumor mutational burden (TMB). (
  • Several studies have incorporated Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) as a biomarker, using the validated cutoff of TMB of 10 or more mutations/Megabase as High, and less than 10 mutations/Megabase, as Low. (
  • Conclusions: Use of ddPCR to detect tumor specific EWS-ETS fusion gene breakpoint ptDNA fragments can be developed into a highly personalized biomarker of relapse that can be optimized in animal studies for ultimate use in patients. (
  • Most intriguing is the result the group claims if the data are cut by patients' tumour mutational burden (TMB), a controversial biomarker earlier touted by Bristol-Myers Squibb. (
  • We aimed to examine the correlation between cfDNA and total tumour burden defined by positron emission tomography (PET) parameters.Methods:Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enrolled into a prospective biomarker trial. (
  • Tumors with more mutations may be more responsive to immunotherapy, Wherry says, "because the immune system sees them as foreign and engages many T cells. (
  • Tumors that have higher levels of TMB are believed to express more neoantigens - a type of cancer-specific antigen - that may allow for a more robust immune response and therefore a more durable response to immunotherapy. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Cancer patients with high tumor mutational burden who were treated with immunotherapy tended to live longer than those with fewer mutations, researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center reported in Nature Genetics this week. (
  • On June 16, 2020 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration expanded the approval of the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab to treat any advanced solid-tumor cancers with a TMB greater than 10 mutations per Mb and continued growth following prior treatments. (
  • TriSalus Life Sciences is a revenue generating, emerging immuno-oncology company dedicated to developing immunotherapy treatments for liver and pancreatic tumors using novel delivery technologies to improve patient outcomes. (
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Foundation Medicine , today announced the publication of the results of a large study demonstrating that its novel, investigational assay to measure blood tumor mutational burden (bTMB) can help predict response to the anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy, atezolizumab, (TECENTRIQ ® ) in patients with previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • However, the majority of unselected patients will not respond to immunotherapy, even among those with responsive tumor types. (
  • He underwent two awake craniotomies at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and then pioneering immunotherapy treatment at the Macmillan Centre at University College Hospital in London, which sadly didn't stop the tumour growing. (
  • Self antigens expressed by solid tumors Do not efficiently stimulate naive or activated T cells: implications for immunotherapy. (
  • No significant spontaneous CTL activation against GP was observed.The data show that the tumor did not spontaneously induce or maintain an activated CTL response, revealing a profound lack of immunogenicity in vivo.Therefore, repetitive immunizations are necessary for prolonged antitumor immunotherapy. (
  • In addition, the data suggest that the risk for induction of chronic autoimmune diseases is limited, which may encourage immunotherapy against antigens selectively but not exclusively expressed by the tumor. (
  • Blood glucose levels reflect the tumor burden and the effectiveness of tumor immunotherapy in vivo. (
  • TMB measures the number of mutations within a tumor genome, and tumors which harbor more mutations have been shown to have a greater likelihood of response to immunotherapy. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has expanded the approval of the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda) to include any cancer with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H). (
  • The prognostic value of primary tumor volume (TV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been confirmed. (
  • In 53 patients with breast cancer, the 453 multigenes panel based on NGS was used to determine the TMB value of breast cancer in the patient's primary tumor tissues. (
  • SRF231 promotes macrophage-mediated phagocytic clearance of several hematologic primary tumor samples and cell lines in vitro . (
  • 1.0 mm (HR 1.13), and primary tumor ulceration (HR 2.17). (
  • Primary sarcomas represent the least common malignancies in bone, although osteosarcoma represents the most common nonhemoapoietic primary tumor of bone. (
  • Results: Tumor specific breakpoint DNA fragments were detected in the plasma of xenograft bearing mice, and signal correlated with tumor burden during primary tumor growth, following surgical resection, and upon metastatic relapse. (
  • Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and lethality is normally associated with the consequences of metastasis rather than the primary tumor. (
  • Therefore, targeting the molecular pathways that underlie dissemination of primary tumor cells and the formation of metastases has a great clinical value. (
  • As clinical genomic analysis of tumors and tumor biopsies becomes more widespread, there is a growing need to understand the prognostic factors captured by genomic features including CNA," says lead author Haley Hieronymus, Senior Research Scientist in Charles Sawyers' lab at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, US. (
  • Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of 282 Pediatric Low- and High-Grade Gliomas Reveals Genomic Drivers, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Hypermutation Signatures. (
  • In pLGGs, we detected genomic alterations (GA) in 95.2% (119/125) of tumors. (
  • Although complex genomic rearrangements were less frequent in African tumors, we describe a uniquely hyper-duplicated tumor impacting 149 transposable elements. (
  • Under its agreement with IQN Path, SeraCare will develop, manufacture, and supply a range of highly characterized cell line genomic DNA and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded standards with confirmed low, mid, and high levels of mutational burden within their exome regions. (
  • This study evaluated the relationship between patients' clinical and genomic characteristics and high tumor mutational burden (TMB) in the context of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (
  • The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has shown that cancers have significant variation in the burden of genomic mutations they carry. (
  • By comparing DNA sequences from a patient's healthy tissues and tumor cells, and using a number of complex algorithms, scientists can determine the number of acquired somatic mutations present in tumors but not in normal tissues. (
  • Since the immune system relies on a sufficient number of neoantigens in order to appropriately respond, the number of somatic mutations was in effect acting as a proxy for determining the number of neoantigens per tumor. (
  • TMB is defined as the number of somatic mutations/megabase whereas mutational signatures are distinct mutational patterns of single base substitutions, double base substitutions, or small insertions and deletions in tumors. (
  • Cancer immunoediting is the process of eliminating highly immunogenic tumor cells by somatic evolution and protecting the host from tumor development in the host immune system. (
  • Excluding a single hyper-mutated tumor with 55 mutations per megabase, we observed a 1.8-fold increase in small somatic variants in African- versus European-derived tumors (P-value = 1.02e-04), rising to 4-fold when compared with published tumor-matched data. (
  • We then describe the distribution of TMB across a diverse cohort of 100,000 cancer cases and test for association between somatic alterations and TMB in over 100 tumor types. (
  • In this study we analyzed the somatic mutational burden of 515 primary, untreated neuroblastoma tumors from three independent cohorts. (
  • These non-synonymous somatic mutations in the tumor genome generate larger number of neo-antigens which are more immunogenic. (
  • We have analyzed the somatic mutations in 89 cutaneous neurofibromas derived from three unrelated NF1 patients with high tumor burden, by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of the NF1, TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A genes, by assessing microsatellite instability (MSI), by direct sequencing of the NF1, TP53, and several mismatch repair (MMR) genes and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the NF1 and TP53 genes. (
  • While somatic LOH of the TP53 gene was identified in four tumors, no specific deletions or sequence variations were identified. (
  • Unlike most cancer biomarkers for immunotherapies, which are specific to certain immune proteins expressed by the tumor, TMB is derived solely from mutations. (
  • Researchers have found that some tumors with a higher number of mutations may be more susceptible to an immune response. (
  • These make the immune system more likely to recognize the tumor as foreign," says Joe Szustakowski, head of translational bioinformatics at Bristol-Myers Squibb. (
  • Work by John Wherry, director of the Institute for Immunology at the University of Pennsylvania, and his colleagues shows that TMB correlates with the number of immune cells - specifically T cells - that reach a tumor. (
  • 2 The underlying theory motivating their research was that by giving patients a checkpoint inhibitor therapy, you're not just treating the tumor, you're also treating the immune system. (
  • This webinar will discuss how high-definition spatial proteomics, enabled by Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI), can be used to explore the immune microenvironment of tumor biopsy samples, illustrated by a case study at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. (
  • Clinical failure in many patients was not solely due to an inability to induce immune reinvigoration, but rather resulted from an imbalance between T-cell reinvigoration and tumour burden. (
  • One survival mechanism in tumors is to increase the expression of immune checkpoint molecules that can bind to tumor-specific T-cells and inactivate them, so that the tumor cells cannot be detected and killed. (
  • ICIs have been shown to improve patients' response and the survival rates as they help the immune system to target tumor cells. (
  • An identical CD11b(+)Ly6C(++)G(-) cell population appears to have the ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive functions dependent on the presence of a local inflammatory or tumor microenvironment. (
  • 2 TLR9 agonists (TLR9A) activate both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and play an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. (
  • This innovative approach in development has the potential to leverage multiple mechanisms that can work together with the goal to overcome inherent immune suppression within the solid tumor microenvironment. (
  • Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) has shown the ability to predict the response of some tumor types to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. (
  • High expression of CD47 on tumors blocks phagocytic uptake, subsequent antigen cross-presentation and T cell activation, which collectively contribute to tumor immune evasion. (
  • The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the mechanisms of antibody-based immunotherapies and the role of the tumor microenvironment in mediating the anti-tumor immune response, in order to aid the development of improved immunotherapies for cancer patients. (
  • CTLA-4 and PD-1 negatively regulate the anti-tumor T-cell response and blocking these immune checkpoints with antibodies enhances anti-tumor immunity. (
  • Vaccination induces anti-Gal-1 endogenous antibodies, resulting in improved vessel perfusion, improved immune-cell infiltration and decreased tumor growth. (
  • In addition, therapeutic vaccination and induction of tertiary lymphoid structures by agonistic CD40 antibodies are novel approaches to employ antibodies to modulate the anti-tumor immune response. (
  • Upregulation of PD-1 ligands is observed in some tumors, and signaling through this pathway can contribute to inhibition of active T-cell tumor immune surveillance. (
  • 2019). The predictive value of tumor mutational burden (TMB), alone or in combination with immune gene expression profile (GEP), for response to neoadjuvant therapy in early TNBC is currently not known, neither for combining immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) with chemotherapy nor conventional chemotherapy alone. (
  • The continuous TMB and immune GEP (or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes) independently predicted pCR. (
  • Tumor mutational burden and immune infiltration as independent predictors of response to neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibition in early TNBC in GeparNuevo. (
  • It is hypothesized that highly mutated tumors are more likely to harbor neoantigens which make them targets of activated immune cells. (
  • Nanoliposome C6-Ceramide Increases the Anti-tumor Immune Response and Slows Growth of Liver Tumors in Mice. (
  • KEYTRUDA® is a fully humanized, Immunoglobulin G4, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby undoing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, and unleashing the tumor-specific effector T cells. (
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are able to unleash the immune system to detect these neoantigens and destroy the tumor. (
  • Significant improvements in cGAMP accumulation and STING pathway activation in the tumor, and changes in the immune cell profile of the TME were also observed. (
  • However, this is still a probability measurement, its possible that tumors with even low mutational loads might still generate neo-antigens of interest to the immune system. (
  • Our tumour mutational load assay has been designed in response to the need to determine if treatment utilising immune checkpoint inhibitors are likely to be of benefit in your particular clinical circumstances. (
  • Conclusions: There is no significant impact on normal organ biodistribution with increasing tumor burden on [\(^{68}\)Ga]DOTATOC PET/CT. (
  • Conclusions: SN tumor burden categories according to Rotterdam criteria and the positive result of LY MM-RT-PCR assay demonstrated additional, independent prognostic value in SN-positive melanoma patients, showing significant correlation with shorter DFS and OS. (
  • Conclusions: Only a minimal sink effect with high tumor burden in patients imaged with [ 18 F]DCFPyL was observed. (
  • Conclusions: Circulating cell-free miR-375 proved as a surrogate marker for tumor burden in MCC without restriction to polyomavirus positivity, it thus appears to be useful for therapy monitoring and the follow-up of MCC patients. (
  • Endogenous interleukin 6 levels in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma: correlation with tumor burden. (
  • Purpose: We assessed molecular (presence of melanoma cells markers in lymph fluid [LY]) and pathological features (sentinel lymph node [SN] tumor burden according to Rotterdam criteria, metastases microanatomic location) and correlated them with survival and melanoma prognostic factors in a group of patients with positive SN biopsy. (
  • Administration of these STING-NPs significantly reduced tumor growth in melanoma and breast cancer models. (
  • Some tumors such as melanoma have extremely high burdens whereas others such as thyroid cancer have very low loads. (
  • It may also reflect the mechanism of oncogenesis as UV induced tumors such as melanoma have very high burdens. (
  • However, studies of the prognosis value of tumor burden, including TV and nodal volume (NV), have been relatively infrequent. (
  • Recent advances gained from molecular studies suggest that tumor biology can be a good predictor of prognosis in breast cancer. (
  • Particularly in patients with hormone receptor-positive disease, the tumor metabolic information provided by FDG-PET is more significantly correlated with prognosis than tumor burden. (
  • miRNA-200c (miR-200c) is downregulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and stage III ovarian tumors, and low miR-200c correlates with poor prognosis. (
  • We correlated IL8 serum levels with baseline tumor burden and with treatment-induced changes in tumor burden, as well as with prognosis. (
  • The financial penalties, the loss of independence and the consequential feelings of isolation compound the poor prognosis endured by brain tumour patients and this has got to stop. (
  • T2 maps using dual-echo data are feasible, stable, and can be used to objectively define NET burden for use in brain tumor characterization, prognosis, and response assessment. (
  • Background: Tumor burden is an important factor in defining prognosis among patients with primary and secondary liver cancers. (
  • Although the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has changed the criteria for staging patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to better define the effect of tumor burden on prognosis, the impact of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor burden on overall survival has not been examined using a machine-learning tool. (
  • The Classification and Regression Tree model identified 8 classes of patients with a homogeneous risk of death, illustrating the hierarchical relationship between tumor burden (log tumor size and number of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas) and other factors associated with prognosis. (
  • A log-model Classification and Regression Tree-derived tumor burden score may be a better tool to estimate prognosis of patients undergoing curative-intent resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (
  • In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase). (
  • 10 mutations/megabase [mut/Mb]) solid tumors. (
  • Pembrolizumab was granted accelerated approval for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic tumor mutational burden-high (≥10 mutations/megabase) solid tumors. (
  • Hello, I know that Tumor Mutational Burden is the 'number of variants per megabase' but, how can. (
  • The FDA on June 16, 2020 granted accelerated approval to KEYTRUDA® (Pembrolizumab) for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic Tumor Mutational Burden-High (10 or more mutations/megabase) solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test , that have progressed following prior treatment, and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. (
  • The research also shows that the percentage of these alterations in a tumor genome, known as the CNA burden, can be measured using a clinically approved sequencing technique, highlighting its potential to predict outcomes for cancer patients in a clinical setting. (
  • Our initial analysis revealed that tumor CNA burden is associated with cancer-specific death, independent of standard clinical predictors," Hieronymus explains. (
  • Finally, they studied the clinical feasibility of measuring tumor CNA burden using the US Food and Drug Administration-cleared MSK-IMPACT next-generation sequencing assay. (
  • The magnitude of reinvigoration of circulating T ex cells determined in relation to pretreatment tumour burden correlated with clinical response. (
  • The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. (
  • HealthDay News) - An initial watch-and-wait strategy does not have a detrimental effect on the freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) or overall survival rate in selected patients with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma compared with patients initially treated with rituximab -containing regimens, according to research published online Sept 24 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology . (
  • The aim of this pilot study was to determine the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and find possible association between them and main clinical features and parameters of tumor burden in patient with multiple myeloma (MM). Plasma levels of OPN and VEGF were determined in 44 newly diagnosed MM patients and 24 healthy persons by ELISA method. (
  • These values were compared with the presence of anemia, renal dysfunction, and bone lesions as myeloma related clinical manifestations and with serum beta-2 microglobulin and Durie-Salmon clinical stage as prognosticators related to tumor mass. (
  • In summary, the CD47 mAb SRF231 induces robust tumor cell phagocytosis and tumor clearance both alone and in combination with opsonizing antibodies in pre-clinical models of myeloma and lymphoma. (
  • Beginning in June 2019, the materials will be sent to about 30 labs as part of IQN Path's external quality assessment program for clinical labs that are monitoring tumor mutational burden in conjunction with their NGS assays for cancer tumor profiling. (
  • Further study and standardization of assays are needed before tumor mutational burden is ready for routine clinical care. (
  • Furthermore, the relationship of endogenous IL-6 concentrations to the tumor burden and/or the clinical response was also evaluated. (
  • Multivariate ordinal logistic regression revealed no significant differences in odds of higher tumor risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.53, P=0.08), Gleason score (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.7-1.16, P=0.4) or clinical stage (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.79-1.38, P=0.8) for African Americans compared with Caucasians. (
  • The clinical applicability of the whole-exome sequencing (WES) in estimating tumor mutational burden (TMB) is currently limited by high cost, time-consuming and tissue availability. (
  • In conclusion, PRRT is an effective treatment option for clinical symptom relief, biochemical and tumour burden stabilisation. (
  • The use of effective T2 maps for defining NET burden should be validated in a randomized, clinical trial. (
  • Quantitative imaging methods promise to improve the ability of cancer researchers to evaluate tumor burden and treatment response, but progress is thwarted by the lack of software infrastructure to record quantitative imaging information efficiently and reproducibly in the routine clinical workflow, and by the inability to store and share image metadata in standard formats. (
  • These tools will enable comprehensive and reproducible assessment of the quantitative imaging features of tumor burden as part of the routine clinical workflow and will improve the coordination of radiologists and oncologists in collecting quantitative image data. (
  • 2) developing methods to analyze quantitative image metadata and to help oncologists evaluate quantitative criteria on images collected as part of clinical trials;and (3) evaluating the utility of our infrastructure by applying our tools in two clinical trials and demonstrating the ability of our software infrastructure to quantitatively and more reproducibly measure tumor burden, helping researchers to assess the response to treatment in individual patients and patient cohorts. (
  • Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago. (
  • However, there is now abundant clinical evidence to substantiate the extragonadal origin of these tumors. (
  • Other patients with "poorly differentiated carcinoma" of the mediastinum have clinical characteristics and treatment responses typical of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (
  • Although, this area is still evolving, scientific literature suggests that the tumour mutational load assay may be beneficial in the clinical cancer setting. (
  • Therefore, understanding the molecular pathways that underlie the emergence and spread of metastases from primary tumors is of great biological and clinical value. (
  • But it is still unknown whether CNA burden is prognostic for prostate cancer survival, rather than recurrence and metastasis only, and whether the prognostic significance of tumor CNA burden extends to other cancer types. (
  • In what they called an "unanticipated outcome" of their work, they discovered that tumor CNA burden is also significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival in these cancer types, with varying degrees of association. (
  • This technique confirmed that tumor CNA burden is associated with overall and disease-specific survival in both primary and metastatic tumors, and across different cancer types. (
  • The combination of nivolumab (Opdivo ® ) and ipilimumab (Yervoy ® ) has shown improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for people with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • Co-primary endpoints of this study are PFS for nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy in people with a high TMB and overall survival for nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy in people with PD-L1 selected tumors. (
  • High-risk patients with FL, defined as having advanced stage and high tumor burden have significantly shorter progression free survival despite significant advances. (
  • Indeed, we find that patients with tumors having low TUBB3 had significantly prolonged survival (average survival 52.73 ± 4.08 months) as compared with those having high TUBB3 (average survival 42.56 ± 3.19 months). (
  • Results Progression-free survival among patients with a high tumor mutational burden was significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy. (
  • There was no significant survival difference between node-negative patients and those with isolated tumor cells. (
  • The survival of 3369 breast cancer patients (2383 node-negative (pN0), 107 isolated tumour cells (pN0(i+), 123 micrometastases (pN1mi) and 756 macrometastases (pN1)) was analysed. (
  • Selected secondary endpoints were progression-free and overall survival stratified by tumor mutational burden. (
  • For patients with a high tumor mutational burden, 6-month progression-free survival was 55%, vs 31% for those with a low tumor mutational burden. (
  • African-American men with prostate cancer typically have higher tumor risk at diagnosis, lower rates of surgical treatment and poorer cancer-specific survival compared with Caucasians. (
  • We found no significant differences in tumor burden, treatment choice or survival outcomes between African Americans and Caucasians cared for in the equal-access VA Healthcare setting. (
  • The combination therapy restrains immunosuppression, synergistically increases endothelial activation and improves tumor T-cell recruitment, resulting in restrained tumor growth and prolonged survival. (
  • The present study sought to determine the prognostic value of SLN tumor burden on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). (
  • However, LCMV infection induced an antitumor CTL response which efficiently reduced the tumor mass, resulting in temporarily normalized blood glucose levels and prolonged survival of double transgenic RIP(GP x Tag2) mice (137 +/- 18 d) as opposed to control RIP-Tag2 mice (88 +/- 8 d). (
  • Subsequent adoptive transfer of virus activated spleen cells into RIP(GP x Tag2) mice further prolonged survival (168 +/- 11 d), demonstrating continued expression of the LCMV-GP tumor antigen and MHC class I. The data show that the tumor did not spontaneously induce or maintain an activated CTL response, revealing a profound lack of immunogenicity in vivo. (
  • 8 In contrast, others have suggested that the tumor biology differs between the sexes because men have been noted to have worse survival than women among those with early stage or lymph-node-negative tumors and among those with estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. (
  • The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. (
  • Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). (
  • It was concluded that in patients with advanced solid tumors treated with KEYTRUDA® monotherapy, high TMB was associated with higher Objective Response Rates and median Duration of Response, with the Progression Free Survival favoring patients with high TMB. (
  • Conclusion: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor size and number demonstrated a strong nonlinear association with survival after resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (
  • To determine if the fractional percentage of tumour volume (FPTV) removed with debulking nephrectomy was associated with progression-free survival (PFS) after subsequent targeted therapy, as a debulking nephrectomy is the standard of care in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), but there are few data. (
  • This anti-tumor activity is at least partially dependent on macrophages, as depletion of macrophages via clodronate administration leads to reduced tumor growth inhibition. (
  • Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. (
  • Bi 3+ treatment significantly decreased the number of tumors larger than 3 mm in male mice. (
  • In 3+ or Ru 3+ treatment significantly increased the tumor burden in all animals and In 3+ increased the number of tumors larger than 3 mm or 5 mm in male mice alone. (
  • and (b) IL-6 levels remain significantly higher in nonresponding patients as compared to responding patients regardless of the tumor burden. (
  • SLN tumor burden, by measuring the maximum diameter of the largest tumor focus, is significantly associated with OS, DFS and NSLN involvement. (
  • CHD was frequent among patients with CS, significantly associated with high liver tumour burden, and likely linked to the history of cardiovascular disease and longer time of CS. (
  • There was a significantly greater axillary burden in the ultrasound positive versus negative groups (OR 5.95, 95% CI 5.80-6.11) with mean nodal retrieval values of 2.9 [standard error (SE) 0.2] and 1.6 (SE 0.2) nodes, respectively. (
  • Pre-operative ultrasound positive patients have significantly higher axillary burden. (
  • Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors.The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs. (
  • A greater percentage of tumour burden removed at debulking nephrectomy is significantly associated with improved PFS on subsequent VEGF-targeted systemic therapy. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is the total number of mutations per coding area of a tumor genome. (
  • 2,3,4 Unlike protein-based biomarkers, TMB is a quantitative measure of the total number of mutations per coding area of a tumor genome. (
  • Researchers have discovered a link between certain changes in the genome of a tumor and increased chances of death across multiple types of cancer. (
  • CNA refers to the fact that a genome can contain different numbers of copies of the same gene (the copy number), which can be altered in cancer, leading to the tumor having more or less copies of that same gene. (
  • We and others have previously found that, in primary prostate cancer, CNA burden and genome-wide CNA patterns are associated with both recurrence and the development of secondary malignant growths in other areas of the body, known as metastasis. (
  • Here we performed the first tumor-normal paired deep whole-genome sequencing for Africa. (
  • Mutations in coding regions were determined by whole-exome/genome sequencing of tumor samples compared to matched blood leukocytes. (
  • it greatly reduces tumor burden and could also compensate for the increased bone resorption associated with the disease. (
  • In line with these observations, we demonstrate that ALK1Fc also reduces tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo in an orthotopic transplantation model, as well as in the human patient derived xenograft BM18. (
  • We found no clear association between tumor mutational burden and PD-L1 expression. (
  • There have recently been three interesting trials in advanced lung cancer reported with a significant association between tumor mutational burden (TMB) and response to the PD-L1 inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo). (
  • Tumor mutations may seem like bad news, but researchers suggest they may provide valuable insights for treating cancer patients. (
  • The number of mutations in the DNA of tumor cells could hold the secret to predicting response to cancer therapies. (
  • Other tumor types, like pancreatic or colon cancer, have fewer mutations, which may be why they're less likely to respond to therapy. (
  • It gave physicians their first new weapon to treat cancer since the discovery of radiation therapy in the early 1900s, and was a tangible means to control and even stop tumor growth. (
  • New study suggests the overall burden of changes that occur within tumor genomes can help predict patient outcomes across a range of cancer types. (
  • Our results suggest that ongoing and future studies into the biology underlying the association of tumor CNA burden with multiple cancer outcomes will be a fruitful area for future investigation," concludes senior author and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Charles Sawyers, Chair of the Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A study evaluating the combination of Bristol-Myers Squibb's immunotherapies Opdivo (nivolumab) and Yervoy (ipilimumab) may support regulatory approval for the regimen as an option for lung cancer patients with a large number of tumor mutations that are identified by Foundation Medicine's next-generation sequencing companion diagnostic. (
  • This webinar will provide an overview of the sequencing capabilities of the Tumor Profiling Unit at the Institute for Cancer Research in London, with a focus on the lab's strategy for bringing in new genomics technologies. (
  • Tumour mutational burden (abbreviated as TMB) is a genetic characteristic of tumorous tissue that can be informative to cancer research and treatment. (
  • Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. (
  • Doxycycline treatment in an experimental bone metastasis mouse model of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in a 70% reduction in total tumor burden when compared with placebo control animals. (
  • DENVER & CHICAGO--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- TriSalus Life Sciences ® , an emerging immuno-oncology company committed to transforming outcomes for patients with liver and pancreatic tumors, today announced data presented at the American Association of Cancer Research showing that regional delivery of oligodeoxynucleotide 2395 (ODN2395) activated the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), resulting in reduced tumor burden of liver metastases in mice. (
  • Solid tumors continue to represent one of the single biggest hurdles to successful cancer treatment. (
  • Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. (
  • Standardized uptake value of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for prediction of tumor recurrence in breast cancer beyond tumor burden. (
  • We compared the ability of maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) derived by FDG-PET with tumor burden in predicting tumor recurrence for patients with breast cancer. (
  • Our results highlight the prognostic value of FDG-PET in prediction of tumor relapse for patients with breast cancer. (
  • In addition to traditional prostate cancer gene pathways, genes regulating calcium ion-ATPase signal transduction were disrupted in African tumors. (
  • Although preliminary, our results suggest that further validation and investigation into the potential implications for elevated tumor mutational burden and tumor-initiating mutations in clinically unfavorable prostate cancer can improve patient outcomes in Africa. (
  • CD47 was originally identified as a tumor antigen on human ovarian cancer and was subsequently shown to be expressed on multiple human tumor types, including both hematologic and solid tumors. (
  • A therapeutic intervention that could decrease tumor burden and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy would have a significant impact on the high morbidity rate associated with ovarian cancer. (
  • Because both chemo- and anoikis-resistance are critical steps in the progression of ovarian cancer, we sought to determine how restoration of miR-200c affects tumor burden and chemosensitivity in an in vivo preclinical model of ovarian cancer. (
  • Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden. (
  • At the 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), an updated analysis of the CheckMate 568 trial showed that tumor mutational burden ≥ 10 mut/mb distinguished responders from nonresponders to nivolumab plus ipilimumab, and patients with high tumor mutational burden predicted response, irrespective of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) level. (
  • Both PD-L1 and tumor mutational burden are independent and distinct biomarkers," said lead author Suresh Ramalingam, MD , of Emory University's Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta. (
  • Tumor mutational burden level appears to select patients with lung cancer who may respond to nivolumab/ipilimumab. (
  • We compared African Americans and Caucasians with respect to tumor characteristics using ordinal logistic regression, treatment choice across substrata of tumor risk using logistic regression, and cancer-specific and other-cause mortality using competing risks regression analysis. (
  • The Prognostic Role of Baseline Metabolic Tumor Burden and Systemic Inflammation Biomarkers in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radium-223: A Proof of Concept Study. (
  • IL8 levels were monitored by sandwich ELISAs in cultured tumor cells supernatants, tumor-xenografted mice serum, and in samples from 126 patients with cancer. (
  • IL8 levels correlate with tumor burden in preclinical models and in patients with cancer. (
  • The incapacitating nature of a brain tumour, a cancer of the body's most important organ, can see patients faced with an immediate financial burden and the severity of the disease all too often means people contribute less to the economy and society at large. (
  • Brain Tumour Research is the only national charity in the UK dedicated to raising funds for continuous and sustainable scientific research into brain tumours, and we are a leading voice calling for greater support and action for research into what scientists are calling the last battleground against cancer. (
  • Meta-analysis of studies comparing axillary burden of breast cancer patients identified as pre-operative ultrasound negative versus positive was performed. (
  • Differences in the number of tumors were strongly associated with the baseline microbiome structure in mice, but not with the cancer status of the human donors. (
  • We find that a subset of patients exhibits high TMB across almost all types of cancer, including many rare tumor types, and characterize the relationship between high TMB and microsatellite instability status. (
  • Long-Term Prognostic Risk After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Associated With Residual Cancer Burden and Breast Cancer Subtype. (
  • Purpose: In this study, we aimed to quantitatively investigate the biodistribution of [ 18 F]DCFPyL in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and to determine whether uptake in normal organs correlates with an increase in tumor burden. (
  • Treatment for stage 2 Wilms tumour with favourable histology involves surgery to remove the cancer, followed by chemotherapy. (
  • Discover how you can help reduce the burden of cancer. (
  • Our objective is to develop software infrastructure that meets these needs of cancer researchers through three aims: (1) creating tools leveraging caBIG technologies to standardize quantitative imaging assessment of tumor burden. (
  • The methods and tools we develop will improve the ability of cancer researchers to collect and use quantitative imaging data to accurately assess tumor burden and to develop improved methods for evaluating whether treatment is effective. (
  • Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment with PEGylated Liposomal Drugs. (
  • Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide. (
  • Tumor Mutational Burden a New Pan Cancer Marker for Immuno-Oncology? (
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a critical role in tumor progression and this study focuses on the role of BMP9- A ctivin receptor- L ike K inase 1 and 2 (ALK1 and ALK2) axis in prostate cancer. (
  • In order to study the effect of BMP9 in vitro and in vivo on cancer cells and tumor growth, we used a soluble chimeric protein consisting of the ALK1 extracellular domain (ECD) fused to human Fc (ALK1Fc) that prevents binding of BMP9 to its cell surface receptors and thereby blocks its ability to activate downstream signaling. (
  • We show that ALK1Fc acts in vitro to decrease BMP9-mediated signaling and proliferation of prostate cancer cells with tumor initiating and metastatic potential. (
  • Assessment was by blinded independent central review according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ. (
  • FPTV was calculated as the largest diameter of the primary tumour divided by the total tumour burden (as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, RECIST) through investigator re-review of imaging. (
  • 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can reveal the metabolic activity of malignant tumors. (
  • Depletion of malignant B-cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies has an acceptable safety profile, particularly in patients with low-grade B-cell lymphomas with a low disease burden. (
  • Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone-producing tumor. (
  • Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue. (
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors, particularly those arising in mediastinal and pineal sites, represent a malignant transformation of germinal elements distributed to these sites and can occur in the absence of a primary focus in the gonad. (
  • Malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon, representing only 3 to 10% of tumors originating in the mediastinum. (
  • The histology of these tumors may be similar to that of other malignant mediastinal tumors, including malignant thymoma and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • The great majority of mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors occur in patients between 20 and 35 years of age. (
  • In the rare occurrences reported in females, mediastinal malignant germ cell tumors have appeared histologically and biologically identical to those occurring in males. (
  • In a recent review of 229 malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors seen between 1960 and 1994 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, pure seminoma was the most common histology, accounting for 52% of cases. (
  • About 15% of parotid tumors, 50% of submandibular gland tumors, and 90% of minor salivary gland tumors are malignant. (
  • Malignant transformation in a benign tumor is uncommon but can occur (malignant mixed carcinoma). (
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1, (NF1) is a complex, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign and malignant tumors which result from NF1 gene mutations. (
  • The study showed regional delivery of the TLR9A through the PV at the 30 micrograms dose level was superior to systemic IV administration with respect to control of liver metastases and reduction of liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which play a crucial role in solid tumor immunosuppression, in addition to favorable effects on liver macrophage subsets. (
  • TriSalus intends to pursue multiple solid tumor indications with investigational SD-101 and acquire other immuno-oncology agents to combine with its proprietary Pressure-Enabled Drug Delivery technology for the administration of therapeutics intravascularly into visceral organ solid tumors. (
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial solid tumor. (
  • In conclusion, the degree of systemic inflammation, the quantification of the metabolically active tumor burden and their combination might represent potentially valuable tools for identifying mCRPC patients who are most likely to benefit from Ra-223. (
  • Quantification of Nonenhancing Tumor Burden in Gliomas Using Effective T2 Maps Derived from Dual-Echo Turbo Spin-Echo MRI. (
  • Therefore, lungs were removed for quantification of tumor. (
  • CD11b(+) cells isolated from mice with peritoneal chronic inflammation were able to stimulate T lymphocytes, while CD11b+ cells from mice with peritoneal tumors suppressed T cell growth. (
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of blocking Fe 3+ ion binding to Ggly, using Bi 3+ , In 3+ or Ru 3+ ions, on the development of intestinal tumors in APC Δ14/+ mice. (
  • APC Δ14/+ mice were treated orally with Bi 3+ , In 3+ or Ru 3+ ions for up to 60 days, serum trace metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the incidence and size of intestinal tumors were assessed. (
  • 5 mM (at an age of 70-85 d) and age-matched control mice were infected with LCMV to induce tumor-specific CTLs. (
  • To generate double transgenic RIP(GP × Tag2) mice, tumor-susceptible RIP-Tag2 mice were crossed with transgenic RIP-GP mice expressing the LCMV-GP on pancreatic β cells. (
  • This occurred in tumor-bearing RIP-Tag2 and RIP(GP × Tag2) mice, which both developed hypoglycemia at the age of 70-85 d (Fig. 1 A). As expected, control C57BL/6 and RIP-GP mice showed normal blood glucose levels. (
  • Low calcium diet increases 4T1 mammary tumor carcinoma cell burden and bone pathology in mice. (
  • Mice fed low Ca exhibited higher bone turnover and higher tibial lesion scores than mice fed adequate Ca. Lesion severity, manifested as cortical osteolysis and periosteal woven bone formation, and tumor cell infiltration to muscle, increased with time, irrespective of diet. (
  • However, for most skeletal endpoints the rates of increase were greater in mice consuming low Ca compared to mice consuming adequate Ca. Infiltration of tumor cells into adjacent muscle, but not metastasis to lung, was also greater in mice consuming low Ca diet. (
  • The findings suggest that high bone turnover due to Ca insufficiency results in greater local mammary tumor cell growth, cortical osteolysis, woven bone formation, and invasion to muscle in mice. (
  • BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm(3)) or large (102.4±22.0 mm(3)) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. (
  • All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. (
  • Methods: We used a long range multiplex PCR technique to identify tumor-specific EWS-ETS breakpoints in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, patient derived xenografts, and patient tumors, and this sequence was used to design tumor specific primer sets to detect plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in xenograft bearing mice and patients. (
  • 4 High levels of pressure inside solid tumors prevent the delivery of oncology therapeutics, with less than 1% of therapy penetrating solid tumors in some circumstances. (
  • 5,6 TriSalus developed PEDD to deliver immuno-oncology therapeutics directly into the vasculature of solid tumors with the potential for minimizing systemic toxicity. (
  • A new molecular marker "Tumor Mutational Burden" is rapidly emerging in the immuno-oncology world. (
  • Scientists postulate that high TMB is associated with an increased amount of neoantigens, which are tumour specific markers displayed by cells. (
  • Although genes with a role in lipid metabolism, like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzym-A - -reductase , were overexpressed in tumors of animals with high chemerin-156, total hepatic cholesterol, diacylglycerol and triglyceride levels, and distribution of individual lipid species were normal. (
  • Patients with high tumor burden, low grade follicular lymphoma that has never been treated, will receive venetoclax in combination with obinutuzumab and bendamustine. (
  • Immunotherapeutics, including high-dose IL2 and antibodies that block programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) can induce durable responses across numerous types of solid tumors ( 1-7 ) and hematologic malignancies ( 8, 9 ). (
  • A direct study-matched comparison between African- and European-derived, treatment-naïve, high-risk prostate tumors for 15 cases allowed for further comparative analyses of existing data. (
  • Here we studied the in vivo mechanism of action of type I (rituximab and ofatumumab) and type II (HuMab-11B8 [11B8]) CD20 antibodies in a peritoneal, syngeneic, mouse model with EL4-CD20 cells using low and high tumor burden. (
  • In contrast, under high tumor burden conditions, activating FcγR (specifically FcγRIII), active complement and complement receptor 3 were all essential for tumor killing. (
  • The type II CD20 antibody 11B8, which is a poor inducer of complement activation, was ineffective against high tumor burden. (
  • Low tumor load can be eliminated by complement alone, whereas elimination of high tumor load requires multiple effector mechanisms. (
  • The risk of non-SLN metastases was higher in case of SLN macrometastases (compared with micrometastases), a high positive/total SLN ratio and Elston grade 3 tumours, and increased with increasing tumour size. (
  • Agents such as rituximab are active in patients with a low burden of disease and result in high response rates and durable remissions for most patients. (
  • However, the optimal therapeutic approach to patients with low-grade lymphoma with a low disease burden is controversial as conventional chemotherapy also results in high rates of response. (
  • When tumor burden was taken into consideration, we found that IL-6 levels were higher in patients with high tumor burden than in patients with low tumor burden. (
  • Purpose: As has been previously reported, the somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging agent [\(^{68}\)Ga]-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotate ([\(^{68}\)Ga]DOTATATE) demonstrates lower uptake in normal organs in patients with a high neuroendocrine tumor (NET) burden. (
  • High tumor mass and uptake mitigated against G1 NET. (
  • Potential implications include increased normal organ dose with [\(^{177}\)Lu-DOTA]\(^0\)-D-Phe\(^1\)-Tyr\(^3\)-Octreotide and decreased absolute lesion detection with [\(^{68}\)Ga]DOTATOC in high NET burden. (
  • 5 mM glucose) corresponded with a large tumor burden since the β-islet tumor cells autonomously released high quantities of insulin (22). (
  • Targeted genetic sequencing before treatment revealed an unusually high tumor mutational burden (TMB), and we posit that this is the reason for the prolonged response. (
  • Other factors, such as a high intra-patient variability of normal organ uptake, may be a much more important consideration for personalized dosimetry with PSMA-targeted therapeutic agents structurally related to [ 18 F]DCFPyL than the tumor burden. (
  • miR-375 serum level showed high diagnostic accuracy to discriminate tumor-bearing and tumor-free MCC patients as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in the retrospective cohorts (AUC=0.954 and 0.800) as well as in the prospective cohorts (AUC=0.929 and 0.959). (
  • Unfavorable histology and age 18 months and older were associated with high mutational burden. (
  • Some tumors have exceptionally high mutational loads which probably represents an underlying DNA repair deficiency such as POLE or MSI abnormalities. (
  • A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between SLN tumor burden and NSLN positivity. (
  • Rob Grimwood was diagnosed with a glioblastoma brain tumour in October 2016 at the age of 51. (
  • According to their lymph node status, they were classified in the following four groups: 2,383 were node negative, 107 had isolated tumor cells, 123 had micrometastases, and 756 had macrometastases. (
  • Imoto S, Ochiai A, Okumura C, Wada N, Hasebe T (2006) Impact of isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes detected by immunohistochemical staining. (
  • In combination with checkpoint inhibitors, TriSalus' focus is to reprogram the dominant immunosuppressive cell population in liver and pancreatic tumors. (
  • The simian virus 40 T antigen (Tag) expressed under the control of the rat insulin promoter (RIP) induced pancreatic beta-cell tumors producing insulin, causing progressive hypoglycemia. (
  • The aim of this study was to characterize treatment patterns and burden of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET). (
  • First, TMB calculations require that a significant portion of DNA be sequenced, to generate enough sequence information to determine the tumor mutational load. (
  • For now, we've shown how this burden can be measured using an approved sequencing assay, demonstrating the potential for incorporating tumor CNA burden assessment into patient prognoses. (
  • Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx assay. (
  • It is followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy or both, depending on tumour histology. (
  • It is sometimes used to treat children with Wilms tumour that is more advanced or has unfavourable (anaplastic) histology. (
  • Doctors base when to given radiation on the histology of the tumour. (
  • On multivariable analysis, mutational burden remained prognostic independent of age, stage, histology and MYCN status. (
  • These figures, most of which are derived from retrospective series reported between 1950 and 1975, may underestimate the true occurance of mediastinal germ cell tumors. (
  • Although there is no doubt that mediastinal germ cell tumors are uncommon, increasing familiarity with the tumors by both clinicians and pathologists will probably result in their increased recognition. (
  • In general, mediastinal germ cell tumors appear histologically identical to germ cell tumors arising in the testis, and all histologic subtypes seen in gonadal germ cell neoplasms have also been recognized in the mediastinum. (
  • As of 9/5/2018, a higher than expected incidence of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) was experienced among patients receiving venetoclax, obinutuzumab and bendamustine on Cycle 1, Day 1 of treatment. (
  • Handily, such a trial is already well under way: Neptune was earlier upsized to give "flexibility" to look at TMB ( Tumour mutational burden, and other tricks up Astra's Imfinzi sleeve , May 18, 2018 ). (
  • Over the coming months and years, we will use the results of this Inquiry to keep brain tumours on the political agenda and improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. (
  • We are extremely grateful to Sarah for her courage in sharing her personal story which demonstrates why we must continue to highlight this issue and do everything we can to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. (
  • Association of tumour mutational burden with outcomes in patients with select advanced solid tumours treated with pembrolizumab in KEYNOTE-158. (
  • The following baseline laboratory parameters were collected in 59 mCRPC patients treated with Ra-223: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic inflammation index (SII), while maximum Standardized Uptake Value, Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV), and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) were calculated in the 48 of them submitted to baseline FDG-PET. (
  • For the entire tumor burden, SUV\(_{mean}\), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV\(_{max}\)), and the total mass (TBM) was calculated and the decay corrected tumor fractional uptake (TBU) was assessed. (
  • A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlations between normal organ uptake and tumor burden. (
  • Correlation improved only for both kidneys and adrenals when the influence of the tumor uptake on the activity available for organ uptake was taken into account by the factor 1/(1-TBU). (
  • 0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. (
  • Tumour contours were delineated semi-automatically by a threshold standardised uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. (
  • Chemotherapy is given after surgery for stage 2 Wilms tumour. (
  • The type of chemotherapy most commonly used is based on the type of tumour. (
  • These findings provide important insights into the biological effects of truncating PPM1D mutations, and uncover unique vulnerabilities associated with enhanced PPM1D activity which can be exploited for the therapeutic intervention of mutant pediatric brain tumors. (
  • It also held oral evidence sessions during June and July from researchers, doctors, surgeons, academics, representatives of drug companies as well as brain tumour patients of all ages and their families. (
  • It was impossible not to have been personally affected by the wealth of emotionally compelling personal stories we heard during the course of this Inquiry and my most heartfelt thanks go to all of the brain tumour patients and their families who helped us with this report. (
  • We will continue to influence and find ways to minimise this unique burden through a combination of further research funding, earlier diagnosis, additional benefits, and improved post-treatment support for brain tumour patients and their families. (
  • miR-375 serum level reflected dynamic changes in tumor burden of MCC patients during therapeutic interventions. (
  • In xenografted neoplasms, IL8 serum levels rapidly dropped after surgical excision, indicating an accurate correlation with tumor burden. (
  • PD-L1 expression on its own is problematic, since both PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative NSCLC tumors respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • Optional tumor biopsy samples obtained during treatment or post-treatment will also be requested for research. (
  • The overall incidence of tumors of the musculoskeletal system is lower than many types of cancers. (
  • The extent of these changes was also correlated with tumor incidence. (
  • The relative rarity of extragonadal germ cell tumors in women parallels the lower incidence of female gonadal germ cell tumors as compared with their incidence in males. (
  • Although the incidence of primary testis tumors is low amongst racial minorities in the United States, the occurrence of extragonadal germ cell tumors is somewhat more common (7% versus 16% of cases, respectively). (
  • The incidence of malignancy among salivary gland tumors varies inversely with the size of the gland. (
  • Mixed tumors are more common in women than in men, with the peak incidence in the fifth decade. (
  • Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity of tumor cells correlates with a higher invasive and metastatic potential. (
  • We evaluated sequential levels of serum IL8 in preclinical tumor models and in patients to assess its ability to estimate tumor burden. (
  • Experimental Design: Expression of miR-375 was quantified in 24 MCC and 23 non-MCC cell lines, 67 MCC and 58 non-MCC tumor tissues, sera of two preclinical MCC models, sera of 109 MCC patients and 30 healthy controls by nCounter®human-v2-miRNA expression or miR-375 specific real-time PCR assays. (
  • When we see cells start to mutate, a fraction of the mutations present in the tumor cells will code for proteins that are presented on the surface of those cells, known as neoantigens. (
  • Furthermore, it has been shown that tumors with higher TMB values usually result in a higher number of neoantigens, the antigens that are presented on the tumor cells surface that are usually a result of missense mutations. (
  • Hence, tumor burden, including TV and NV, should be incorporated into the current staging system for NPC to improve prognostic significance. (
  • 3 TLR agonists have been administered via different routes based on the therapeutic purpose, however, delivery of TLR agonists into liver tumors by direct needle injection has been clinically challenging, particularly in the setting of a large tumor burden. (
  • For the entire tumor burden, SUL mean/max , SUV mean , tumor volume (TV), and the total activity in the VOI were obtained using tumor segmentation. (
  • Among the combinations of tumor size and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor number used to estimate tumor burden, logarithmic transformation of tumor size (log tumor size) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor number had the highest concordance index. (
  • By focused profiling of a mechanistically relevant circulating T-cell subpopulation calibrated to pretreatment disease burden, we identify a clinically accessible potential on-treatment predictor of response to PD-1 blockade. (
  • Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. (
  • Correlation between circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) levels and disease burden. (
  • Disease burden was examined by index group for first follow-up year. (
  • In disease burden analyses, 338 patients met inclusion criteria, with mean age of 54.5 (standard deviation, 9.9) years, 45.6% were female, and there were no significant between-group differences. (
  • Moreover, doxycycline may not only prevent MMP-mediated osteolysis but also metastasis-related tumor cell growth. (
  • However, if the tumor becomes androgen independent, therapy is no longer possible and lethality is almost invariably due to the consequences of metastasis. (
  • An (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and evaluated in terms of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). (
  • Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). (
  • The median diameter of the primary tumour was 10.0 cm. (
  • The tumor inhibitory potential of the highly active chemerin-156 isoform was described in orthotopic models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • We describe two cases of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy who had dramatic improvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor burden with DAA therapy alone. (
  • We investigated the effects of inadequate dietary calcium (Ca) on bone turnover, tumor growth, and bone response to tumor in tibia inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. (
  • Efficacy of cabozantinib (cabo) vs everolimus (eve) by metastatic site and tumor burden in patients (pts) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (
  • Circulating cell-free miR-375 as surrogate marker of tumor burden in Merkel cell carcinoma. (
  • Some patients with "poorly differentiated neoplasm" or "poorly differentiated carcinoma" of the mediastinum have the i(12p) chromosomal abnormality diagnostic of germ cell tumor. (
  • RECIST 1.0, tumor shrinkage, computed tomography tumor density, Choi criteria) in assessing outcome to vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (
  • Tumour burden is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (