The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain ardisiacrispins (oleanane triterpenoid saponins), ardicrenin, and cyclamiretin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

Graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation induces a CD8+ T cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor effect that is independent of the recognition of alloantigenic tumor targets. (1/2610)

Cure of hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is partially attributable to immunocellular antitumor reactions termed graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effect. GvT effects are heterogeneous with respect to effector cell populations, target antigens, and their interrelation with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In the present study, allogeneic parent-into-F1 murine transplantation models (BALB/c or C57BL/6 --> [C57BL/6 x BALB/c]F1) with different tumors derived from either parental strain were used to evaluate tumor-specific GvT effects. Compared with syngeneic F1-into-F1 controls, significant CD8+ T cell-mediated GvT effects occurred in both allogeneic transplantation models, even in the absence of histoincompatibilities between donor cells and host tumor. Identical genetic background of donor and tumor precluded allorecognition of tumor cells, indicating that tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) were targeted. With allowance made for selective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) disparities between donor cells and normal host tissue, GvHD was identified as a driving force for TAA-specific GvT effects. Adoptive transfer of the effector cells into secondary tumor-bearing recipients confirmed sustained antitumor activity and specificity of the T-cell response. The results provide experimental proof of a donor CD8+ T cell-mediated TAA-specific antitumor response in vivo that is driven by GvHD. It may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to GvT effects observed in allogeneic transplant recipients.  (+info)

Blood concentrations of alemtuzumab and antiglobulin responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia following intravenous or subcutaneous routes of administration. (2/2610)

Alemtuzumab is a humanized anti-CD52 antibody licensed for refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), when given intravenously at 30 mg thrice weekly. However, the intravenous route is associated with infusion-related reactions and is inconvenient. We measured blood concentrations in 30 relapsed patients treated with intravenous alemtuzumab and in 20 patients from a previously untreated group who received similar doses subcutaneously. Highest trough samples in the intravenous group were less than 0.5 microg/mL to 18.3 microg/mL (mean 5.4 microg/mL). The cumulative dose required to reach 1.0 microg/mL was 13 mg to 316 mg (mean 90 mg). Higher blood concentrations correlated with the achievement of better clinical responses and minimal residual disease. The highest measured concentrations in the subcutaneous group were similar (0.6 microg/mL to 24.8 microg/mL, mean 5.4 microg/mL). However, the cumulative dose to reach 1.0 microg/mL was higher: 146 mg to 1106 mg (mean 551 mg). No antiglobulin responses were detected in 30 patients given intravenous alemtuzumab whereas 2 of 32 patients given subcutaneous alemtuzumab made substantial anti-idiotype responses. Thus, subcutaneous alemtuzumab achieved concentrations similar to those for intravenous alemtuzumab, although with slightly higher cumulative doses. Subcutaneous alemtuzumab is more convenient and better tolerated but may be associated with some patients forming anti-alemtuzumab antibodies, particularly those patients who were previously untreated.  (+info)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging rapidly indicates vessel regression in human squamous cell carcinomas grown in nude mice caused by VEGF receptor 2 blockade with DC101. (3/2610)

The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in "amplitude" (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and k(ep) (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P =.02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 +/- 843 mm(3)) and control animals (596 +/- 384 mm(3)) were significantly different (P =.03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 +/- 93 mm(3)), whereas untreated tumors (1208 +/- 822 mm(3)) continued to increase (P =.02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent.  (+info)

The impact of mid-treatment MRI on defining boost volumes in the radiation treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. (4/2610)

Radiation therapy is a central modality in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Integral to adequate radiation therapy delivery is the appropriate determination of tumor volume and extent at the time treatment is being delivered. As a matter of routine practice, radiation therapy treatment fields are designed based on tumor volumes evident on pre-operative or immediate post-operative MRIs; another MRI is generally not obtained for planning boost fields. In some instances the time interval from surgery to radiotherapy initiation is up to 5 weeks and the boost or "cone-down phase" commences 4-5 weeks later. The contrast enhanced T1 MRI may not be a totally reliable indicator of active tumor, especially in regions where such blood-brain barrier breakdown has not occurred. Moreover, these volumes may change during the course of treatment. This may lead to a geographic miss when mid-treatment boost volumes are designed based on a pre-radiotherapy MRI. The goal of this study is to examine how a mid-treatment MRI impacts the delineation and definition of the boost volume in GBM patients in comparison to the pre-treatment MRI scan, particularly when the tumor-specific agent Motexafin-Gadolinium is used.  (+info)

Angiogenic effects of adrenomedullin in ischemia and tumor growth. (5/2610)

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that AM also possesses angiogenic properties. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, we found that AM stimulated recovery of blood flow to the affected limb in the mouse hind-limb ischemia model. AM exerted this effect in part by promoting expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic limb, and immunostaining for CD31 showed the enhanced flow to reflect increased collateral capillary density. By enhancing tumor angiogenesis, AM also promoted the growth of subcutaneously transplanted sarcoma 180 tumor cells. However, heterozygotic AM knockout mice (AM+/-) showed significantly less blood flow recovery with less collateral capillary development and VEGF expression than their wild-type littermates. Similarly, mice treated with AM22-52, a competitive inhibitor of AM, showed reduced capillary development, and growth of sarcoma 180 tumors was inhibited in AM+/- and AM22-52-treated mice. Notably, administration of VEGF or AM rescued blood flow recovery and capillary formation in AM+/- and AM22-52-treated mice. In cocultures of endothelial cells and fibroblasts, AM enhanced VEGF-induced capillary formation, whereas in cultures of endothelial cells AM enhanced VEGF-induced Akt activation. These results show that AM possesses novel angiogenic properties mediated by its ability to enhance VEGF expression and Akt activity. This may make AM a useful therapeutic tool for relieving ischemia; conversely, inhibitors of AM could be useful for clinical management of tumor growth.  (+info)

Morphometry of hepatic neoplasms and altered foci in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. (6/2610)

The goal of this study was to intensively sample a small number of livers from a population of mummichog exposed to PAH-contaminated sediments and evaluate them for lesion pathology, distribution, shape, and volume, and the number of histological sections needed to adequately describe the extent of various lesions. Volumetric data for each lesion type from each step section was derived from digitized section images. The total number of hepatic alterations ranged from 10-125 per fish. Alterations included: eosinophilic, basophilic, and clear cell foci; hepatocellular carcinomas; hemangiopericytomas; and cholangiomas. Lesion volumes ranged from 0.00012-64 mm3 and represented 0.21%-67% of total liver volume. There was a tendency for the lesions to be more dorsal-ventrally compressed than spherical or ropelike when observed from longitudinal sections. Periodic subsampling of the data indicated that. on average, 6 evenly spaced, longitudinal histological sections were required to accurately estimate lesion volume and extent in our model population. These data provide a formulation for histological sampling techniques and methodological support for piscine and other cancer study models that observe lesion volume changes over time. Further, this study fosters the development of early quantitative endpoints. rather than using a large number of animals and waiting for tumor progression or death to occur.  (+info)

Blockade of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta by CDP860, a humanized, PEGylated di-Fab', leads to fluid accumulation and is associated with increased tumor vascularized volume. (7/2610)

PURPOSE: CDP860 is an engineered Fab' fragment-polyethylene glycol conjugate, which binds to and blocks the activity of the beta-subunit of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-beta). Studies in animals have suggested that PDGFR-beta inhibition reduces tumor interstitial fluid pressure, and thus increases the uptake of concomitantly administered drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in tumor vascular parameters could be detected in humans, and to assess whether CDP860 would be likely to increase the uptake of a concurrently administered small molecule in future studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ovarian or colorectal cancer and good performance status received intravenous infusions of CDP860 on days 0 and 28. Patients had serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging studies to measure changes in tumor vascular parameters. RESULTS: Three of eight patients developed significant ascites, and seven of eight showed evidence of fluid retention. In some patients, the ratio of vascular volume to total tumor volume increased significantly (P < .001) within 24 hours following CDP860 administration, an effect suggestive of recruitment of previously non-functioning vessels. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that inhibition of PDGFR-beta might improve delivery of a concurrently administered therapy. However, in cancer patients, further exploration of the dosing regimen of CDP860 is required to dissociate adverse effects from beneficial effects. The findings challenge the view that inhibition of PDGF alone is beneficial, and confirm that effects of PDGFR kinase inhibition mediate, to some extent, the fluid retention observed in patients treated with mixed tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  (+info)

Raltitrexed increases tumorigenesis as a single agent yet exhibits anti-tumor synergy with 5-fluorouracil in ApcMin/+ mice. (8/2610)

The thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors raltitrexed (RTX) and 5-fluorouracil (FUra) have shown promising anti-tumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Though the effects of these two agents have been reasonably well-characterized in cell lines, knowledge of their modes of action in vivo is limited. Here, we utilize the Apc(Min/+) mouse, an animal model of intestinal tumorigenesis, to study the effects of RTX treatment alone and in combination with FUra. Rather surprisingly, RTX monotherapy resulted in a dose dependent 4-10-fold increase in tumor number. The majority of these adenomas (74-95%) were rather small (i.e., less than 1 mm in diameter) and exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the Apc locus, suggesting an increase in mutational events leading to tumor development. RTX augmented BrdU-labeling of crypt epithelial cells, and retarded the movement of these cells along the crypt-villus axis. Co-administration of FUra and RTX resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number compared to mice treated with either RTX or FUra alone (P < 0.0001). In addition, FUra abrogated the RTX-mediated increase in BrdU labeling. In all, the results show that RTX increases tumor burden in the Apc(Min/+) mouse, yet enhances the anti-tumor effect of FUra. This is the first illustration of in vivo synergy of RTX and FUra in a genetically predisposed animal model. Possible mechanisms underlying the current observations are discussed.  (+info)

Results: Patients with pT3 disease had much higher PCA3 score (median = 48.8, range =7.5-269.0) than pT2 patients (median = 18.7, range = 4.0-79.9), p = 0.02. Spearman analysis showed that PCA3 score significantly correlated with total tumor volume (n = 72, R = 0.38, P , .01). Patients with larger tumor volume (,2.0 cc) have significantly (p = 0.01) higher PCA3 score (median = 47.6, range = 7.5 - 269.0) compared to patients with smaller tumor volume (0.5 - 2.0 cc: median=17.5; ,0.5 cc: median=18.7). Adjusted by other pre-surgical variables (age, race, serum PSA, clinical stage, biopsy grade, etc.), stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that PCA3 score was an independent predictor of pT3 prostate cancer (p = 0.01) and for a total tumor volume of ,0.5 cc (p = 0.04). This is the first report of a urine assay predicting pathologic stage in prostate cancer ...
Tumor volume is increased in RT2/HRG−/− compared to RT2/HRG+/+ mice.Tumors were dissected and measured. Tumor volumes were calculated by the formula ((π/6)
And then - as a small unfortunate organism with all these(it) Cares will consult. So move, from the point of view look up in search engine of health, years preschool. As we see, the angular deviation(rejection) set right at the beginning of a vital way, Continues to accrue(increase) in relation to an optimum line. And in fact, figuratively Being expressed, each degree, let alone tens degrees of a deviation(rejection) in The beginning of a route, leads to falling of a body started into a vital orbit, Lets tell so: with a huge falling short, first, in absolutely other party(side), Secondly, with flight on very low trajectory, thirdly... These are reserves of physical health. And now we shall ponder: as business(affairs) are With reserves of development of intelligence Mentalities Sanguineous and multilateral We shall not forget that powerful spirit - one of The major, the basic firm health. With bitterness we shall tell, that These reserves at ours the Shred have been involved in even smaller ...
PURPOSE: Retrospective studies indicate that larger tumour volume is a strong prognostic indicator for poor tumour control after (chemo)radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. The impact of tumour volume on the outcome of patients treated within a prospective study comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR)+/-carbogen breathing and nicotinamide (ARCON) was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Of 345 patients with cT2-4 laryngeal cancer, pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans of 270 patients were available for tumour volume calculation. Contouring of the primary tumour and involved lymph nodes was reviewed by one experienced head and neck radiation oncologist. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for analysis of outcome. RESULTS: Of 137 AR and 133 ARCON patients, 57 and 80 versus 56 and 77 patients had glottic and supraglottic tumours, respectively. A correlation between primary tumour volume and T-stage was observed (Rs=.51, P,.01). In both treatment arms no correlation was detected between the primary ...
The model presented here is based on the model we described earlier (10), but we improved it by rewriting the entire set of differential equations to make the model quantitatively more precise, to recognize 3 rather than 2 cell types, and most importantly by including the effect of antigen shedding, which was not included in the original model.. An important advantage of this model is that it can handle tumors of any size and yields total tumor volume information dynamically while considering only one representative unit of a modest and constant size. Because the model assumes that the total cell density is uniform and unchanged, this is not a good model for poorly vascularized, necrotic regions of the tumor. However, the efficacy of RIT is an issue for well vascularized, rapidly growing tumor; it may be less important for slowly growing, necrotic regions of a tumor. Also, although the cell density is assumed constant for any one tumor model, one can study the effect of density changes by doing ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
These types of tumours are often non cancerous in nature. It is very much similar to the cancer since the growth come along due to the result of abnormal cells. But unlike any other cancer tumour, it is simply unable to spread the other kinds of areas of the body and it will not impact to any nearby tissues. It carries enough which stays at the point of its growth. However, in terms of fatality, these tumours are not lethal or unhealthy though the location of this tumour may cause problems. The mass of the tumour would add pressure over the primary nerve along with the main artery, which compresses the brain content and hence even the benign tumour can be problematic. Some of the probable causes to this tumour include traumatic injury over the tumour location along with the chronic inflammation, which gives undetected infection ...
Snapshots of a tumor treated with an AI only. (a) Tumor after two months of growth, before treatment is applied. (b) Tumor after four months of growth, two week
In general, benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix -oma to the cell of origin. Tumors of mesenchymal cells generally follow this (...)
Objective(s): Considering the fact that the standardized uptake value (SUV) of a normal lung tissue is expressed as x±SD, x+3×SD could be considered as the threshold value to outline the internal tumor volume (ITV) of a lung neoplasm. Methods: Three hollow models were filled with 55.0 kBq/mL fluorine18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) to represent tumors. The models were fixed to a barrel filled with 5.9 kBq/mL 18F-FDG to characterize normal lung tissues as a phantom. The PET/CT images of the phantom were acquired at rest. Then, the barrel was moved periodically to simulate breathing while acquiring PET/CT data. Volume recovery coefficient (VRC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of ITVs. For statistical analysis, paired t-test and analysis of variance were applied. Results: The VRCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 and significantly varied among gross tumor volumes for delineating ITV (P|0.01). In two-dimensional PET scans, the motion distance did not affect VRC (P|0.05), whereas VRC decreased with increasing
Prognostic value of tumor burden in nasopharyngeal carcinoma Chuanben Chen,1,2 Zhaodong Fei,1,2 Chaoxiong Huang,2 Jianming Ding,1,2 Lisha Chen1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2Provincial Clinical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China Background: The prognostic value of primary tumor volume (TV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been confirmed. However, studies of the prognosis value of tumor burden, including TV and nodal volume (NV), have been relatively infrequent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor burden in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.Methods: Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to determine rational cutoff points for TV and NV. The volumes identified included 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 mL, and 0, 12.5, and 25 mL, respectively.
DENVER, and CHICAGO, APRIL 14, 2021 -TriSalus Life Sciences®, an emerging immuno-oncology company committed to transforming outcomes for patients with liver and pancreatic tumors, today announced data presented at the American Association of Cancer Research showing that regional delivery of oligodeoxynucleotide 2395 (ODN2395) activated the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), resulting in reduced tumor burden of liver metastases in mice.1. ODNs bind and activate TLR9 to initiate an immune response against certain cancer cells.2 TLR9 agonists (TLR9A) activate both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and play an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity.3 TLR agonists have been administered via different routes based on the therapeutic purpose, however, delivery of TLR agonists into liver tumors by direct needle injection has been clinically challenging, particulary in the setting of a large tumor burden.. The pre-clinical study presented at AACR, conducted by Chandra C. Ghosh and fellow ...
Longitudinal multi-gene panel assessment of circulating tumor DNA revealed tumor burden and molecular characteristics along treatment course of non-small cell lung cancer
There are however some points that could work in favor. Patients proposed for Phase I typically have a serious tumor burden, so that % changes in tumor burden can be interpreted as being on a common scale (as compared to % changes of smaller tumor burden, which may be argued to be oversensitive to clinically irrelevant changes).. The doses or regimens that are proposed to be measured with the intent of showing an acceptable toxicity profile are the ones that will be used for Phase II and likely also Phase III. In other words, we can look for the therapeutic window as early as Phase I.. Some data will be shown on the possibility ‐ at least at an experimental level - to explore percent changes in tumor measurements as a quantitative variable, which should better enable correlative attempts as described above. Another point to consider is the potential comparative nature of early data. What do we mean by this? In late Phase trials, randomization is a necessity for valid comparison by minimizing ...
Synonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor. 2 synonyms for tumor: neoplasm, tumour. What are synonyms for Büschke-Loewenstein Tumor?
Indo Blog Malignant tumor symptoms (Characteristic And Types Of Tumor) baca selengkapnya tentang Malignant tumor symptoms (Characteristic And Types Of Tumor) disini
BioAssay record AID 39584 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for percent tumor volume against B16 melanoma in mice (T) at 1.6 mg/kg intravenous administration after 11 days ot that of control (C).
A tumor is a lump of damaged cells. A malignant tumor is cancerous. Malignant tumors cause trouble to cells around them. They can also spread to other
CANCER most often becomes deadly not from an initial tumour, but when cells from a separate tumour then spread throughout the body. However, new research might have found a way to fight it.
Researchers have found that a gene they call THOR produces a long, non-coding RNA that has a role in cancer, and whose silencing stops tumor growth.
Usefulness of CTAP in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Tumors. Comparison with Helical-CT in Tumor Detection, Especially Tumors Under 1cm in Diameter.:COMPARISON WITH HELICAL-CT IN TUMOR DETECTIN, ESPECIALLY TUMORS UNDER 1cm IN DIAMETER (1998 ...
My staffy x American bull dog is 10 years old now & hes had this lump for just over a year. The vet said it is a tumor but he cant say anything else...
Malignant: Malignancy is the tendency of a cancer or tumor either to invade the surrounding tissues, to destroy or replace the tissues previously present or to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) ...
Inclusion Criteria: I1. Male or Female patients ≥18 years of age or older. I2. Histologically or cytologically proven metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (from head and neck, oesophagus, lung, cervix, vagina, vulva or anus) with the following features: - Previously treated with at least one prior regimen (chemotherapy, signal transduction inhibitors or radiotherapy) - To be treated with radiotherapy at primary tumor site or metastatic site or menacing metastatic site. - The sites of metastases allowed are: soft tissue, peripheral lung, and liver. - Patients with brain and bone metastasis to be treated with radiotherapy are not allowed. Patients with asymptomatic brain metastasis can be included. - The total tumor volume to be irradiated must not exceed 400 cc. I3. At least one tumor lesion must be accessible to radiation therapy and at least another tumor site can be spared from radiation therapy (unirradiated site). I4. At least one unirradiated and one irradiated tumor site must be accessible ...
The adaptive trial design of this advanced Phase II study incorporates (i) a dosing schedule based on the patients estimated tumor burden and not on standard dosing per kilogram body weight or body surface area, and (2) a tumor response evaluation process that is unique to the manner in which osteosarcoma responds favorably to therapy, i.e., with necrosis and increasing calcification in metastatic tumors and decreased glucose utilization using PET-CT imaging studies.. Twenty to thirty patients will receive Rexin-G at either Dose Level 1 or 2. Patients will be assigned a dose level based on the estimated tumor burden as measured by PET-CT imaging studies. Estimated tumor burden is measured by multiplying the sum of the longest diameters of target lesions in cm by 10e9 cancer cells. If the tumor burden is less than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 1, if the tumor burden is greater than 10 billion cells, the patient will be assigned to Dose Level 2.. *Treatment Cycle ...
The involvement of interleukin (IL-) 6 in malignant disease has been investigated in a variety of different malignancies. To evaluate whether serum IL-6 is a useful disease marker in metastatic malignant melanoma (MMM), we studied the time course of endogenous IL-6 secretion in 41 patients treated with cisplatinum, IL-2, and IFN-alpha. Furthermore, the relationship of endogenous IL-6 concentrations to the tumor burden and/or the clinical response was also evaluated. The baseline serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with MMM than in the control group (P = 0.002). When tumor burden was taken into consideration, we found that IL-6 levels were higher in patients with high tumor burden than in patients with low tumor burden. During treatment in the whole patient population, a higher serum IL-6 level was observed in nonresponding as compared to responding patients at days 7 (P = 0.0005), 21 (P = 0.002), and 35 (P = 0.009). The follow-up of serum IL-6 in patients with MMM according ...
Removing a tumor from your brain is hard to do because, very often, brain tumors do not have boundaries that are easy for your surgeon to find. In many cases, the surgeon cant tell exactly where the tumor begins or ends. The surgeon usually can remove most of your tumor by looking at the MRI images that were taken of your brain before surgery. However, the surgeon does not have any good way to tell if the entire tumor has been removed or not. Removing the entire tumor is very important because leaving tumor behind may allow it to grow back which could decrease your chances of survival.. It is possible to detect tumor cells by making them glow with a specific color of light (a process called fluorescence). This can be done by having you take the drug, ALA, before your surgery. ALA is a molecule that already exists in the cells of your body. Once enough of it is in your body, it gets converted into another molecule named PpIX. If blue light is shined on a tumor that has enough PpIX, it will glow ...
Our later investigations confirm our previous results.. 1. It is possible to increase markedly the effect of substances inhibiting tumor growth by using certain combinations of these substances which, when given alone, have some effect on tumor growth.. 2. Immunity acquired against the effect of these substances depends partly upon an active immunization of the tumor cells themselves against the action of these substances, and this immunity is transmitted to the following generations of tumor cells.. 3. The immunity against the substances inhibiting tumor growth is, as far as we have investigated the problem, specific.. 4. Our later experiments provide a more secure basis for the additional and more general conclusions which we mentioned tentatively in our previous paper.. ...
There are a few visual tests that may be performed to detect if the tumor is benign. Typically, benign tumors have a regular shape, regular edges, an even color and will not be very large. However, there are malignant tumors that may look like a benign tumor, especially during the initial stages. The benign tumors may be diagnosed by performing a biopsy. A small sample will be taken from the tumor and will be analyzed. The pathologist may establish if the cells are cancerous or benign. If the cells are benign, they resemble in structure with the cells that are found near the tumor. The benign cells will be inactive, do they wont divide or multiply like the malignant cells. Cancerous cells are differently structured and will be identified under the microscope. Malignant tumors will have an increased amount of chromosomes. ...
Global Tumor Blood Testing Market Report 2020 has complete details about market of Tumor Blood Testing industry, Tumor Blood Testing analysis and current trends. Global Tumor Blood Testing Market Report 2020 Full Report: 2350 USD Multi License (Section): 4700 USD Section Price: As below Page: 115 Chart and Figure: 124 Publisher: BisReport Delivery Time: 24 hour At the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 disease began to spread around the world, millions of people worldwide were infected with COVID-19 disease, .
Saenz DT, Fiskus W, Qian Y, Manshouri T, Rajapakshe K, Raina K, Coleman KG, Crew AP, Shen A, Mill CP, Sun B, Qiu P, Kadia TM, Pemmaraju N, DiNardo C, Kim MS, Nowak AJ, Coarfa C, Crews CM, Verstovsek S, Bhalla KN. Novel BET protein proteolysis-targeting chimera exerts superior lethal activity than bromodomain inhibitor (BETi) against post-myeloproliferative neoplasm secondary (s) AML cells. Leukemia. 2017 Sep; 31(9):1951-1961 ...
Discovering a tumor on your dog can be scary. Learn the types of dog tumors, find out which ones are cancerous, and read up on treatment options for tumors in dogs.
Surgery is the ideal treatment for tumors for people with NF2. While NF2 tumors are slow growing, it can allow the brain and body to have time to try to adapt and adjust which can allow a tumor to grow to a considerable size before treatment might be necessary. Continuously growth of any tumor or tumors can result a serious health issue with the need for surgical intervention dependent on tumor size, location and how bad the side effects are or can become if a tumor increases any further. Individuals with NF2 can develop two but up to hundreds of tumors, but not ever tumor that grows will require treatment.
The primary tumor is the original site where the tumor was first discovered or originated. This is like having a single mass thats in the lung. This
Finding a lump under your skin is alarming, but most of the time theyre harmless. Cysts and tumors are two common types of lumps. It can be hard to tell them apart because theyre often found in the same places….Identifying cysts and tumors.CharacteristicCystTumorfirm✓tender✓able to move around under skin✓4 more ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
癌症(英語:Cancer)又名為惡性(英語:malignant)腫瘤(英語:Malignant tumor),指的是細胞不正常增生,且這些增生的細胞可能侵犯身體的其他部分[2][8];中醫學中稱岩,為由控制細胞分裂增殖機制失常而引起的疾病。癌細胞除了分裂失控外,還會局部侵入(英語:Infiltration ...
類癌瘤(神經內分泌腫瘤的一種,依照胚胎時期不同的腸道細胞來源可大致區分為前腸、中腸及後腸三類) ...
One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumours are malignant.[1] For this reason, benign tumours are not classed as cancer.[2] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and ...
Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high a …
Synonyms for Burkitt's tumor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Burkitt's tumor. 2 synonyms for tumor: neoplasm, tumour. What are synonyms for Burkitt's tumor?
Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy Tumours use more glucose than normal, healthy ti
Looking for Buschke-Löwenstein tumor? Find out information about Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. see neoplasm neoplasm or tumor, tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to... Explanation of Buschke-Löwenstein tumor
Dr. Colen responded: Symptoms?. If the tumor is small and not pressing on vital areas of the brain, depending on the tumor type, if benign or cancerous, it can be present for a very long time and undiagnosed. A very aggressive tumor however, or a tumor that affects an important part of the brain will likely be diagnosed fairly quickly.
Regression of meningioma tumor growth by combination therapy Fifteen percent of meningiomas have malignant characteristics and these aggressive invasive tumors...
Vaginal Tumors Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs - The vaginal and vulvar areas are the most common sites for tumors of the female genital tract. These tumors tend to occur in older, sexually intact females, at an average age of 10 years.
Cancer is a leading killer in the United States. Treatment is itself dangerous, even lethal. However, studies show cannabis slowing tumor growth.
Intake of curcumin at physiologically attainable doses could help to slow the development of prostate cancers by jamming receptors linked to cancer tumour
Tumors are organ-like structures composed of different cell types whose interactions are required to promote their maintenance, growth and metastasis.
Before your doctor can recommend a treatment plan, he or she needs to know the grade of the cancer. The grade tells your doctor how malignant the tumor is and how it might respond to treatment.
Tumor Targeting: is a cancer treatment that uses drugs.... Targeted therapy works by targeting the cancers specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environ
CARLSBAD, Calif., July 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Genoptixs Immuno-Oncology Testing Now Covers Additional Tumor Types. Tests Can Identify More Cancer Patients Eligible for Mercks KEYTRUDA® Therapy.
A massive abdominal tumor measuring about 10 kg has been removed from a female patient, by surgeons in the western Croatian town of Gospic.
When surgeons remove tumors, they cannot determine exactly where the cancer ends and the tissue begins, so they make educated guesses. If they could l
Researchers have developed new nanorobotic agents capable of navigating through the bloodstream to administer a drug with precision by specifically targeting the active cancerous cells of tumours.
Its time to celebrate moving from brain tumor patient to brain tumor survivor by getting involved with the brain tumor community.
MTV announced their nominees for the 2007 VMAs yesterday and the list isnt particularly surprising. There are a few indie darlings in here--like White Stripes, Amy Winehouse, and Justice--but mostly its just the same old, same old. There are those who might say that MTV is on the decline and is slowly being taken over by crap. To those people, I say, No, Im pretty sure it was always crap ...
Plot tumor - tv tropes, The plot tumor trope as used in popular culture. a single plot element that was once a minor part of the verse swells in importance as the series progresses …. ...
Okay now this I guarantee you havent read before but I have to ask embarassing and weird of a topic as it may be in the hopes that some other newly...
கட்டி (tumor) என்பது இழையங்களில் ஏற்படக்கூடிய அசாதாரணமான, அளவுக்கதிகமான வளர்ச்சியால் ஏற்படும் புத்திழையம் (neoplasm) அல்லது திண்ம இழையமாகும். இந்த வளர்ச்சியானது அருகில் சூழவுள்ள இழையங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபட்டிருப்பதுடன், அதற்குரிய தூண்டல் நீக்கப்பட்டாலும்கூட, தொடர்ந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியையே காட்டும்.[1][2][3] இந்த அசாதாரண வளர்ச்சியானது, (எப்பொழும் இல்லையெனினும்) பொதுவாக திணிவு கூடி ...
2020). "Prevalence of High Tumor Mutational Burden and Association With Survival in Patients With Less Common Solid Tumors". ... "Methods of measurement for tumor mutational burden in tumor tissue". Transl Lung Cancer Res. 7 (6): 661-7. doi:10.21037/tlcr. ... Tumour mutational burden (abbreviated as TMB) is a genetic characteristic of tumorous tissue that can be informative to cancer ... 2019). "Development of tumor mutation burden as an immunotherapy biomarker: utility for the oncology clinic". Ann Oncol. 30 (1 ...
... in order to identify the size and location of the tumour. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the presence of a bone tumour. ... General (US), Office of the Surgeon (2004). The Burden of Bone Disease. Office of the Surgeon General (US). Services, ... It is undifferentiated as under a microscope, the tumour cells appear different to the body cells in which it develops, and is ... The age of the patient and the location of the tumour are very important considerations in the diagnosis of bone tumours. The ...
"Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Early- and Late-Stage Human Malignancies". Sci Transl Med, vol. 6, no. 224, p. 224ra24, ... B. E. Miner, R. J. Stöger, A. F. Burden, et al. "Molecular barcodes detect redundancy and contamination in hairpin-bisulfite ... or circulating tumor DNA. Several library preparation strategies have been developed that increase accuracy of NGS platforms ... screening variants in circulating tumor DNA as a non-invasive biomarker, and prenatal screening for genetic abnormalities in a ...
May 2018). "Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden". The New England Journal of Medicine ... The current theory is that the scar probably occurred secondary to the tumor, rather than causing the tumor. The adenocarcinoma ... EML4-ALK fusions tend to occur in tumors that do not carry EGFR or KRAS mutations and have also a lower frequency of TP53 ... Once a lesion or tumor is identified with various imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or X-ray, a biopsy is ...
Tumor Burden Index as a Prognostic Tool for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Arch Dermatol 135: 1204 - 1208, doi:10.1001/archderm. ... Burg, G.; Weedon, D.; Sarasin, A., (2006), WHO Books: Tumors of the Skin, IARC France. Burg, G.; Geiges, M., (2001), Die Haut, ... Arch Dermatol 137: 949 - 952 Heinzerling, L.; Dummer, R.; Pavlovic, J.; Schultz, J.; Burg, G.; Moelling, K., (2002). Tumor ... Burg, G.; et al., (2015, 2019, 2021), Clinical Dermatopathology Vol.I (Inflammatory); Vol.II (Tumors); Vol.III (Infections), ...
... can control tumor burden but cannot prevent transformation or correct cytogenic abnormalities. The drug was recently ...
"Tumor Mutational Burden as an Independent Predictor of Response to Immunotherapy in Diverse Cancers". Mol. Cancer Ther. 16 (11 ... "Analysis of 100,000 human cancer genomes reveals the landscape of tumor mutational burden". Genome Med. 9 (34): epub. doi: ... followed by likely loss of heterozygosity in the tumor. Thus only 6 of 119 tumors lacking expression for Pms2 (5%) were due to ... In tumors classified as mismatch repair deficient and lacking, in a majority PMS2 expression is deficient because of lack of ...
Jain, Mika S.; Massoud, Tarik F. (2020). "Predicting tumour mutational burden from histopathological images using multiscale ... tumor mutational burden, or transcriptional changes. This has the potential to reduce human error and improve accuracy of ... or for classifying the condition of tissue such as is used in grading tumors. They can additionally be used for feature ...
Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB, the number of mutations within a targeted genetic region in the cancerous cell's DNA) have been ... Tumor biopsies and healthy tissue (e.g., peripheral blood cells) of a patient diagnosed with cancer are examined by NGS. Tumor- ... After surgical resection of the tumor, the vaccine was injected. The results showed that the tumor did not reappear in four ... Somatic mutations in the tumor genome can cause tumors to express mutant proteins (neoantigens) that are recognized by ...
April 2016). "Analysis of circulating tumour DNA to monitor disease burden following colorectal cancer surgery". Gut. 65 (4): ... January 2017). "Monitoring the HER2 copy number status in circulating tumor DNA by droplet digital PCR in patients with gastric ... Skibo S (23 Feb 2018). "Has Tumor Profiling Caught Up to Cancer?". Retrieved 23 July 2019. Hirsch F (27 July 2018). "Guidelines ... 2015). "Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic ...
Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB, the number of mutations within a targeted genetic region in the cancerous cell's DNA) correlates ... Gurjao C, Tsukrov D, Imakaev M, Luquette LJ, Mirny LA (2020-09-04). "Limited evidence of tumour mutational burden as a ... Wood MA, Weeder BR, David JK, Nellore A, Thompson RF (March 2020). "Burden of tumor mutations, neoepitopes, and other variants ... Cancer is a patient-specific disease, and no two tumors are alike. Thus, the immunogenicity of each tumor is unique. A novel ...
In vivo trials demonstrated a 50-70% reduction in tumor burden for xenografted pancreatic and prostate cancers; however, ... Although there were no notable tumor responses, a strong correlation was noted between dose and adverse events, with the ... Next, safety and tolerability were investigated in a Phase I trial involving 30 volunteers with advanced solid tumors or ... reduction of V617F JAK2 allele burden in 15% of patients. A Phase I study of 47 patients reported in 2010 that treatment of ...
The second category is dependent upon the tumor and includes the stage, tumor burden, and extranodal involvement. Finally, the ... Since these tumors are fast to grow and spread, immediate intervention is required after diagnosis.[citation needed] There are ... Patients most often present with a rapidly growing tumor mass in single or multiple, nodal or extranodal sites. The most ... Factors such as LDH serum level and proliferative fraction can give insight into the tumor microenvironment and proliferation ...
In the irRC, tumour burden is measured by combining 'index' lesions with new lesions. Ordinarily tumour burden would be ... Everything else is considered immune-related Stable Disease (irSD). The thinking here is that even if tumour burden is rising, ... The developers of the irRC based their criteria on the WHO Criteria but modified it: Measurement of tumour burden. ... For the WHO Criteria it had been >50% tumour shrinkage for a Partial Response and >25% tumour increase for Progressive Disease ...
However, these regimens need not be started in people with FL who are asymptomatic and have low tumor burdens: the outcomes in ... "Watchful waiting in low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: results of an F2-study database". Journal of ... encodes tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily which may function as a ... encoding p16INK4a and p14arf tumor suppressor proteins) or CDKN2B (encoding cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B multiple tumor ...
... "spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome". TLS should be suspected in patients with large tumor burden who develop acute kidney failure ... Tumor Characteristics: Tumors with a high cell turnover rate, rapid growth rate, and high tumor bulk tend to be more associated ... In post-chemotherapy TLS, tumor cells are destroyed and no new tumor cells are being synthesized.[citation needed] TLS is most ... Chemotherapy Characteristics: Chemo-sensitive tumors, such as lymphomas, carry a higher risk for the development of tumor lysis ...
Residual or recurrent tumor is particularly likely in areas adjacent to heat sinks, such as larger blood vessels or airways. ... or extensive disease burden. For these patients, minimally invasive therapeutic options such as radiofrequency ablation, ... Tumor ablation of thoracic malignancies should be considered a viable treatment option for patients with early stage, primary ... MWA is regarded as a particularly efficient option for the treatment of lung tumors since unlike RFA it does not rely on ...
"Fox Chase Researchers Show Link Between Gene Defects and Tumor Mutation Burden in Head and Neck Cancer Subgroups". Fox Chase ... In the following year, Golemis' laboratory examined 1,600 tumors with patterns of mutation in TP53 and CDKN2A in order to show ... later built on this discovery and reported that NEDD9 also controlled the growth of progenitor cells that gives rise to tumors ...
Higher mutational burden in the tumor is correlated with a greater effect of the anti-PD-1 treatment. In clinical trials, ... However, the correlation between higher tumor burden and the clinical effectiveness of PD-1 immune blockade is still uncertain ... PD-L1 positive tumors were twice as likely to respond to combination treatment. However patients with PD-L1 negative tumors ... Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells inhibits anti-tumor activity through engagement of PD-1 on effector T cells. Expression of ...
Typically, any tumour presenting as above WHO grade I (i.e. a malignant tumour as opposed to a benign tumour) will have a ... Unjudicious usage of Temozolomide might lower the prognosis of the patients further, or increase their burden. Further ... Often, tumor growth causes a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the vicinity of the tumor. As a rule, high-grade gliomas ... Glioma at the Human Protein Atlas American Brain Tumor Association: Malignant Gliomas Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ...
Tumors are also removed in cases where a patient is suffering from a high seizure burden. If a tumor is rapidly growing or ... Total removal of the tumor is curative. Surgery to remove intraventricular tumors also carries risks of complications or death ... shrinking their tumor volumes by an average of 65%. However, after the drug was stopped, the tumors regrew.[citation needed] ... After complete surgical removal, a SEGA tumor does not grow back. They do not metastasize to other parts of the body. However, ...
... tissue distribution and antitumor activity of honokiol submicron lipid emulsions in tumor-burdened mice". Die Pharmazie. 68 (1 ... This mechanism is believed to suppress production of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and RANTES/CCL5. Honokiol has also ... Honokiol also acts on the PI3K/mTOR pathway in tumor cells while maintaining pathway activity in T cells. Honokiol[quantify] ... and Inhibits Brain Tumor Growth in Rat 9L Intracerebral Gliosarcoma Model and Human U251 Xenograft Glioma Model". PLOS ONE. 6 ( ...
In some cancers the microRNA-223 down-regulation is correlated with higher tumor burden, disease aggressiveness, and poor ... significantly with the progression of these two diseases thus associating miR-223 down-regulation with higher tumor burden, ...
"Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Trap Decreases Tumor Burden, Inhibits Ascites, and Causes Dramatic Vascular Remodeling in an ... At the Conway Institute Byrne worked to establish the Tumour Xenograft Facility and translational Pre-clinical Imaging Centre. ... which trains scientists in brain tumour research, cancer systems medicine and multi-omics. Glioblastoma is the most aggressive ...
Nagalase accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical ...
... decreased tumor burden and increased cell differentiation in the remaining tumors in transgenic mice developing Wnt-induced ... Its expression has also been demonstrated in ovarian cancers, liver tumors and pancreatic tumors. Thus, several types of tumors ... hPG80 is therefore expressed at all stages by the tumor, from early stages to metastasis. hPG80 is found in different tumor ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the tumor, usually between 1 and 5%. But they are essential for tumor ...
In tumors however, vascular lock is of a longer duration and can contribute to the effectiveness of the electrochemotherapy. ... the patient's burden usually associated to chemotherapy is not present. In the clinical use of electrochemotherapy, limited ... Electrochemotherapy is also used in veterinary oncology for a variety of tumors in dogs, cats, horses, and rabbits. There are ... For treatment of deep-seated tumors in relative vicinity of the heart, pulses are synchronized with absolute refractory period ...
Patients with a high tumor burden may also have somewhat reduced levels of cholesterol, especially in patients with an enlarged ... While survivors of solid tumors are commonly declared to be permanently cured after two, three, or five years, people who have ... HCL-V, which usually features a high proportion of hairy cells without a functional p53 tumor suppressor gene, is somewhat more ... Treatment delays are less important than in solid tumors. Unlike most cancers, treatment success does not depend on treating ...
... no reduction in tumor burden via imaging), even in non-responders, patients reported feeling better, blood pressure was lower, ... Following resection, tumor-related hyperglycemia is likely to resolve. Hypoglycemia: After the tumor is removed, insulin is no ... an adrenal tumor or a recurrence of an adrenal tumor that had already been excised can be predicted Patients are more likely to ... of patients had a significant reduction in tumor volume, while 40% of patients experienced lower catecholamine burden. While ...
Signature 3, seen in homologous recombination (HR) deficient tumour, is associated with increased burden of large indels (up to ... of a tumor is obtained, there are two approaches to decipher the contributions of different mutational signatures to tumor ... the phrase referred to a pattern of mutations characteristic of a tumor type, although usually not unique to the tumor type nor ... In such tumors, DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by the imprecise repair mechanisms of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) ...
O cancro está a tornar-se rapidamente num dos principais problemas de saúde na Região Africana da OMS e são necessárias intervenções para a sua prevenção e controlo. A luta contra o cancro entrou numa nova fase, com a ...
Tumor mutational burden, a measurement of the overall number of genomic alterations seen in a cancer, may be a potentially ... Tumor mutational burden (TMB), a measurement of the overall number of genomic alterations seen in a cancer, has been suggested ... TMB = tumor mutational burden; ORR = objective response rate; OS = overall survival; PFS = progression-free survival aNot ... Cite this: Tumor Mutational Burden as a Predictive Biomarker in Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer: Analysis of CheckMate-032 - ...
O cancro está a tornar-se rapidamente num dos principais problemas de saúde na Região Africana da OMS e são necessárias intervenções para a sua prevenção e controlo. A luta contra o cancro entrou numa nova fase, com a ...
... is the measure of the number of mutations found within a tumor. ... QIAseq Tumor Mutational Burden Panels. QIAseq Tumor Mutational ... Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) is the measure of the number of mutations found within a tumor. However, a lack of standardized ... QIAseq Tumor Mutational Burden Panels are intended for molecular biology applications. These products are not intended for the ... The new QIAseq Tumor Mutational Burden Panels overcome the challenges of earlier assay designs to create a comprehensive ...
On account of the success of immunotherapy in many cancer types, we established the relationship between tumor mutation burden ... With the development of high-throughput sequencing and tumor profiling, potential tumor biomarkers were identified. Through the ... Based on the understanding of the bladder tumor genome and immune environment, this study is supposed to provide new therapies ... a) Correlation between tumor mutation burden and survival rate. (b) The relationship between tumor mutation burden and gender. ...
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has emerged as a clinically relevant biomarker that may be associated with immune checkpoint ... Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a quantitative assessment of the number of somatic mutations in coding regions of the tumor ... Table 1 Summary of the effect of tumor mutational burden on progression-free survival in patients with non-small-cell lung ... Table 2 Agreement between tumor mutational burden data derived by whole exome sequencing and the FoundationOne CDx assay. Full ...
Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been shown as a new predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor in various cancer ... 3748 - Accurate measurement of tumor mutation burden in liquid biopsy (bTMB) using a 500 gene panel. ... Tumor fraction in plasma is significantly associated with tumor stage that >50% of metastatic cancers and > 25% early stage ... In patients with at least 1% tumor content, there is high correlation between bTMB measured by plasma and TMB measured by FFPE ...
Keywords: 18F-FDG PET/CT, MTV, TLG, neuroblastoma, progression, tumor burden Citation styles. APA Copy. Man, S., Yan, J., Li, J ... Value of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in prognosis and the reflection of tumor burden: a study in pediatric patients with newly ... Our results suggested that 18F-FDG PET/CT was a useful tool to predictive progression and to reflect tumor burden for patients ... Value of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in prognosis and the reflection of tumor burden: a study in pediatric patients with newly ...
We find that a subset of patients exhibits high TMB across almost all types of cancer, including many rare tumor types, and ... High tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors and has been shown ... across a diverse cohort of 100,000 cancer cases and test for association between somatic alterations and TMB in over 100 tumor ... From: Analysis of 100,000 human cancer genomes reveals the landscape of tumor mutational burden ...
Tumor mutation burden (TMB) , a novel biomarker featured with microsatellite instability, has been thought to be closely ... 5 Hsu, Y. C. et al., Tumor mutation burden and recurrent tumors in hereditary lung cancer. Cancer Med 8 2179 (2019). ... Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been identified as a reliable indicator for immunotherapy effect, which provides a possible ... 3 Huang, D. et al., Tumor Mutation Burden as a Potential Biomarker for PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibition in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung ...
Tissue-specific cell-free DNA degradation quantifies circulating tumor DNA burden. Authors: Zhu, Guanhua. Guo, Yu A.. Ho, ... Tissue-specific cell-free DNA degradation quantifies circulating tumor DNA burden. Nature Communications 12 (1) : 2229. ... Profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may offer a non-invasive approach to monitor disease progression. Here, we develop a ... that accurately estimates ctDNA burden independent of genomic aberrations. Nucleosome-dependent cfDNA degradation at promoters ...
Tumor Mutational Burden as a Predictive Biomarker in First-Line Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma. Interview with. Shilpa Gupta ... Impact of FGFR3 Mutational Activation on Luminal-Like Papillary Bladder Tumor Formation and Male Sex Bias Eur Urol · November ...
We compared the ability of maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) derived by FDG-PET with tumor burden in predicting tumor ... the tumor metabolic information provided by FDG-PET is more significantly correlated with prognosis than tumor burden. ... Recent advances gained from molecular studies suggest that tumor biology can be a good predictor of prognosis in breast cancer ... Our results highlight the prognostic value of FDG-PET in prediction of tumor relapse for patients with breast cancer. ...
... of immunotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma with PD-L1 positivity and a high tumour mutational burden. ... presented with postoperative recurrence of PD-L1-positive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a high tumour mutational burden ... response to the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma with high tumour mutational burden and PD- ...
... higher TMB correlates with favorable response to anti-PD1/PDL1 inhibition in solid tumors). In conclusion, 96.5% of patients ... The median tumor mutational burden (TMB) was low (1.7 alterations/megabase); 12% of patients had intermediate or high TMB ( ... Figure 6. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) across hematologic malignancies. Note: N = 219 total number of patients analyzed for TMB ... Figure 6. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) across hematologic malignancies. Note: N = 219 total number of patients analyzed for TMB ...
... for each tumour site (ovarian, omental, peritoneal, lymph node). Tumour volume reduced at all sites after NAC. ADC increased ... A trained algorithm determined tumour cell fraction, percentage tumour and percentage necrosis on histology. Whole-lesion post- ... Post-NAC ADC correlated negatively with tumour cell fraction. Pre/post-NAC changes in ADC correlated positively with percentage ... Following NAC in EOC, the ADC (measured using DW-MRI) increases differentially at disease sites despite similar tumour ...
Tumor Mutational Burden-High Cancer KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable ... or metastatic tumor mutational burden-high (TMB-H) [≥10 mutations/megabase] solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test ... In syngeneic mouse tumor models, the combination of lenvatinib with an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody decreased tumor-associated ... as a single agent after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy for patients with tumors of squamous cell histology that ...
Implications for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and tumor burdens. Chia Ling Hsieh, Victory Feig Pang, Ding Shinn Chen, Lih ... Implications for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and tumor burdens, Human Gene Therapy, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 1843-1854. https ... Implications for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and tumor burdens. / Hsieh, Chia Ling; Pang, Victory Feig; Chen, Ding Shinn ... Implications for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and tumor burdens. In: Human Gene Therapy. 1997 ; Vol. 8, No. 16. pp. 1843- ...
The number of cancer cells, the size of a tumour, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumour load. ...
Nonmetastatic tumor. 3,970 (25.2). 3,701 (25.7). 134 (16.4). AIDS. 79 (0.5). 58 (0.4). 13 (1.6). ... Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006-2014 Jeffery Ho1, Rudin Z.W. Dai1, Thomas ... Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006-2014. ...
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is being explored as a predictive biomarker for cancer immunotherapy outcomes in non-small cell ...
Tumor Burden [‎3]‎. undefined [‎64]‎. Universal Access to Health Care Services [‎1]‎. ...
Tumor Burden. In general, tumor burdens should not be so large as to interfere with ambulation, eating, drinking, defecating, ... tumor burden studies, transplantable tumors, death as an endpoint, drug studies, prolonged restraint). ... investigators must address issues concerning tumor burden, the status of the tumor (e.g. ulceration), and criteria for ... these should be individually measured and the individual tumor measurements totaled to calculate the total tumor burden. ...
Comparison in low-tumor-burden follicular lymphomas between an initial no-treatment policy, prednimustine, or interferon alfa: ... Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): indicates poor prognosis; correlates with increased tumor burden ... Computed tomography-based tumor volume in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: clinical correlation and comparison with magnetic resonance ... Table 3. International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer tumor-node- ...
Economic Burden of Illness of Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET ...
NEW YORK - Applying a universal cutoff for high tumor mutational burden (TMB) across tumor types may not capture all cancer ... "Tumor mutational burden will likely need to be combined with other biomarkers to more robustly stratify responders and ... MSK Study Underscores Need to Validate Cancer-Specific Tumor Mutational Burden Cutoffs Feb 18, 2021 , Caroline Hopkins ... With the tumor-specific cutoffs, the response rates were higher in TMB-high versus TMB-low tumors for 14 out of 16 of the ...
... are critical in tumor cell proliferation, as they modulate key gene transcripts. In the present study, the expression and roles ... Tumor Burden Substances * FOXM1 protein, human * Forkhead Box Protein M1 * Forkhead Transcription Factors ... An increasing number of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical in tumor cell proliferation, as they modulate ... 7 breast cancer cells and tumor growth in nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mechanistic investigation with western blotting ...
New vaccination approach can reduce tumor burden, suppress formation of lung metastases In a new study published in the ... Loss of p62 protein in cells and tissue surrounding a tumor can influence tumor growth A team of scientists from Sanford ... researchers from Uppsala University show that a therapeutic vaccine directed against tumor vessels can reduce tumor burden and ... Tumorigenesis is the process involved in the production of a new tumor or tumors. ...
What do cancer registry and household expenditure data in Japan tell us about variation in tumour burden ?. ... What do cancer registry and household expenditure data in Japan tell us about variation in tumour burden ? Asian Pacific ...
The ipsilateral lung parenchyma is typically compressed by the expanding tumor burden. ... Asbestos exposure is the most important cause of pleural mesothelioma, a tumor that originates from the serosal surface [Hammar ... 2008]. The classical macroscopic appearance of malignant mesothelioma is that of a diffuse, thick rind of tumor encasing the ... Other histological types of primary lung cancer or even metastatic tumors involving the pleura may generate a ...
  • QIAseq Tumor Mutational Burden Panels are intended for molecular biology applications. (
  • Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) is the measure of the number of mutations found within a tumor. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is defined as the total number of somatic missense mutations present in the baseline tumor sample and it has been a biomarker of tumorigenesis and immune response [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has emerged as a clinically relevant biomarker that may be associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a clinically relevant biomarker for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with cancer. (
  • Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a quantitative assessment of the number of somatic mutations in coding regions of the tumor genome. (
  • Atezolizumab versus chemotherapy in advanced or metastatic NSCLC with high blood-based tumor mutational burden: primary analysis of BFAST cohort C randomized phase 3 trial. (
  • One important factor is the number of mutations present in a tumor's DNA (this is called the tumor mutational burden, or TMB). (
  • Will Testing for Tumor Mutational Burden Bring the Same Challenges as Testing for PD-L1? (
  • Genetic Engineering & Biotech News - Will Testing for Tumor Mutational Burden Bring the Same Challenges as Testing for PD-L1? (
  • Developments over this past year in the diagnostic market hint that tumor mutational burden (TMB) may face the same variability challenges as PD-L1: the results from one TMB test may not be interchangeable with the next. (
  • if these tumors arise from a microenvironment characterized by high inflammation and immune depression, and have a higher mutational burden and/or mutations known to be associated with poor prognostic outcomes, then it may be that more aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy are most appropriate. (
  • PD-L1 positivity, high tumor mutational burden and infiltration of NK cells, CD8, CD26 and Tim3 positive lymphocytes at time of surgery have been correlated with pathologic responses. (
  • On account of the success of immunotherapy in many cancer types, we established the relationship between tumor mutation burden and immune microenvironment of bladder cancer and found the changes of several immune cells in this disease. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been shown as a new predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor in various cancer types. (
  • By integrating the fragment size distribution and the clonal mutation frequency, we were able to estimate the tumor fraction per plasma sample. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) , a novel biomarker featured with microsatellite instability, has been thought to be closely related to tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been identified as a reliable indicator for immunotherapy effect, which provides a possible strategy in the most extensively studied pre-clinical field. (
  • Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is a well-known efficacy predictor for checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies. (
  • A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with pancreatic cancer cT4N1M1 (liver, lung) who harbored ERBB2 mutations with high tumor mutation burden (TMB) underwent multiple therapies and survived 19 months. (
  • As part of the multicenter, population-based Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative, tumor DNA was sequenced for 419 consecutive CRC cases undergoing standard universal tumor screening and germline genetic testing, and 46 patients with CRC known to have LS due to a germline mutation in a mismatch repair gene. (
  • The Chan lab discovered that mutation and neoantigen burden and MSI are primary drivers of immune checkpoint blockade therapy efficacy. (
  • The main challenge is that these tumors have high mutation burdens, primarily a consequence of UV-radiation-induced DNA damage from sunlight, making it difficult to distinguish driver mutations from passenger mutations. (
  • Further correlation analyses between YIF1B expression and mutation indicators such as tumor mutation burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), and mismatch repair (MMR) were also examined by the Spearman test. (
  • The survival probability was extraordinarily high for the neuronal subtype, which represents a high-risk cohort with advanced disease, and may be secondary to low levels of TGFβ expression and high mutation/neoantigen burden. (
  • After then, the microenvironment of bladder tumor was studied and new tumor immunotherapy for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease was explored. (
  • The latest study, published by researchers from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and the Cleveland Clinic, adds to a growing body of data that suggest that a universal high TMB cutoff may not be as precise in predicting who will respond to immunotherapy as tumor-specific TMB cutoffs. (
  • When researchers drilled further into patients' responses to immunotherapy by tumor type, they found more evidence that responses for TMB-high tumors were not universally higher than TMB-low tumors in every histology. (
  • An in-depth genetic analysis on tumor samples from patients before treatment with immunotherapy and again when the treatment stopped working led researchers Victor Velculescu, M.D., Ph.D., Valsamo Anagnostou M.D., Ph.D., and Kellie Smith, Ph.D., to uncover a key way cancers become resistant to immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • The test can identify CRC patients with MSI-high tumors who may respond well to PD1 blockade immunotherapy , recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Additionally, whole exome sequencing of these tumors may illuminate novel mutations that are useful targets for immunotherapy or chemotherapy. (
  • Among PLK1 expression groups, proportionate increases in dMMR/MSI-H, TMB, and other immune related markers suggest a potential response to immunotherapy in tumors with increased PLK1 expression. (
  • PATIENT SUMMARY: We describe a methodology for genomic classification of an individual patient's bladder cancer tumor and have identified a subtype that is associated with a high response rate to immunotherapy. (
  • Bladder cancer is a major malignant tumor with a high incidence in the urinary system. (
  • First, data related to malignant tumor of urinary bladder in TCGA database were collected and the TMB values were calculated then. (
  • In classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), the malignant cells represent only a small fraction of the tumor . (
  • 2008]. The classical macroscopic appearance of malignant mesothelioma is that of a diffuse, thick rind of tumor encasing the lung, extending along the interlobar fissures, and infiltrating the chest wall, diaphragm, and mediastinal structures ( Fig. 40 ). (
  • We applied this approach, measuring the extent to which the TCR repertoires of T cell populations infiltrating malignant brain tumors diverge from their peripheral blood counterparts. (
  • Abstract The incidence of primary malignant bone tumors is low, and clinical cognition is insufficient. (
  • Observing that the placental tissue stops growing at eight weeks once the fetus' pancreatic enzyme production begins, Beard theorized that a malignant tumor mass would respond likewise provided a sufficient quantity of pancreatic enzymes was supplied (2,3). (
  • The rare high-grade malignant tumor Gliosarcoma has a poor prognosis. (
  • The gradual accumulation of somatic mutations leads to the formation of neoantigens that activate T cell immunogenicity to inhibit tumor cells [ 13 ]. (
  • The 324-gene panel assay FoundationOne ® CDx was recently granted premarket approval by the US FDA for profiling of actionable mutations in solid tumors and also provides assessment of genomic signatures such as TMB and microsatellite instability [ 21 ]. (
  • Debates on the relative utility of a universal TMB cutoff versus tumor-specific cutoffs have intensified among oncologists since the US Food and Drug Administration approved pembrolizumab (Merck's Keytruda) last year for refractory patients with any type of solid tumor characterized by high TMB defined as at least 10 mutations per megabase. (
  • Given the limited representation of patients with certain tumor types in Keynote-158, many oncologists weren't convinced that the 10 mutations per megabase TMB cutoff was truly predictive of benefit in all histology-specific settings. (
  • To ensure that the responses weren't being driven by patients with microsatellite instability, which also leads to the accumulation of mutations in the tumor, all of the patients in this analysis had tumors that were microsatellite stable, as determined by the MSIsensor test. (
  • Kidney cancer patients were not evaluable because none of the tumor samples had more than 10 mutations per megabase. (
  • Sequencing the genomes of tumor cells has revealed thousands of genetic mutations linked with cancer. (
  • Mutations in the KIT gene are the most common genetic changes associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). (
  • Somatic mutations, which lead to sporadic GISTs, are present only in the tumor cells and are not inherited. (
  • Tumor biopsy specimen - MMR status. (
  • Blood sample/s, urine and tumour biopsy tissue taken prior to any neoadjuvant treatment that might be administered. (
  • Blood sample/s, urine and tumour biopsy taken at time of disease progression. (
  • This article highlights new insights into the mutational profile of cSCC, summarizes current diagnostic and therapeutic standards, and discusses emerging diagnostic approaches with emphasis on liquid biopsy and tumor tissue-based analyses. (
  • Tumor discovered after a surgical procedure or a biopsy. (
  • 5. Willing to provide either a core biopsy from a tumour lesion that has exhibited progression on or after PARPi treatment and that is deemed suitable for imaging-guided biopsy (ultrasound or computed tomography [CT]) by an experienced radiologist or suitable for intra-operative biopsy during secondary debulking surgery as determined by an experienced oncology surgeon and a blood sample for WES, and/or a blood sample for ctDNA analysis. (
  • Patients with available archival post-PARPi tumour samples and/or liquid biopsy samples who are not able to provide a new biopsy or who are deceased may be identified by the clinical team and registered for the study if the patient previously provided generic research consent for use of clinical data and tissue/blood samples. (
  • A solid tumour biopsy and/or blood samples will be collected after the time of progression and will be used to characterise the patient's cancer at the genomic, transcriptomic and protein level. (
  • Five-year OS data from KEYNOTE-024, which evaluated KEYTRUDA monotherapy versus chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors expressed PD-L1 (tumor proportion score [TPS] ≥50%), were presented at ESMO 2020 . (
  • It is typically measured by processing tumor tissue with substantial input which limits its clinical utility in patients with metastatic or unresectable disease. (
  • In a new study published in the scientific journal Oncotarget researchers from Uppsala University show that a therapeutic vaccine directed against tumor vessels can reduce tumor burden and suppress formation of spontaneous lung metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. (
  • Other histological types of primary lung cancer or even metastatic tumors involving the pleura may generate a pseudomesotheliomatous appearance. (
  • Dr. Michael Overman, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, speaks with two presenters about guiding therapy with circulating tumor DNA and refining treatment strategies for RAS wild-type metastatic disease. (
  • in addition to metastatic prostate cancer, this combination is also being studied in advanced lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer, as well as across solid tumors with certain biomarkers. (
  • However, there are no clear lines of therapy for unresectable or metastatic NETs, and sequencing of systemic therapies depends on consideration of patient and tumor characteristics including extent of disease, grade, pace of growth, functional status, primary site, somatostatin receptor status, performance status, and comorbidities. (
  • Man S, Yan J, Li J, Cao Y, Hu J, Ma W, Liu J, Zhao Q. Value of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in prognosis and the reflection of tumor burden: a study in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. (
  • As a common characteristic of cancer, hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis due to enhanced tumor malignancy and therapeutic resistance. (
  • The TRG scores and counts of TILs at the tumor-normal interface were assessed in all 176 resected liver metastases to determine their association with prognosis. (
  • The establishment of diagnostic criteria is of great significance for prognosis of tumors. (
  • Every now & then I'm a mess & still struggle with the actuality of my tumor having a ±5 year prognosis. (
  • Here, we develop a quantitative method, exploiting local tissue-specific cell-free DNA (cfDNA) degradation patterns, that accurately estimates ctDNA burden independent of genomic aberrations. (
  • In the meantime, new genomic research could be changing clinical and public health approaches to reducing the burden of colorectal cancer from LS and in general, by shifting the laboratory testing approach toward tumor next generation sequencing. (
  • The enhanced tumor aggressiveness stems at least partially from hypoxia-induced genomic instability. (
  • Therefore, a clear understanding of how tumor hypoxia induces genomic instability is crucial for the improvement of cancer therapeutics. (
  • This review summarizes recent developments highlighting the association of tumor hypoxia with genomic instability and the mechanisms by which tumor hypoxia drives genomic instability, followed by how hypoxic tumors can be specifically targeted to maximize efficacy. (
  • There is a clear consensus in studies in which tumor genomes have been sequenced and analyzed that hypoxia is associated with tumor genomic instability. (
  • This retrospective cross-sectional study of 343?589 patients with solid tumors represents the largest pan-cancer genomic survey of UV mutational signatures conducted to our knowledge. (
  • Meanwhile, there is increasing interest in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) that act as a noninvasive real-time biomarker for cancer patients. (
  • Among 73?944 tumors suitable for mutational signature analysis, identification of a UV signature served as a useful biomarker for identifying cancers of potential cutaneous origin with important implications for clinical management. (
  • Clinicopathological factors and metabolic parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on PET/CT were evaluated as predictive factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis. (
  • MTV (P=0.001) and TLG (p=0.004) remained significant predictive factors for tumor progression, along with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and bone metastasis. (
  • Our results suggested that 18F-FDG PET/CT was a useful tool to predictive progression and to reflect tumor burden for patients with NB. (
  • Profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may offer a non-invasive approach to monitor disease progression. (
  • Scientists at the IRCM discovered a mechanism that promotes the progression of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumour found in children. (
  • It is involved in tumor progression through extracellular matrix remodeling. (
  • there were only five patients with TMB-high neuroendocrine tumors, for example, and two patients with TMB-high thyroid cancers. (
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can have multiple localizations in the human body however, most often, it appears in the in thorax at tracheobronchial tree and the thymus. (
  • NETs are a group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy that evolve from neuroendocrine cells, with the lung being the second target organ after the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The main purpose of this review, was the analysis of the available literature in all aspects while mainly focusing on molecular diagnosis data and secondly, by using this molecular landscape to establish a differentiation of lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs). (
  • Lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs) are a group of rare tumors with heterogenous malignancy originating in amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) neuroendocrine cells from Kulchitsky cells (argentaffin cells) ( 1 ). (
  • The neuroendocrine cells from which neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) derive are located in numerous places in the human body ( 8 ). (
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous clinical entity with a broad range of grade, pace of disease, functional status, and primary sites. (
  • Of note, the term neuroendocrine tumor (NET) generally refers to well-differentiated disease, neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) refers to poorly differentiated disease, and NEN is an umbrella term inclusive of both. (
  • NET, neuroendocrine tumor. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) both incorporate mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferation for the classification of gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). (
  • [ 100 ] In its 2015 consensus statement on best practices for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) noted that tumor grading based on a combination of KI-67, mitotic rate, and necrosis may be of clinical importance but lacks validation. (
  • In 2012, the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (UKI NETS) released updated guidelines for the management of GEP-NETs. (
  • In 2013, the North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) concluded that while the criteria differ among the various classification systems, the underlying data are similar and pathology reports should include notation of the systems and parameters used to assign the grade and stage. (
  • Cai Y, Lu X, Zhu X, Ju H, Sun W, Wu W. Histological tumor response assessment in colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: impact of the variation in tumor regression grading and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the variation in tumor regression grade (TRG) and peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). (
  • Additionally, a 5-point histological tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system according to the extent of intralesional residual tumor cells and fibrosis was established to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy in colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) [ 7 ]. (
  • For recurrent tumors, surgery combined with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or targeted therapy can be used for control. (
  • chemotherapy prior to surgery for invasive cancer) and is widely used to provide improved surgical outcomes, recurrence free survival and overall survival in certain subtypes of breast cancer, with the additional potential benefit that reduced tumor volume during treatment may allow for more conservative surgery. (
  • MRI also plays an important role in the assessment of tumor burden when margins are positive at lumpectomy, when recurrent tumor is suspected, and when monitoring tumor response for the patient undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • Tumors such as non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and bladder tumor with high TMB often produce new antigens leading to enrichment of immune cells. (
  • found the activity of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, which has been called immunoreactive tumors [ 19 , 20 ]. (
  • It is a novel marker to forecast the benefit of the treatment of ICIs for a range of tumors, such as lung, endometrial, breast, and colorectal cancer 4-8 . (
  • Response rates were also higher for TMB-low tumors versus TMB-high tumors in mesothelioma, and hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer patients. (
  • In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR‑802 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells and tumor growth in nude mice, respectively. (
  • The research reveals a common pattern in the decision-making that allows cancer cells to both migrate and form new tumors. (
  • Researchers say the commonality may open the door to new drugs that interfere with the genetic switches that cancer must flip to form both cancer stem cells and circulating tumor cells -- two of the main players in cancer metastasis. (
  • Their studies focused on immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients living with HIV and cancer, T-cell receptor T-cell therapy for patients with solid tumors, and radiation boosts plus pembrolizumab in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. (
  • On this episode, we're highlighting speakers who presented data in skin cancer during the ESMO Congress 2022, including findings on tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy in advanced melanoma, cemiplimab in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and the association of circulating tumor DNA and disease recurrence in patients with later-stage melanoma. (
  • Earlier this year, Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) published data on more than 7000 cancer patients, across indications, who underwent TMB testing with the MSK-IMPACT test.1 Key findings highlight that while TMB-high cancers correlated with improved outcomes for multiple tumor types, the TMB cutoffs to predict this survival benefit varied significantly across indications, making a single pancancer TMB cutoff unlikely. (
  • Universal Screening for Lynch Syndrome: Can Tumor Sequencing Have a Larger Public Health Impact on Treatment and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer? (
  • These findings sparked the FDA approval of the first tumor-agnostic approvals for cancer therapy. (
  • Lignan transformation by gut bacteria lowers tumor burden in a gnotobiotic rat model of breast cancer. (
  • Likewise, hypoxic breast cancer cells showed higher propensity to increase expression of oncogenes and to decrease expression of tumor suppressor genes ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (
  • The first description of carcinoid tumors belongs to Siegfried Oberndorfer who considered these tumors to have a slow growth, being cancer-like tumors ( 2 ). (
  • Thus, VEGFR-signaling acts as a direct growth factor for tumor cells in CAC, providing a molecular link between inflammation and the development of colon cancer. (
  • Of the individuals in the study, 5,683 had self-harm incidents after cancer diagnosis, with highest rates among patients with brain tumors, followed by prostate cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and melanoma. (
  • Patients with depression had the highest risk of self-harm, with the cumulative burden per 100 individuals the highest with testicular cancer (98.05), cervical cancer (78.74), and Hodgkin lymphoma (69.87), at age 60. (
  • Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Predict Clinical Outcomes in Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer and Suppress Antitumor Immunity. (
  • The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that tumor differentiation, mitotic rate, and Ki-67 rate be included in the pathology report and that the specific classification and grading scheme be noted to avoid confusion. (
  • Certain kinds of exercise stimulated a specific immunological response that sent the body's natural killer immune cells directly into tumors to destroy them-a kind of "immunological spark" that ignites other cells in the immune system to fight cancer, according to the study's authors according to HealthDay News and the details in the study. (
  • These biochemical marker of breast cancer increase in conjunction w/advancing disease & reflect the total body burden of disease. (
  • Despite the enormous effort invested in cancer detection, prevention and therapy, an overall rise in this disease and population ageing can be expected to increase its burden. (
  • If some chemical in the blood that signals the presence of even a small tumor can be detected, the cancer can be treated sooner and has a better chance of being cured. (
  • In preclinical trials, Sirolimus (rapamycin) was shown effective in reducing tumors in mouse models of familial adenomatous polyposis and colon cancer with APC deficient tumors ( PMID: 18768809 , PMID: 20080688 ). (
  • Both courses used original teaching materials developed in 2021 during the ChildGICR Masterclass to introduce the childhood-specific features of the cancer burden, tumour classification and staging, and data collection, quality control, analysis, and use. (
  • Because childhood cancers account for a small proportion of the overall cancer burden and require a specific approach to data collection, processing, and reporting, the ChildGICR collaboration strives to stimulate national stakeholders to embrace this specific area of cancer surveillance. (
  • The provision of data on the global burden of cancer is one of the missions of the IARC Cancer Surveillance Branch . (
  • Traditional breast cancer treatment is determined by two major factors: tumor histology, assessed by classifications based on grade and morphology, and the TNM staging method, based on cancer size, nodal status, and presence or absence of distant metastases. (
  • 1 Breast MRI provides superior sensitivity and accuracy in determining the tumor burden in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer is known to be a heterogeneous disease with characteristic molecular and genetic subtypes, and although the traditional histologic classification of breast cancer offers limited prognostic value, molecular characterization, cellular markers, and imaging phenotypes of breast tumors, especially MRI, have changed the treatment landscape. (
  • This essential process occurs universally in solid tumors secondary to expansion of the cancer mass and subsequent growth away from the existing blood supply. (
  • No longer burdened by the constant feelings of guilt, fear, & depression I had from the thoughts of cancer returning. (
  • The burden of cancer has been on the increase over the past few decades. (
  • In the African Region, infections due to human papillomavirus and hepatitis B and C viruses significantly contribute to the burden of the top two cancers, namely cervical and liver cancer respectively. (
  • Merck and Eisai are studying the KEYTRUDA plus LENVIMA combination through the LEAP (LEnvatinib And Pembrolizumab) clinical program in more than 10 different tumor types across more than 20 clinical trials. (
  • Froelich, JW & Salavati, A 2020, ' Artificial intelligence in PET/CT is about to make whole-body tumor burden measurements a clinical reality ', Radiology , vol. 294, no. 2, pp. 453-454. (
  • The objective response to treatment was assessed by computed tomography (CT) scanning or other clinical measurement using modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). (
  • Network (NCCN) regularly publishes "Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Tumors" to summarize the latest treatment progress of bone tumors. (
  • Phase study of the tumor mutational burdenTtmb mutant IDH1 inhibitor ivosidenib: Safety and clinical activity in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. (
  • Radiology, Seoul National University Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their Tel. +82-2-2072-1862 tumor characteristics. (
  • It is one of the most common cancers worldwide [ 1 ], which seriously affects people's quality of life and increases the economic burden of society. (
  • 25% early stage lung cancers contain high tumor fraction. (
  • Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter, has recently emerged as a tumor growth factor for several human cancers through interaction with its receptors (5-HTR 1-7), which are widely expressed across a range of tissues [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The increased numbers of small cancers detected at mammography screening allow breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for many women, underscoring the importance of accurate assessment of tumor extent. (
  • Immune Biomarkers in the Peripheral Blood and Tumor Microenvironment of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients in Relation to Tumor Burden and Response to Treatment. (
  • Yet, they orchestrate a lymphocyte -dominated tumor microenvironment (TME) that supports their survival and growth . (
  • The researchers then tested their hypothesis that ibrutinib would reduce CART19-mediated CRS without impairing the anti-tumor efficacy of these cells. (
  • Synergistic anti-tumor effect of the combined treatment was assessed in PANC1, ASPC1 and PANC28 PDAC cell lines in vitro as well as on tumor spheroids and microtissues, by evaluating combination index (CI), apoptosis, clonogenic capability. (
  • For this family of compounds, immunosuppressive, anti-tumor, and antifungal bioactivities have been reported. (
  • Based on the understanding of the bladder tumor genome and immune environment, this study is supposed to provide new therapies for the treatment of bladder neoplasm. (
  • Differences in the immune profile were observed in patients with a high tumor burden and with high inflammation , respectively. (
  • The neurotransmitter, serotonin has emerged as a tumor growth factor and immune response regulator through complex signaling pathways. (
  • Participation of YIF1B in serotonin-induced tumor growth and immune regulation has not been previously investigated. (
  • A recent study compared the performance of tumor next-generation sequencing to the current multistep approach (using microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MMR proteins). (
  • An increasing number of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical in tumor cell proliferation, as they modulate key gene transcripts. (
  • Blockade of VEGF function via soluble decoy receptors suppressed tumor development, inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and blocked tumor cell proliferation. (
  • Studies in conditional STAT3 mutant mice showed that VEGFR signaling requires STAT3 to promote epithelial cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. (
  • Multiwalled carbon nanotube-induced lung tumors. (
  • The B6C3F1 mouse used in this study has intermediate susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis, and data obtained will have relevancy to existing human lung tumor data because lung tumors in this mouse strain exhibit many molecular and morphological similarities to human pulmonary tumors. (
  • Our preliminary data suggests that MWCNT exposure promotes the growth of spontaneously and chemically initiated lung cells, resulting in the development of lung tumors. (
  • in an inhalation study and only equivocal evidence of metabolism to SO is below the limit of detection in nearly all samples, and the most active sample of lung lung tumors in two of four chronic toxicity/oncogenicity was approximately 100-fold less active than mouse studies by gavage in mice (reviewed in Cruzan et al . (
  • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and solid tumour volume (up to 10 lesions per participant) were obtained from DW-MRI before and after NAC (including double-baseline for repeatability assessment in n = 19). (
  • Arrigoni et al described atypical carcinoids (AC) as a histological presentation of bronchial carcinoid tumors ( 6 ). (
  • In addition to the single pulmonary localizations there have been cases described of two or more carcinoid tumors or tumorlets of the lung, gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. (
  • Méthodologie: Entre septembre 2021 et février 2022, des écouvillonnages oropharyngés et/ou nasopharyngés de travailleurs symptomatiques COVID-19 et apparemment en bonne santé sélectionnés consécutivement du site minier de Wahgnion dans le sud-ouest du Burkina Faso qui ont consenti à l'étude ont été prélevés selon les deux programme de quart de semaines et testé pour le SRAS-CoV-2 à l'aide d'un test RT-PCR. (
  • Whole-lesion post-NAC ADC and pre/post-NAC ADC changes were compared with histological metrics (residual tumour/necrosis) for each tumour site (ovarian, omental, peritoneal, lymph node). (
  • Histological analysis also indicated that the CD8+ T cells appeared as early as 3 days following vaccination at the vaccine sites and at the tumor sites in both groups of mice. (
  • Systematic histological analyses for 2 weeks provided further insight into various infiltrates at the vaccine sites and at the tumor sites in response to the inoculation of GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine. (
  • Azzopardi introduced the term of oat cell carcinoma in 1959 after a study on 100 cases of pulmonary tumors ( 4 ). (
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoids are staged using the same system as for other pulmonary malignancies, and pancreatic NETS are staged the same as for exocrine pancreatic tumors. (
  • In the latest version of the guidelines released in November 2020, surgery is the main treatment for chondrosarcoma, chordoma, and giant cell tumor of bone, which can be combined with radiotherapy or targeted therapy. (
  • For example, although women with ER-negative or HER2-negative tumors do not respond Ultrasound in Medicine (KSUM) to endocrine or HER2-targeted therapy, respectively, women with ER-positive or HER2-positive tumors tend to show varying responses to each targeted treatment [1]. (
  • A trained algorithm determined tumour cell fraction, percentage tumour and percentage necrosis on histology. (
  • However, the therapeutic effects were less prominent in the mice inoculated with a large tumor load or in mice treated later. (
  • Assessment of TMB involves next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor samples using one of several available platforms and may also involve sequencing of normal patient tissue for germline variants. (
  • Cell free DNA (cfDNA) was extracted from plasma across four original tissue types by different tumor stages. (
  • Blood sample/s, urine and tumour tissue taken at the time of palliative metastasectomy/surgery. (
  • Epithelial cells in tumor tissue expressed VEGFR2 and responded to VEGF stimulation with augmented VEGFR2-mediated proliferation. (
  • The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body. (
  • Therefore, tumor immunological checkpoints have beneficial therapeutic effects [ 14 - 18 ]. (
  • In 2006 I was diagnosed with a brain tumor the size of a lemon. (
  • I never realized that I had all the warning signs of having a brain tumor (and worse, none of my doctors picked up on it either) until the it caused major complications after I delivered my first daughter. (
  • I've met many brain tumor survivors in support groups and our symptoms varied widely because the brain controls EVERYTHING and depending on where a tumor is located symptoms can vary widely. (
  • Afraid you might have a brain tumor? (
  • You might have a brain tumor if you have severe back pain (especially if you've already had MRIs of your back and you don't show anything that should be causing you back pain). (
  • You don't typically think of back pain as a symptom of a brain tumor, but brain is connected to your spine by the dura. (
  • Of all brain tumor survivors I've met, the most common symptom we all had in common was headaches. (
  • What to do if you think you have a brain tumor? (
  • Make an appointment with your family doctor, and ask for a pupillary check because you think you might have a brain tumor. (
  • When telling your doctor why you think you have a brain tumor, list ALL symptoms you experience even if they seem unrelated. (
  • I know brain tumor patients that have lost the ability to smell, memory loss and had changes in their personality. (
  • In all the years that I had a brain tumor, my eyes were examined regularly. (
  • A proper pupillary check could have helped me get a brain tumor diagnosis years (even a decade) sooner. (
  • Caring for the brain tumor patient: family caregiver burden and unmet needs. (
  • 2Department of Oncology, patient, and increasingly the molecular makeup of the tumor. (
  • With the development of high-throughput sequencing and tumor profiling, potential tumor biomarkers were identified. (
  • b ctDNA measured by tumor-specific variant copies/ml of plasma detectable vs. undetectable at first follow-up, p = 0.006* 1 . (
  • They then injected the mice with tumor-producing carcinogens… and wait until you see what happened! (
  • Injection of GM-CSF-secreting RL♂ 1 cells into syngeneic BALB/c mice elicited protective immunity in the animals, which could regress preestablished tumors introduced either by a subcutaneous or in an intravenous route. (
  • Nonetheless, upon stimulation in vitro, the activity of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) was comparable in the splenocytes of both groups of mice. (
  • At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for lung tumor formation. (
  • By contrast, 100% of the mice which received MC followed by MWCNTs had tumors with an average of 3.6 tumors per mouse. (
  • Additionally, mice exposed to MWCNTs or MC followed by MWCNTs had larger tumor volumes than their corresponding air-exposed control groups. (
  • They created a human xenograft of CRS by infusing CART19 cells into mice that had a high B-cell tumor burden. (
  • To test their hypothesis, the researchers administered either a combination of CART19 plus ibrutinib or CART19 alone to mice with a high tumor burden of MCL. (
  • 2001). No other tumor types were increased in these toxicity in mice and rats, including mouse lung tu- studies in mice. (
  • The exercising mice fought the tumors better, according to the study and Health Day News. (
  • The exercising mice had fewer tumors, and the tumors that they did develop were smaller and lighter, with fewer growth factors and less metastasis. (
  • The site of biopsies and type of biopsies will be personalized based on tumour location, tumour burden and other patient characteristics. (
  • A universal tumor sequencing test can identify LS patients as well as guide treatment of CRC patients who do not have LS. (
  • We are establishing large observational cohorts with an intentionally broad inclusion of different tumour types and treatment schedules. (
  • Combined types of LNETs remain a controversial topic of discussion regarding diagnosis and treatment, a topic on which further studies are required in order to improve diagnosis in this group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy. (
  • The guidelines provide a reference for the standard treatment of bone tumors. (
  • Identification of multifocal, multicentric, diffuse and contralateral tumors not only helps to guide treatment planning but also provides an independent negative prognostic indicator. (
  • Patients may experience persistent and progressive changes in cognition Behavior as a result of the tumor itself and tumor-related treatment, in addition to localized neurological problems weakness, visual impairment, language changes or acute delirium. (
  • Average and repeatability coefficient of total metabolic active tumour volume (TMATV) repeatability for different tracer uptake intervals, reconstruction settings, and lesion delineation methods, including the corresponding ICC. (
  • Of course, the more stringently you select the patients with very high PSMA uptake, low tumor volume, no FDG lesions, and no PSMA-negative lesions, the better they will respond compared with the controls, and you can have better response rates," Dr. Calais says. (
  • Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational asbestos exposure and HNSCC by primary tumour site. (
  • We review the literature on managing the adverse effects and kinetics of tumor regression with ipilimumab and provide guidelines on their management. (
  • An ample supply of pancreatic enzymes should be taken orally between meals to ease the body's metabolic burden and conserve its enzyme supplies. (
  • These rare tumors are usually asymptomatic and non‑functional with little information regarding incidence in the specialty literature. (
  • MRI also allows superior assessment of tumor size, volume and surface area measurements reflecting a more accurate characterization of overall tumor burden especially during NACT monitoring of tumor response. (
  • and (4) reduction in total tumor burden during or after the appearance of new lesion(s) after week 12. (
  • While treatments for high-grade brain tumors are improving, malignancies that start in the brain are frequently incurable. (
  • Above observations implied that the T cells in the animals bearing large tumors appeared to be in a state of suppression or anergy. (
  • ALCL was recognized in 1985, when tumor cells consistently demonstrated labeling by the monoclonal antibody Ki-1, a marker later shown to recognize the CD30 antigen. (
  • It arises in tissues when oxygen consumption by the cells outpaces supply, due to elevated oxygen demand in metabolically active cells and decreased oxygen transport to the center of the tumor because of inefficient vascularization. (
  • Adrenalin surge from exercising stimulates natural killer cells to scour and destroy tumors. (
  • When you exercise vigorously enough to get your heart really pumping, your body sends out more adrenalin-and it's that adrenalin surge, the researchers report, that stimulates natural killer cells to scour and destroy tumors. (