A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Proteins found in the microtubules.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
A ubiquitous phosphoprotein that serves as an intracellular substrate for a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PHOSPHORYLATION of stathmin occurs during CELL CYCLE progression, and stathmin functions as a microtubule-destabilizing protein that promotes MICROTUBULE depolymerization during INTERPHASE and late MITOSIS. Stathmin is expressed at very high levels in a variety of human CANCERS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (1/5514)

Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation.  (+info)

Mutations of oncoprotein 18/stathmin identify tubulin-directed regulatory activities distinct from tubulin association. (2/5514)

Oncoprotein 18/stathmin (Op18) is a recently identified phosphorylation-responsive regulator of the microtubule (MT) system. It was originally proposed that Op18 specifically regulates dynamic properties of MTs by associating with tubulin, but it has subsequently been proposed that Op18 acts simply by sequestering of tubulin heterodimers. We have dissected the mechanistic action of Op18 by generation of two distinct classes of mutants. One class has interruptions of the heptad repeats of a potential coiled-coil region of Op18, and the other involves substitution at all four phosphorylation sites with negatively charged Glu residues. Both types of mutation result in Op18 proteins with a limited decrease in tubulin complex formation. However, the MT-destabilizing activities of the coiled-coil mutants are more severely reduced in transfected leukemia cells than those of the Glu-substituted Op18 derivative, providing evidence for tubulin-directed regulatory activities distinct from tubulin complex formation. Analysis of Op18-mediated regulation of tubulin GTPase activity and taxol-promoted tubulin polymerization showed that while wild-type and Glu-substituted Op18 derivatives are active, the coiled-coil mutants are essentially inactive. This suggests that Op18-tubulin contact involves structural motifs that deliver a signal of regulatory importance to the MT system.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (3/5514)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

Arsenic targets tubulins to induce apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. (4/5514)

Arsenic exhibits a differential toxicity to cancer cells. At a high concentration (>5 microM), As2O3 causes acute necrosis in various cell lines. At a lower concentration (0.5-5 microm), it induces myeloid cell maturation and an arrest in metaphase, leading to apoptosis. As2O3-treated cells have features found with both tubulin-assembling enhancers (Taxol) and inhibitors (colchicine). Prior treatment of monomeric tubulin with As2O3 markedly inhibits GTP-induced polymerization and microtubule formation in vitro but does not destabilize GTP-induced tubulin polymers. Cross-inhibition experiments indicate that As2O3 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of GTP binding to tubulin. These observations correlate with the three-dimensional structure of beta-tubulin and suggest that the cross-linking of two vicinal cysteine residues (Cys-12 and Cys-213) by trivalent arsenic inactivates the GTP binding site. Furthermore, exogenous GTP can prevent As2O3-induced mitotic arrest.  (+info)

Identification of a domain in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 that interacts with a complex of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in photoreceptors. (5/5514)

The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase in rod photoreceptors is activated by guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP-1) at low free [Ca2+]. GCAP-1 is a Ca2+-binding protein and belongs to the superfamily of EF-hand proteins. We created an oligopeptide library of overlapping peptides that encompass the entire amino acid sequence of GCAP-1. Peptides were used in competitive screening assays to identify interaction regions in GCAP-1 that directly bind the guanylyl cyclase in bovine photoreceptor cells. We found four regions in GCAP-1 that participate in regulating guanylyl cyclase. A 15-amino acid peptide located adjacent to the second EF-hand motif (Phe73-Lys87) was identified as the main interaction domain. Inhibition of GCAP-1-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity by the peptide Phe73-Lys87 was completely relieved when an excess amount of GCAP-1 was added. An affinity column made from this peptide was able to bind a complex of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Using an anti-GCAP-1 antibody, we coimmunoprecipitated GCAP-1 with guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Complex formation between GCAP-1 and guanylyl cyclase was observed independent of [Ca2+]. Our experiments suggest that there exists a tight association of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in rod outer segments.  (+info)

Characterization of two related Drosophila gamma-tubulin complexes that differ in their ability to nucleate microtubules. (6/5514)

gamma-tubulin exists in two related complexes in Drosophila embryo extracts (Moritz, M., Y. Zheng, B.M. Alberts, and K. Oegema. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:1- 12). Here, we report the purification and characterization of both complexes that we name gamma-tubulin small complex (gammaTuSC; approximately 280,000 D) and Drosophila gammaTuRC ( approximately 2,200,000 D). In addition to gamma-tubulin, the gammaTuSC contains Dgrip84 and Dgrip91, two proteins homologous to the Spc97/98p protein family. The gammaTuSC is a structural subunit of the gammaTuRC, a larger complex containing about six additional polypeptides. Like the gammaTuRC isolated from Xenopus egg extracts (Zheng, Y., M.L. Wong, B. Alberts, and T. Mitchison. 1995. Nature. 378:578-583), the Drosophila gammaTuRC can nucleate microtubules in vitro and has an open ring structure with a diameter of 25 nm. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals a modular structure with approximately 13 radially arranged structural repeats. The gammaTuSC also nucleates microtubules, but much less efficiently than the gammaTuRC, suggesting that assembly into a larger complex enhances nucleating activity. Analysis of the nucleotide content of the gammaTuSC reveals that gamma-tubulin binds preferentially to GDP over GTP, rendering gamma-tubulin an unusual member of the tubulin superfamily.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a critical role in Drosophila spermatogenesis. (7/5514)

The Hsp90 chaperone protein maintains the activities of a remarkable variety of signal transducers, but its most critical functions in the context of the whole organism are unknown. Point mutations of Hsp83 (the Drosophila Hsp90 gene) obtained in two different screens are lethal as homozygotes. We report that eight transheterozygous mutant combinations produce viable adults. All exhibit the same developmental defects: sterile males and sterile or weakly fertile females. We also report that scratch, a previously identified male-sterile mutation, is an allele of Hsp82 with a P-element insertion in the intron that reduces expression. Thus, it is a simple reduction in Hsp90 function, rather than possible altered functions in the point mutants, that leads to male sterility. As shown by light and electron microscopy, all stages of spermatogenesis involving microtubule function are affected, from early mitotic divisions to later stages of sperm maturation, individualization, and motility. Aberrant microtubules are prominent in yeast cells carrying mutations in HSP82 (the yeast Hsp90 gene), confirming that Hsp90 function is connected to microtubule dynamics and that this connection is highly conserved. A small fraction of Hsp90 copurifies with taxol-stabilized microtubule proteins in Drosophila embryo extracts, but Hsp90 does not remain associated with microtubules through repeated temperature-induced assembly and disassembly reactions. If the spermatogenesis phenotypes are due to defects in microtubule dynamics, we suggest these are indirect, reflecting a role for Hsp90 in maintaining critical signal transduction pathways and microtubule effectors, rather than a direct role in the assembly and disassembly of microtubules themselves.  (+info)

Mechanisms of action of and resistance to antitubulin agents: microtubule dynamics, drug transport, and cell death. (8/5514)

PURPOSE: To analyze the available data concerning mechanisms of action of and mechanisms of resistance to the antitubulin agents, vinca alkaloids and taxanes, and more recently described compounds. DESIGN: We conducted a review of the literature on classic and recent antitubulin agents, focusing particularly on the relationships between antitubulin agents and their intracellular target, the soluble tubulin/microtubule complex. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although it is widely accepted that antitubulin agents block cell division by inhibition of the mitotic spindle, the mechanism of action of antitubulin agents on microtubules remains to be determined. The classic approach is that vinca alkaloids depolymerize microtubules, thereby increasing the soluble tubulin pool, whereas taxanes stabilize microtubules and increase the microtubular mass. More recent data suggest that both classes of agents have a similar mechanism of action, involving the inhibition of microtubule dynamics. These data suggest that vinca alkaloids and taxanes may act synergistically as antitumor agents and may be administered as combination chemotherapy in the clinic. However, enhanced myeloid and neurologic toxicity, as well as a strong dependence on the sequence of administration, presently exclude these combinations outside the context of clinical trials. Although the multidrug resistance phenotype mediated by Pgp appears to be an important mechanism of resistance to these agents, alterations of microtubule structure resulting in altered microtubule dynamics and/or altered binding of antitubulin agents may constitute a significant mechanism of drug resistance.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Microtubule-associated proteins and microtubule-based translocators have different binding sites on tubulin molecule. AU - Rodionov, V. I.. AU - Gyoeva, F. K.. AU - Kashina, A. S.. AU - Kuznetsov, S. A.. AU - Gelfand, V. I.. PY - 1990/4/25. Y1 - 1990/4/25. N2 - It has been previously shown that a class of microtubule proteins, the so-called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), binds to the C-terminal part of tubulin subunits. We show here that microtubules composed of tubulin whose 4-kDa C-terminal domain was cleaved by subtilisin (S-microtubules) are unable to bind MAPs but can still bind the anterograde translocator protein kinesin and the retrograde translocator dynein. Binding of both motors to S-microtubules, like their binding to normal microtubules, was ATP-dependent. In addition, direct competition experiments showed that binding sites for kinesin and MAPs on the microtubule surface lattice do not overlap. Furthermore, S-microtubules stimulated the ATPase activity of ...
The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel arrests cell division by binding to the hetero-dimeric protein tubulin. Subtle differences in tubulin sequences, across eukaryotes and among β-tubulin isotypes, can have profound impact on paclitaxel-tubulin binding. To capture the experimentally observed paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin, within a common theoretical framework, we have performed structural principal component analyses of β-tubulin sequences across eukaryotes. The paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin uniquely mapped on to the lowest two principal components, defining the paclitaxel-binding site residues of β-tubulin. The molecular mechanisms behind paclitaxel-resistance, mediated through key residues, were identified from structural consequences of characteristic mutations that confer paclitaxel-resistance. Specifically, Ala277 in βIII isotype was shown to be crucial for paclitaxel-resistance. The present analysis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement for the βI and βIV tubulin isotypes in mammalian cilia. AU - Jensen-Smith, Heather C.. AU - Ludueña, Richard F.. AU - Hallworth, Richard. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - [Nielsen et al., 2001: Curr Biol 11:529-533], based on studies in Drosophila, have proposed that β tubulin in axonemal microtubules must contain a specific acidic seven amino acid sequence in its carboxyl terminus. In mammals, the two βIV isotypes (βIVa and βIVb) contain that sequence. In order to test the application of this hypothesis to mammals, we have examined the expression of β tubulin isotypes in four different ciliated tissues (trachea, ependyma, uterine tube, and testis) using isotype-specific antibodies and indirect immunofluorescence. We find that βIV tubulin is present in all ciliated cell types examined, but so is β1 tubulin. Taken together with recent studies that show that β1 and βIV tubulin are both ...
The role of formins in microtubules is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which INF2, a formin mutated in degenerative renal and neurological hereditary disorders, controls microtubule acetylation. We found that silencing of INF2 in epithelial RPE-1 cells produced a dramatic drop in tubulin acetylation, increased the G-actin/F-actin ratio, and impaired myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, which is known to be repressed by increased levels of G-actin. The effect on tubulin acetylation was caused by the almost complete absence of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1) messenger RNA (mRNA). Activation of the MRTF-SRF transcriptional complex restored α-TAT1 mRNA levels and tubulin acetylation. Several functional MRTF-SRF-responsive elements were consistently identified in the α-TAT1 gene. The effect of INF2 silencing on microtubule acetylation was also observed in epithelial ECV304 cells, but not ...
The temporal relationship between tubulin expression and the assembly of the mitotic spindle microtubules has been investigated during the naturally synchronous cell cycle of the Physarum plasmodium. The cell cycle behavior of the tubulin isoforms was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo and by translation of RNA in vitro. alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1-, and beta 2-tubulin synthesis increases coordinately until metaphase, and then falls, with beta 2 falling more rapidly than beta 1. Nucleic acid hybridization demonstrated that alpha- and beta-tubulin RNAs accumulate coordinately during G2, peaking at metaphase. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that alpha-tubulin RNA increases with apparent exponential kinetics, peaking with an increase over the basal level of greater than 40-fold. After metaphase, tubulin RNA levels fall exponentially, with a short half-life (19 min). Electron microscopic analysis of the plasmodium showed that the accumulation of tubulin RNA begins
We have tested the functional capacity of different beta tubulin isoforms in vivo by expressing beta 3-tubulin either in place of or in addition to beta 2-tubulin in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The testes-specific isoform, beta 2, is conserved relative to major metazoan beta tubulins, while the developmentally regulated isoform, beta 3, is considerably divergent in sequence. beta 3-tubulin is normally expressed in discrete subsets of cells at specific times during development, but is not expressed in the male germ line. beta 2-Tubulin is normally expressed only in the postmitotic germ cells of the testis, and is required for all microtubule-based functions in these cells. The normal functions of beta 2-tubulin include assembly of meiotic spindles, axonemes, and at least two classes of cytoplasmic microtubules, including those associated with the differentiating mitochondrial derivatives. A hybrid gene was constructed in which 5 sequences from the beta 2 gene were joined to ...
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013 ...
Stu2p/XMAP215/Dis1 family proteins are evolutionarily conserved regulatory factors that use αβ-tubulin-interacting tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains to catalyze fast microtubule growth. Catalysis requires that these polymerases discriminate between unpolymerized and polymerized forms of αβ-tubulin, but the mechanism by which they do so has remained unclear. Here, we report the structure of the TOG1 domain from Stu2p bound to yeast αβ-tubulin. TOG1 binds αβ-tubulin in a way that excludes equivalent binding of a second TOG domain. Furthermore, TOG1 preferentially binds a curved conformation of αβ-tubulin that cannot be incorporated into microtubules, contacting α- and β-tubulin surfaces that do not participate in microtubule assembly. Conformation-selective interactions with αβ-tubulin explain how TOG-containing polymerases discriminate between unpolymerized and polymerized forms of αβ-tubulin and how they selectively recognize the growing end of the microtubule.. ...
Tubulin synthesis in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a markedly periodic event restricted to the late G2 period of the cell cycle. Mitosis in the plasmodium is intranuclear, and there are no cytoplasmic microtubules at any stage of the cell cycle. We have combined a biochemical investigation of the synthesis of the plasmodial tubulin isotypes and their participation in the mitotic spindle with a microscopic study (immunofluorescence) of the development of spindle microtubules throughout the cell cycle. We have shown that all four tubulin isotypes identified in the plasmodium (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2) are present in the mitotic spindle. The stoichiometry of isotype usage in the mitotic spindle generally reflects the overall abundance of isotypes in the plasmodium as a whole: beta 2 greater than alpha 1 greater than alpha 2 greater than beta 1. We have also shown that tubulins synthesized in the G2 period of one cell cycle can be incorporated into the spindles
The nucleotide sequence of a complete rat brain beta-tubulin T beta 15 has been determined from three overlapping cDNA clones. The overall length of the T beta 15 sequence is 1589 bp and shows between 84.5% and 88.6% homology within the coding region as compared with chick and human beta-tubulin sequences. On the other hand, the 3-non-coding region is highly divergent. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequences from different species demonstrates that the amino acid changes are not randomly distributed, but rather there are several conserved and two highly variable regions common to beta-tubulin polypeptides from various sources. The T beta 15 sequence encodes a dominant neuronal 1.8-kb beta-tubulin mRNA species. Two other minor beta-tubulin mRNA species of 2.6 and 2.9 kb are present in rat brain. By using two synthetic oligonucleotide probes complementary to the carboxyl-terminal divergent region and to the amino-terminal conserved region, we have shown that the three mRNAs are distinct species,
Although TUBB3 is a neuron‐specific isoform of β‐tubulin, only about 20% of total β‐tubulin in neuronal cells is TUBB3 (Joshi and Cleveland, 1989). TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) mutants induce neuronal diseases in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that only 10% of mutant tubulin can significantly induce neuronal phenotypes. How is this small amount of mutated TUBB3 able to strongly affect neurons? Because our assay used CMV and CAG promoters and unknown copy numbers of transfected vectors, we could not quantify the amount of tubulin incorporated into microtubules in our system. Nevertheless, we think our results give insights to this question. Microtubules are composed of α‐ and β‐tubulin dimers. The size of each tubulin dimer is 8 nm (Nogales et al, 1999). Our analysis showed that TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) were incorporated into microtubules in cells and could inhibit axonal transport (Supplementary Figure S1; Figure 8A). The inhibition of motor domain accumulation, axonal ...
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% identical to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. This gene is located in the 13q11 region, which is associated with the genetic diseases Clouston hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and Kabuki syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
During embryogenesis, the β3 tubulin gene of Drosophila is transcribed predominantly in the mesoderm. We have raised antibodies specific to the C-terminal domain of the β3 tubulin and analysed by immunostaining the distribution of this tubulin isotype during Drosophila embryogenesis. The protein is first detectable in the cephalic mesoderm at maximal germband extension. Shortly afterwards, β3 tubulin is expressed in single cells at identical positions of the thoracic and abdominal segments. We suggest that these cells represent muscle pioneer cells of Drosophila. During later embryonic development the somatic musculature, musculature, visceral musculature, dorsal vessel and macrophages contain β3 tubulin. In dorsalizing mutants dorsal, snail and twist, which do not form a ventral furrow during gastrulation, β3 expression is greatly reduced but not completely abolished. Our analysis shows that β3 tubulin immunostaining characterizes the differentiation of mesodermal derivatives during ...
The molecular mechanisms responsible for microtubule (MT) nucleation have not yet been identified in higher plants. Unlike other eukaryotic cells, no centrosome-like organelles are present to nucleate MT assembly. In animal cells, the centrosome functions as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and in fungi, the spindle pole body (SPB) plays this role. MT nucleation is initiated by γ-tubulin ring complexes, or γ-TuRCs ( Zheng et al., 1995), which are recruited from the cytoplasm to the MTOC and activated ( Schiebel, 2000). The smallest complex unit capable of MT nucleation, the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC), was identified in yeast ( Knop and Schiebel, 1997) and in Drosophila ( Oegema et al., 1999; Gunawardane et al., 2000). The γ-TuSC, which is thought to be a γ-TuRC precursor, contains γ-tubulin, known as a universal nucleator ( Oakley, 1992) and two additional proteins, spindle pole body components Spc98p and Spc97p or their homologues. These proteins are essential for the ...
Although most eukaryotic cells can express multiple isotypes of alphabeta-tubulin, the significance of this diversity has not always been apparent. Recent data indicate that particular alphabeta-tubulin isotypes, both genome encoded and those derived by post-translational modification, can directly influence microtubule structure and function--thus validating ideas originally proposed in the multitubulin hypothesis over 25 years ago. It has also become increasingly evident over the past year that some (but intriguingly not all) eukaryotes encode several other tubulin proteins, and to date five further members of the tubulin superfamily, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta and eta, have been identified. Although the role of gamma-tubulin in the nucleation of microtubule assembly is now well established, far less is known about the functions of delta-, epsilon-, zeta- and eta-tubulin. Recent work has expanded our knowledge of the functions and localisation of these newer members of the tubulin superfamily, and
In the accompanying paper (Gu, W., S. A. Lewis, and N. J. Cowan. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 106: 2011-2022), we report the generation of three antisera, each of which uniquely recognizes a different mammalian alpha-tubulin isotype, plus a fourth antibody that distinguishes between microtubules containing the tyrosinated and nontyrosinated form of the only known mammalian alpha-tubulin gene product that lacks an encoded carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. These sera, together with five sera we raised that distinguish among the known mammalian beta-tubulin isotypes, have been used to study patterns of tubulin isotype-specific expression in muscle and testis, two tissues in which characteristic developmental changes are accompanied by dramatic rearrangements in microtubule structures. As in the case of cells in culture, there is no evidence to suggest that there is subcellular sorting of different tubulin isotypes among different kinds of microtubule, even in a cell type (the developing spermatid) that ...
Tubulin protein derived from Porcine brain provides a good target for drug discovery. Highly pure protein provided in lyophilized format from Cytoskeleton, Inc.
Screening for Arabidopsis mutants that displayed twisted growth of elongating organs and abnormal growth responses to propyzamide resulted in a large collection of dominant-negative tubulin mutants. The data presented here provide some of the strongest evidence to date showing conserved residues of both α- and β-tubulins directly contribute to the stability and helical pattern of cortical microtubule arrays.. Incorporation of mutant tubulins into the microtubule polymer suggests that the structure and/or dynamics of cortical microtubules are altered in these mutants. Many of the affected amino acid residues are located at the longitudinal interface of the α- and β-tubulins within and between the αβ-heterodimer and at the lateral interface between two adjacent protofilaments, indicating that the mutations generally affect the protein-protein interactions but not the stability or the folding of tubulin monomers. Several mutated residues, such as P325 and T439 in α-tubulin and S95 and G96 in ...
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin are thought to fine‐tune MT functions in specific cells and tissues. Modifications that take place on the C‐terminal tails of tubulin are involved in the regulation of interactions between MTs and associated proteins (reviewed in: Janke & Bulinski, 2011). The three principal modifications found in these tail domains are detyrosination, (poly)glutamylation and (poly)glycylation. While first insights into the molecular mechanisms that are controlled by detyrosination (Peris et al, 2006, 2009; Bieling et al, 2008) and polyglutamylation (Kubo et al, 2010; Lacroix et al, 2010) have been obtained, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of glycylation.. In contrast to other tubulin modifications, glycylation has so far only been detected in motile cilia and flagella in different organisms (Bré et al, 1996). In line with this rather restricted occurrence of glycylation, only three modifying enzymes are expressed in mammals (Rogowski et al, 2009), ...
While the heterozygous Q43P β1-tubulin carriers have a reduced function, the β1-tubulin-deficient mice present with only minor abnormalities in platelet hemostatic functions. Besides the fact that human platelets are more easy to handle and study in detail than mouse platelets, this can probably be explained by the fact that the loss of β1-tubulin expression in mouse platelets was overcome by overexpression of the other platelet β-tubulin variants,7 while the Q43P carrier platelets not only show reduced β1-tubulin but also total β-tubulin protein levels. In addition, incorporation of GFP-tagged Q43P β1-tubulin into wild-type tubulin structures seems to be inefficient and delocalized.. Due to the platelet dysfunction phenotype, the Q43P β1-tubulin variant could not only be conceived as a genetic risk factor for the development of thrombocytopenia but also as a protective genetic factor against cardiovascular disease. Indeed, a case-control study showed that the prevalence of Q43P ...
Microtubules are filaments of the cytoskeleton. They typically form through the polymerization of α- and β-tubulin dimers elongating existing microtubules. The de novo formation of microtubules requires an initiation event called microtubule nucleation. Microtubule nucleation requires the action of a third type of tubulin, γ-tubulin, which is distinct from the α and β subunits which compose the microtubules themselves. The γ-tubulin combines with several other associated proteins to form a circular structure known as the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC). This complex acts as a scaffold for α/β tubulin dimers to begin polymerization. It also acts as a cap of the (−) end while microtubule growth continues towards the (+) direction. The γ-TuRC is typically found as the core functional unit in a microtubule organizing center (MTOC), such as the centrosome in animal cells or the spindle pole bodies in fungi and algae. However, the cells of higher plants for example lack distinct MTOCs and ...
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. This gene is located in the 13q11 region, which is associated with the genetic diseases Clouston hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and Kabuki syndrome. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene and two variants have been identified.[4] ...
Microtubule nucleation requires the γ-tubulin ring complex, and during the M-phase (mitosis) this complex accumulates at the centrosome to support mitotic spindle formation. The posttranslational modification of γ-tubulin through ubiquitination is vital for regulating microtubule nucleation and centrosome duplication. Blocking the BRCA1/BARD1-dependent ubiquitination of γ-tubulin causes centrosome amplification. In the current study, we identified BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) as a deubiquitination enzyme for γ-tubulin. BAP1 was downregulated in metastatic adenocarcinoma breast cell lines compared with noncancerous human breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, low expression of BAP1 was associated with reduced overall survival of patients with breast cancer. Reduced expression of BAP1 in breast cancer cell lines was associated with mitotic abnormalities. Importantly, rescue experiments including expression of full length but not the catalytic mutant of BAP1 reduced ubiquitination of γ-tubulin and
TY - JOUR. T1 - βPix-d promotes tubulin acetylation and neurite outgrowth through a PAK/Stathmin1 signaling pathway. AU - Kwon, Younghee. AU - Jeon, Ye Won. AU - Kwon, Minjae. AU - Cho, Yongcheol. AU - Park, Dongeun. AU - Shin, Jung Eun. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Microtubules are a major cytoskeletal component of neurites, and the regulation of microtubule stability is essential for neurite morphogenesis. βPix (ARHGEF7) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, which modulate the organization of actin filaments and microtubules. βPix is expressed as alternatively spliced variants, including the ubiquitous isoform βPix-a and the neuronal isoforms βPix-b and βPix-d, but the function of the neuronal isoforms remains unclear. Here, we reveal the novel role of βPix neuronal isoforms in regulating tubulin acetylation and neurite outgrowth. At DIV4, hippocampal neurons cultured from βPix neuronal isoform knockout (βPix-NIKO) mice exhibit defects in neurite ...
The function of microtubules depends on their arrangement into highly ordered arrays. Spatio-temporal control over the formation of new microtubules and regulation of their properties are central to the organization of these arrays. The nucleation of new microtubules requires γ-tubulin, an essential protein that assembles into multi-subunit complexes and is found in all eukaryotic organisms. However, the way in which γ-tubulin complexes are regulated and how this affects nucleation and, potentially, microtubule behavior, is poorly understood. γ-tubulin has been found in complexes of various sizes but several lines of evidence suggest that only large, ring-shaped complexes function as efficient microtubule nucleators. Human γ-tubulin ring complexes (γTuRCs) are composed of γ-tubulin and the γ-tubulin complex components (GCPs) 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, which are members of a conserved protein family. Recent work has identified additional unrelated γTuRC subunits, as well as a large number of more ...
MTs are cylindrical polymers 25 nanometers (nm = 10-9 meter) in diameter, comprised of 13 longitudinal protofilaments which are each chains of the protein tubulin (Figure 8). Each tubulin is a peanut-shaped dimer (8 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm) which consists of two slightly different monomers known as alpha and beta tubulin, (each 4 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm, weighing 55,000 daltons). Tubulin subunits within MTs are arranged in a hexagonal lattice which is slightly twisted, resulting in differing neighbor relationships among each subunit and its six nearest neighbors (Figure 9). Thus pathways along contiguous tubulins form helical pathways which repeat every 3, 5 and 8 rows (the Fibonacci series). Alpha tubulin monomers are more negatively charged than beta monomers, so each tubulin (and each MT as a whole) is a ferroelectric dipole with positive (beta monomer) and negative (alpha monomer) ends.[xxiii ...
Along the length of the conoid fibers, tubulin molecules are spaced 4 nm apart, just as in microtubules. It seems probable that conoid protofilaments exhibit parallel, as opposed to antiparallel, orientation (implying that the fiber as a whole is a polar structure) as has been observed in all naturally occurring tubulin polymers, but the signal-to-noise ratio in images of conoid fibers obtained to date is too low to confirm this supposition. However, the lack of circular symmetry in cross-section means that the lateral association of protofilaments in conoid fibers must be quite different from microtubules. The noncircular cross-sectional profile implies that the bonds between adjacent protofilaments are very different at one end of the comma compared to the other: adjacent protofilaments at the curved end must be rotated by ∼30° with respect to each other (similar to the 360/13 = 27.7 degrees in a canonical 13 protofilament microtubule), whereas adjacent protofilaments at the tail of the ...
Mlig034227.g3 {REF} {Length: 2733} {Pfam: Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain [PF00091.25, score=231.9]; Tubulin C-terminal domain [PF03953.17, score=146.9]; Misato Segment II tubulin-like domain [PF10644.9, score=25.7]} {Human: ENSG00000188229, TUBB4B, tubulin beta 4B class IVb, [RH, Score=920, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137285, TUBB2B, tubulin beta 2B class IIb, [RH, Score=908, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000104833, TUBB4A, tubulin beta 4A class IVa, [RH, Score=905, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000232575, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000196230, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000183311, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000227739, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000235067, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000229684, TUBB, tubulin beta class I, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ENSG00000137267, TUBB2A, tubulin beta 2A class IIa, [RH, Score=903, Expect=0.0]; ...
beta Tubulin antibody (tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX101279) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
beta Tubulin antibody (tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX112659) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of Tubulin from Brain. AU - Williams, Robley C.. AU - Lee, James C.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - This chapter presents procedure for preparation of tubulin from brain. Two methods for preparing tubulin is presented (a) purification by cycles of assembly and disassembly followed by chromatography on phospbocellulose (b) purification by the modified Weisenberg procedure, each of which yields several hundred milligrams of purified protein. The principal properties of the tubulin prepared by the two methods appear to be identical and a choice of one route or the other can be made on the basis of available apparatus or of the investigators familiarity with the manipulations involved. The tubulin that results from either preparation is substantially free of microtubule-associated proteins. The protein concentration of the solution is determined spectrophotometrically in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride at 275 nm with an absorptivity value of 1.03 ml/(mg cm). It is then ...
gamma tubulin Antibody 66320-1-Ig has been identified with ELISA, IF, IHC, WB. 66320-1-Ig detected 48-55 kDa band in NCCIT, HepG2, HSCT6, NIH/3T3 cell with 1:1000-1:8000 dilution...
HiLyte 647 labeled tubulin is used for studying microtubule dynamics in live cells. Offered at |99% purity and lyophilized format. Multiple sizes and bulk discounts available.
Rat anti Tubulin alpha antibody, clone YL1/2 recognizes the alpha subunit of tubulin, specifically binding tyrosylated Tubulin (Tyr-Tubulin) (Wehland
The cardinal role of microtubules in cell mitosis makes them interesting drug targets for many pharmacological treatments, including those against cancer. Moreover, different expression patterns between cell types for several tubulin isotypes represent a great opportunity to improve the selectivity and specificity of the employed drugs and to design novel compounds with higher activity only on cells of interest. In this context, tubulin isotype βIII represents an excellent target for anti-tumoral therapies since it is overexpressed in most cancer cells and correlated with drug resistance. Colchicine is a well-known antimitotic agent, which is able to bind the tubulin dimer and to halt the mitotic process. However, it shows high toxicity also on normal cells and it is not specific for isotype βIII. In this context, the search for colchicine derivatives is a matter of great importance in cancer research. In this study, homology modeling techniques, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics ...
购买gamma Tubulin兔多克隆抗体(ab50721),gamma Tubulin抗体经WB验证,3篇文献引用,1个独立用户反馈。产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
Background: The disordered Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein/p25 (TPPP/p25) modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule system. In this paper the role of dimerization in its microtubulerelated functions is established, and an approach is proposed to evaluate thermodynamic constants for multiple equilibrium systems from ITC measurements. Methods: For structural studies size exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE, chemical cross-linking, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used; the functional effect was analyzed by tubulin polymerization assay. Numerical simulation of the multiple equilibrium was performed with Mathematica software. Results: The dimerization of TPPP/p25 is promoted by elevation of the protein concentration and by GTP addition. The dimeric form displaying enhanced tubulin polymerization promoting activity is stabilized by disulfide bond or chemical cross-linking. The GTP binding to the dimeric form ...
alpha Tubulin / TUBA1A / TUBA3, 0.1 mg. Tubulin is one of the main components of the cytoskeleton. It is a heterodimeric structure consisting of interlocking alpha and beta chains.
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Taxol-stabilized GDP-microtubules were prepared by polymerizing 10 μl of 100 μM glycerol-free porcine tubulin (Cytoskeleton, Denver, CO) in 80 mM K-PIPES (pH 6.8), 1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 10% DMSO, and 1 mM GTP for 1 hour in a 37°C water bath. Taxol was added to 20 μM final concentration, and the reaction was incubated on the bench top for 1 to 2 hours. Microtubules were loaded onto a 60% glycerol cushion [BRB80, 60% (v/v) glycerol, and 20 μM Taxol] at 37°C by using a pipette tip with the tip cut off. Nonpolymerized tubulin was removed by centrifugation in a TLA100 rotor at 35,000 rpm for 15 min at 37°C. The pellet was gently resuspended to 2.5 μM tubulin in BRB80 supplemented with 20 μM Taxol and 1 mM GTP at 37°C by using a pipette tip with the tip cut off.. For GDP-microtubules, all polymerization and severing reactions were performed at 37°C. Twenty microliters of 100 μM glycerol-free porcine tubulin (Cytoskeleton) was polymerized in 10% DMSO, 1 mM GTP, and 10 mM MgCl2 for 1 hour ...
Microtubules (MTs) are essential structural components of cells. They are made up of polymers of protein subunits of α,β-tubulin and are highly dynamic, undergoing rapid phases of assembly and disassembly. The dynamic behavior of MTs is essential for their cellular activities.
alpha Tubulin小鼠单克隆抗体[4G1](ab28439)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Mouse monoclonal alpha Tubulin antibody [TU-01]. Validated in WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Cow, Dog, Human, Pig. Cited in 22 publication(s). Independently reviewed…
Mouse monoclonal alpha Tubulin antibody [4G1] validated for WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 3 publications…
Dimeric alpha-beta tubulin. Computer model showing the structure of the tight dimeric complex formed by alpha (green) and beta (blue) tubulin. The beta tubulin has a site binding docetaxel (red). Polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin make up microtubules, part of the cells cytoskeleton. - Stock Image C035/5590
Interfering with microtubule dynamics is a validated approach for anticancer treatment and by selectively targeting the colchicine binding site on tubulin, microtubule destabilizing agents can evade mechanisms of drug resistance that commonly develop with other antimitotic agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids. We have recently reported the discovery of a potent and metabolically stable tubulin inhibitor (DJ101) that specifically targets the colchicine binding site on the beta tubulin subunit, disrupts tubulin polymerization and effectively circumvents drug efflux pumps that decrease the efficacy of existing tubulin inhibitors. To further pre-clinically evaluate DJ101 as a novel tubulin inhibitor and confirm its mechanism of action, we first visually demonstrated the ability of DJ101 to disrupt microtubule dynamics and elucidated the changes in microtubule structure and cell morphology through immunofluorescence techniques. Furthermore, we solved the crystal structure of DJ101 in complex ...
The translocation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), its associated signaling complex, and the secretory apparatus is the most characteristic early event that involves the tubulin cytoskeleton of T or NK cells after their interaction with APC or target cells. Our results show that Fyn kinase activity is essential for MTOC reorientation in an Ag-dependent system. Moreover, T cells from Fyn-deficient mice are unable to rearrange their tubulin cytoskeleton in response to anti-CD3-coated beads. Analysis of conjugates of T cells from transgenic OT-I mice with dendritic cells revealed that an antagonist peptide induces translocation of the MTOC, and that this process is impaired in T cells from Fyn−/− OT-I mice. In addition, Fyn deficiency significantly affects the MTOC relocation mediated by agonist peptide stimulation. These results reveal Fyn to be a key regulator of tubulin cytoskeleton reorganization in T cells.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformational study of calf brain tubulin. AU - Lee, James C.. AU - Corfman, Debra. AU - Frigon, Ronald P.. AU - Timasheff, Serge N.. PY - 1978/1/15. Y1 - 1978/1/15. N2 - The conformation of calf brain tubulin has been monitored by circular dichroism, optical rotatory dispersion, and spectrophotometric titration as a function of pH, temperature, ligand concentrations, and denaturants. At pH 7, calf brain tubulin maintains its structural integrity between 5 and 37 °C as determined by circular dichroism. Furthermore, the presence of MgCl2 up to 1.6 × 10-2m does not induce any observable changes in the circular dichroism spectra, nor does 10-4m CaCl2. With increasing pH, the spectral data can best be described as a gradual loosening of the secondary structure between pH 7 and 9. Both spectral and titrimetric data suggest a major unfolding of tubulin between pH 9 and 10. The apparent pK of tyrosine shifts from 10.85 to 9.98 upon transferring from buffer to 6 m guanidine ...
The microtubules are intracellular dynamic polymers made up of evolutionarily conserved polymorphic alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimers and a large number of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The microtubules consist of 13 protofilaments and have an outer diameter 25 nm. Microtubules have their intrinsic polarity; highly dynamic plus ends and less dynamic minus ends. Microtubules are required for vital processes in eukaryotic cells including mitosis, meiosis, maintenance of cell shape and intracellular transport. Microtubules are also necessary for movement of cells by means of flagella and cilia. In mammalian tissue culture cells microtubules have their minus ends anchored in microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). The GTP (guanosintriphosphate) molecule is an essential for tubulin heterodimer to associate with other heterodimers to form microtubule. In vivo, microtubule dynamics vary considerably. Microtubule polymerization is reversible and a populations of microtubules in cells are on ...
Microtubules are biopolymers consisting of tubulin dimer subunits. As a major component of cytoskeleton they are essential for supporting most important cellular processes such as cell division, signaling, intracellular transport and cell locomotion. The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecules attached to each tubulin subunit supports the nonequilibrium nature of microtubule dynamics. One of the most spectacular properties of microtubules is their dynamic instability when their growth from continuous attachment of tubulin dimers stochastically alternates with periods of shrinking. Despite the critical importance of this process to all cellular activities, its mechanism remains not fully understood. We investigated theoretically microtubule dynamics at all times by analyzing explicitly temporal evolution of various length clusters of unhydrolyzed subunits. It is found that the dynamic behavior of microtubules depends strongly on initial conditions. Our theoretical findings provide a ...
The mechanism by which EML4 stabilizes microtubules in cells, either directly or indirectly, also remains enigmatic. However, EML4 shares many features with the ch-TOG (XMAP215) family of MAPs in that both proteins have separable domains for binding the microtubule lattice and soluble tubulin. ch-TOG acts as a processive microtubule polymerase by binding to the microtubule with a basic region and then using its multiple TOG domains to add soluble tubulin to the growing microtubule plus-ends (40, 41). However, although EML4 has a basic NTD that binds the microtubule polymer and a TAPE domain that binds soluble tubulin, there was no detectable concentration of EML4 at plus ends of microtubules where it could promote growth through acting as a microtubule polymerase. Similar to tau, EML4 is abundant in the nervous system, suggesting that it may have a major function in stabilizing the long microtubules present in neurons (11). At the molecular level, proteins of the tau family bind to more than one ...
The microtubules are intracellular dynamic polymers made up of evolutionarily conserved polymorphic alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimers and a large number of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The microtubules consist of 13 protofilaments and have an outer diameter 25 nm. Microtubules have their intrinsic polarity; highly dynamic plus ends and less dynamic minus ends. Microtubules are required for vital processes in eukaryotic cells including mitosis, meiosis, maintenance of cell shape and intracellular transport. Microtubules are also necessary for movement of cells by means of flagella and cilia. In mammalian tissue culture cells microtubules have their minus ends anchored in microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). The GTP (guanosintriphosphate) molecule is an essential for tubulin heterodimer to associate with other heterodimers to form microtubule. In vivo, microtubule dynamics vary considerably. Microtubule polymerization is reversible and a populations of microtubules in cells are on ...
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Here, we report that a centrosomal protein FOR20 [FOP (FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) oncogene protein)-like protein of molecular mass of 20 kDa; also named as C16orf63, FLJ31153 or PHSECRG2] can regulate the assembly and stability of microtubules. Both FOR20 IgG antibody and GST (glutathione S-transferase)-tagged FOR20 could precipitate tubulin from the HeLa cell extract, indicating a possible interaction between FOR20 and tubulin. FOR20 was also detected in goat brain tissue extract and it cycled with microtubule-associated proteins. Furthermore, FOR20 bound to purified tubulin and inhibited the assembly of tubulin in vitro. The overexpression of FOR20 depolymerized interphase microtubules and the depletion of FOR20 prevented nocodazole-induced depolymerization of microtubules in HeLa cells. In addition, the depletion of FOR20 suppressed the dynamics of individual microtubules in live HeLa cells. FOR20-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells displayed zigzag motion and migrated at a slower rate ...
BioAssay record AID 214727 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for the inhibition of binding of 5 uM [3H]-colchicine to purified tubulin at 37 degree Centigrade.
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 3dco: Drosophila Nod (3DC4) and Bovine Tubulin (1JFF) Docked Into The 11-Angstrom Cryo-Em Map of Nucleotide-Free Nod Complexed to the Microtubule
4AQV: Model of human kinesin-5 motor domain (3HQD) and mammalian tubulin heterodimer (1JFF) docked into the 9.7-angstrom cryo-EM map of microtubule-bound kinesin-5 motor domain in the AMPPPNP state.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD-mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria ...
Tubulin alpha 1A chain antibody for detecting human tubulin alpha-1A chain. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
The taccalonolides are highly acetylated steroids that stabilize cellular microtubules and overcome multiple mechanisms of taxane resistance. Recently, two potent taccalonolides, AF and AJ, were identified that bind to tubulin directly and enhance microtubule polymerization. Extensive studies were conducted to characterize these new taccalonolides. AF and AJ caused aberrant mitotic spindles and bundling of interphase microtubules that differed from the effects of either paclitaxel or laulimalide. AJ also distinctly affected microtubule polymerization in that it enhanced the rate and extent of polymerization in the absence of any noticeable effect on microtubule nucleation. In addition, the resulting microtubules were found to be profoundly cold stable. These data, along with studies showing synergistic antiproliferative effects between AJ and either paclitaxel or laulimalide, suggest a distinct binding site. Direct binding studies demonstrated that AJ could not be displaced from microtubules by ...
Constructing a eukaryotic cilium/flagellum is a demanding task requiring the transport of proteins from their cytoplasmic synthesis site into a spatially and environmentally distinct cellular compartment. The clear potential hazard is that import of aberrant proteins could seriously disable cilia/flagella assembly or turnover processes. Here, we reveal that tubulin protein destined for incorporation into axonemal microtubules interacts with a tubulin cofactor C (TBCC) domain-containing protein that is specifically located at the mature basal body transitional fibres. RNA interference-mediated ablation of this protein results in axonemal microtubule defects but no effect on other microtubule populations within the cell. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that this protein belongs to a clade of flagellum-specific TBCC-like proteins that includes the human protein, XRP2, mutations which lead to certain forms of the hereditary eye disease retinitis pigmentosa. Taken with other observations regarding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participation of guanine nucleotides in nucleation and elongation steps of microtubule assembly.. AU - Karr, T. L.. AU - Podrasky, A. E.. AU - Purich, D. L.. PY - 1979/11. Y1 - 1979/11. N2 - Critical concentrations for formation of microtubules from subunits with GTP and its beta, gamma-imido and beta, gamma-methylene analogs are similar when adequate time is given for equilibration. Dilution of microtubules into GTP and GDP yielded values of 0.1 and 0.19 mg/ml for the critical concentration, results similar to those reported by Carlier and Pantaloni [Carlier, M. & Pantaloni, D. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 1908-1915]. GDP is capable of supporting elongation of preformed microtubules, but it efficiently poisons the nucleation events. Reported experiments also demonstrate that the critical tubulin concentration of the tubulin-GDP complex can be accurately measured in both the assembly and disassembly directions. Evidence is presented that GTP is involved in early nucleation events but ...
A study of the interaction of colchicine and purified rat brain microtubule protein is presented. Experimental data agree with a theory derived to describe the system. Protein stabilized with 0.1 mM vinblastine and 1 mM GTP lost the ability to bind colchicine in a first-order reaction, with a rate constant of 1.1 ± 0.1 x 10-5 sec -1. The colchicine-microtubule protein complex appeared to be stable. The rate constant for the second-order association of colchicine and microtubule protein is 128.7 ± 6.5 M-1 sec-1, while the rate constant for dissociation is 8.1 ± 0.8 x 10-6 sec-1. The dissociation constant calculated from these two numbers is 6.3 x 10-8 M. By using other ligands to perturb the interaction between colchicine and microtubule protein, the affinities of these ligands for microtubule protein could be measured. The methods developed are applicable in general for ligands of microtubule protein. Podophyllotoxin binds firmly to microtubule protein (Kd = 0.28 ± 0.06 µM), while ...
ABT-751 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) is an orally bioavailable sulfonamide that binds to the colchicine binding site on β-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of microtubules (1, 2). ABT-751 had antitumor activity in a panel of 30 tumor cell lines in vitro including cell lines resistant to Vinca alkaloids and taxanes due to P-glycoprotein overexpression (3). In pediatric solid tumor cell lines, the ABT-751 IC50 was ,3 μmol/L in neuroblastoma cell lines and ,6 μmol/L in other pediatric solid tumor cell lines (4). ABT-751 was active as a single agent in xenograft models of human tumors including gastric, colorectal, lung, and breast cancer models (3), and in combination, ABT-751 enhanced the efficacy of radiation, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (5). In childhood cancer murine models, ABT-751 resulted in the regression of rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms tumor models and prolonged time to tumor progression in neuroblastoma xenografts (6).. In adults with refractory solid tumors, a dose ...
Diva (death inducer binding to vBcl-2 and Apaf-1) is a Bcl-2 family member, and has been reported to play roles in apoptosis and oocyte maturation. Diva has also been shown to interact with Nm23-H2/NDPK B, which is involved in cellular differentiation. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the function and possible mechanisms for Diva in cellular differentiation in the brain. In the present study, in PC-12 cells, Diva expression was decreased after differentiation and reciprocally, NDPK B expression was increased and it translocated into the nucleus. Endogenous Diva was also shown to interact with both ß-tubulin and NDPK B. Overexpression of Diva in PC-12 cells did not change the expression level of NDPK B, but inhibited its nuclear localization. Diva-overexpressing cells had a decreased percentage of differentiated cells and average neurite length was shortened. This was due to the formation of more Diva/NDPK B and Diva/ß-tubulin complexes, at the expense of NDPK B/ß-tubulin complexes. ...
5 September 2013 14:00 in CM101. Microtubule assembly and disassembly is vital for many fundamental cellular processes. Our current understanding of microtubule assembly kinetics is based on a one-dimensional assembly model, which assumes that each protofilament of a microtubule behaves independently. In this model, the subunit disassociation rate from a microtubule tip is independent of free subunit concentration. Using Total-Internal-Reflection-Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and a laser tweezers assay to measure in vitro microtubule assembly with nanometer resolution accuracy, we now find that the subunit dissociation rate from a microtubule tip increases at higher free subunit concentrations. This is because there is a shift in microtubule tip structure from relatively blunt at low free concentrations to relatively tapered at high free concentrations, which we confirmed experimentally by TIRF microscopy. Because both the association and the dissociation rates increase at higher free subunit ...
The common theme of our labs research is the function of microtubules in directed cell motility. Mostmicrotubules in proliferating cells are highly dynamic, that is, assembly of microtubulesfrom tubulin subunits and disassembly of microtubule polymers into subunits, occurs within a matter of minutes. However, differentiating and migrating cells in culture or within vertebrate organisms selectively stabilize a subset of microtubules.For example, migratingfibroblasts use the polarization of stabilized microtubules as a determinants of persistent motility in that direction.. Meanwhile, since several cytoplasmic enzymes are capable of post-translationally modifying the tubulin subunits found within microtubule polymers. These post-translational modifications confer one or more chemical marks along the length of microtubules in the stable subpopulation. The selective stabilization of microtubules that face the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts has been studied rather extensively; our work has ...
Lexibulin, also known as CYT997, is a n orally bioavailable small-molecule with tubulin-inhibiting, vascular-disrupting, and potential antineoplastic activities. Lexibulin inhibits tubulin polymerization in tumor blood vessel endothelial cells and tumor cells, blocking the formation of the mitotic spindle and leading to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; this may result in disruption of the tumor vasculature and tumor blood flow, and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
EMLs are a highly conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins that play a role in microtubule stability. In humans there are six EMLs. EML1, EML2, EML3 and EML4 consist of a largely unstructured basic N-terminal domain (NTD) that contains a short coiled-coil mediating trimerisation, and a highly structured C-terminal domain (CTD) named the TAPE domain. Microtubule binding is conferred through the NTD whilst the TAPE domain binds to soluble tubulin dimers. EML5 and EML6 lack the N-terminal region but have three continuous TAPE domains encoded within a single polypeptide. Previous proteomic studies had identified EML3 as a binding partner of Nek6, a serine/threonine kinase that promotes mitotic spindle assembly. In this study, we have explored the microtubule binding properties of EML3 and its regulation by Nek6. Using a stable cell line expressing YFP-EML3, fixed and time lapse imaging revealed that EML3 associates along the length of microtubules and exhibits rapid recovery following ...
Read Two β-tubulin genes, TUB1 and TUB8, of Arabidopsis exhibit largely nonoverlapping patterns of expression, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Axonal transport is responsible for supplying the axonal processes with proteins that are synthesized in the cell body. Among the proteins that are moved by this mechanism are tubulin and actin, two major components of the cytoskeleton. Observation of the movement of metabolically labeled tubulin an …
Microtubule assembly dynamics: an attractive target for anticancer drugs.: Microtubules, composed of alphabeta tubulin dimers, are dynamic polymers of eukaryoti
We constructed complexes between isolated chromosomes and microtubules made from purified tubulin to study the movement of chromosomes towards the minus end of microtubules in vitro, a process analogous to the movement of chromosomes towards the pole of the spindle at anaphase of mitosis. Our results show that the energy for this movement is derived solely from microtubule depolymerization, and indicate that anaphase movement of chromosomes is both powered and regulated by microtubule depolymerization at the kinetochore ...
Activation by Microtubule-Promoting Cosolvents. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. February 3, Letters to Editor: Wheat is typically tetraploid and rye diploid, with their triploid hybrid infertile; treatment of triploid triticale with colchicine gives fertile hexaploid triticale.. Biochemical Pharmacology 78 9 A fluorescence stopped flow study of colchicine binding to tubulin. Soft Matter 7 24 Microtubules are long polymers made of smaller units monomers of the protein tubulin. Symptoms of toxicity include gastrointestinal upset, fever, muscle painlow blood cell countsand organ failure.. More:. ...
BioAssay record AID 332145 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of cellular microtubule disrupting activity in rat A10 cells at 1 ug/ml after 24 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence technique.
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The primary structure of porcine brain beta-tubulin was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of six sets of overlapping peptides. The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta-tubulins in porcine brain. Comparison of the optimally aligned sequences of alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin indicates that 41% of their primary structures are identical. A region rich in glycyl residues is similar both in sequence and predicted secondary structure to the phosphate binding loop of several nucleotide binding enzymes. beta-Tubulin contains a highly acidic COOH-terminal region that resembles the NH2-terminus of troponin T.. ...
Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex ...
The requirement for TLR signaling in the initiation of an Ag-specific Ab response is controversial. In this report we show that a novel OVA-expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine (Salmonella-OVA) elicits a Th1-biased cell-mediated and serum Ab response upon oral or i.p. immunization of C57BL/6 mice. In MyD88−/− mice, Th1-dependent Ab responses are greatly reduced while Th2-dependent Ab isotypes are elevated in response to oral and i.p., but not s.c. footpad, immunization. When the T effector response to oral vaccination is examined we find that activated, adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4+ T cells accumulate in the draining lymph nodes, but fail to produce IFN-γ, in MyD88−/− mice. Moreover, CD1d tetramer staining shows that invariant NKT cells are activated in response to oral Salmonella-OVA vaccination in wild-type, but not MyD88−/−, mice. Treatment with neutralizing Ab to CD1d reduces the OVA-specific Ab response only in MyD88-sufficient wild-type mice, suggesting that ...
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignant disorder. AML cells are not susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs because of their multidrug resistance (MDR). Antitubulin agents are...
Rudiger, M., Wehland, J., Weber, K. (1994). „The carboxy-terminal peptide of detyrosinated α tubulin provides a minimal system to study the substrate specificity of tubulin-tyrosine ligase. Eur. J. Biochem. 220: 309-320. PMID 7510228 ...
transducin/WD40 domain-containing protein; Regulates microtubules organization in a centrosome- independent manner. Required for the spindle to be positioned correctly and for the function of gamma-tubulin in organizing phragmoplast microtubules (PubMed-19383896). Component of active gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) associated with cortical microtubules in interphase cells (PubMed-25438942). Mediates gamma-TuRC recruitment to the nucleation sites and is important for determining the ratio of branched to parallel nucleation (PubMed-25438942). May mediate the localization of GC [...] (782 aa ...
Microtubule structures in GFP-MNB/DYRK1A-overexpressing cells. HeLa cells were transfected with constructs encoding GFP or GFP-MNB/DYRK1A. After incubation for
... of delta2 tubulin". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (48): 46140-46144. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208065200. PMID 12356754. ... Polyglycylation is a form of posttranslational modification of glutamate residues of the carboxyl-terminal region tubulin in ... Banerjee Asok (2002). "Coordination of posttranslational modifications of bovine brain alpha-tubulin. ... "Polyglycylation of tubulin: a posttranslational modification in axonemal microtubules". Science. 266 (5191): 1688-1691. doi: ...
ATP hydrolysis is stimulated at a low tubulin/At-p60 ratio and inhibited at higher ratios. The low ratios favor the katanin ... The predicted conformational change also likely decreases the affinity of katanin for tubulin as well as for other katanin ... During cell division, severing at the spindle pole produces free microtubule ends and allows poleward flux of tubulin and ... An experiment using time-lapse digital imaging of fluorescently labeled tubulin demonstrated that axon growth cones pause, and ...
Wells, W. A. (2005). "The discovery of tubulin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 169 (4): 552. doi:10.1083/jcb1694fta1. PMC ... characterizing tubulin and its role in cell division. He then did a postdoc at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of ...
Microtubules are an important cellular structure composed of two proteins; α-tubulin and β-tubulin. They are hollow rod shaped ... They bind to specific sites on tubulin, inhibiting the assembly of tubulin into microtubules. The original vinca alkaloids are ... Mutations in genes that produce drug target proteins, such as tubulin, can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the ... They bind to the tubulin molecules in S-phase and prevent proper microtubule formation required for M-phase. Taxanes are ...
The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein. ... Tubulin epsilon chain Eddé, B.; Rossier; Le Caer; Desbruyères; Gros; Denoulet (1990). "Posttranslational glutamylation of alpha ... tubulin". Science. 247 (4938): 83-85. Bibcode:1990Sci...247...83E. doi:10.1126/science.1967194. PMID 1967194. Atypical ...
See tubulin polyglutamylase) polyglycylation, covalent linkage of one to more than 40 glycine residues to the tubulin C- ... covalent linkage of glutamic acid residues to the N-terminus of tubulin and some other proteins. ( ... "Posttranslational glutamylation of alpha-tubulin". Science. 247 (4938): 83-5. Bibcode:1990Sci...247...83E. doi:10.1126/science. ...
In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cell structure composed mainly of a protein called tubulin that is found in most ... "Posttranslational glutamylation of alpha-tubulin". Science. 247 (4938): 83-5. Bibcode:1990Sci...247...83E. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Tubulin, gamma 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the TUBG1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the tubulin ... "A direct interaction with NEDD1 regulates gamma-tubulin recruitment to the centrosome". PLoS One. 5 (3): e9618. doi:10.1371/ ... Tubulin, gamma 1". Zhang X, Chen Q, Feng J, Hou J, Yang F, Liu J, Jiang Q, Zhang C (July 2009). "Sequential phosphorylation of ... gamma-tubulin in atypical ductal hyperplasia and carcinoma of the breast". Cancer Science. 100 (4): 580-7. doi:10.1111/j.1349- ...
Lowe, J; Li, H; Downing, KH; Nogales, E (2001). "Refined structure of $alpha;$beta;-tubulin at 3.5 p resolution1". Journal of ... Unlike other tubulin-targeting drugs such as colchicine that inhibit microtubule assembly, paclitaxel stabilizes the ... Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin. Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle ... Paclitaxel binds to beta-tubulin subunits of microtubules. From 1967 to 1993, almost all paclitaxel produced was derived from ...
For instance, their capacity to incorporate γ-TuRC complexes (see also: γ-tubulin) can be very variable, and so their capacity ... The PCM contains proteins responsible for microtubule nucleation and anchoring including γ-tubulin, pericentrin and ninein. In ... "Posttranslational glutamylation of alpha-tubulin". Science. 247 (4938): 83-85. Bibcode:1990Sci...247...83E. doi:10.1126/science ...
Chang P, Stearns T (January 2000). "Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin: two new human centrosomal tubulins reveal new aspects of ... Tubulin, epsilon 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the TUBE1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the tubulin ... Tubulin, epsilon 1". Chang P, Giddings TH, Winey M, Stearns T (January 2003). "Epsilon-tubulin is required for centriole ... "EB1 recognizes the nucleotide state of tubulin in the microtubule lattice". PLoS One. 4 (10): e7585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
"Entrez Gene: TUBB tubulin, beta". Goo YH, Sohn YC, Kim DH, Kim SW, Kang MJ, Jung DJ, Kwak E, Barlev NA, Berger SL, Chow VT, ... Tubulin beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB gene. TUBB has been shown to interact with NCOA6 and SYT9 ... Volz A, Weiss E, Trowsdale J, Ziegler A (Jan 1994). "Presence of an expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) in the HLA class I ... Lee MG, Lewis SA, Wilde CD, Cowan NJ (Jun 1983). "Evolutionary history of a multigene family: an expressed human beta-tubulin ...
Chang P, Stearns T (January 2000). "Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin: two new human centrosomal tubulins reveal new aspects of ... Tubulin, delta 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the TUBD1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000108423 - ... Kato A, Nagata Y, Todokoro K (May 2004). "Delta-tubulin is a component of intercellular bridges and both the early and mature ... Tubulin, delta 1". Krebs DL, Uren RT, Metcalf D, Rakar S, Zhang JG, Starr R, De Souza DP, Hanzinikolas K, Eyles J, Connolly LM ...
This gene encodes a tubulin gene. The pathophysiology of this condition has yet to be determined. There are a number of ...
Tau tubulin kinase 2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the TTBK2 gene. This gene encodes a serine-threonine kinase that ... Tau tubulin kinase 2". Retrieved 2012-06-11. Houlden H, Johnson J, Gardner-Thorpe C, Lashley T, Hernandez D, Worth P, Singleton ... purification and crystallization of a human tau-tubulin kinase 2 that phosphorylates tau protein". Acta Crystallographica ... putatively phosphorylates tau and tubulin proteins. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11); a ...
Tubulin gamma-2 chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBG2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000037042 - ... Wise DO, Krahe R, Oakley BR (2000). "The gamma-tubulin gene family in humans". Genomics. 67 (2): 164-70. doi:10.1006/geno. ... TUBG2 tubulin, gamma 2". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of ... "Characterization of the human homologue of the yeast spc98p and its association with gamma-tubulin". J. Cell Biol. 141 (3): 689 ...
... is a gene that codes for the protein Tubulin beta-1 chain in humans. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101162 - ... Giacca M (2006). "HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?". Retrovirology. 2: 7. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-7. ... 2006). "No significant role for beta tubulin mutations and mismatch repair defects in ovarian cancer resistance to paclitaxel/ ... 2007). "The association of the beta1-tubulin Q43P polymorphism with intracerebral hemorrhage in men". Haematologica. 92 (4): ...
Tubulin alpha-1C chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167553 ... "Entrez Gene: TUBA1C tubulin, alpha 1c". Dawson SJ, White LA (1992). "Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ... Giacca M (2006). "HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?". Retrovirology. 2: 7. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-7. ...
Tubulin alpha-8 chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA8 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183785 - ... "Entrez Gene: TUBA8 tubulin, alpha 8". "GeneCards: TUBA8 gene". Alexandrova N, Niklinski J, Bliskovsky V, et al. (1995). "The N- ... 2001). "SIAH-1 interacts with alpha-tubulin and degrades the kinesin Kid by the proteasome pathway during mitosis". Oncogene. ... Giacca M (2006). "HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?". Retrovirology. 2: 7. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-7. ...
GTP binds to alpha tubulin irreversibly. Beta tubulin binds GTP and hydrolyzes to GDP. It is the GDP bound to beta-tubulin that ... Microtubules are polymer of tubulin subunits arranged in cylindrical tube. The subunit is made up of alpha and beta tubulin. ... Beta-tubulin bounded to GTP are describe as having a GTP-cap that enables stable growth. Microtubules exist either as either ... Some catastrophins affect catastrophe by binding to the ends of microtubule and promoting the dissociation of tubulin dimers. ...
Carr D, Knull H (1993). "Aldolase-tubulin interactions: removal of tubulin C-terminals impairs interactions". Biochem. Biophys ... Tubulin beta-2A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137267 - ... Volz A, Weiss E, Trowsdale J, Ziegler A (1994). "Presence of an expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) in the HLA class I region ... "Entrez Gene: TUBB2A tubulin, beta 2A". Dawson SJ, White LA (1992). "Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ...
Tubulin, by Keskin et al., 2002. - HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexed with different inhibitors, by Temiz and Bahar, 2002 ...
Tubulin detyrosination is reversed by the tubulin-tyrosine ligase, which acts only on alpha-tubulin monomer. Since the majority ... Tubulin polymers, called microtubules, that contain detyrosinated alpha-tubulin are usually referred to as Glu-microtubules ... The tubulin carboxypeptidases that cleave the terminal tyrosine are two proteases called vashohibins (VASH1/VASH2), in complex ... Detyrosination is a form of posttranslational modification that occurs on alpha-tubulin. It consists of the removal of the C- ...
They are composed mainly of tubulin. These are entirely distinct from prokaryotic flagellae. They are supported by a bundle of ...
The γ-tubulin combines with several other associated proteins to form a conical structure known as the γ-tubulin ring complex ( ... The primary pathway by which microtubule nucleation is assisted requires the action of a third type of tubulin, γ-tubulin, ... The tubulin dimers that make up the polymers have an intrinsic capacity to self-aggregate and assemble into cylindrical tubes, ... NEDD1 recruits the γ-TuRC to the centrosome by binding to γ-tubulin. Job, D; O. Valiron; B. Oakley (2003). "Microtubule ...
... an enzyme involved in the tyrosination cycle of the C-terminal of tubulin, and inhibit TTL activity in cancer cells. Field ... "Sesterterpenes as tubulin tyrosine ligase inhibitors. First insight of structure-activity relationships and discovery of new ... some of them with interesting biological activity due to their interaction with tubulin-tyrosine ligase (TTL), ...
Alim MA, Hossain MS, Arima K, Takeda K, Izumiyama Y, Nakamura M, Kaji H, Shinoda T, Hisanaga S, Ueda K (Jan 2002). "Tubulin ... It has been shown that alpha-synuclein significantly interacts with tubulin, and that alpha-synuclein may have activity as a ...
The plasmid homologs of tubulin/FtsZ seem to have conserved the ability to polymerize into filaments. FtsZ has the ability to ... Erickson (2009) proposed how the roles of tubulin-like proteins and actin-like proteins in cell division became reversed in an ... van den Ent F, Amos L, Löwe J (December 2001). "Bacterial ancestry of actin and tubulin". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 4 (6 ... Much is known about the dynamic polymerization activities of tubulin and microtubules, but little is known about these ...
Plasmid Bacteria FtsZ Tubulin Hayes, F; Barillà, D (Feb 2006). "The bacterial segrosome: a dynamic nucleoprotein machine for ... Margolin, W (Aug 2007). "Bacterial cytoskeleton: not your run-of-the-mill tubulin". Curr. Biol. 17 (16): R633. doi:10.1016/j. ... Anand, SP; Akhtar, P; Tinsley, E; Watkins, SC; Khan, SA (Feb 2008). "GTP-dependent polymerization of the tubulin-like RepX ... Recently segrosomal complexes derived from the tubulin family of cytoskeletal proteins, which are GTPases have been discovered ...
Tubulin/microtubule-targeted pharmacology for atherosclerosis. Concept of the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF as metabotrophic ...
Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the ... Takeoka A, Shimizu M, Horio T (Dec 2000). "Identification of an alpha-tubulin mutant of fission yeast from gamma-tubulin- ... Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA3C gene.[3][4] ... "Entrez Gene: TUBA3C tubulin, alpha 3c".. *^ Klein C, Kramer EM, Cardine AM, Schraven B, Brandt R, Trotter J (Feb 2002). " ...
Conserved Protein Domain Family Tubulin, This family includes the tubulin alpha, beta and gamma chains, as well as the ... Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain. This family includes the tubulin alpha, beta and gamma chains, as well as the bacterial ... FtsZ and tubulin are GTPases. FtsZ can polymerize into tubes, sheets, and rings in vitro and is ubiquitous in eubacteria and ...
Rabbit polyclonal alpha Tubulin antibody validated for WB and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 3 publications. ... All lanes : Anti-alpha Tubulin antibody (ab24246) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa cell lysates (20ug).. Lane 2 : 293T cell ... Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and ... Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent ...
Compare Anti-Tubulin Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Anti-Tubulin Antibody Products. The following lists a number of Tubulin antibodies from various sources. The target antigen may ... The tubulin families include alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta tubulins. Consult the supplier page to verify the ... We examined the levels of tubulin in HeLa whole cell lysates of control vs siRNA-mediated knockdown of protein X. ...
We show that tubulin subunits, not microtubules, are the primary form of tubulin transport in neurons. ... By visualizing the polymerization of injected fluorescent tubulin, we show that substantial microtubule polymerization occurs ... It is of particular interest because of the history of conflicting results concerning the form in which tubulin is transported ... the neuron growth conditions of low vinblastine concentration allowed us to visualize the footprints of the tubulin wave as it ...
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and ... IPR037103 Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf. IPR036525 Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf. IPR023123 Tubulin_C. IPR017975 Tubulin_CS. IPR003008 Tubulin_ ... IPR037103 Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf. IPR036525 Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf. IPR023123 Tubulin_C. IPR017975 Tubulin_CS. IPR003008 Tubulin_ ... IPR013838 Beta-tubulin_BS. IPR002453 Beta_tubulin. IPR008280 Tub_FtsZ_C. IPR000217 Tubulin. IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand ...
Browse our Tubulin alpha-1B Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. ... Tubulin K-alpha-1 lysate, tubulin, alpha 1b lysate, tubulin, ... Alternate Names for Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates. Tubulin alpha-1B lysate, TUBA1B lysate, alpha tubulin lysate, Alpha-tubulin ... Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates. We offer Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates for use in common research applications: Western Blot. Each Tubulin ...
The beta tubulin has a site binding docetaxel (red). Polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin make up microtubules, part of the ... Computer model showing the structure of the tight dimeric complex formed by alpha (green) and beta (blue) tubulin. ... The beta tubulin has a site binding docetaxel (red). Polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin make up microtubules, part of the ... Caption: Dimeric alpha-beta tubulin. Computer model showing the structure of the tight dimeric complex formed by alpha (green) ...
... of microtubules reconstituted from tubulin in vitro. Magnification: 100,000x @ 8 x 10 inches. - Stock Image C022/1340 ... Caption: Colour enhanced Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of microtubules reconstituted from tubulin in vitro. Magnification ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-alpha Tubulin antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal alpha Tubulin antibodies for ... alpha tubulin , alpha-tubulin ubiquitous , tubulin K-alpha-1 , tubulin alpha-1B chain , tubulin alpha-ubiquitous chain , ... tubulin, alpha, ubiquitous , tubulin alpha-8 chain , tubulin, alpha 2 , alpha-tubulin ... alpha Tubulin (TUBA1) Antigen Profile Antigen Summary Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of ...
... clone YL1/2 recognizes the alpha subunit of tubulin, specifically binding tyrosylated Tubulin (Tyr-Tubulin) (Wehland ... Rat anti Tubulin alpha antibody, clone YL1/2 recognizes the alpha subunit of tubulin, specifically binding tyrosylated Tubulin ... clone YL1/2 recognizes the alpha subunit of tubulin, specifically binding tyrosylated Tubulin (Tyr-Tubulin) (Wehland ... Read ... Tubulin Alpha antibody is routinely tested in ELISA on Tubulin. Species Cross-Reactivity Target Species Cross Reactivity Ashbya ...
... tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX101279) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster samples. 100% ... class I beta-tubulin antibody, beta Ib tubulin antibody, beta 5-tubulin antibody, tubulin beta-5 chain antibody, "tubulin, beta ... beta1-tubulin antibody, beta-4 tubulin antibody, tubulin beta-1 chain antibody, tubulin beta chain antibody, tubulin beta ... beta Tubulin antibody detects beta Tubulin protein by western blot analysis. Various whole cell extracts (30 µg) were separated ...
... tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX112659) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... class I beta-tubulin antibody, beta Ib tubulin antibody, beta 5-tubulin antibody, tubulin beta-5 chain antibody, "tubulin, beta ... beta1-tubulin antibody, beta-4 tubulin antibody, tubulin beta-1 chain antibody, tubulin beta chain antibody, tubulin beta ... Storage Conditions: beta Tubulin antibody. Storage Buffer. 1XPBS, 1% BSA, 20% Glycerol (pH7). 0.01% Thimerosal was added as a ...
Human δ- and ε-tubulin genes include:[citation needed] δ-tubulin TUBD1 ε-tubulin TUBE1 Zeta-tubulin is present in many ... The tubulin superfamily contains six families of tubulins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, epsilon and zeta-tubulins). Human α- ... It binds colchicine much more slowly than other isotypes of β-tubulin. β1-tubulin, sometimes called class VI β-tubulin, is the ... The β-tubulin subunit is exposed on the plus end of the microtubule while the α-tubulin subunit is exposed on the minus end. ...
Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. This domain is found in all tubulin chains, as ... FtsZ and tubulin are GTPases, this entry is the GTPase domain. FtsZ can polymerise into tubes, sheets, and rings in vitro and ... Tubulin is the major component of microtubules, while FtsZ is the polymer-forming protein of bacterial cell division, it is ... Nogales E, Downing KH, Amos LA, Löwe J (June 1998). "Tubulin and FtsZ form a distinct family of GTPases". Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Tubulin-tyrosine_ligase&oldid=420266952" ...
Gamma-tubulins constitute a ubiquitous and highly-conserved subfamily of the tubulin family. The protein is found at ... gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) and the the gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-TuSC) [PMID: 17178454]. ... Gamma-tubulin complexes and microtubule organization.. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 19 24-30 2007 ... Gamma-tubulin complexes and microtubule organization.. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 19 24-30 2007 ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
tubulin alpha-B chain. N. crassa. 71.8. 372. NP_013625.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... tubulin alpha-6 chain. A. thaliana. 73.5. 370. XP_963223.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... tubulin, alpha 4b. X. laevis. 89.3. 447. NP_476772.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... alpha tubulin 1. C. reinhardtii. 75.8. 450. NP_849388.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ...
specific for γ-tubulin; epitope not found in α-, β-, δ- and ε-tubulins ... to theN-terminal region of human γ-tubulin (aa 38-53, with C-terminally added lysine) ...
tubulin synonyms, tubulin pronunciation, tubulin translation, English dictionary definition of tubulin. n. A globular protein ... tubulin. Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to tubulin: alpha tubulin ... 5 In addition, colchicine binding to beta-tubulin results in curved tubulin dimer and prevents it from adopting a straight ... It binds to AY- tubulin and thus preventing polymerization of tubulin dimers to microtubules (Lacey, 1988).. Genetic ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
2) harness the power of recent developments in recombinant tubulin engineering (3⇓⇓-6) and interferometric scattering ... Despite decades of research on microtubule dynamics, basic polymer properties such as rates of tubulin dimer addition and loss ... Watching microtubules grow one tubulin at a time. Nikita Gudimchuk and Antonina Roll-Mecak ... Microtubules grow through the addition of tubulin dimers at their tips. Observations of individual microtubules using a variety ...
... Wim Bras,1 James Torbet,1 Gregory P. Diakun,2 Geert L. J. A. Rikken,3 and ... An approximate value of the diamagnetic anisotropy of the tubulin dimer, , has been determined assuming axial symmetry and that ... The method utilized for the determination of the tubulin dimer diamagnetic susceptibility is applicable to other proteins and ...
tubulin mRNAs by recognition of the nascent amino terminus of β. -tubulin," Nature, vol. 334, no. 6183, pp. 580-585, 1988. View ... D. W. Cleveland, M. A. Lopata, P. Sherline, and M. W. Kirschner, "Unpolymerized tubulin modulates the level of tubulin mRNAs," ... M. Grynberg, L. Jaroszewski, and A. Godzik, "Domain analysis of the tubulin cofactor system: a model for tubulin folding and ... tubulin mRNA stability is linked to translation elongation," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
To protect your privacy, your account will be locked after 6 failed attempts. After that, you will need to contact Customer Service to unlock your account.. You have 4 remaining attempts.. You have 3 remaining attempts.. You have 2 remaining attempts.. You have 1 remaining attempt.. Contact Customer Service ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Solomon, F.: Binding Sites for Calcium on Tubulin. Biochemistry, 16: 358, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bader C.A., Monet J.D., Funck-Brentano J.L. (1978) Calcium-Induced Modulation of the Tubulin Pool in Parathyroid Glands. In: ... After demonstration of a specific Colchicine Binding Protein (Co1BP) in PTG, the tubulin pool size level in PTG slices ... The mechanism of action has been attributed to the ability of these agents to bind to tubulin, the protein subunit of the ...
Comparison of the optimally aligned sequences of alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin indicates that 41% of their primary structures ... Complete amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin from porcine brain. E Krauhs, M Little, T Kempf, R Hofer-Warbinek, W Ade, H ... Complete amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin from porcine brain. E Krauhs, M Little, T Kempf, R Hofer-Warbinek, W Ade, H ... Complete amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin from porcine brain. E Krauhs, M Little, T Kempf, R Hofer-Warbinek, W Ade, and H ...
In particular, this position is for a project to dissect the role of the C-terminal tail of tubulin on its function by NMR and ... Postdoctoral position available studying tubulin and its modifications. Submitted by mariabaias on Thu, 2016-10-27 14:10 ... We use Tetrahymena thermophila as a source for tubulin. We will capitalize on the broad range of mutant strains with ... The candidate will work with two others on a collaborative project to study the role of tubulin tail post-translational ...
... epithelial cells that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-bovine alpha-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies ... Rat Kangaroo Cell Tubulin. G-2E/C Bandpass Emission (Narrow Bandwidth Excitation) Green Set. Fluorescence emission intensity ... epithelial cells that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-bovine alpha-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies ...
... rows of tubulin, tubulin and London force dipole networks which oscillate in the terahertz regime. Anesthetics may act (lower ... rows of tubulin, tubulin and London force dipole networks which oscillate in the terahertz regime. Anesthetics may act (lower ... rows of tubulin, tubulin and London force dipole networks which oscillate in the terahertz regime. Anesthetics may act (lower ... Anesthetic alterations of collective terahertz oscillations in tubulin correlate with clinical potency: Implications for ...
Like tubulin, it appears to have a cytoskeletal role as both proteins assemble into tw … ... Sequence alignments convincingly demonstrate that FtsZ is a prokaryotic homologue of eukaryotic tubulins. FtsZ appears to be ... FtsZ, a tubulin homologue in prokaryote cell division Trends Cell Biol. 1997 Sep;7(9):362-7. doi: 10.1016/S0962-8924(97)01108-2 ... Like tubulin, it appears to have a cytoskeletal role as both proteins assemble into two types of characteristic polymers in ...
Monoclonal Antibody for studying tubulin beta-5 in the Cytoskeletal Signaling research area. ... Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit ... γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are ... β-Tubulin (D3U1W) Mouse mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total β-tubulin protein. ...
Among the proteins that are moved by this mechanism are tubulin and actin, two major components of the cytoskeleton. ... Observation of the movement of metabolically labeled tubulin an … ... Observation of the movement of metabolically labeled tubulin and actin in-vivo has demonstrated that tubulin and actin ... Axonal transport of tubulin and actin J Neurocytol. Nov-Dec 2000;29(11-12):889-911. doi: 10.1023/a:1010903710160. ...
Tubulin-tirozinska ligaza (EC 6.3.2.25) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom alfa-tubulin:L-tirozin ligaza (formira ADP).[1][2] Ovaj ... ATP + detirozinisani alfa-tubulin + L-tirozin ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. alfa-tubulin + ADP + fosfat. L-tirozin je ... The carboxy-terminal peptide of detyrosinated α tubulin provides a minimal system to study the substrate specificity of tubulin ... Wehland, J., Schröder, H.C., Weber, K. (1986). „Isolation and purification of tubulin-tyrosine ligase". Methods Enzymol. 134: ...
Nanoscale Force Generation and Rigidity of Isotypically Purified β-Tubulin Microtubules. K Beinert and J A Tuszynski*. ... Here again, the β-tubulin isotype composition can be varied in order to produce a microtubule with a specific growth rate, in ... This, in turn, gives us the ability to assemble microtubules with pre-determined β-tubulin isotype composition in order to ... We have investigated microtubule dynamics found in isotypically purified β-tubulin in order to understand how different ...
Brain membrane preparations contain tubulin that can be extracted with Triton X-114. After the extract is allowed to partition ... Membrane tubulin can be released by 0.1 M Na2CO3 treatment at pH≥11.5 in such a way that the hydrophobic tubulin is converted ... Therefore, hydrophobic tubulin (tubulin-membrane component complex) can be obtained from membranes or from microtubules ... Rodriguez JA, Barra HS: Tubulin and tubulin-colchicine complex bind to brain microsomal membrane in vitro: Mol Cel Biochem 56: ...
Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Tubulin. This plasmid is available through Addgene. ... mRuby-Tubulin-6 was a gift from Michael Davidson (Addgene plasmid # 55880 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:55880 ; RRID:Addgene_55880) ...
  • This family includes the tubulin alpha, beta and gamma chains, as well as the bacterial FtsZ family of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • It has also become increasingly evident over the past year that some (but intriguingly not all) eukaryotes encode several other tubulin proteins, and to date five further members of the tubulin superfamily, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta and eta, have been identified. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent work has expanded our knowledge of the functions and localisation of these newer members of the tubulin superfamily, and the emerging data suggesting a restricted evolutionary distribution of these 'new' tubulin proteins, conforms to established knowledge of microtubule cell biology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It has been previously shown that a class of microtubule proteins, the so-called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), binds to the C-terminal part of tubulin subunits. (northwestern.edu)
  • The tubulin that results from either preparation is substantially free of microtubule-associated proteins. (utmb.edu)
  • The γ-tubulin combines with several other associated proteins to form a circular structure known as the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC). (wikidoc.org)
  • The following lists a number of Tubulin antibodies from various sources. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 6688 Tubulin Antibodies across 70 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • In order to test the application of this hypothesis to mammals, we have examined the expression of β tubulin isotypes in four different ciliated tissues (trachea, ependyma, uterine tube, and testis) using isotype-specific antibodies and indirect immunofluorescence. (elsevier.com)
  • Although most eukaryotic cells can express multiple isotypes of alphabeta-tubulin, the significance of this diversity has not always been apparent. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent data indicate that particular alphabeta-tubulin isotypes, both genome encoded and those derived by post-translational modification, can directly influence microtubule structure and function--thus validating ideas originally proposed in the multitubulin hypothesis over 25 years ago. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Jensen-Smith, HC, Ludueña, RF & Hallworth, R 2003, ' Requirement for the β I and β IV tubulin isotypes in mammalian cilia ', Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton , vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 213-220. (elsevier.com)
  • Microtubules are essential intracellular polymers, built from tubulin subunits, that establish cell shape, move organelles, and segregate chromosomes during cell division. (sciencemag.org)
  • show that microtubule-severing enzymes extract tubulin subunits along the microtubule shaft. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microtubule nucleation requires the action of a third type of tubulin, γ-tubulin, which is distinct from the α and β subunits which compose the microtubules themselves. (wikidoc.org)
  • FtsZ and tubulin are GTPases. (nih.gov)
  • Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA3C gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the role of gamma-tubulin in the nucleation of microtubule assembly is now well established, far less is known about the functions of delta-, epsilon-, zeta- and eta-tubulin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Background: The disordered Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein/p25 (TPPP/p25) modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule system. (wolfram.com)
  • Here, we reveal the novel role of βPix neuronal isoforms in regulating tubulin acetylation and neurite outgrowth. (elsevier.com)
  • At DIV4, hippocampal neurons cultured from βPix neuronal isoform knockout (βPix-NIKO) mice exhibit defects in neurite morphology and tubulin acetylation, a type of tubulin modification which often labels stable microtubules. (elsevier.com)
  • Treating βPix-NIKO neurons with paclitaxel, which stabilizes the microtubules, or reintroducing either neuronal βPix isoform to the KO neurons overcomes the impairment in neurite morphology and tubulin acetylation, suggesting that neuronal βPix isoforms may promote microtubule stabilization during neurite development. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, our study demonstrates that βPix-d regulates the phosphorylation of Stathmin1 in a PAK-dependent manner and that neuronal βPix isoforms promote tubulin acetylation and neurite morphogenesis during neuronal development. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together with recent studies that show that β 1 and β IV tubulin are both present in the cilia of vestibular hair cells, olfactory neurons, and nasal respiratory epithelial cells, we propose that both β 1 tubulin and β IV tubulin may be required for axonemal structures in mammals. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target antigen may refer to the tubulin polymer that comprises microtubules of the cytoskeleton, as well as individual members of the tubulin protein superfamily. (biocompare.com)
  • The extended tubulin superfamily. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Tubulin alpha-1B Lysate is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • We offer Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates for use in common research applications: Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • 2001: Curr Biol 11:529-533], based on studies in Drosophila, have proposed that β tubulin in axonemal microtubules must contain a specific acidic seven amino acid sequence in its carboxyl terminus. (elsevier.com)
  • The GDP-microtubule lattice is the product of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-tubulin polymerization and depolymerizes spontaneously when exposed in the absence of a stabilizing GTP cap. (sciencemag.org)
  • They typically form through the polymerization of α- and β- tubulin dimers elongating existing microtubules. (wikidoc.org)
  • This complex acts as a scaffold for α/β tubulin dimers to begin polymerization. (wikidoc.org)
  • the functional effect was analyzed by tubulin polymerization assay. (wolfram.com)
  • The dimeric form displaying enhanced tubulin polymerization promoting activity is stabilized by disulfide bond or chemical cross-linking. (wolfram.com)
  • Our Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates. (novusbio.com)
  • On the basis of current evidence, we predict that delta-, epsilon-, zeta- and eta-tubulin all have functions associated with the centriole or basal body of eukaryotic cells and organisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • α- and β-tubulins polymerize into microtubules, a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, tubulin polymers (microtubules) tend to be much bigger than actin filaments due to their cylindrical nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • α- and β-tubulin polymerize into dynamic microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are assembled from dimers of α- and β-tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • To form microtubules, the dimers of α- and β-tubulin bind to GTP and assemble onto the (+) ends of microtubules while in the GTP-bound state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin is the major component of microtubules, while FtsZ is the polymer-forming protein of bacterial cell division, it is part of a ring in the middle of the dividing cell that is required for constriction of cell membrane and cell envelope to yield two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin is the major component of microtubules. (nih.gov)
  • Microtubules grow through the addition of tubulin dimers at their tips. (pnas.org)
  • The mechanism of action has been attributed to the ability of these agents to bind to tubulin, the protein subunit of the cellular microtubules, and as a consequence, to prevent microtubule assembly. (springer.com)
  • The target antigen may refer to the tubulin polymer that comprises microtubules of the cytoskeleton, as well as individual members of the tubulin protein superfamily. (biocompare.com)
  • This, in turn, gives us the ability to assemble microtubules with pre-determined β-tubulin isotype composition in order to generate a desired amount of force for a particular nano-engineering application. (foresight.org)
  • W B Derry, R Luduena: Taxol Differentially Modulates the Dynamics of Microtubules Assembled from Unfractionated and Purified β-Tubulin Isotypes. (foresight.org)
  • This result indicates that the hydrophobic tubulin isolated from membrane preparations belongs to microtubules that in vivo are associated to membranes. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, hydrophobic tubulin (tubulin-membrane component complex) can be obtained from membranes or from microtubules depending on the conditions of brain homogenization. (springer.com)
  • Beltramo DM, Arce CA, Barra HS: Tyrosination of microtubules and nonassembled tubulin in brain slices. (springer.com)
  • Arce CA, Barra HS: Release of C-terminal tyrosina from tubulin and microtubules at steady state. (springer.com)
  • We show that tubulin subunits, not microtubules, are the primary form of tubulin transport in neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton are composed of a heterodimer of α- and β-tubulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • TUBA4A belongs to the subfamily of tubulin, which is the major building block of microtubules. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Possible regulation of microtubules through destabilization of tubulin. (sdbonline.org)
  • Their work also highlight the essential role of the polyglutamylation of microtubules tubulin in neuronal survival and thus improve the understanding of many neurodegenerative diseases. (cea.fr)
  • Beta-tubulin is a 55 kDa subunit of tubulin that polymerizes with alpha-tubulin into microtubules, the major cytoskeletal elements found in all eukaryotic cells. (fluidigm.com)
  • Tubulin is the major component of microtubules within the cytoskeleton and is assembled from heterodimers of alpha and beta tubulin subunits. (stemcell.com)
  • The rate at which microtubules incorporated DTAF-tubulin depended on the cell-cycle stage of the injected cell. (rupress.org)
  • The temporal patterns of redistribution included a rapid phase (approximately 3 s) that we attribute to diffusion of free DTAF-tubulin and a second, slower phase that seems to represent the exchange of bleached DTAF-tubulin in microtubules with free, unbleached DTAF-tubulin. (rupress.org)
  • Our work indicates that katanin could function best on stabile microtubules or stabile regions of microtubules in cells in regions where free tubulin is sequesters, low, or depleted. (aps.org)
  • Here we adapted an immunofluorescence method and investigated the cellular localization of γ-tubulin and microtubules (MTs) in dividing Tetrahymena. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microtubules, the major cytoskeletal elements found in all eukaryotic cells, consist of Tubulin, which is a dimer of two 55kDa subunits: alpha and Beta. (fishersci.com)
  • Tubulin, the major component of microtubules, is a dimeric protein consisting of an alpha and beta subunit. (fishersci.com)
  • Alpha-beta tubulin heterodimer is the basic building block of microtubules, and this intracellular cylindrical filamentous structure is present in almost eukaryotic cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Polymers of alpha- and beta-tubulin make up microtubules, part of the cell's cytoskeleton. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Colour enhanced Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of microtubules reconstituted from tubulin in vitro. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Tubulin is the protein which makes up microtubules . (academickids.com)
  • Tubulin binds GTP and assembles onto the (+) ends of microtubules in the GTP-bound state. (academickids.com)
  • The significant antitumor activity of ixabepilone in taxane-resistant tumors may be related to its preferential suppression of the dynamic instability of α/βIII-microtubules in cells expressing high levels of βIII-tubulin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Along with beta-tubulins, alpha-tubulins are the major components of microtubules. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Another post-translational modification of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin is C-terminal polyglutamylation, which is characteristic of microtubules in neuronal cells and the mitotic spindle. (prosci-inc.com)
  • β-Tubulin, together with α-tubulin, participates in the formation of microtubules, the integrity of which is essential for the segregation of chromosomes during cell division, maintenance of cell shape, and intracellular trafficking of macromolecules and organelles ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tubulin can also be phosphorylated by several kinases ( 11 ), and such changes affect the overall dynamic properties of cellular microtubules during interphase as well as mitosis ( 11 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most common members of the tubulin family are α-tubulin and β-tubulin, the proteins that make up microtubules. (genscript.com)
  • Today, I invite you to look at methods for measuring the dynamic polymerisation of tubulin to microtubules and to detect the impact of compounds or other variables in your experiments on this process. (tebu-bio.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, tubulin polymerizes to form structures called microtubules (MTs) (Fig. 1). (tebu-bio.com)
  • Tubulin, one of the major constituents of microtubules, is a dimeric protein consisting of an alpha and beta chain. (biolegend.com)
  • Tubulin is one of the major constituents of microtubules. (biolegend.com)
  • Furthermore, TOG1 preferentially binds a curved conformation of αβ-tubulin that cannot be incorporated into microtubules, contacting α- and β-tubulin surfaces that do not participate in microtubule assembly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Acetylation of α-tubulin lysine 40 (K40) is a prominent and conserved modification of neuronal microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • Test binding activity of known or proteins or compounds to tubulin or microtubules. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Question 1: Can I make microtubules of a different length with the Microtubules/Tubulin Biochem Kit (Cat. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Yes, the Microtubules/Tubulin Biochem Kit (Cat. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Question 2: After microtubules are prepared and stabilized with taxol using the Microtubules/Tubulin Biochem Kit (Cat. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin is characterized by the evolutionarily conserved Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This GTPase protein domain is found in all eukaryotic tubulin chains, as well as the bacterial protein TubZ, the archaeal protein CetZ, and the FtsZ protein family widespread in Bacteria and Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA3C gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exists in two main protein complexes: gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) and the the gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-TuSC) [ PMID: 17178454 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • After demonstration of a specific Colchicine Binding Protein (Co1BP) in PTG, the tubulin pool size level in PTG slices incubated in vitro in various extracellular calcium concentrations was assayed. (springer.com)
  • The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta-tubulins in porcine brain. (pnas.org)
  • We have investigated microtubule dynamics found in isotypically purified β-tubulin in order to understand how different microtubule protein compositions may affect growth and shrinkage rates. (foresight.org)
  • Zisapel N, Levi M, Gozes I: Tubulin: an integral protein of mammalian synaptic vesicle membranes. (springer.com)
  • The expression of α-tubulin, or any housekeeping protein (HKP), should be validated to ensure that its expression does not change under experimental conditions. (licor.com)
  • Detects endogenous levels of total α-tubulin protein. (licor.com)
  • Katsetos CD, Legido A, Perentes E, Mork SJ: Class III beta-tubulin isotype: a key cytoskeletal protein at the crossroads of developmental neurobiology and tumor neuropathology. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2,3 Centrosomes can initiate microtubule assembly irrespective of ε-tubulin content, indicating that this protein is not involved in microtubule nucleation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Identification of a novel tubulin-destabilizing protein related to the chaperone cofactor E. J. Cell Sci. (sdbonline.org)
  • ADP ribosylation factor-like protein 2 (Arl2) regulates the interaction of tubulin-folding cofactor D with native tubulin. (sdbonline.org)
  • Sto1p, a fission yeast protein similar to tubulin folding cofactor E, plays an essential role in mitotic microtubule assembly. (sdbonline.org)
  • Tubulin subunits exist in an activated conformational state generated and maintained by protein cofactors. (sdbonline.org)
  • The AA10 antibody reacts with beta-tubulin III, an ~50 - 55 kDa structural protein that is a constituent of tubulin. (stemcell.com)
  • pTagYFP-tubulin is a mammalian expression vector encoding TagYFP-tubulin fusion protein ( see reporter description ). (evrogen.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human gamma Tubulin. (thermofisher.com)
  • Tubulin is a GTP-binding protein that can be modified by phosphorylation and acetylation resulting in assembly (polymerization) or disassembly (depolymerization). (fishersci.com)
  • As a first step in determining what cellular processes are regulated by the calcium-modulated protein S100A1 isoform in neurons, the effects of ablated S100A1 expression on neurite organization and microtubule/tubulin levels in PC12 cells were examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This increase in neurite number was accompanied by an increase in total alpha-tubulin levels in untreated (4.0 +/- 0.6 versus 1.76 +/- 0.4 ng of alpha-tubulin/mg of total protein) and nerve growth factor-treated pAntisense clones (4.15 +/- 0.4 versus 2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 04 +/- 0.5 ng of alpha-tubulin/mg of total protein) when compared with control cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, however, the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ was shown to be evolutionarily related to tubulin. (academickids.com)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Tubulin domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • The availability of monoclonal antibodies to α-tubulin uses as a common housekeeping protein and serves as a specific and useful tool in studying proper interpretation of western blots. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript Rabbit Anti-β-Tubulin III Polyclonal Antibody is developed in rabbit hosts using a KLH-coupled synthetic peptide within residues 150-200 of human β-Tubulin III protein (Swiss Prot: Q13509). (genscript.com)
  • GenScript Rabbit Anti-β-Tubulin III Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of human, rat and mouse β-tubulin III protein. (genscript.com)
  • To determine the degree to which normal spermatogenesis depends on key functions of the Sertoli cell microtubule network, adenoviral vectors that overexpress the microtubule nucleating protein, γ-tubulin, were delivered to Sertoli cells in vivo. (bioone.org)
  • beta Tubulin antibody detects beta Tubulin protein at cytoplasm on human breast cancer by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • beta Tubulin antibody detects beta Tubulin protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • beta Tubulin antibody detects beta Tubulin protein at cytoplasm in rat spleen by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Total cell lysates (15 µg protein) from HaCaT, HeLa, and NIH3T3 were resolved by 4-12% Bis-tris gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with Biotin anti-Tubulin-α Antibody (clone 10D8) (upper). (biolegend.com)
  • Tubulin is a highly conserved protein that is ubiquitously expressed. (biolegend.com)
  • Tubulin interacts with a variety of proteins including RAC GTPase activating protein 1, ZAP70, Polo-like kinase, c-Myc, Fyn, and microtubule associated protein 1A. (biolegend.com)
  • Tubulin family, tubulin is a dimeric protein consisting of an alpha and beta chain. (biolegend.com)
  • This alpha Tubulin antibody was raised against total protein purified from sea urchin sperm axonemes. (activemotif.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Tubulin tyrosine Ligase-Like Family, Member 1 Proteine (6) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In addition to its cytosolic function, gamma-tubulin is a chromatin-associated protein. (lu.se)
  • Reduced levels of nuclear gamma-tubulin increase the activity of E2 promoter-binding factors (E2F) and raise the levels of retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor protein. (lu.se)
  • Molecular docking elucidates the conformations of compounds and key amino acid residues at the active site of tubulin protein. (rsc.org)
  • This kit is intended for those researchers who are not accustomed to working with tubulin protein in vitro . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Alpha-tubulin is a 451 amino acid protein that is one of the components of the microtubule cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of rat kangaroo ( PtK2 ) epithelial cells that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-bovine alpha -tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Alexa Fluor 546. (microscopyu.com)
  • Blose HS, Meltzer DI, Feramisco JR: 10 nm filaments are induced to collapse in living cells microinjected with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against tubulin. (springer.com)
  • Piperno G, Fuller MT: Monoclonal antibodies specific for an acetylated form of a-tubulin recognize the antigen in cilia and flagella from a variety of organisms. (springer.com)
  • Detect α-Tubulin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody with IRDye ® Goat anti-Mouse or IRDye Donkey anti-Mouse secondary antibodies. (licor.com)
  • A unique Monoclonal Antibody to ε-Tubulin, clone TUB-11 (Product No. T1323 ) is directed against the C-terminal region of ε-tubulin (amino acids 352-366 of human ε-tubulin) and may be used in ELISA and immunoblotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The innovative Monoclonal Anti-ε-Tubulin antibody complements our wide selection of antibodies to different tubulins, which include antibodies to α, β, and γ-tubulins, as well as antibodies to modified tubulins, such as acetylated-tubulin, tyrosine-tubulin and polyglutamylated tubulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: gamma Tubulin Monoclonal Antibody (GT4511) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-31482, RRID AB_2787113. (thermofisher.com)
  • Provide accurate, reproducible results with the Thermo Scientific Tubulin-Β Ab-6, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal [TU-20] to beta III Tubulin (FITC) ( Abpromise for all tested applications). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Alpha Tubulin Monoclonal Antibody can be used for ELISA starting at 1:100 - 1:1000 and immunohistochemistry (tested on parafin embedded tissues) starting at 5 μg/mL. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The use of tubulin -targeting agents is limited by the development of resistance to anticancer drugs, which is induced by tubulin isotype mutation and the alteration of microtubule dynamics (Cheung et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here again, the β-tubulin isotype composition can be varied in order to produce a microtubule with a specific growth rate, in order to produce a microtubule of desired rigidity. (foresight.org)
  • Ranganathan S, Dexter DW, Benetatos CA, Hudes GR: Cloning and sequencing of human betaIII-tubulin cDNA: induction of betaIII isotype in human prostate carcinoma cells by acute exposure to antimicrotubule agents. (drugbank.ca)
  • Flow Cytometry: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - An intracellular stain was performed on HeLa cells with alpha Tubulin (DM1A) Antibody NB100-690JF646 (blue) and a matched isotype control (orange). (novusbio.com)
  • Overexpression of the βIII-tubulin isotype is one mechanism that can render tumor cells resistant to taxanes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Preclinical data indicate that ixabepilone may overcome taxane resistance by preferentially inhibiting the βIII-tubulin isotype ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The alpha- and beta-tubulins share 40% amino-acidsequence identity, both exist in several isotype forms, and both undergo avariety of posttranslational modifications. (embl.de)
  • Each of these classes defines a β-tubulin isotype that differs significantly from other isotypes within the same organism but differs very little from the same isotype in other vertebrate species. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Class I and II are the most abundant β-tubulin isotypes and are constitutively expressed, whereas class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) has been reported previously to as an isotype specific for neuronal tissues and testis ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The alpha and beta tubulins, which are each about 55 kDa MW, are homologous but not identical. (fishersci.com)
  • The immunogen is located within amino acids 140 - 190 of Alpha-tubulin. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The β-tubulin subunit is exposed on the plus end of the microtubule while the α-tubulin subunit is exposed on the minus end. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the dimer is incorporated into the microtubule, the molecule of GTP bound to the β-tubulin subunit eventually hydrolyzes into GDP through inter-dimer contacts along the microtubule protofilament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gozes I, Littauer U: The alpha subunit of tubulin preferentially associated with brain presynaptic membrane. (springer.com)
  • α/β-tubulin heterodimers form the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. (licor.com)
  • α-subunit of tubulin has molecular weight of 50,000. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These studies also established Op18 and MAP4 as the predominant regulators of tubulin subunit partitioning in all three human cell model systems studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • The alphabeta tubulin heterodimer is the structural subunit ofmicrotubules, which are cytoskeletal elements that are essential forintracellular transport and cell division in all eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Catalytic subunit of the neuronal tubulin polyglutamylase complex. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Recognizes the alpha subunit of tubulin, specifically binding tyrosylated Tubulin (Tyr-Tubulin). (prosci-inc.com)
  • Since tubulin inhibitors are one of the most successful cytotoxic drugs in the ADC armamentarium, this review focuses on the progress in tubulin inhibitor-based ADCs, as well as lessons learned from the unsuccessful ADCs containing tubulin inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology now offers a broad range of Tubulin Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • Fu D-J, Liu J-F, Zhao R-H, Li J-H, Zhang S-Y, Zhang Y-B. Design and Antiproliferative Evaluation of Novel Sulfanilamide Derivatives as Potential Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • thus, tubulin inhibitors were tested to identify compounds that interfere with gamma-tubulin. (lu.se)
  • Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is one of the most potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • In this paper, the identification of some new CA-4 analogues as potential tubulin polymerization inhibitors is performed by combination of molecular modeling techniques including 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. (rsc.org)
  • Some new CA-4 analogues were identified as good potential tubulin polymerization inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • AMRI has built a strong initial program around ALB 109564(a), providing an early indication that it may offer clinically relevant activity distinct from other tubulin inhibitors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ALB 109564(a) is a novel analog from an established and marketed class of tubulin inhibitors, which is designed to kill cancer cells by preventing cell mitosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ALB 109564(a) has significant benefits compared with existing tubulin inhibitors in the same class. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In eukaryotes there are six members of the tubulin superfamily, although not all are present in all species (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our Tubulin alpha-1B Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
  • The 10D8 antibody recognizes α-tubulin in all species and is useful for Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. (biolegend.com)
  • CMV promoter provides strong, constitutive expression of the TagYFP-tubulin fusion in eukaryotic cells. (evrogen.com)
  • Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. (abcam.com)
  • Beta-tubulin III contributes to microtubule formation in neuronal cell bodies and axons, a function involving GTP binding, and plays roles in axonal transport, neuronal cell proliferation, and differentiation. (stemcell.com)
  • A) E18 cortical rat neurons were cultured using the NeuroCult™ SM1 Neuronal Culture Kit on poly-lysine-coated glass coverslips, then fixed and labeled with Anti-Beta-Tubulin III Antibody, Clone AA10, followed by donkey anti-mouse IgG, Alexa Fluor® 488, and counter-stained with DAPI. (stemcell.com)
  • The standard assay uses neuronal tubulin ( 027T240 ) which generates a polymerization curve representing the three phases of microtubule formation, namely nucleation (Phase I in Figure 4), growth (Phase II in Figure 4) and steady state equilibrium (Phase III in Figure 4). (tebu-bio.com)
  • It has been shown that anti-cancer drugs have different affinities for these tubulins compared to porcine brain (neuronal) tubulin. (tebu-bio.com)
  • This indicates that a drug development program aimed at increasing the affinity for cancer cell line tubulin over neuronal tubulin may lead to greater targeting efficiency toward cancer cells. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Tyrosine ligase adds a C-terminal tyrosine to monomeric alpha-tubulin. (prosci-inc.com)
  • 1 Out of the seven different tubulins four new members of the tubulin family were identified recently, which consist of δ, χ, η, and ε-tubulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These dimers spontaneously self-assemble longitudinally to form protofilaments, and 13 protofilaments constitute a microtubule, resulting in a helical arrangement of tubulin heterodimers. (nature.com)
  • α and β Tubulins form heterodimers, which multimerize to form a microtubule filament. (scbt.com)
  • When tubulin polymerizes it initially forms proto-filaments, MTs consist of 13 protofilaments and are 25nm in diameter, each um of MT length is composed of 1650 heterodimers. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Fourest-Lieuvin A, Peris L, Gache V, Garcia-Saez I, Juillan-Binard C, Lantez V, Job D: Microtubule regulation in mitosis: tubulin phosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. (drugbank.ca)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: alpha Tubulin Antibody (DM1A) [NB100-690] - Analysis of embryonic fibroblasts in the anaphase portion of mitosis. (novusbio.com)
  • Nocodazole is a potent Tubulin production inhibitor, anti-neoplastic agent, and inhibitor of mitosis. (scbt.com)
  • Delta and epsilon tubulin have been found to localize at centrioles and may play a role in forming the mitotic spindle during mitosis. (academickids.com)
  • Amitosis requires γ-tubulin-mediated microtubule assembly in Tetrahymena thermophila. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antibody recognizes an epitope located on the α3 isoform of Chlamydomonas axonemal α-tubulin, within four residues of Lys-40 when this amino acid is acetylated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) has been discovered as a marker of drug resistance in human cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human α-tubulin subtypes include:[citation needed] TUBA1A TUBA1B TUBA1C TUBA3C TUBA3D TUBA3E TUBA4A TUBA8 All drugs that are known to bind to human tubulin bind to β-tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide (Human) conjugated to KLH, corresponding to C terminal residues of Human alpha tubulin. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma using β-Tubulin (D3U1W) Mouse mAb. (cellsignal.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human large cell carcinoma of the lung using β-Tubulin (D3U1W) Mouse mAb. (cellsignal.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human non-small cell lung carcinoma using β-Tubulin (D3U1W) Mouse mAb. (cellsignal.com)
  • α-tubulin, also called as tubulin α 4a (TUBA4A), is mapped to human chromosome 2q35. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Rabbit polyclonal Tubulin antibody was raised against a 16 amino acid peptide near the amino terminus of human Tubulin. (prosci-inc.com)
  • The AlphaPlex™ Terbium (Tb) Human α-Tubulin Detection Kit is designed for the quantitative determination of human α-tubulin in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous (no wash steps, no separation steps) assay. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Alpha-tubulin is ubiquitous in every cell and tissue of the human body, and is highly preserved at the eukaryotic level (human 95% with mouse and 74% with yeast). (perkinelmer.com)
  • The primary structure of porcine brain beta-tubulin was determined by automated and manual Edman degradation of six sets of overlapping peptides. (pnas.org)
  • Treatments of injected cells with Nocodazole or Taxol showed that DTAF-tubulin closely mimicked the behavior of endogenous tubulin. (rupress.org)
  • Posttranslational tyrosination/detyrosination of tubulin. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Posttranslational modifications of tubulin are emerging regulators of microtubule functions. (embopress.org)
  • β1-tubulin, sometimes called class VI β-tubulin, is the most divergent at the amino acid sequence level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactivity with other β-Tubulin had not been tested yet. (genscript.com)