Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.
Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)

Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/4196)

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (2/4196)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques. (3/4196)

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small.  (+info)

A train passenger with pulmonary tuberculosis: evidence of limited transmission during travel. (4/4196)

In January 1996, smear- and culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed for a 22-year-old black man after he had traveled on two U.S. passenger trains (29.1 hours) and a bus (5.5 hours) over 2 days. To determine if transmission had occurred, passengers and crew were notified of the potential exposure and instructed to undergo a tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 240 persons who completed screening, 4 (2%) had a documented TST conversion (increase in induration of > or = 10 mm between successive TSTs), 11 (5%) had a single positive TST (> or = 10 mm), and 225 (94%) had a negative TST (< 10 mm). For two persons who underwent conversion, no other risk factors for a conversion were identified other than exposure to the ill passenger during train and/or bus travel. These findings support limited transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a potentially highly infectious passenger to other persons during extended train and bus travel.  (+info)

Plasma-soluble CD30 in childhood tuberculosis: effects of disease severity, nutritional status, and vitamin A therapy. (5/4196)

Plasma-soluble CD30 (sCD30) is the result of proteolytic splicing from the membrane-bound form of CD30, a putative marker of type 2 cytokine-producing cells. We measured sCD30 levels in children with tuberculosis, a disease characterized by prominent type 1 lymphocyte cytokine responses. We postulated that disease severity and nutritional status would alter cytokine responses and therefore sCD30 levels. Samples from South African children enrolled prospectively at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed. (Patients were originally enrolled in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of oral vitamin A supplementation on prognosis of tuberculosis.) Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 weeks later (during antituberculosis therapy) were analyzed. sCD30 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The 91 children included in the study demonstrated high levels of sCD30 at diagnosis (median, 98 U/liter; range, 11 to 1,569 U/liter). Although there was a trend toward higher sCD30 levels in more severe disease (e.g., culture-positive disease or miliary disease), this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were demonstrated in the presence of nutritional compromise: the sCD30 level was higher in patients with a weight below the third percentile for age, in those with clinical signs of kwashiorkor, and in those with a low hemoglobin content. There was minimal change in the sCD30 level after 12 weeks of therapy, even though patients improved clinically. However, changes in sCD30 after 12 weeks differed significantly when 46 patients (51%) who received vitamin A were compared with those who had received a placebo. Vitamin A-supplemented children demonstrated a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) decrease in sCD30 by a factor of 0.99 +/- 0.02 over 12 weeks, whereas a factor increase of 1.05 +/- 0.02 was demonstrated in the placebo group (P = 0.02). We conclude that children with tuberculosis had high sCD30 levels, which may reflect the presence of a type 2 cytokine response. Nutritional compromise was associated with higher sCD30 levels. Vitamin A therapy resulted in modulation of sCD30 levels over time.  (+info)

Apoptosis and T cell hyporesponsiveness in pulmonary tuberculosis. (6/4196)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-induced T cell responses are depressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma remain low even after completion of antituberculous therapy. Loss of MTB-reactive T cells through apoptotic mechanisms could account for this prolonged T cell hyporesponsiveness. T cell apoptosis was studied in TB patients and healthy control subjects. Both spontaneous and MTB-induced apoptosis (in CD4 and non-CD4 T cells) from TB patients was increased when compared with healthy control subjects, whereas coculture with control antigen (candida) had no effect on T cell apoptosis in either group of study subjects. An inverse correlation existed between increased MTB-induced T cell apoptosis and IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 immunoreactivities. Successful antituberculous chemotherapy resulted in a 50% reduction in both spontaneous and MTB-induced apoptosis, which coincided with 3- and 8-fold increases in levels of MTB-stimulated IL-2 and IFN-gamma, respectively. These data indicate that apoptotic pathways are operant during active MTB infection and may contribute to deletion of MTB-reactive T cells and the immunopathogenesis of this disease.  (+info)

Extensive cross-contamination of specimens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a reference laboratory. (7/4196)

A striking increase in the numbers of cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was noticed in a mycobacterial reference laboratory in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in May 1995. A contaminated bronchoscope was the suspected cause of the increase. All 91 M. tuberculosis isolates grown from samples from patients between 8 May and 18 July 1995 were characterized by spoligotyping and IS6110 fingerprinting. Sixty-one of the 91 isolates had identical spoligotype patterns, and the pattern was arbitrarily designated S36. The 61 specimens containing these isolates had been processed and cultured in a 21-day period ending on 1 June 1995, but only 1 sample was smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. The patient from whom this sample was obtained was considered to be the index case patient and had a 4+ smear-positive lymph node aspirate that had been sent to the laboratory on 10 May. Virtually all organisms with spoligotype S36 had the same IS6110 fingerprint pattern. Extensive review of the patients' charts and investigation of laboratory procedures revealed that cross-contamination of specimens had occurred. Because the same strain was grown from all types of specimens, the bronchoscope was ruled out as the outbreak source. The most likely source of contamination was a multiple-use reagent used for specimen processing. The organism was cultured from two of the solutions 3 weeks after mock contamination. This investigation strongly supports the idea that M. tuberculosis grown from smear-negative specimens should be analyzed by rapid and reliable strain differentiation techniques, such as spoligotyping, to help rule out laboratory contamination.  (+info)

Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (8/4196)

We genetically characterized multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains which caused a nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis affecting six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and one HIV-negative staff member (E. Bouvet, E. Casalino, G. Mendoza-Sassi, S. Lariven, E. Vallee, M. Pernet, S. Gottot, and F. Vachon, AIDS 7:1453-1460, 1993). The strains showed all the phenotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis. They presented a high copy number of IS6110, the spacers 40 to 43 in the direct repeat locus, and the mtp40 fragment. They lacked the G-A mutation at position 285 in the oxyR gene and the C-G mutation at position 169 in the pncA gene. These genetic characteristics revealed that these were dysgonic, slow-growing M. tuberculosis strains mimicking the M. bovis phenotype, probably as a consequence of cellular alterations associated with the multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirmed that the outbreak was due to a single strain. However, the IS6110 RFLP pattern of the strain isolated from the last patient, diagnosed three years after the index case, differed slightly from the patterns of the other six strains. A model of a possible genetic event is presented to explain this divergence. This study stresses the value of using several independent molecular markers to identify multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli.  (+info)

Background: Defaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings: A cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September 2002 to 30 April 2004 were prospectively included. Using a structured questionnaire, potential predictor factors for defaulting from treatment were recorded at the beginning of treatment, and patients were followed up until the end of treatment. Default incidence rate was calculated and compared among preregistered risk factors. Of the 404 patients registered for treatment, 81 (20%) defaulted from treatment. A total of 91% (74 of 81) of treatment interruptions occurred during the continuation phase of treatment. On a Cox ...
Background: WHO recommends that Xpert MTB/RIF replaces smear microscopy for initial diagnosis of suspected HIV-associated tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, but no data exist for its use in children. We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences.Background WHO recommends that Xpert MTB/RIF replaces smear microscopy for initial diagnosis of suspected HIV-associated tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, but no data exist for its use in children. We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences. Methods: In this prospective, descriptive study, we enrolled children aged 15 years or younger who had been admitted to one of two hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis between Feb 19, 2009, and Nov 30, 2010. We ...
Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jigjiga town, Ethiopia Mussie Brhane,1 Ameha Kebede,2 Yohannes Petros 2 1Department of Tuberculosis Culture and DST Laboratory, Harar Health Research and Regional Laboratory, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biology, College of Computational and Natural Sciences, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia Background: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Sputum specimens were collected, and using a pretested questionnaire, data for associated risk
BACKGROUND Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. METHODS We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturers protocol. RESULTS The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P | 0.05). The detection ratio
Background: Accurate active tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis remains a challenge in clinical practice, especially in HIV infected patients. The aim of the study was to determine the serum markers that are associated with pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV infected febrile individuals. Methods: The study compared HIV infected people with and without pulmonary tuberculosis and asymptomatic HIV infected individuals for inflammatory makers CRP and leptin levels, and the activation markers IP 10 and β2 microglobulin. Markers were tested on previously collected frozen serum samples. Serum markers CRP, Leptin and β2- microglobulin were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 20 cases with pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 suspects (control1) with B symptoms but without Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20 (control 2) asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. The IP 10 was measured using the Bio-plex Pro assay. The assays were performed according to the manufacturers‟ ...
In co-endemic areas, rate of intestinal parasites and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection thought to be high. However, there are limited studies on the epidemiology of this co-infection in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to generate evidence on intestinal parasites co-infection rate and associated factors among pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB) and their household contacts in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted. Data were collected from 91 PTB patients (cases) and 89 household contacts (controls). Socio-demographic characteristics and associated factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Sputum, stool and blood specimens were collected, processed and examined for PTB, intestinal parasites and Human Immunodeficiency virus anti-body test, respectively. Data were entered and analyzed by Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Descriptive statistics, Fishers exact test, binary logistic regression, and odds ratio were used. P-value of
Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Mozambique was last measured at 38 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) is the ratio of newly notified tuberculosis cases (including relapses) to estimated incident cases (case detection, all forms).This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Mozambique.
Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Hong Kong was last measured at 87 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) is the ratio of newly notified tuberculosis cases (including relapses) to estimated incident cases (case detection, all forms).This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Hong Kong.
Pulmonary tuberculosis has been reported as a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis. In the present study we reported, physiopathological, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the association of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary tuberculosis. This is a retrospective study done in our department between January 2000 and December 2007 It is about 14 cases of confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis associated with deep venous thrombosis. It is about 14 men. The mean age was 40 years old. Pulmonary tuberculosis was confirmed by the presence of acido-alcoolo-resistant bacillus on the sputum at direct exam in 12 cases [81, 8%] and in the bronchial aspiration in 2 cases [18%]. Phlebitis occurred within a mean of 20 days after the diagnosis of tuberculosis. It was confirmed by doppler deep venous ultrasound of inferior members. All patients received anti-tuberculosis drugs in association with anticoagulant treatment. Etiologic investigations showed positive anti-phospholipids antibodies in ...
Background: In high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis diagnosis is challenging. Some countries hence use clinical algorithms to screen for tuberculosis in People Living with HIV (PLHIV). Objectives: The aim of the study was to validate the national algorithm for clinical tuberculosis screening of persons living with HIV who attend comprehensive HIV clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of PLHIV who presented with cough of at least 2 weeks duration between 2009 and 2011 at St Patricks Hospital, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli was obtained from the participants. Results: Three hundred and twelve PLHIV were studied: 146 (46.8%) males and 166 (53.2%) females. Only 55 (17.6%) of the participants had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Weight loss (c2 = 2.33; P = 0.127), hemoptysis (c2 = 0.03; P = 0.864), night sweats (c2 = 1.52; P = 0.218), fever (c2 = 3.49; P = 0.06), anorexia (c2 = 0.49; P = 0.484), chest pain (c2 = 2.48; P = 0.115), breathlessness (c2 = 0.63; P = 0
TY - JOUR. T1 - Implementation of the thin layer agar method for diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a setting with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Homa Bay, Kenya. AU - Martin, A. AU - Waweru, PM. AU - Okatch, FB. AU - Ouma, NA. AU - Bonte, L. AU - Varaine, F. AU - Portaels, F. N1 - ITG-M1B; ITG-MLA; MICRO; U-MYCOB; JIF; DOI; PDF; DSPACE. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Bacterial diseases. KW - Tuberculosis. KW - Smear-negative. KW - Laboratory diagnosis. KW - Thin layer agar. KW - Sensitivity. KW - Affordability. KW - Evaluation studies. KW - Kenya. KW - Africa-East. U2 - 10.1128/JCM.00264-09. DO - 10.1128/JCM.00264-09. M3 - A1: Web of Science-article. VL - 47. SP - 2632. EP - 2634. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 8. ER - ...
Arti kata dari pulmonary tuberculosis. Definisi dari pulmonary tuberculosis. Pengertian dari pulmonary tuberculosis: involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body;
Background: The interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) on CD4 levels over time is complex and has been divergently reported.. Methods: CD4 counts were assessed from time of diagnosis till the end of TB treatment in a cohort of pulmonary TB patients with and without HIV co-infection and compared with cross-sectional data on age- and sex-matched non-TB controls from the same area.. Results: Of 1,605 study participants, 1,250 were PTB patients and 355 were non-TB controls. At baseline, HIV was associated with 246 (95% CI: 203; 279) cells per μL lower CD4 counts. All PTB patients had 100 cells per μL lower CD4 counts than the healthy controls. The CD4 levels were largely unchanged during a five-month of TB treatment. HIV infected patients not receiving ART at any time and those already on ART at baseline had no increase in CD4 counts after 5 months of TB treatment, whereas those prescribed ART between baseline and 2 months, and between 2 and 5 months increased by 69 (22;117) and 110 (52; 168) ...
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide, yet the determinants of death are not well understood. We sought to determine risk factors for mortality during treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis under program settings. Retrospective chart review of patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis reported to the San Francisco Tuberculosis Control Program from 1990-2001. Of 565 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 37 (6.6%) died during the study period. Of 37 deaths, 12 (32.4%) had tuberculosis listed as a contributing factor. In multivariate analysis controlling for follow-up time, four characteristics were independently associated with mortality: HIV co-infection (HR = 2.57, p = 0.02), older age at tuberculosis diagnosis (HR = 1.52 per 10 years, p = 0.001); initial sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli (HR = 3.07, p = 0.004); and experiencing an interruption in tuberculosis therapy (HR = 3.15, p = 0.002). The association between treatment interruption and risk of death was due
Rates of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were compared in Kinshasa, Zaire, in 521 household contacts of 74 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive index patients and in 692 household contacts of 95 HIV-1-seropositive index patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis: No difference was noted between contacts of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative patients. The increasing prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection with increasing age was similar in household contacts of seropositive and seronegative patients; by age 16 years, 75% were purified protein derivative-positive. The similarly low rates of M. tuberculosis infection in household contacts of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative index patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis indicates that HIV-1-seropositive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are not more infectious than HIV-1-seronegative patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
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Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Georgia was reported at 73 in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Georgia - Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href= target=blank>World Bank|/a> on July of 2020.
Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive
Background: Human tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the result of the failure of host immune system to control mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to asses the changes of the cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients before and after the use of anti-TB therapy. Methods: Multiple cytokine responses in active tuberculosis (TB) patients were investigated in this study following anti-TB drug therapy after 2 months. Ninety-six participants with pulmonary TB were engaged in the study between May 2018 and October 2018. Samples of blood were taken early before treatment at 0 and 2 months after using anti-TB therapy. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in whole blood plasma collected from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus were measured. Results: Compared with baseline levels, TNF-α, IL6 and IL10 were significantly lower following ...
Background: Malnutrition is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and may be responsible for the premature deaths of patients with active disease. An adequate nutritional status may therefore be protective in delaying the onset from latent infection to active disease. In South Africa, very little data is available on the nutritional status of adults who present with tuberculosis. This study therefore aims to compare the nutritional status of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients with TB-free controls.Study population & Design: This is a community based case-control study. Forty-three newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited as cases and matched according to age,gender and race to 43 TB-free close contacts. HIV positive subjects were excluded from the study.Methods: Each participant was interviewed and completed a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic information. Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1kg and height to the nearest ...
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Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay.In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients.In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest
Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al., N Engl J Med 371:1577-87, 2014) were retrospectively reviewed. Two clinicians blinded to clinical details using the Ralph scoring system performed separate readings. An independent reader reviewed discrepant results for quality assessment and cavity presence. Cavitation presence was plotted against time to positivity (TTP) of sputum liquid cultures (MGIT 960). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to calculate the difference in average TTP for these groups. The average lung field affected was compared to log 10 TTP by linear regression. Baseline markers
INTRODUCTION: the diagnosis of tuberculosis and its treatment is challenging in resource limited settings. The growth and speed of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high burden countries like Nigeria is a growing concern. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Yenagoa, Nigeria. METHODS: a descriptive survey of all consecutive sputum specimens of adults greater than 15 years of age that presented to the Tuberculosis Referral Hospital Laboratory were subjected to the automated Genexpert test between January and December 2016. RESULTS: all 446 specimens were tested using the Genexpert automated system. 102 (22.9%) of the sputum specimens were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with 15 (14.7%) showing rifampicin resistance. CONCLUSION: there was significantly high prevalence of MDR-TB much higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) prediction of 3.2 -5.4% for Nigeria.
Early case detection, treatment, and prompt household contact investigation, depend on rapid microbiological confirmation, by direct smear microscopy of acid-fast bacilli, in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Since delayed diagnosis may result in death due to lack of appropriate therapy, rapid microbiological diagnosis is especially critical in HIV-infected persons. Improved rapid diagnostic methods are also crucial for the success of epidemiological studies; trials of preventative interventions, such as novel vaccines; and therapeutic interventions, since the diagnostic endpoints of such trials may require microbiological confirmation of tuberculosis. In clinical practice, early therapeutic intervention might reduce the risk of death, especially in patients co-infected with HIV. In this study, researchers propose to test a simple diagnostic modality for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents and adults. Researchers will test ...
Background: Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patients attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases) in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. We administered a structured questionnaire, bearing questions to obtain individual data on socio-demographics, health seeking behaviour, knowledge on TB, reported adherence to TB treatment, and health centre care received during treatment to consenting ...
Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, lung damage in addition, will also cause the nervous, endocrine disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis patients will feel limb weakness, loss of appetite, indigestion, weight loss, etc., so how to early dete
Pulmonary tuberculosis caused by remains a global problem. Crizotinib manufacturer of inflammatory elements interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-4 had been upregulated in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis in ICU. Decrease plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-15 and interferon- had been detected in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis weighed against healthy controls. It had been proven that high flexibility Crizotinib manufacturer group package-1 protein manifestation levels had been higher in the serum Crizotinib manufacturer of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis weighed against healthy settings. Notably, an imbalance of T-helper cell (Th)1/Th2 cytokines was seen in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to also upregulated manifestation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in hPMCs. To conclude, these outcomes proven that inflammatory reactions and inflammatory elements are from the development of pulmonary tuberculosis, recommending ...
The biggest issue with this bacterial infection is that people dont show any symptoms until the disease has reached the advanced stages. The best way to know is to go for a check up and have a baseline chest X-Ray to be fully sure. The best preventive measure against pulmonary tuberculosis is to stay away from people suffering from tuberculosis or any contagious respiratory infection. When pulmonologists deal with cases of tuberculosis in children they normally prescribe "Chemoprophylaxis. Its a drug which is very helpful for children under 4 years suffering from this infection. Drugs for adults include Streptomycin, Ethambutol, Capreomycin, Rifampin and Isoniazid. These drugs have been proven effective but they can also cause side effects if not administered properly, which is why a pulmonologists supervision is a must. Patients also have to struggle with the slightest possibility of reactivation which is seen 10% of the cases. The relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis will depend on the ...
Abstract Poverty undermines adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Economic support may both encourage and enable patients to complete treatment. In South Africa, which carries a high burden of tuberculosis, such support may improve the currently poor outcomes of patients on tuberculosis treatment. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering economic support to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high-burden province of South Africa. Methods This was a pragmatic, unblinded, two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, where 20 public sector clinics acted as clusters. Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in intervention clinics (n = 2,107) were offered a monthly voucher of ZAR120.00 (approximately US$15) until the completion of their treatment. Vouchers were redeemed at local shops for foodstuffs. Patients in control clinics (n = 1,984) received usual tuberculosis care. Results Intention to treat analysis showed a small but non-significant improvement in ...
Background: Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB).. Methods: In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at NCT00677339.. Results: 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active ...
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Abstract The author has divided this book into two parts: The first is a seventy-two page monograph on pulmonary tuberculosis; the second is an atlas of thoracic roentgenology. Each is written briefly and clearly. At the outset, in the first part of the book, pulmonary tuberculosis is discussed in orthodox fashion by a short description of its pathology and methods of diagnosis. Then comes a chapter which is of chief interest to the reader who is not an expert roentgenologist. For here is described roentgenologic technic and interpretation of roentgenograms of the chest. Two excellent chapters on the treatment of tuberculosis follow, the first dealing with methods of medical treatment and the second with modern ways of attacking tuberculosis by surgical measures. Finally, a brief chapter discusses control of the disease. The text is accompanied with forty-four excellent
The etiology of pulmonary tuberculosis 1, genetic factors, genetic factors can affect the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, if the family close relatives have history of tuberculosis, the offspring are likely to suffer from tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnoses of pulmonary tuberculosis contribute to the spread of the epidemic. METHODS: This study aims to identify risk factors associated with patient delay (from symptoms onset to the first visit), health system delay (from the first visit to the tuberculosis treatment initiation) and total delay (sum of the patient and the health system delay) in low income and high tuberculosis burden countries. A systematic literature review has been performed using the keywords: tuberculosis; delay, care seeking; health care seeking behavior; diagnosis and treatment. Only quantitative studies showing delays for pulmonary tuberculosis adult cases were included in this review. RESULTS: Low income, gender, rural life, unemployment, ageing and misunderstanding the microbial cause of tuberculosis are associated with delayed diagnoses. Systemic factors including low health care coverage, patient expenditures and entry into the health system by consulting a traditional healer or a non
In 2006, the estimated smear-positive tuberculosis CDR in HIV-negative adults was 79% (95% confidence interval, CI: 64-94) and in HIV-positive adults, 57% (95% CI: 26-88), giving a weighted mean of 68% (95% CI: 49-87). The separate estimate for all smear-positive tuberculosis cases was 72% (95% CI: 53-91), giving an overall average for the three estimates of 70% (95% CI: 58-82). As the tuberculosis CDR in 1996 was 57% (95% CI: 47-67), the estimated increase by 2006 was 13 percentage points (95% CI: 6-20), or 23%. This increase was accompanied by a more than doubling of the resources devoted to tuberculosis control in Kenya, including facilities and staff.. ...
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB. Of 124 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, 117 (94.4 %) were susceptible to rifampicin, while 7 (5.7 %) were confirmed to be resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. History of previous treatment was significantly associated with MDR-TB. Maximizing early case detection and treatment, strengthening TB infection control activities and proper implementation of DOTS are ...
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.. Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website ...
Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Iranian Journal of Radiology - - Kowsar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and feasibility of tuberculosis diagnosis by sputum microscopy after bleach sedimentation, compared with by conventional direct smear microscopy, in a setting of high prevalence of HIV. METHODS: In a community-based study in Kenya (a population in which 50% of individuals with tuberculosis are infected with HIV), individuals with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis submitted 3 sputum specimens during 2 consecutive days, which were examined by blind evaluation. Ziehl-Neelsen-stained smears were made of fresh specimens and of specimens that were processed with 3.5% household bleach followed by overnight sedimentation. Two different cutoffs for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) per 100 high-power fields (HPF) were used to define a positive smear: |10 AFB/100 HPF and 1 AFB/100 HPF. Four smear-positive case definitions, based on 1 or 2 positive smears with the 1 AFB or 10 AFB cutoff, were used. RESULTS: Of 1879 specimens from 644 patients, 363 (19.3%)
The two groups were newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis receiving antituberculosis treatment (after one year, patients receiving a retreatment regimen were also eligible) and clinically healthy people previously treated for tuberculosis but no longer receiving any treatment.All participants had a permanent address, were not pregnant, and were willing to give informed consent. We excluded patients with WHO stage 4 HIV disease who were unlikely to survive more than two weeks as well as those with a history of sulphonamide allergy and those who needed treatment with or were already receiving co trimoxazole for other indications.Screening, informed consent, and randomisationAll newly diagnosed, previously untreated adult patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis seen routinely in a diagnostic clinic and patients who had participated in an earlier trial of tuberculosis treatment were potentially eligible. Patients were referred to the ...
Definition of Pulmonary tuberculosis with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
To the editor: Abbasi and associates (1) suggest that hypercalcemia associated with tuberculosis does not occur until 4 weeks after hospitalization and may be related to vitamin D intake. We have found that a disorder of calcium homeostasis is present at admission in many such patients and explain here why it is not usually recognized.. We have retrospectively studied 89 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 2½-year period. Because hypoalbuminemia was present in 32 patients (36%) at admission, we corrected the calcium to the midpoint of the albumin reference range, assuming that 0.025 ...
Undernutrition is common among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) patients. Micronutrient supplementation may improve treatment outcomes, but it is unclear whether additional energy-protein would be beneficial. The present study aimed to assess the effect of energy-protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength against a background of high micronutrient intake during tuberculosis (TB) treatment. A total of 377 PTB+ patients co-infected with HIV were randomly allocated one or six biscuits daily for 60 d during TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and 2 and 5 months. There were no effects on any outcome at 2 months, but energy-protein supplementation was associated with a 1·3 (95 % CI − 0·1, 2·8) kg marginally significant gain in handgrip strength at 5 months. However, after 2 months, energy-protein supplementation led to a weight gain of 1·9 (95 % CI 0·1, 3·7) kg among patients with cluster ...
A key to recognizing the disease across its various apparitions, apart from its specific clinical manifestations, is the very peculiar fact two thirds of those affected are men. It is true for the vaping illness; it is true for the Brescia pneumonia; it is true for Covid-19.. It is also true for pulmonary tuberculosis (archive, archive, archive). As in other cases, this characteristic is a mystery (archive).. Tuberculosis is a very old disease; as old as civilization itself. Most cases are pulmonary, i.e. dont spread outside of the lungs. It is thought to be caused by at least 9 different bacteria, which have been grouped in a single complex (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) because they are believed to all be able to cause the same disease.. Most infections by these bacteria produce no symptoms, a condition labelled latent tuberculosis, which is quite common as one quarter of the world population lives with it as of 2018. The vast majority of those people will never go to develop any ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
In 2018, Uganda started only 65% of persons with incident tuberculosis on treatment. Pretreatment loss to follow up is an important contributor to suboptimal treatment coverage. We aimed to describe the patient and health facility-level characteristics associated with pretreatment loss to follow up among patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis at public health facilities in Uganda. At ten public health facilities, laboratory register data was used to identify patients aged ≥ 15 years who had a positive Xpert®MTB/RIF test. Initiation on TB treatment was ascertained using the clinical register. Factors associated with not being initiated on TB treatment within two weeks of diagnosis were examined using a multilevel logistic regression model accounting for clustering by health facility. From January to June 2018, 510 patients (61.2% male and 31.5% HIV co-infected) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. One hundred (19.6%) were not initiated on TB treatment within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Not having a
Background & Objectives: Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that gets created by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes more than 80% of the Tuberculosis cases. Despite the availability of effective treatment for pulmonary TB, sputum smear negative time course of patients affected by various factors is not as expected. The aim of ...
Tuberculosis case detection rate reached 54.0 % in 2017 in Libya, according to World Bank / WHO. This is 20.0 % more than in the previous year. Historically, tuberculosis case detection rate in Libya reached an all time high of 91.0 % in 2005 and an all time low of 14.0 % in 1991. When compared to Libyas main peers, tuberculosis case detection rate in Algeria amounted to 80.0 %, 51.0 % in Chad, 63.0 % in Egypt and 80.0 % in Tunisia in 2017. Libya has been ranked 152nd within the group of 173 countries we follow in terms of tuberculosis case detection rate, 147 places behind the position seen 10 years ago. The tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) is the proportion of newly notified tuberculosis cases (including relapses) to estimated incident cases (case detection, all forms).. ...
ORCID: and Macq, J. (2004) Access and adhering to tuberculosis treatment: barriers faced by-patients and communities in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol 8, Issue 12, pp. 1479-1483. Shapiro, Adrienne, Ross, Jennifer, Schiller, Ian, Kohli, Mikashmi, Dendukuri, Nandini, Steingart, Karen and Horne, David (2020) Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra assays for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults irrespective of signs or symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol 7, CD013694. Shargie, E. B., Yassin, Mohammed A. and Lindtjorn, B. (2006) Prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in a rural district of Ethiopia. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol 10, Issue 1, pp. 87-92. Sharma, Surendra K, Ryan, Hannah, Khaparde, Sunil, Sachdeva, K S, Singh, Achintya D, Mohan, Alladi, Sarin, Rohit, Paramasivan, C N, Kumar, Prahlad, Nischal, Neeraj, ...
INTRODUCTION: Delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Timely diagnosis of active tuberculosis is crucial in minimizing morbidity and mortality in the community as well as nosocomial transmission in health care facilities. This study aimed at determining factors associated with health service delay in the diagnosis and initiation of treatment among new PTB patients presenting to the National Referral Hospital-Mulago. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among eligible new PTB patients presenting at the National referral TB treatment center Mulago hospital, between March to May 2009. The patients were consecutively recruited and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess socio- demographic and health service factors. Multivariate logistic regression using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was done. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty six newly diagnosed PTB patients were enrolled, of which 65.4% experienced health
Nigeria ranks fourth among 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Although it reached 99% DOTS coverage in 2008, current case detection rate is 40%. Little is known about delays before the start of TB therapy and health-seeking behaviour of TB patients in rural resource-limited settings. We aimed to: 1) assess healthcare-seeking behaviour and delay in treatment of pulmonary TB patients, 2) identify the determinants of the delay in treatment of pulmonary TB. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult new pulmonary TB patients notified to the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) by three rural (two mission/one public) hospitals. Data on health-seeking and delays were collected using a standardised questionnaire. We defined patient delay as the interval (weeks) between the onset of cough and the first visit to any health provider, and health system delay as the time interval (weeks) between patients first attendance to any health provider, and the onset of treatment. Total delay is the
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4+ lymphocytes and tuberculin skin test as survival predictors in pulmonary tuberculosis HIV-infected patients. AU - Serrat, Carles. AU - Gómez, Guadalupe. AU - De Olalla, Patricia García. AU - Caylà, Joan A.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background. We analyse whether the tuberculin skin test is a good survival marker in a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with HIV infection (PTB/HIV). In all, 494 PTB/HIV patients were enrolled in Barcelona (Spain) between January 1992 and December 1994 in the Tuberculosis Program of Barcelona. The main data problem was the large proportion of missing values in the covariates percentage of T CD4+ lymphocytes and the tuberculin test results: only 157 patients (31.8%) had both covariates recorded. Methods. Patients were dichotomized into two groups according to their level of immunosuppression (≤ 14 and , 14% T CD4+ cells). First, we carried out the semiparametric and parametric complete case analysis. After this, we analysed the data ...
A retrospective study was carried out at Douala General Hospital, Cameroon, between July 2007 and July 2011, to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among the pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) patients and to compare epidemiological profiles with respect to TB/HIV co-infection. The cases of all patients aged 15 years and above and diagnosed with pTB during the study period were reviewed. Sociodemographic data, sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli, previous TB-treatment status, and HIV status were recorded. The chi-square or Fishers exact tests were used to compare the proportions. The independent sample t-test was used to compare means for the quantitative data. Of the 383 pTB patients included, 56.1% were males. The mean age was 38.9 ± 13.9 years (range 15-95). The age group 25-44 years was most represented, with 55.6% of the patients, while the least represented age group was that of patients over 65 years. The mean age of the females (36.2 ± 13.6 years) was statistically lower than ...
Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) in Guyana was reported at 80 in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Guyana - Tuberculosis case detection rate (all forms) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href= target=blank>World Bank|/a> on July of 2020.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucosyl hemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated with rifampicin. AU - Nayak, S. S.. AU - Thomas, K. V.G.. AU - Mathew, S. I.. AU - Bhat, K. R.. AU - Rau, N. R.. AU - Kundaje, G. N.. AU - Aroor, A. R.. PY - 1990/4/27. Y1 - 1990/4/27. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0025274238. VL - 5. SP - 47. EP - 53. JO - Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. JF - Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. SN - 0970-1915. IS - 1. ER - ...
Understanding the genetic diversity of |i|Mycobacterium tuberculosis|/i| is needed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of TB and could have implications for the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. |i|M. tuberculosis|/i| isolates were characterized using spoligotyping and were compared with the SpoIDB4 database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. A total of 53 different patterns were identified among 192 isolates examined. 169 of the isolates were classified into one of the 33 shared SITs, whereas the remaining 23 corresponded to 20 orphan patterns. 54% of the isolates were ascribed to the T family, a family which has not been well defined to date. Other prominent families were CAS, Haarlem, LAM, Beijing, and Unknown comprising 26%, 13%, 2.6%, 0.5%, and 2.1%, respectively. Among HIV-positive patients, 10 patterns were observed among 25 isolates. The T (38.5%), H (26.9%), and CAS (23.1%) families were the most common among HIV
A31 - Infection due to other mycobacteria: Pulmonary mycobacterial infection; Cutaneous mycobacterial infection; Other mycobacterial infections; Mycobacterial infection, unspecified: Diseases and Medical Conditions (ICD-10) from
Beijing strains are speculated to have a selective advantage over other Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains because of increased transmissibility and virulence. In Alberta, a province of Canada that receives a large number of immigrants, we conducted a population-based study to determine whether Beijing strains were associated with increased transmission leading to disease compared with non-Beijing strains. Beijing strains accounted for 258 (19%) of 1,379 pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 1991-2007; overall, 21% of Beijing cases and 37% of non-Beijing cases were associated with transmission clusters. Beijing index cases had significantly fewer secondary cases within 2 years than did non-Beijing cases, but this difference disappeared after adjustment for demographic characteristics, infectiousness, and M. tuberculosis lineage. In a province that has effective tuberculosis control, transmission of Beijing strains posed no more of a public health threat than did non-Beijing strains ...
In the context of the rising seroprevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe,23 tuberculosis has become an increasing health burden. The Harare City Health Department currently spends over 10% of its budget on the treatment and control of tuberculosis. There is therefore a great need to define the epidemiology of the disease in Harare in order to plan strategies effectively and invest scant resources appropriately. For example, a greater understanding of the aetiology of the disease will help to determine whether instituting isoniazid prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients to prevent reactivation or strengthening conventional contact tracing to interrupt transmission has the greatest public health priority.10 11 24-26 In this study we have characterised the socioeconomic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting to a large Harare chest clinic. Contrary to what might be expected from such an urban population, recent rural-urban migration ...
Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16: Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16. (Contd) Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 17. Tuberculosis Cases and Case Rates per 100,000 Population: States, 2002 and 2001 - PDF , HTML. Table 18. Tuberculosis Cases by Age Group: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 19. Tuberculosis Cases by Race/Ethnicity: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 20. Tuberculosis Cases, U.S.-born Persons and Foreign-born Persons: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 21. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Country of Origin: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 22. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Number of Years in the United States: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 23. Tuberculosis Cases by Form of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 24. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases by Site of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 25. Tuberculosis Cases in Residents of ...
PURPOSE: Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increasing risk of opportunistic infections, particularly tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study is to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment problems of pulmonary TB developing in patients with rheumatic diseases. METHODS: All patients with rheumatic diseases and concurrently newly active pulmonary TB, seen at Hanyang university hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, were selected as cases. For comparison purposes, patients without rheumatic diseases, who had newly diagnosed active pulmonary TB in respiratory clinic during the same 3-year study period, were also selected as control subjects. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical record of 30 patients suffering from active pulmonary TB with rheumatic diseases and 193 without rheumatic diseases. RESULTS: Of 30 patients who enrolled as cases, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were 20 (66.7%). Asymptomatic patients were more frequent in rheumatic diseases than control ...
Dear Editor,. We are glad to read the article by Fallahi et al. (1), entitled Pulmonary Tuberculosis Seasonality Survey in Fars Province, South of Iran, which was published in the last issue of the journal. This well-written article aimed to find the sessional distribution pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, there are some concerns regarding interpretation of results.. The authors reported the TB sessional distribution pattern based on diagnosis time. The timeline of TB infection starts when infectious droplets are inhaled by close contacts to infected patients. Then, these infectious droplets penetrate the well ventilated area of lungs. In this situation, the immune system reaction results in granuloma formation. In most patients, the infectious process stops in this step. However, in some patients, active TB infection will be developed within months (miliary TB) or up to decades later (apical pulmonary TB) (2). After onset of TB symptom in infected patients, pulmonary TB will be ...
The Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre was established at Chennai in 1956 and renamed as Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC) in 1978. The Centre has made significant contributions in different areas of research on tuberculosis including the immunology and molecular biology. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated TRC as a collaborating centre for tuberculosis control programme in India. Many of the research findings of the Centre have received worldwide recognition and had significant impact on the formulation of tuberculosis control programmes in Asia, Africa, South America and some parts of Europe. The Centre imparts training in laboratory diagnosis and controlled clinical trials of tuberculosis. It is also actively engaged in evolving comprehensive methodologies for strengthening the case-finding and case-holding components of National Tuberculosis Control Programme. ...
The disease essays on tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a making mistakes now essay rod-shaped bacterium abstract tuberculosis essay example the bacteria known as mycobacterium math help and answers tuberculosis is the primary culprit essays on tuberculosis for the disease tuberculosis. tuberculosis is an infectious disease. essays on tuberculosis it is thought that as many as 2 billion people have birds beak lab report essay been exposed to the tb bacillus and are therefore human development essay topics at risk of brown v board of education essay developing the active disease free【 essay on tuberculosis 】- use this essays as a template to follow ny bar exam essays while writing your own paper. thanks! since it is aerobic it can easily be inhaled and deposited in the lungs, which make people more personal essay for pharmacy school vulnerable to disease tuberculosis essay lack essays on tuberculosis of medical care: if a person pay someone to do my math homework who is on ...
Children account for a major proportion of the global tuberculosis disease burden, especially in endemic areas. However, the accurate diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis remains a major challenge. This review provides an overview of the most important recent advances in the diagnosis of intrathoracic childhood tuberculosis: (1) symptom-based approaches, including symptom-based screening of exposed children and symptom-based diagnosis of active disease; (2) novel immune-based approaches, including T cell assays and novel antigen-based tests; and (3) bacteriological and molecular methods that are more rapid and/or less expensive than conventional culture techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis and/or drug-resistance testing. Recent advances have improved our ability to diagnose latent infection and active tuberculosis in children, but establishing a diagnosis of either latent infection or active disease in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge, particularly in high-burden settings. ...
Background: There is limited information about extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in Qatar. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics of patients with Tuberculosis (TB) in Qatar, and to compare the characteristics of EPTB with those of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in Qatar, from January 2005 to December 2008. It involves all cases of TB diagnosed in Qatar which do _disibledevent=font-size:12px;font-family:Verdana;>associated condition was diabetesmellitus (DM) (30; 2.5%), and the most frequent site involved was lymph node (285 cases; 43.5%). One thousand two hundred patients continued on first-line drugs while 21 patients received second line treatment. The mean duration of antituberculous therapy was 6.7 ± 1.7 months. Hepatitis was the main drug toxicity. Eight hundred and forty seven patients (69.3%) cured and eight patients (0.7%) died, whereas the remaining three hundred and
Researchers working at CDC have developed improved vaccine formulations and processes of delivery for enhancing the immune response against M. tuberculosis. These improvements may be implemented as stand-alone vaccines or in conjunction with BCG as part of a prime-boost strategy. Intranasal immunization engenders a strong immune response in the lungs, which is beneficial because the M. tuberculosis pathogen primarily gains entry through the respiratory/alveolar mucosa. By specifically stimulating mucosal immunity with select recombinant M. tuberculosis polypeptides at the typical site of pathogen entry, it is envisioned that these formulations and delivery methods will be able to prevent M. tuberculosis infection and subsequent pulmonary tuberculosis disease ...
Inclusion Criteria:. relapse pulmonary tuberculosis patients with acid-fast bacilli smear positive by microscopy, using ZiehlNieelsen staining as recommended by WHO, unfit for DOTS -. Exclusion Criteria:. pregnancy, clinical sign of any concomitant disease such as diabetes mellitus, acute renal failure or infectious disease including TB/HIV and HIV positive, currently or taken any alternative therapies in past 6 months ...
Background Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive HIV-infected inpatients with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Trained medical officers prospectively collected data on standard symptoms and signs of systemic respiratory illness, and two radiologists interpreted chest radiographs in a standardized fashion. We calculated positive- and negative-likelihood ratios of these factors for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (defined
Tuberculosis remains one of the major diseases afflicting children throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends tuberculosis disease screening in children who live in the household of a smear-positive case, but lack effective measures for this management in high-burden countries to perform this routinely. WHO has recently called for more studies to define the global epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis, because the literature remains scant, dominated primarily by studies from industrialized countries and South Africa, but few epidemiologic studies of pediatric tuberculosis have been published from Asia. Children account for 10-15% of all new cases of tuberculosis worldwide. For a long time, childhood tuberculosis was neglected because of the paucibacillary characteristic of the disease in pediatric population. However, recent works have reinforced the role of childhood tuberculosis as an indicator of the effectiveness of control-programmes and also in the dissemination ...
We labeled a patient to have ocular TB in this study based on the proposed diagnostic criteria for presumed ocular TB by Gupta et al. [5] (i.e., a known clinical sign of ocular TB with a positive systemic finding such as a tuberculous lesion on CXR). Though the PCR result done in one of the seven labeled to have POTB was negative, it still does not rule out possible ocular TB, only having a reported maximal sensitivity of 66.6% [12].. Ocular TB is one manifestation of EPTB. It can adversely affect the quality of life of people by threatening vision. Of the 103 pulmonary TB patients in the study, seven (6.8%) showed signs of ocular inflammation. There are probably more cases we were unable to detect because we did not examine EPTB patients. This rate is higher than the 1.39% to 1.46% ocular involvement found in other studies [6, 9]. It can expand the knowledge base regarding the epidemiology of POTB and can contribute to greater awareness on the condition.. Ocular TB is not easy to diagnose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations between tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphisms and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. T2 - Meta-analysis. AU - Lee, Young Ho. AU - Song, Gwan Gyu. PY - 2015/7/31. Y1 - 2015/7/31. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in different ethnic populations. MEDLINE and Embase databases and manual searches were employed to identify articles in which TNF-α polymorphisms were determined in patients with PTB and controls. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations of the TNF-α -308A/G, -238A/G, and -857T/C polymorphisms with PTB susceptibility. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria, including 12, 6, and 4 studies on TNF-α-308A/G, -238A/G, and -857T/C polymorphisms, respectively. Meta-analysis showed no association between the TNF-α -308A allele and PTB susceptibility in all study subjects (odds ratio, OR = 1.182, 95%CI = ...
VENDRAMINI, Silvia Helena Figueiredo; VILLA, Tereza Cristina Scatena; SANTOS, Maria de Lourdes S. Geraldes and GAZETTA, Cláudia Eli. Current epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis and the impact of the DOTS strategy in disease control. Rev. Latino-Am. Enfermagem [online]. 2007, vol.15, n.1, pp.171-173. ISSN 1518-8345. This article aims to present the current situation of tuberculosis and how the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course) strategy has impacted national tuberculosis control programs worldwide, in Latin America and in Brazil. Data reveal a tendency towards a slow decline in disease rates (1%) around the world in 2003. In Brazil, data indicate a constant downward tendency of approximately 3% a year in incidence levels. The DOTS strategy has been recommended to all countries. Brazil needs to improve its tuberculosis surveillance efforts, particularly in terms of confirming negative sputum smear results at the end of ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and helminth infections elicit antagonistic immune effector functions and are co-endemic in several regions of the world. We therefore hypothesized that helminth infection may influence Mtb-specific T-cell immune responses. We evaluated the cytokine profile of Mtb-specific T cells in 72 individuals with pulmonary TB disease recruited from two Sub-Saharan regions with high and moderate helminth burden i.e. 55 from Tanzania (TZ) and 17 from South Africa (SA), respectively. We showed that Mtb-specific CD4 T-cell functional profile of TB patients from Tanzania are primarily composed of polyfunctional Th1 and Th2 cells, associated with increased expression of Gata-3 and reduced expression of T-bet in memory CD4 T cells. In contrast, the cytokine profile of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells of TB patients from SA was dominated by single IFN-γ and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α and associated with TB-induced systemic inflammation and elevated serum levels of type I IFNs. Of note, the ...
Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis appears to be increasing in England and Wales. The trends in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and factors associated with these trends were examined. Methods: National tuberculosis surveillance data from 1999-2006 for England and Wales were used, including demographic, clinical and laboratory information. Trends in the proportion of tuberculosis cases with extrapulmonary disease were investigated using the ?2 trend test and associated factors using logistic regression. Results: Among all the cases of tuberculosis, the proportion with extrapulmonary disease increased from 48% in 1999 (2717 cases) to 53% in 2006 (4205 cases, p. ...
Background. We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, the timing for the initiation of ART during tuberculosis treatment remains unresolved. Methods. We conducted a three-group, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in South Africa involving 642 ambulatory patients, all with tuberculosis (confirmed by a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli), human immunodeficiency virus infection, and a CD4+ T-cell count of less than 500 per cubic millimeter. Findings in the earlier- ART group (ART initiated within 4 weeks after the start of tuberculosis treatment, 214 patients) and later-ART group (ART initiated during the first 4 weeks of the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment, 215 patients) are presented here. Results. At baseline, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 150 per cubic millimeter, and the median viral load was 161,000 copies per milliliter, with no significant differences between the two groups. The ...
Background: Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a recognized risk. We investigated TB transmission to neonates and health care workers (HCWs) exposed to a nurse with active TB in a NICU. Methods: A NICU nurse in a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea, developed pulmonary TB. The investigation included 108 infants and 75 HCWs. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest radiograph were performed at baseline. Isoniazid prophylaxis was started in neonates. After 3 months of prophylaxis, infants underwent repeat TST and chest radiograph. HCWs underwent a second TST after 3 months. Results: Baseline chest radiographs were negative in infants and HCWs. Four (3.7%) of 108 infants screened had a positive TST, including 2 conversions, and received isoniazid for 6-9 months. Among the 59 HCWs screened, 27 (45.8%) had an initial positive TST result, and 6 (10.2%) had a positive TST result at 3 months. Four of the 6 HCWs with TST conversions received ...
To allow for a common understanding, the following working definitions have been used in this document. Some have been defined in earlier documents, others are new and address specific issues raised in this European framework. 1) Latent infection. A latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (or latent tuberculosis infection) is a subclinical infection with tubercle bacilli without clinical, bacteriological or radiological signs or symptoms of manifest disease 9, 11. Typically this is an individual who has a positive tuberculin test and normal chest radiography. They may be a known contact of a previous case of tuberculosis. 2) Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is defined as the clinically, bacteriologically and/or radiographically manifest disease 9. 3) Low tuberculosis incidence countries. Low tuberculosis incidence countries have been defined as those with a crude case notification rate ,10 (all cases) per 100,000 inhabitants and declining 9. For the purposes of this Framework the ...
Question - Pulmonary tuberculosis,sputum examination negative, taking Fixcom 4, orange urine, itchy. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Rifampin, Ask a Pulmonologist
This thesis investigates the clinical impact of a point-of-care diagnostic strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a setting at the heart of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Although the identification and prompt treatment of active pulmonary TB disease remains the cornerstone of global TB control strategies, weak diagnostic systems contribute to substantial delays and default during the diagnostic process. As new diagnostic technologies are developed, evidence is needed around how best to deliver them within health systems in order to maximize their impact. The impact of positioning of a molecular diagnostic system (Xpert MTB/RIF) was investigated in a cluster randomised trial. Clusters (two-week time periods) were randomised to one of two strategies: centralised laboratory Xpert MTB/RIF testing or point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF at the clinic. The trial enrolled 1297 adults with symptoms of pulmonary TB who were HIV infected and/or ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Pulmonary TB) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting the lungs. The disease is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis with morphology that is shaped basil that is resistant to alcoholic acid if stained with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Sputum examination of pulmonary TB patients with Centrifugation Technique is examination with a certain rotational speed that is affected by gravity to produce precipitate. The purpose of this research is to know the microscopic picture of acid proof bacillus (BTA) examination by using centrifugation technique and conventional technique. This type of research is descriptive to see the microscopic picture of smear from sputum pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Sample collection that is accidental sampling amounted to 14 samples of sputum which have been checked by conventional technique of laboratory of RSUP. Prof. Dr. R. D. Kandou and re-examined at the BPPK Laboratory of North Sulawesi Province using centrifugation technique ...
This study shows that current or ex-smokers had a higher prevalence of M tuberculosis infection than never smokers and that there was a slightly higher risk of infection for those who smoked more than 15 pack-years than for those who smoked less, although this was not significant. This suggests that the increased risk of disease and death from tuberculosis among smokers may be due, at least in part, to an increased risk of smokers becoming infected with M tuberculosis.. An unexpected finding was the positive association between a positive TST and income. It should be noted, however, that the mean incomes in the study area are low, and that the categorisation threshold used in the analyses identifies only the poorest in the community. Nevertheless, the reason for their lower TST rates requires further study, including the possibility of lower risk of exposure through fewer social contacts.. Our study confirms previous studies that showed an association between smoking and tuberculosis infection ...
CARTAS AL EDITOR. Micronutrient supplementation for pulmonary tuberculosis. To the editor: We read with interest the randomized double-blind study by Dr. Armijos RX et al.1 to assess the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on outcomes for patients with tuberculosis. Though the sample was small, this interesting study showed that adjunctive zinc supplementation appeared to accelerate bacterial clearance in patients with drug-sensitive, sputum smear-positive and culture-positive pulmonary disease. The effect of vitamin A supplementation was less evident. The investigators stated that they measured BMI and recorded intakes of energy, zinc, vitamin A and other nutrients from food, supplements and other sources from month 1 to 4 and at month 6. They also measured blood levels of zinc, retinol and albumin at baseline and at months 2 and 6. While BMI was reported at baseline, it was not reported during the follow up months; we wonder whether BMI was similar throughout the study or whether ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025, the global tuberculosis treatment market was valued at US$ 838.4 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,306.6 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 4.9 % from 2017 to 2025.. Market Insights. About one-third of the worlds population is suffering with latent tuberculosis, people infected with mycobacterium infection have a 10% risk to fall ill with tuberculosis, however people with compromised immunity such as HIV, diabetes and tobacco addiction are at a higher risk to get tuberculosis. The drugs utilized to fight tuberculosis is categorized as first-line treatment and second-line treatment on the basis of the severity of illness.. Browse the full report Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at In the base year ...
ABSTRACT High Rates of Undiagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Barriers to Diagnosis and Care Among HIV-positive Patients in a Rural South African Hospital: A Cross-sectional cohort study Palav A. Babaria, N. Sarita Shah, Anthony P. Moll, Neel R. Gandhi, Gerald H. Friedland. Yale AIDS Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among HIV infected patients in South Africa. Symptoms of active TB may be subtle in HIV patients and go unrecognized in early illness, creating an opportunity for nosocomial TB transmission. Late presentation and delayed diagnosis of TB also contribute to increased mortality and community-based TB transmission. In an effort to identify active TB promptly, screening for TB must be integrated into routine HIV care and barriers to seeking care must be addressed. We prospectively initiated a standardized TB screening program at a rural HIV clinic to determine the prevalence of
Tuberculosis Control Program Abstract: The mission of the Connecticut Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program is to interrupt and prevent transmission of TB, prevent emergence of drug-resistant TB, and reduce and prevent death, disability, illness, emotional trauma, family disruption, and social stigma caused by TB.Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. It particularly affects persons living in crowded conditions and in poverty (e.g., homeless) and persons who have HIV infection (e.g., injection drug users). The TB Control Program (Program) works in collaboration with health care providers and municipal health departments to conduct surveillance for TB disease and latent TB infection, screening, treatment, and containment activities. Program activities include: Identifying all persons diagnosed or suspected of having TB through reporting to the Program by health care providers, local health authorities and laboratories. Collecting and
Description of disease Active tuberculosis. Treatment Active tuberculosis. Symptoms and causes Active tuberculosis Prophylaxis Active tuberculosis
The requirements for optimal identification of TB suspects and diagnosis of TB patients in a PHC setting (knowledge of health care workers of TB symptoms, providing health education for TB suspects about how and why to submit good quality sputum samples, and high quality sputum smear examination) were not present in all PHCs in Sidoarjo district. This may be the reason for the low case detection rate in the district. The main identified problem was the low number of general nurses and laboratory technicians that had received training in TB control resulting in lack of knowledge about identification of TB suspects, inadequate health education for sputum collection, and insufficient quality of the laboratory diagnosis. Furthermore, the reported high workload may influence the quality of the diagnostic process.. Most general nurses and TB workers knew that cough for more than 3 weeks can be a symptom of tuberculosis. Other symptoms often related to TB were not so well known. In general, the TB ...
Rationale: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult in patient who do not produce sputum spontaneously, or who have AFB smear (-) sputum. Bronchoscopy is helpful in these patients, but in many cases cannot be readily available. We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield of sputum induction test with bronchoscopy.. Methods: From February 1 to July 31, 2010, we included the patients suspected active pulmonary tuberculosis, who could not produce sputum spontaneously, or who had a pair of AFB smear (-) sputum. They underwent sputum induction test and bronchoscopy. We calculated the sensitivity of AFB smear, culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB-PCR of each test, and evaluated the concordance rate by kappa test.. Results: Sensitivities of AFB smear were 36.1% in sputum induction test and 33.3% in bronchoscopy. Sensitivities of culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 69.4% and 75.0%, and TB PCR were 52.8% and 58.3% in sputum induction and bronchoscopy, respectively. The results of ...
Active cavitating pulmonary tuberculosis. *Advanced liver disease. *Intracardiac thrombi. *Uncontrolled hypertension (systolic ... Massive pulmonary embolism. For the treatment of a massive pulmonary embolism, catheter-directed therapy is a safer and more ... It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and in cases of severe venous thromboembolism (massive pulmonary ... "Catheter-directed therapy for the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and meta-analysis of modern ...
Leung, AN (February 1999). "Pulmonary tuberculosis: the essentials". Radiology. 210 (2): 307-22. doi:10.1148/radiology.210.2. ... A Simon focus is a tuberculosis (TB) nodule that can form in the apex of the lung when a primary TB infection elsewhere in the ...
Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee (1948). "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research ... The first published RCT in medicine appeared in the 1948 paper entitled "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis", ...
It was also associated with pulmonary tuberculosis.[1] Cervical lymphadenitis is commonly caused by an infection of ... Surgical excision of the scrofula does not work well for M. tuberculosis infections, and has a high rate of recurrence and ... About 95% of the scrofula cases in adults are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, most often in immunocompromised patients ( ... Sometimes the disease can occur due to tuberculosis disease. However it is urgent that on a case by case basis that you ...
Singhal, Ritu; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad (March 2015). "Microscopy as a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis". International ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of Mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ... Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in cattle. Since tuberculosis can be spread to humans, milk is pasteurized to kill any ... In 1882 Robert Koch discovered the etiology of tuberculosis.[17] Soon after Koch's discovery, Paul Ehrlich developed a stain ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Asia Publishing House. p. 150. ISBN 978-0210312148. R. Viswanathan (1966). Pulmonary tuberculosis. Asia ... and high altitude pulmonary oedema, among others. He published seven books which included Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Diseases of ... R. Viswanathan (July 1996). Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Asia Publishing House. p. 150. ISBN 978-0210312148. ASIN 0210312149. R. ... National Conference on Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON) has instituted an annual oration, Prof. Raman Viswanathan Memorial Chest ...
"Tuberculosis". Retrieved 2019-09-05. Bhattacharya, Mallar (2016-11-09). "Macrophages build a wall and the ... "Pulmonary Pathology". Retrieved 2008-11-21. "Cellular changes and adaptive responses - Knowledge for medical students and ... When the hilar lymph node for instance is infected with tuberculosis and leads to caseous necrosis, its gross appearance can be ... Frequently, caseous necrosis is encountered in the foci of tuberculosis infections. It can also be caused by syphilis and ...
... where pulmonary tuberculosis and scrofula are very common… Other more common diseases, are various forms of, bronchitis ... ... Mavridis, Agapi 2008 Tuberculosis and Syndemics: Implications for Winnipeg, Manitoba. In Multiplying and Dividing Tuberculosis ... Kant L (2003). "Diabetes Mellitus-Tuberculosis: The Brewing Double Trouble". Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 50 (4): 83-84.. ... 2011) HIV-1/Mycobacterium tuberculosis Coinfection Immunology: How Does HIV-1 Exacerbate Tuberculosis? Infection and Immunity. ...
Active pulmonary tuberculosis. Impaired fibrinolysis. Severe liver disease. Manifest or impending shock. I.M.-Injection : ... For the treatment of established deep vein thrombosis; central retinal and branch vein thrombosis; priapism; pulmonary ...
"Pulmonary Pathology". Retrieved 21 November 2008. Kim JY, Jung JW, Choi JC, Shin JW, Park IW, Choi BW (February 2014). " ... "Recurrent lipoid pneumonia associated with oil pulling". The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 18 (2): ... Endogenous lipoid pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonitis has been seen prior to the development of pulmonary ... "Endogenous lipoid pneumonia preceding diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis". Clin Respir J. doi:10.1111/crj.12197. PMID ...
He died from Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Vandalized grave. The Pioneer and Military Memorial Park is the official name given to ... Winston C. Hackett had built in the 1930s for his patients who were suffering from tuberculosis. They are located on 14th Ave. ... The Elizabeth Beatty Cabins were provided to families suffering from tuberculosis. Beatty was a retired secretary who moved to ... Its inhabitants represent pioneer families, community and business leaders, miners, those who succumbed to tuberculosis, and ...
Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee (1948). "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research ... "Fighting AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria". The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Archived from the original ... "Our History". The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved ... "Secretariat Structure and Contacts". The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Archived from the original on ...
Uno died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Elaine Gerbet (trans.), Love of mountains: two stories By Kōji Uno, University of Hawaii ...
Medical Research Council (October 1948). "STREPTOMYCIN treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis". British Medical Journal. 2 (4582 ...
In the late 1940s he furthered the introduction and use of streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis. He was appointed chairman ... Marshall G (4 December 1937). "Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis". Br Med J. 2 (4013): 1103-1104. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... At Guy's Hospital he was appointed medical officer in charge of the tuberculosis department and became subdean of the medical ...
Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon. ... 结核病(Tuberculosis,又稱TB)為結核桿菌感染引起的疾病[1]。结核通常造成肺部感染,也会感染身体的其他部分。大多數感染者沒有症狀,此型態感染稱為潛伏結核感染(英语:Latent tuberculosis)。如果此時沒有適當治療,10%的潛伏 ... Tuberculosis. World Health Organization. 2002.. *^ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10
... prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults in England 1938 Bernard Edward Schlesinger, Public Health Aspect of Heart ... AND CONTROL OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS". The Lancet. 162 (4169): 206. 1903. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)50625-X. "The Milroy ... Prevalence and Control of Pulmonary Tuberculosis 1904 William Williams, On Deaths in Childbed: A Preventable Mortality 1905 ... Mann B (1978). "Pulmonary asbestosis with special reference to an epidemic at Hebden Bridge. The Milroy lecture, 1978". Journal ...
He died prematurely of pulmonary tuberculosis. He is buried at the Olšany Cemetery in Prague. His work blends classicism and ...
Another common cause is pulmonary tuberculosis. Smokers and the elderly are also at an increased risk. Outside of this context ... It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated down to little or no volume, as distinct from pulmonary consolidation, in ... "Types and mechanisms of pulmonary atelectasis." Journal of thoracic imaging 11.2 (1996): 92-108. White, Gary C. (2002). Basic ... Factors not associated with the development of atelectasis include: age, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ...
The next, he contracted pulmonary tuberculosis. In 1951, he lost sight in his right eye due to glaucoma. His right lung ...
"Pulmonary Tuberculosis/In Literature and Art". McMaster University History of Diseases. Retrieved 9 June 2017. Riva, Michele ... A few major diseases such as tuberculosis appear in literature, art, film, opera and music. The literary possibilities of post- ... Pathogenic bacteria cause diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax. Protozoa cause diseases including malaria, ...
"Pulmonary Tuberculosis/In Literature and Art". McMaster University History of Diseases. Retrieved 9 June 2017. "Tuberculosis ... The bacterial disease tuberculosis played a role in culture, associated for some reason with artistic creativity. It was known ... Tuberculosis played prominent and recurring roles in diverse fields. These included literature, as in Thomas Mann's The Magic ... Sometimes a major disease like tuberculosis, caused by a bacterium, plays a role in culture, in its case being associated for ...
"Delamanid for Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (23): 2151-2160. doi:10.1056/ ... a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis. They form the ... M. tuberculosis produces three main types of mycolic acids: alpha-, methoxy-, and keto-. Alpha-mycolic acids make up at least ... in 1938 from an extract of M. tuberculosis. Mycolic acids are composed of a longer beta-hydroxy chain with a shorter alpha- ...
Pulmonary tuberculosis; its modern prophylaxis and the treatment in special institutions and at home (1898) Aspects of birth ... In 1898, his book titled Pulmonary tuberculosis; its modern prophylaxis and the treatment in special institutions and at home ... Knopf, Sigard Adolphus (1899), Pulmonary tuberculosis; its modern prophylaxis and the treatment in special institutions and at ... His 1900 book Tuberculosis as a disease of the masses and how to combat it was awarded the international prize by the ...
The Dispensary Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. London, Bailliere & Co. 1915 Pye, Edith Mary (ed) War and its Aftermath. ... Clark specialised in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. She was instrumental in administering the TB vaccine, tuberculin ... Clark, Hilda (1914). "Tuberculosis Statistics: Some Difficulties in the Presentation of Facts bearing on the Tuberculosis ... Clark gave a paper on "Tuberculosis Statistics: Some Difficulties in the Presentation of Facts bearing on the Tuberculosis ...
"Delamanid for Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (23): 2151-2160. doi:10.1056/ ... recommended conditional marketing authorization for delamanid in adults with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis without ... Delamanid, sold under the brand name Deltyba, is a medication used to treat tuberculosis. Specifically it is used, along with ... Blair, HA; Scott, LJ (January 2015). "Delamanid: a review of its use in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis". Drugs ...
Bonney, Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Its Complications. Beahm, George (September 1998). Stephen King from A to Z: An Encyclopedia ... Sherman Grant Bonney (1908). Pulmonary tuberculosis and its complications, with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. W ... Pulmonary Tuberculosis (published while the hotel was under construction), and Stanley himself is acknowledged in the preface ... as a resort for upper-class Easterners and a health retreat for sufferers of pulmonary tuberculosis. The hotel and its ...
Elkins 2005, p. 263: "It is accepted policy that cases of pulmonary tuberculosis . . . be returned to their reserve to avail ... The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some ...
2003). "Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in ... World Health Organization (2011). The sixteenth global report on tuberculosis.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v ... "Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France.". Journal of medical microbiology ... januar 2009). Tuberculosis Symptoms. eMedicineHealth.. *^ a b c d al., edited by Peter G. Gibson ; section editors, Michael ...
"Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon". J. ... Panteix, G (2010 Aug). "Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France". Journal of ... "WHO report 2008: Global tuberculosis control". Diakses tanggal 13 April 2009.. *^ FitzGerald, JM (2000 Feb 8). "Tuberculosis: ... Tuberculosis sudah ada dalam kehidupan manusia sejak zaman kuno.[6] Deteksi paling awal "M. tuberculosis" terdapat pada bukti ...
Luigi Boccherini, Italian cellist and composer, died in 1805 of pulmonary tuberculosis. ... Rothman, Sheila M. (1994). Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History ... Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933), country music singer, sang about the woes of tuberculosis in the song T.B. Blues (co-written with ... Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938), American author, died of tuberculosis of the brain. His 1929 novel, Look Homeward, Angel, makes ...
Marik, PE (May 2011). "Pulmonary aspiration syndromes". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 17 (3): 148-54. doi:10.1097/MCP. ... Ang kaunti sa mga uri ng bakterya tulad ng Mycobacterium tuberculosis at Legionella pneumophila ay nakakarating sa baga sa ... pulmonary edema (pagkakaroon ng tubig sa baga), bronchiectasis (paglapad ng mga bronchi), kanser sa baga, at pulmonary emboli ( ... George, Ronald B. (2005). Chest medicine : essentials of pulmonary and critical care medicine (ika-5th ed. (na) edisyon). ...
HIV-related tuberculosis - HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology (biology) - hormone - host - host factors - ... pulmonary - purified protein derivative (PPD) ... multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - ...
"Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 80 (1): 1-10. doi:10.4046/trd.2017.80.1.1. PMC 5256352. PMID 28119741.. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at Curlie ... "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". WHO. Retrieved 5 June 2019. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is not ... pulmonary rehabilitation appears to improve the overall quality of life and the ability to exercise.[109][110] If pulmonary ...
They were successful in that endeavor, but were also affected deeply by the suffering of tuberculosis victims. Realizing the ... hospital in late 2009 had as a patient a mother of four who was 11 weeks pregnant and suffering from a severe case of pulmonary ... They equipped each room with two beds for tuberculosis patients and created quarters for themselves in the living room. St. ...
"Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon". J. ... "Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France.". Journal of medical microbiology. ... "Interferon-γ release assays for active pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in adults in low- and middle-income countries: ... "Commercial serological tests for the diagnosis of active pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an updated systematic ...
Other underlying diseases that Kyrle disease is observed with are tuberculosis, pulmonary aspergillosis, scabies, atopic ...
ഈ അവസ്ഥയെ പൾമണറി ട്യൂബർക്കുലോസിസ് (pulmonary tuberculosis) എന്നാണ് വിളിക്കുന്നത്.[3] ശ്വാസകോശമല്ലാതെയുള്ള ശരീരഭാഗങ്ങളെയും ഇത് ... Textbook of pulmonary and critical care medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. p. 549. ISBN 978-93-5025-073-0 ... Behera, D. (2010). Textbook of pulmonary medicine (2nd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. p. 457. ISBN 978-81- ... Kabra, [edited by] Vimlesh Seth, S.K. (2006). Essentials of tuberculosis in children (3rd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. ...
Genetic biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from persons with pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon. ... Drape, R. Non-pulmonary Tuberculosis [online]., rev. 2009-11-19. Dostupné online.. ... Podrobnější informace naleznete v článku Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. Hlavním původcem tuberkulózy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... American Review of Tuberculosis. 1942, roč. 16, s. 593-617.. *↑ Jepson, A. a kolektiv. Genetic regulation of acquired immune ...
Before he began his Berkeley professorship, Oppenheimer was diagnosed with a mild case of tuberculosis and spent some weeks ... In October 1972, Kitty died at age 62 from an intestinal infection that was complicated by a pulmonary embolism. Oppenheimer's ... Army doctors considered him underweight at 128 pounds (58 kg), diagnosed his chronic cough as tuberculosis and were concerned ... He recovered from tuberculosis and returned to Berkeley, where he prospered as an advisor and collaborator to a generation of ...
A 20-year history of hemoptysis is rare in tuberculosis but not impossible. Similarly, cavernous tuberculosis is rare in ... idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, lung abscesses, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Chopin's biographers have often ... Frédéric could have contracted tuberculosis from his younger sister. A monograph on historic methods of treating tuberculosis ... Tuberculosis figured in his death certificate, despite the alleged absence of typical organ changes. Critics of alternative ...
A18.3) Tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum and mesenteric glands. *(A18.4) Tuberculosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue * ... A31.0) Pulmonary mycobacterial infection *Infection due to Mycobacterium avium. *Infection due to Mycobacterium intracellulare ... A15-A19) Tuberculosis[संपादित करें]. *(A15.) Respiratory tuberculosis, bacteriologically and histologically confirmed ... A16.) Respiratory tuberculosis, not confirmed bacteriologically or histologically. *(A17.) Tuberculosis of nervous system *(A ...
... or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The vaccine is considered important as acute hantavirus infections are responsible for ...
... rather than the macroembolic clot burden more typical of acute pulmonary embolism, are responsible for the pulmonary findings ... Tuberculosis. *Pneumonia. Treatment[edit]. Lemierre's syndrome is primarily treated with antibiotics given intravenously. ... Symptoms of pulmonary involvement can be shortness of breath, cough and painful breathing (pleuritic chest pain). Rarely, blood ... The first capillaries that the emboli encounter where they can nestle themselves are the pulmonary capillaries. As a ...
"Genetic biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon". J. ... அது குருனைக் காசநோய் (Miliary tuberculosis) என அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. 1882 இல் Tuberculosis bacillus ஐ , தனிப்படுத்தி, பிரித்தெடுத்த ... Additional symptoms for primary/early pulmonary infection: --, Diseases » Tuberculosis » Symptoms Retrieved ... CLASSIFICATION OF PERSONS EXPOSED TO AND/OR INFECTED WITH Mycobacterium tuberculosis *↑ Tuberculosis Symptoms From eMedicine ...
Griffith AS and Munro WT (1944). "Human pulmonary tuberculosis of bovine origin in Great Britain". J Hyg. 43 (4): 229-40. doi: ... M. tuberculosis group. MTC. M. tuberculosis. M. bovis. M. africanum. M. microti. M. canetti. M. caprae. M. pinnipedii. MPM. R1P ... It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes tuberculosis in humans, and can jump the species ... See: Tuberculosis treatment. M. bovis is innately resistant to pyrazinamide; therefore, the standard treatment is isoniazid and ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
For example, pulmonary tuberculosis is often a primary infection, but an infection that happened only because a burn or ... Multidrug-Resistant "Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ... In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe;[58] by 1918 one in six ... He mentioned that people can transmit disease to others by breath, noted contagion with tuberculosis, and discussed the ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease → 만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 (A). *Dementia → 치매 (B+). *Diabetes mellitus → 당뇨병 (A) ... Tuberculosis → 결핵 (A). *Typhus → 발진티푸스 (D). *Yellow fever → 황열 (D). 정신 질환, 9. *Mental disorder → 정신 질환 (C) *Bipolar disorder → ...
... but required long breaks through ill-health due to pulmonary tuberculosis, and in 1869 moved to the Isle of Wight. On the basis ... During this time he wrote extensively on climatic treatments for tuberculosis, works such as the 1879 San Remo and the Western ... His Ventnor hospital operated until 1964 when it closed, made obsolete by drug treatment of tuberculosis, to be demolished in ...
... is also found in the epithelia of air passages, pulmonary alveoli, renal tubules, and the Bowman's capsules in renal ... Mycobacterium: Mycobacterium tuberculosis GPI anchor. Trypanosoma cruzi Lysophosphatidylserine. Schistosoma mansoni ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]. Main article: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Tuberculosis is one of many other infections that occurs in the lower respiratory tract. You can contract this infection from ... The accumulation of this tar could eventually lead to lung cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[5] ...
Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Escuissato, Dante (December 2011). "Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis". Seminars in Respiratory and ... severe presentation may mimic tuberculosis, lymphoma or leukaemia.[13] ... Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvement is common.[10] ...
... including altered pulmonary arteries and double or absent aortic arches.[17] Despite existing anatomical analogy in the ... to detect landmines and diagnose tuberculosis through smell.[27] ...
chronic cases of aggressive progressive pulmonary and bone sarcoidosis.[4]. Rheumatoid arthritis[edit]. Adalimumab has been ... There is strong evidence that adalimumab increases risk of serious infections, such as tuberculosis, and it has also been ...
"STREPTOMYCIN treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis". British Medical Journal. 2 (4582): 769-82. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4582.769. PMC ...
en:Tuberculosis in China (2). *en:Tuberculosis in relation to HIV (2) ... en:Pulmonary embolism (46) → 폐색전증 *en:Quality of life (healthcare) (5). *en:Radial keratotomy (3) ...
Pulmonary[edit]. Since establishing causation through experimental trials was not possible due to ethical restrictions, a ... Davies PD, Yew WW, Ganguly D, Davidow AL, Reichman LB, Dheda K, Rook GA (April 2006). "Smoking and tuberculosis: the ... Smoking is a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (including emphysema ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by smoking, is a permanent, incurable (often terminal) reduction of ...
"Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon". ... "Tuberculosis". World Health Organization. 2002.. *↑ ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ ୧୦.୨ ୧୦.୩ ୧୦.୪ ୧୦.୫ Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN ( ... "Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti: a study of six recent cases in France". Journal of Medical Microbiology. ... challenges and novel approaches in human genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis". Tuberculosis. 90 (2): 71-83. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 13 (4): 312-318. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3281214492. ISSN 1070-5287. PMID 17534178.. ... A Ziehl-Neelsen stain may identify tuberculosis or other mycobacterial diseases. Cytology[edit]. Cytology is an important tool ... "Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 17 (4): 232-236. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e328345160b. ISSN 1531-6971. PMID 21346571.. ... In countries where tuberculosis is common, this is also a common cause of pleural effusions. ...
PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS. Br Med J 1939; 2 doi: (Published 16 September 1939) Cite this ...
The journal encourages submissions on pulmonology, respiratory medicine, thoracic surgery, lung diseases, pulmonary function ... diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and ... Pulmonary Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and ... Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Anete Trajman,1,2 José R. Lapa e Silva,3,4 Margareth Dalcolmo,5 and Jonathan E. Golub6 ...
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs. It may spread to other organs. ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis). TB is contagious. This means the bacteria ... Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs. It may spread to other organs. ... Pulmonary TB can cause permanent lung damage if not treated early. It can also spread to other parts of the body. ...
PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN. Br Med J 1909; 1 doi: (Published 20 February 1909) ...
Delamanid for multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.. Gler MT1, Skripconoka V, Sanchez-Garavito E, Xiao H, Cabrera-Rivero ... Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. [N Engl J Med. 2012]. *[Effectiveness of delamanid in multidrug-resistant pulmonary ... with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to receive delamanid, at a dose of 100 mg twice daily (161 patients) or 200 mg ... Confronting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. [N Engl J Med. 2012]. * ...
Tuberculosis, Decortication, Pulmonectomy, Pleural, Capitonage, sanjoy sanyal, Pleurectomy, TB, Pulmonary Disciplines:. * ... Surgical Aspects of Pleuro-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Presented at 2nd Annual Conference of College of Gynaecology and Obstetrics ... Surgical Aspects of Pleuro-Pulmonary Tuberculosis is categorized in the following disciplines: * Academic Support Services/ ... You just viewed Surgical Aspects of Pleuro-Pulmonary.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Congenital Pulmonary Tuberculosis Associated with Maternal Cerebral Tuberculosis --- Florida, 2002. In 2002, congenital ... Congenital tuberculosis. Aust Paediatr J 1989;25:366--7.. * CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of tuberculosis ... tuberculosis by rRNA amplification (Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test, Gen-Probe, San Diego, California) and by ... The lack of pulmonary disease in the mother makes airborne spread from her to the infant unlikely. Transmission via breast milk ...
View reference source for the article along with the name of the writer and the editor for the article on Extra Pulmonary ... Renal Tuberculosis. Renal tuberculosis or tuberculosis of the kidney is a type of genitourinary tuberculosis that can be ... Drugs for Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Ethambutol. This medication is an antibacterial agent, prescribed for tuberculosis (TB ... Skin Tuberculosis. Skin tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis that occurs outside the lung. Infection is exogenous ...
Keywords provided by Tuberculosis Research Centre, India: Pulmonary TB. Immune response. ATT. Immune responses in pulmonary ... Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary. Mycobacterium Infections. Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections ... Latency in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Characterization of Immune Responses in Treatment-induced Latency in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Study Start Date :. February 2010 ...
... Search this Finding Aid. ... When quoting material from this collection, the preferred citation is: Wells, Edward Franklin, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Crerar ... Guide to Edward Franklin Wells, Pulmonary Tuberculosis circa 1895. © 2008 University of Chicago Library ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Vitamin D. Official Title ICMJE Role of Oral Vitamin D as an Adjunct Therapy in Category I Pulmonary ... in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.. Detailed Description Tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency are important public ... Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Vitamin D. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the ... Hypothesis: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency when treated with vitamin and antitubercular therapy ...
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, ... What is Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Medications to treat Pulmonary Tuberculosis. The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the ... Looking for answers? Ask a question or go join the pulmonary tuberculosis support group to connect with others who have similar ...
A second systematic review of a diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB) endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), has ... "Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., ... 2014, January 23). "Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults." Medical News Today. ... Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults, Karen R Steingart, Ian Schiller, David J ...
2016)‎. Index-TB guidelines: guidelines on extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in India. World Health Organization. Country Office for ... Tuberculosis in India: a programme for its control: note submitted by the Government of India  ... DOTS-based tuberculosis treatment and control during civil conflict and an HIV epidemic, Churachandpur District, India / Alison ... A controlled study of the influence of segregation of tuberculous patients for one year on the attack rate of tuberculosis in a ...
SETTING: The main tuberculosis (TB) centre in Benin, West Africa, where only 2% of adult pulmonary TB cases are sputum smear- ... Smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis among patients with chronic cough in Cotonou, Benin ... Affiliations: 1: Programme National Contre la Tuberculose, Cotonou, Benin 2: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung ... OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB among TB suspects in Cotonou, and to estimate ...
Seventy-one subjects who had previously been treated for tuberculosis up to 16 years before underwent pulmonary function ... Chronic obstructive airways disease following treated pulmonary tuberculosis Respir Med. 1989 May;83(3):195-8. doi: 10.1016/ ... Seventy-one subjects who had previously been treated for tuberculosis up to 16 years before underwent pulmonary function ... Treated pulmonary tuberculosis is a cause of significant chronic obstructive airways disease. ...
Rifabutin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Among current challenges in tuberculosis treatment are reducing the length of ... To compare combination drug regimens containing rifabutin with those containing rifampicin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis ... Davies GR, Cerri S, Richeldi L. Rifabutin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, ... However, very few people with HIV and tuberculosis, who are most likely to benefit from use of rifabutin due to its lack of ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of pulmonary+multi-drug+resistant+tuberculosis ... tuberculosis? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, ... Looking for medication to treat pulmonary+multi-drug+resistant+ ... Considering taking medication to treat pulmonary+multi-drug+ ... resistant+tuberculosis? Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of pulmonary+multi-drug+ ...
... Smaranda Gliga,1,2 Mathilde Devaux,2 ... Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare disease that is often misdiag-nosed as tuberculosis or lung cancer. Actinomyces graevenitzii ... Cultures of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary abscess caused by A gravenitzii. At the three ... The authors report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis caused by A graevenitzii. A computed tomography examination revealed an ...
CONCLUSION: Fever, atypical chest radiograph and disseminated disease are common findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in ICPs. ... OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and radiographic presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised ... Clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients ... with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1992 to 2001.. RESULTS: In ICPs, fever was more frequently observed (84.1% vs. 40%, P = ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis (XPTB). Deresinski, Stan // Clinical Infectious Diseases;1/1/2009, Vol. ... Renal amyloidosis due to pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient with Down syndrome. Özkaya, Ozan; Paksu, M. Şükrü; Bek, Kenan; ... A pulmonary-tuberculosis-related renal amyloidosis patient with Down syndrome, who presented with nephrotic syndrome, was ... Pulmonary aspergilloma is the most common form of aspergillous pulmonary invovelment, which has been found in preexisting ...
Predictors of in-hospital mortality among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a protocol of systematic review and meta- ... Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-positive individuals in Southern Africa: analysis of cohort studies at ... instructional video demonstrating sputum expectoration improve the sputum sample quality and quantity in presumptive pulmonary ...
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CDC Honolulu Quarantine Station of a crewman on a commercial fishing vessel who was hospitalized with suspected tuberculosis. ... CDC Honolulu Quarantine Station of a crewman on a commercial fishing vessel who was hospitalized with suspected tuberculosis. ... Notes from the Field: Meningeal and Pulmonary Tuberculosis on a Commercial Fishing Vessel - Hawaii, 2017. Weekly / June 21, ... Meningeal and Pulmonary Tuberculosis on a Commercial Fishing Vessel - Hawaii, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:554-555. ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis Without Resistance to RifampicinLinezolid Instead of Ethambutol in Treatment of Drug-susceptible ... Substitution of ethambutol with linezolid during the intensive phase of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: study protocol for ... Substitution of Ethambutol With Linezolid During the Intensive Phase of Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Prospective, ... Substitution of ethambutol with linezolid during the intensive phase of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective, ...
Association of pulmonary tuberculosis with increased dietary iron.. Gangaidzo IT1, Moyo VM, Mvundura E, Aggrey G, Murphree NL, ... status were studied in 98 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and in 98 control subjects from rural Zimbabwe. Exposure to high ... findings are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated dietary iron may increase the risk of active pulmonary tuberculosis. ... To determine whether increased dietary iron could be a risk factor for active tuberculosis, dietary iron history and human ...
Despite the advances in the detection and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, eradication of the disease in many of the earth ... Pulmonary Tuberculosis.. Ann Intern Med. 1965;63:550. doi: ... there is a tendency today to so de-emphasize or even completely eliminate the teaching of the natural history of tuberculosis ...
Fixed-dose combinations for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. What are fixed-dose combinations and how might they improve care ... Tuberculosis (TB) is an important health problem, especially in developing countries. The treatment for pulmonary TB in new ... Screening tests for active pulmonary tuberculosis in children. *There is insufficient evidence to compare equivalence of effect ... People who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) typically receive a standard first-line treatment regimen that ...
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs. (
  • Health-care practitioners should administer a tuberculin skin test to women who have risks for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and treat those who have latent TB infection (LTBI) to prevent maternal and congenital TB disease ( 2 ). (
  • The infant responded favorably to treatment and was discharged after 8 weeks in hospital A. Investigation of potential sources of M. tuberculosis infection other than the mother (i.e., the father, a grandmother, and hospital staff) did not reveal any additional cases of TB disease. (
  • While it is difficult to define the onset of latency during natural infection, patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis are driven into a state of latency or cure. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Among current challenges in tuberculosis treatment are reducing the length of time that drugs must be taken to less than six months and finding ways to safely combine tuberculosis drugs with those used in the treatment of HIV infection. (
  • HIV Infection-Related Tuberculosis: Clinical Manifestations and Treatment. (
  • Several aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection-related tuberculosis (TB) and its treatment differ from those of TB in HIV-uninfected persons. (
  • Infection of the human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused no CCL5 secretion and little monocyte secretion. (
  • Infection of the central nervous system occurs by hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the lungs ( 2 ). (
  • Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection which affects the lungs, is highly contagious and may even spread to other organs in the body. (
  • Tuberculosis remains inactive in most infected people but may become active again within a few weeks or months after the primary infection. (
  • If there is a raised bump at the inoculation site it indicates that the person has been exposed to tuberculosis infection. (
  • Sputum tests on the other hand examine the mucus secretions from the lungs to check for active tuberculosis infection. (
  • The main aim of any tuberculosis treatment is to cure the infection with the help of drugs and medications which can fight the tuberculosis bacteria. (
  • By following the guidelines of tuberculosis prevention and control, this disease can be prevented and controlled even in people who have been exposed to this infection. (
  • We searched two public gene expression microarray repositories and retained datasets that examined clinical cohorts of active pulmonary tuberculosis infection in whole blood. (
  • Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but may cause infection in many other organs in the body. (
  • Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. (
  • Miliary tuberculosis is characterized by a chronic, contagious bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has spread to other organs of the body by the blood or lymph system. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tuberculosis (TB) disease, which results from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in children lt 5 years old worldwide. (
  • As with patient 1 in this study, TB had developed after the patient acquired SARS, most likely as the result of reactivation of past infection or new infection with M. tuberculosis , while temporarily immunosuppressed because of SARS ( 6 ) and corticoid therapy. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis can be described as a slow-growing bacterial infection that occurs in your lungs. (
  • Takayasu's arteritis (TA), of unknown etiology, has been related with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (
  • Our findings support the relation of TA with possible tuberculosis infection.Conclusion. (
  • Sputum examination by ZN stain, culture of mycobacterial tuberculosis using BACTEC TB system followed by BACTEC NAP TB test on positive BACTEC culture to distinguish between TB complex and MOTT, out of the 50 patients who proved to have persistent positive culture for mycobacteria, 39 patients (78%) had pulmonary infection with mycobacterium complex whereas 11 patients (22%) had pulmonary infection with MOTT. (
  • Approximately 23% of the world's population is estimated to have a latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and more than 10 million new cases were estimated in 2017. (
  • We present the case of a 56-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic patient with a pulmonary mucormycosis and tuberculosis co-infection. (
  • The case described here is only the sixth case reported in the literature of concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis and the third case associated with a TB and mucormycosis co-infection involving an uncontrolled DM patient to survive. (
  • Tuberculosis is a disease caused by an infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus, a type of bacteria that can affect any part of the body but most commonly the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis , sometimes commonly referred to as TB of the lung or lung TB , is an infection of the lung with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. (
  • With almost one-third of the world's population having latent TB, the term pulmonary tuberculosis or lung TB denotes an active infection. (
  • Although the cause and pathophysiology of tuberculosis is well understood, the reason why the latent infection becomes active in certain cases is not always as clear. (
  • The lungs are the most common site of primary infection by tuberculosis and are a major source of spread of the disease and of individual morbidity and mortality. (
  • Tuberculosis is caused due to Infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • In addition, over 600 cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) have been evaluated and treated. (
  • A DNA vaccine encoding the hsp60 molecule of Mycobacterium leprae has previously been shown to protect against intravenous infection of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both the prophylactic and immunotherapeutic modes. (
  • It is shown here, however, that this vaccine was not effective in a more realistic aerosol infection model or in a model of latent tuberculosis in the lungs. (
  • In the study presented here the hsp60/lep vaccine was tested using the more realistic pulmonary infection model in the mouse, in which the animal is exposed to a small challenge dose by aerosol exposure. (
  • Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. (
  • Our findings suggest that persons bearing the MCP-1 genotype GG produce high concentrations of MCP-1, which inhibits production of IL-12p40 in response to M. tuberculosis and increases the likelihood that M. tuberculosis infection will progress to active pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • If a tuberculosis infection does become active, it most commonly involves the lungs (in about 90% of cases). (
  • Occasionally, people may cough up blood in small amounts, and in very rare cases, the infection may erode into the pulmonary artery or a Rasmussen's aneurysm, resulting in massive bleeding. (
  • Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura (in tuberculous pleurisy), the central nervous system (in tuberculous meningitis), the lymphatic system (in scrofula of the neck), the genitourinary system (in urogenital tuberculosis), and the bones and joints (in Pott disease of the spine), among others. (
  • Even if researchers theorise that humans first acquired it in Africa about 5,000 years ago, there is evidence that the first tuberculosis infection happened about 9,000 years ago. (
  • In 2008, evidence for tuberculosis infection was discovered in human remains from the Neolithic era dating from 9,000 years ago, in Atlit Yam, a settlement in the eastern Mediterranean. (
  • to date it is the oldest evidence of tuberculosis infection in humans. (
  • Evidence of the infection in humans was also found in a cemetery near Heidelberg, in the Neolithic bone remains that show evidence of the type of angulation often seen with spinal tuberculosis. (
  • sputum-culture conversion was defined as a series of five or more consecutive cultures that were negative for growth of M. tuberculosis. (
  • Delamanid was associated with an increase in sputum-culture conversion at 2 months among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (
  • The present study on the effect of 3 and 4 month regimens containing moxifloxacin in sputum smear and culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TRC Study number 24) offers us the opportunity to study definitive immune responses pre and post treatment. (
  • Sputum AFB conversion rate is higher in patients with tuberculosis supplemented with vitamin D. The present study would systematically assess role of adjunct vitamin D therapy (cholecalciferol) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • A few pilot studies have shown that sputum conversion rate is higher in patients with tuberculosis supplemented with vitamin D. (
  • SETTING: The main tuberculosis (TB) centre in Benin, West Africa, where only 2% of adult pulmonary TB cases are sputum smear-negative, all other pulmonary cases being smear-positive. (
  • The article cites a research study conducted to examine the consequences of carrying sputum specimens for microscopic evaluation and culture for HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (XPTB) who have a normal chest radiograph findings. (
  • Does mobile phone instructional video demonstrating sputum expectoration improve the sputum sample quality and quantity in presumptive pulmonary TB cases? (
  • Documented sputum Xpert MTB/RIF assay-positive pulmonary TB at screening. (
  • Tuberculosis control programs place an almost exclusive emphasis on adults with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis, because they are most infectious. (
  • Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis was defined as the presence of acid-fast bacilli on sputum microscopy and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from a respiratory specimen. (
  • Further investigations included smears and cultures for acid-fast bacilli and testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by polymerase chain reaction of sputum, urine, and bronchoalveolar larvage samples, all of which were negative. (
  • After he was transferred to a hospital dedicated to SARS management, pulmonary TB was diagnosed (positive acid-fast bacilli smear on sputum samples). (
  • These 2 patients were sputum smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli, and diagnosis was made on the basis of previous exposure to TB, relevant symptoms of typical pulmonary TB, chest radiographs consistent with active disease, a positive tuberculin skin test result, and the finding of cavity regression on chest radiographs after anti-TB treatment was initiated. (
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis(Active/Inactive)-History,Sputum Tests,6 mos medication. (
  • When you're being tested for Pulmonary tuberculosis, you'll need to pass a sample of your sputum. (
  • We determined the accuracy of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children, using banked-induced sputum. (
  • Though the sample was small, this interesting study showed that adjunctive zinc supplementation appeared to accelerate bacterial clearance in patients with drug-sensitive, sputum smear-positive and culture-positive pulmonary disease. (
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis (XPTB). (
  • Once extrapulmonary TB is confirmed, an evaluation for pulmonary disease should proceed ( 4 ). (
  • Circulating biomarkers of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children. (
  • These observations updated those issued from a previous study conducted in 14 departments including 114 (88%) cases of pulmonary localization and 15 cases (12%) of extrapulmonary localization ( 4 ). (
  • Since its opening April 13, 2001, the TB clinic has treated almost 50 cases of active (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) tuberculosis. (
  • Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB. (
  • Tuberculosis most commonly affects the lungs, where it is called pulmonary TB. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculae is a causative organism which commonly attacks the lungs and manifests pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis occurs when mycobacterium tubeculosis get in your system and breed in your lungs. (
  • Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. (
  • Tuberculosis is spread from one person to the next through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. (
  • Play media Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis). (
  • Tuberculosis may become a chronic illness and cause extensive scarring in the upper lobes of the lungs. (
  • At times, tuberculosis could also spread to the other organs, in which case, it is known as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • The possibility that Takayasu's arteritis is an extra pulmonary tu-berculosis must be explored. (
  • Evidence has shown that the incidence of extra-pulmonary disease has risen recently [1], accounting for 17% of notified TB cases in Europe in 2010 [2]. (
  • While getting treated for pulmonary tuberculosis, it is essential for you to skip tobacco completely, in all forms. (
  • Pulmonary TB can cause permanent lung damage if not treated early. (
  • Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily affects the lung. (
  • Skin tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis that occurs outside the lung. (
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. (
  • The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide. (
  • Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare disease that is often misdiag-nosed as tuberculosis or lung cancer. (
  • RESULTS: In ICPs, fever was more frequently observed (84.1% vs. 40%, P = 0.0000002), tuberculosis was more frequently disseminated (23.8 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.0008), and lung infiltrations were more often lobar or segmental consolidation (20.6% vs. 0%, P = 0.00007) and miliary lesions (17.5 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.014) than in the control patients. (
  • IL-1beta is the critical regulator of tuberculosis-stimulated CCL5 secretion in the lung. (
  • Pathology results from a lung biopsy demonstrated acid-fast bacilli with molecular and culture tests positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, susceptible to all first-line drugs. (
  • A case report and literature review: previously excluded tuberculosis masked by amiodarone induced lung injury. (
  • Disregarding mycobacterium tuberculosis prevention measures can also result in permanent lung damage and ultimately death. (
  • This x-ray shows a single lesion (pulmonary nodule) in the upper right lung (seen as a light area on the left side of the picture). (
  • This CT scan shows a single lesion (pulmonary nodule) in the right lung. (
  • These results indicate that exercise in patients treated for tuberculosis by thoracoplasty is limited by ventilatory capacity and that this is due to a reduction in both dynamic lung volumes and respiratory frequency. (
  • Soussan et al 2 has classified the PET appearance of pulmonary MTB into lung and lymphatic patterns and demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy after taking account of the other specific CT changes such as upper lobe consolidation with cavitations or multiple ill-defined micronodules surrounding a cavity. (
  • Tuberculosis following programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitor in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Patients with cavitary, fibrotic, or calcified lesions mainly in the upper lobe of the lung were classified as having reactivated tuberculosis. (
  • The bacillus then becomes reactivated and rapidly destroys lung tissue thereby reducing pulmonary function. (
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (2004) 8 (6) 796-799. (
  • The use of fixed-dose combined (FDC) drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis by National Tuberculosis Programmes has been recommended by both the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and the World Health Organisation. (
  • He had been started on triple therapy for presume pulmonary TB, based on a suspicious chest radiograph months prior, showing bilateral ill-defined shadowing in the upper-lung zones with signs of paratracheal lymph node enlargement. (
  • The upper lung lobes are more frequently affected by tuberculosis than the lower ones. (
  • Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. (
  • Outlook is excellent if pulmonary TB is diagnosed early and effective treatment is started quickly. (
  • This finding suggests that delamanid could enhance treatment options for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (
  • In addition, since a small percentage of patients will undergo relapse following treatment, the kinetics of immune responses in these patients will used to assess immunological predictors of relapse in tuberculosis. (
  • Before the advent of effective antitubercular therapy, patients with tuberculosis were advised treatment and rest at sanatorium where sunshine was available in plenty. (
  • The review found no significant differences between rifabutin- and rifampicin-containing treatment in curing tuberculosis and preventing relapse , but higher doses of rifabutin might be associated with more adverse effects and there was no evidence that it could shorten treatment. (
  • Better quality clinical trials are needed to understand the place of rifabutin in the treatment of people with tuberculosis, particularly those who also have HIV. (
  • The replacement of rifampicin by rifabutin for first-line treatment of tuberculosis is not supported by the current evidence. (
  • The current standard short-course treatment for pulmonary TB requires 6 months to complete. (
  • Considering the marked anti-TB effects of linezolid as well as the possible adverse effects of its long-term use, it is rational to use linezolid instead of ethambutol for the first 4 weeks of treatment for drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. (
  • Despite the advances in the detection and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, eradication of the disease in many of the earth is still not immediately foreseen. (
  • The treatment for pulmonary TB in new patients includes four oral medicines taken for six months, sometimes as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) that are combined in one tablet, or taken separately as single-drug formulations. (
  • Trials were published between 1987 and 2015 and included participants in treatment with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in countries with high TB prevalence. (
  • People who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) typically receive a standard first-line treatment regimen that consists of two months of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin. (
  • However, children contribute a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis caseload and experience considerable tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality, but few children in endemic areas have access to antituberculosis treatment. (
  • Probable tuberculosis was defined as the presence of suggestive radiologic signs and good clinical response to antituberculosis treatment in the absence of bacteriologic confirmation or radiologic certainty. (
  • Therefore tuberculosis symptoms prevention and treatment are extremely important to control the spread of this disease. (
  • Vaccinations, early detection and preventive therapies are therefore of prime importance in tuberculosis prevention and treatment. (
  • Seeking immediate treatment is a must so as to be able to curb the spread of tuberculosis. (
  • Active pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and treatment response is difficult to effectively monitor. (
  • Furthermore, in four additional cohorts, we showed that the tuberculosis score declined during treatment of patients with active tuberculosis. (
  • Overall, our integrated multicohort analysis yielded a three-gene set in whole blood that is robustly diagnostic for active tuberculosis, that was validated in multiple independent cohorts, and that has potential clinical application for diagnosis and monitoring treatment response. (
  • Although relatively efficacious treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has existed for decades, the disease continues to remain one of the leading causes of mortality attributed to an infectious disease 1 . (
  • Based on the radiology, the patient was diagnosed to have pulmonary MTB for which anti-MTB treatment was initiated. (
  • This article presents national results on treatment outcome among patients with pulmonary TB reported in France in 2009 and explores determinants of potentially unfavourable outcome. (
  • Information on treatment outcome was reported for 63% of eligible pulmonary cases of whom 70% had a successful outcome. (
  • Resection operations were performed in 261 patients (males - 155, females - 106) with first-found destructive tuberculosis after 3-6 month long ineffective chemo-therapeutic treatment. (
  • Myelopathy during treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • A patient who developed a myelopathy during a course of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis is described. (
  • Most people make a complete recovery from tuberculosis, though the treatment could take many weeks or even months. (
  • The treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis could take up to a year and you will probably be asked to take an antibiotic every day. (
  • At the same time, good nutrition is a very important aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment, as it can help your body fight off the bacteria. (
  • Patients with direct smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis were admitted to hospital during the initial phase of treatment for two months. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Fixed dose combination short course chemotherapy in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Low antimycobacterial drug concentrations have been observed in tuberculosis (TB) patients under treatment. (
  • Mansukhani S, Shah I. Hepatic Dysfunction in Children with Tuberculosis on Treatment with Antituberculous Therapy. (
  • Authors' conclusions: the replacement of rifampicin by rifabutin for first-line treatment of tuberculosis is not supported by the current evidence. (
  • Janssen Therapeutics announced that the FDA has granted accelerated approval to Sirturo (bedaquiline tablets) for the treatment of pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) as part of combination therapy in adults. (
  • The reappearance of positive smear at the end of treatment may be due to relapse of tuberculosis or disease by non tuberculous mycobacteria (MOTT). (
  • The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible role of MOTT in treatment failure cases of pulmonary TB. (
  • Propolis is a natural treatment for all chest conditions including Pulmonary Tuberculosis. (
  • Serrapeptase is a n atural treatment for the l ungs including Pulmonary Tuberculosis. (
  • Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 1950 to 1959 / 1956 / Psychological side effects induced by cycloserine in the treatment of pulmonary. (
  • More recently drug-resistant strains of the TB bacillus - MDR-TB (multi drug-resistant tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis) - have also posed a new problem increasing the contagious time period despite treatment. (
  • In this study, we are testing the efficacy of this compound, when given in the initial intensive phase of treatment of patients with newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Once you develop signs of pulmonary tuberculosis, it's very important that you get immediate treatment. (
  • A multidisciplinary team of Mayo Foundation consultants from the Department of Medicine and the divisions of Infectious Disease and Pulmonary Medicine with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial disease staff the clinic. (
  • Olmsted County patients with active or suspected tuberculosis are strongly encouraged to receive their tuberculosis evaluation, treatment and follow up through the Mayo/Olmsted County Tuberculosis Clinic. (
  • Background: Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. (
  • We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. (
  • The article talks about the possibility of having a shorter duration treatment for tuberculosis as shown in preliminary findings from a clinical trial. (
  • A rare cause of faecal peritonitis: jejunal perforation in a patient undergoing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Therefore, it is not known whether cholesterol contributed to or confounded the bacterial clearance effect, given that a cholesterol-rich diet has been shown to accelerate bacteriologic sterilization in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis within the first week of treatment. (
  • Smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis among pat. (
  • The primary objective of this investigation is to assess the efficacy, acceptability and toxicity of a combined FDC regimen of chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison with the standard regimen using separate drugs. (
  • Rifamycins are an essential component of modern short-course regimens for treating tuberculosis. (
  • To compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of anti-tuberculosis regimens given as fixed-dose combinations compared to single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • The primary drugs-isoniazid, para-amino-salicylic acid and streptomycin plus, in certain instances, ethambutol and pyrazinamide-are highly successful in treating patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis. (
  • She was antituberculous therapy {ATT} consisting of Isoniazid {H} and Rifampicin {R} for past 10 months of view of pulmonary TB. (
  • CONCLUSION: Fever, atypical chest radiograph and disseminated disease are common findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in ICPs. (
  • Radiologically certain tuberculosis was defined as agreement between both independent experts that the chest radiograph indicated certain tuberculosis in the absence of bacteriologic confirmation. (
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) are common causes of consolidation patch in chest radiograph. (
  • ICD-9 code 011.92 for Unspecified pulmonary tuberculosis bacteriological or histological examination results unknown (at present) is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -TUBERCULOSIS (010-018). (
  • ICD-9 code 011.96 for Unspecified pulmonary tuberculosis tubercle bacilli not found by bacteriological or histological examination but tuberculosis confirmed by other methods (inoculation of animals) is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -TUBERCULOSIS (010-018). (
  • People who at high risk of active tuberculosis infections include infants, elderly people and people who have weak immunity such as in the case of AIDS, diabetes and chemotherapy patients. (
  • Effective chemotherapy has brought tuberculosis into the realm of diseases treated by general physicians in general hospitals. (
  • The Specific Serum Antimycobacterial Activity Test as a Guide to the Appropriate and Adequate Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. (
  • Mice immunized with this DNA vaccine have shown 2- to 3-log reductions in bacterial load after intravenous challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis , and the vaccine is equally protective if given prophylactically, as an immunotherapeutic vaccine, or in a Cornell type model in which bacteria are eliminated by chemotherapy, leaving only bacilli that are in a latent or dormant form ( 12 ). (
  • tuberculosis complex based on colony phenotype. (
  • Isolates are presumptively identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on colony phenotype. (
  • Few epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis in n. (
  • Clinicoradiological Features of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Interstitial Pneumonia. (
  • Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis represents a significant proportion of mycobacterial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, however MOTT patients are initially treated with conventional antituberculous treatments, before the results of culture to identify the bacteria as non tuberculous are available, resulting in a period of time in which patients are treated with drugs to which the bacteria are frequently resistant. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an illness caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Other researchers have argued there is other evidence that suggests the tuberculosis bacteria is older than 6,000 years. (
  • In 2002, congenital tuberculosis (TB), a rare disease with nonspecific signs and symptoms, was diagnosed in an infant in Florida. (
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of pulmonary+multi-drug+resistant+tuberculosis. (
  • The natural history of childhood tuberculosis demonstrates that symptoms may offer good diagnostic value if they are well defined and if appropriate risk stratification is applied. (
  • This study aimed to determine the value of well-defined symptoms to diagnose childhood pulmonary tuberculosis in a tuberculosis-endemic area. (
  • 428 (41.8%) children with persistent, nonremitting symptoms at evaluation were investigated for tuberculosis. (
  • One of the main steps in tuberculosis prevention and control is teaching people how to recognize the basic symptoms of this disease. (
  • This article presents an overview of tuberculosis and includes general information on the disease, signs, symptoms and diagnosis, up-to-date statistics and the implications for nursing practice. (
  • Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. (
  • The diagnoses of the patients consisted of bacterial pneumonia (123 cases), pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (105 cases), fungal pneumonia (80 cases), tuberculosis (15 cases), cytomegalovirus pneumonia (11 cases), and septic embolism (11 cases). (
  • Currently, what is needed is a simple, robust immunodiagnostic test that will differentiate childhood pulmonary TB from non-TB pneumonia. (
  • This study aimed to assess the value of serum Procalcitonin (PCT) levels in patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). (
  • Patient's diagnosis were confirmed and categorized into pulmonary TB group (32) and community-acquired pneumonia group (23). (
  • Serum procalcitonin levels were found to be significantly elevated in patients of community-acquired pneumonia as compared to patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • In presence of consolidation in x-ray chest, increased level of serum procalcitonin might be used to differentiate pulmonary tuberculosis from community-acquired pneumonia. (
  • The appearance is typical for chronic pulmonary tuberculosis but may also occur with chronic pulmonary histiocytosis and chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. (
  • Tuberculosis may develop after inhaling infected droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze of someone infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • In this randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial, we assigned 481 patients (nearly all of whom were negative for the human immunodeficiency virus) with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to receive delamanid, at a dose of 100 mg twice daily (161 patients) or 200 mg twice daily (160 patients), or placebo (160 patients) for 2 months in combination with a background drug regimen developed according to World Health Organization guidelines. (
  • In order to understand the link two types of studies have been conducted (a) clinical studies associating vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis and (b) in-vitro assessment of molecular immune changes related to vitamin D exposure. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and radiographic presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients (ICP). (
  • In Algeria, interpreting tuberculosis (TB) incidence, estimated at 53-88 cases/100,000 population in 2017 ( 1 ), is limited by the fact that the diagnosis relies on microscopic examination of clinical samples. (
  • Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases. (
  • There has been a gradual realization that the existing vaccine against tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, loses its effectiveness in individuals as they pass the teenage years ( 3 , 21 ), and in certain clinical trials its overall effectiveness has been zero ( 14 ). (
  • Tuberculosis: clinical features, diagnosis and management. (
  • Clinical history and evidence of pulmonary involvement AIDS diagnosis. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common form of the disease, but other organs can be infected. (
  • Delamanid (OPC-67683), a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative, is a new antituberculosis medication that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis and has shown potent in vitro and in vivo activity against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Recently, antibiotic-resistant strains of tuberculosis have appeared. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is making a comeback with new resistant strains that are difficult to treat. (
  • No cultures were obtained for isolation and comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains ( 1 ). (
  • Concentrations of antimycobacterial drugs that are below those normally expectedduring tuberculosis (TB) therapy may predispose for the appearance of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1,2]. (
  • The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has risen in developed countries, owing mainly to immune-compromisation from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), multidrug-resistant organism strains and increased immigration from high-risk areas such as the Indian subcontinent, where rates of TB are 50 times higher than in Europe. (
  • We compared gene expression in patients with either latent tuberculosis or other diseases versus patients with active tuberculosis using our validated multicohort analysis framework. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) and other diseases can cause this type of lesion. (
  • American Review of Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases, 73:438 --441. (
  • The article reports on the 3.8% decline of the tuberculosis (TB) rate in 2008 in the U.S. to a record low 4.2 cases per 100,000 people, according to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The tuberculin skin test is performed to evaluate whether a person has been exposed to tuberculosis. (
  • Nowadays tuberculosis is a common infectious disease in developing countries. (
  • Several authors [1,8,21-24] suggest that malabsorption of anti-tuberculosis drugs occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, despite a lack of evidence. (
  • It usually involves taking several anti-tuberculosis medications. (
  • A second systematic review of a diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB) endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), has confirmed the accuracy of the test. (
  • This systematic review assesses the accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in studies performed in China, published in Chinese and English. (
  • This systematic review assesses the diagnostic accuracy of molecular diagnosis for pulmonary TB in China. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis was defined as a symptomatic child with: (1) bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis, (2) radiologically confirmed tuberculosis, or (3) probable tuberculosis (as defined), excluding isolated pleural effusion. (
  • A total of 3 patients died from re-activation of tuberculosis, bronchial fistula and pleural empyema. (
  • it was found to be the cause of pulmonary TB in 79/93 (85%) cases, pleural TB in 11 (12%) cases, and lymph node TB in 3 (3%) cases. (
  • Our objective was to search in the fresh aortic tissues, the infectious agent of tuberculosis through culture, as well as by performing histopathology and searching by the molecular study, sequences of genes associated to micobacteria and Ziehl's stain. (
  • This concurrent disease surveillance provided a comprehensive overview of all of the childhood tuberculosis cases, allowing accurate assessment of the possible disadvantages associated with this symptom-based diagnostic approach. (
  • The aim of this study was to use an integrated multicohort analysis of samples from publically available datasets to derive a diagnostic gene set in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis. (
  • Of these, three datasets (N=1023) were used to discover a set of three genes (GBP5, DUSP3, and KLF2) that are highly diagnostic for active tuberculosis. (
  • However, very few people with HIV and tuberculosis, who are most likely to benefit from use of rifabutin due to its lack of interaction with antiretroviral drugs, were included in the trials. (
  • HIV-positive people with tuberculosis, the group most likely to benefit from the rifabutin use, are under-represented in trials to date, and further trials in this group would be useful. (
  • Davies GR, Cerri S, Richeldi L. Rifabutin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Davies, G. , Cerri, S. and Richeldi, Luca (2007) Rifabutin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • AbstractObjectivesThe aims of this study were to compare the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients and to assess the usefulness of HRCT in the differential diagnosis of these infections.MethodsA total of 345 immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infections were included in this study. (
  • Unfortunately there is a tendency today to so de-emphasize or even completely eliminate the teaching of the natural history of tuberculosis that many young physicians are almost totally uninformed of the essentials of this important disease. (
  • Recent data provided by WHO and epidemiological analysis of Poland stress the decline in the regression rate of tuberculosis morbidity. (
  • Tuberculosis has been & continues to be one of the most significant pathogens in term of human morbidity & mortality. (
  • Confronting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (
  • Randomized controlled trials that compared the use of FDCs with single-drug formulations in adults (aged 15 years or more) newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB. (
  • In most countries where tuberculosis cases are very common, BCG vaccinations are given to infants and adults as a part of tuberculosis prevention programs. (
  • Treated pulmonary tuberculosis is a cause of significant chronic obstructive airways disease. (
  • Presents case studies on patients it pulmonary disease. (
  • Therefore tuberculosis prevention and control are very important to stop this disease from spreading rapidly. (
  • The first step in pulmonary tuberculosis prevention is diagnosing the disease in time. (
  • Many hospitals and healthcare clinics carry out regular tuberculosis prevention programs to spread awareness about this disease. (
  • Therefore tuberculosis prevention programs are very important so as to educate people about this disease. (
  • Young children are more likely to develop severe disease from the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). (
  • During the process, 3 patients with chest radiographs consistent with active disease were identified as having pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (
  • b There are no patients in this group because minimal disease in the U.S. National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association classification excludes patients with cavitary disease. (
  • The sociodemographic and operational characteristics of the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated in this study, as well as the identification of priority areas for control and surveillance of the disease, could promote public health policies aimed at reducing health inequities, allowing the optimization of resources, as well as informing decisions regarding the selection of strategies and specific interventions targeting the most vulnerable populations. (
  • He also specializes in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, or emphysema), a disease that is often a late consequence of smoking, and is presently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. (
  • He is passionate about treating tuberculosis (in all its forms, including drug-resistant TB), a disease that is highly prevalent, and often misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately in India. (
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease which leads to severe weakness and number of medical ill effects. (
  • Panchakarma like Virechana (purgation) and Vamana (emesis) can be used in pulmonary tuberculosis according to severity of disease and strength of the patient, to avoid further progression of the disease. (
  • Currently, it is estimated that over 2 million people die from tuberculosis yearly and that 8 million people contract the disease ( 5 ). (
  • While this class of DNA vaccines appears to be completely safe in terms of inoculation into naïve individuals, the data presented here suggest that if given unknowingly to individuals already exposed to tuberculosis, there may be a risk of exacerbating disease or triggering reactivation of latent tuberculosis. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most common pathogenic organism, can manifest itself within the abdomen via haematogenous spread from a pulmonary primary, transmural invasion of the bowel following ingestion, reactivation of dormant disease or tuberculous salpingitis. (
  • Throughout history, the disease tuberculosis has been variously known as consumption, phthisis, and the White Plague. (
  • Some authors call tuberculosis the first disease known to mankind. (
  • The incidence of PPFE-like lesions and their correlation with age, body mass index, and concomitant pulmonary findings were assessed. (
  • We conducted a review to assess the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of FDCs compared with single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. (
  • We concluded that fixed-dose combinations have similar efficacy to single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. (
  • Fixed-dose combinations and single-drug formulations probably have similar effects for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. (
  • A total of 9344 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB cases were included. (
  • Our results detected positive associations between ambient PM 2.5 , CO exposures and the risk of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in China. (
  • The National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) which was established quickly had one of the highest rates of new smear-positive TB in Asia. (
  • Review of the national tuberculosis programme in Belarus, 10-21 October 2011. (
  • Review of the national tuberculosis programme in Ukraine, 1-22 October 2010. (
  • Active pulmonary TB is treated with a combination of many medicines (usually 4 medicines). (
  • Further x-ray examinations are carried out to confirm if active tuberculosis is present in the person's body. (
  • Active pulmonary tuberculosis is generally treated with a combination of drugs to get better results. (
  • 3 Thus, PET-CT is useful in identifying an active pulmonary tuberculoma in the absence of initial microbiological proof. (
  • The measurements and evaluation of particular complement fragments which has been performed by many authors, has revealed the increased concentration of C3 and C4 in active tuberculosis. (
  • Yee D, Valiquette C, Pelletier M, Parisien I, Rocher I, Menzies D. Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. (
  • Expression of functional interleukin 2 receptors by peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis are "activated" by a number of criteria, including selective depression of T-lymphocyte responses to the mycobacterial antigen, tuberculin-purified protein derivative (PPD). (
  • The Mayo Clinic/Olmsted TB Clinic was established in response to a dramatic increase in the number of active tuberculosis cases in Olmsted County residents over the past several years. (
  • from 93 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of smear-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB among TB suspects in Cotonou, and to estimate the total number of non-smear-positive TB cases at country level. (
  • The article informs that the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States is falling. (
  • Tuberculosis can affect sacroiliac joints, but only a few such cases have been reported. (
  • We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates collected in 2 regions of Algeria in 2015-2018 from 93 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Patients 2 and 3 were known to have cases of pulmonary TB and became infected with SARS-CoV after contact with other patients hospitalized for SARS. (
  • The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases. (
  • Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases) in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. (
  • For New York City from 1978 to 1990, plotting the 3-year running averages of citywide new tuberculosis cases against the middle year yielded and S-shaped curve, with the inflection point at 1983 between early slow and late rapid rise. (
  • M. tuberculosis isolates from mother and infant were subsequently determined to have identical genotype patterns by IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. (
  • Exact tandem repeat D analysis ( 2 ) confirmed these 98 isolates as M. tuberculosis complex. (
  • Large-sequence polymorphism analysis using PCR sequencing of genomic regions RD105, RD239, and RD750 and of the polyketide synthase gene pks 15/1 ( 3 ) yielded 88 (89.8%) M. tuberculosis sensu stricto Euro-American lineage 4 isolates and 1 East Asian lineage 2 (Beijing) isolate. (
  • Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 5 RD deletion-free unidentified isolates indicated that these 5 isolates, P9982(ERR3588223), P9983(ERR3588225), P9985(ERR3588243), P9984(ERR3588246), and P9986(ERR3588247), were M. tuberculosis sensu stricto Euro-American lineage 4. (
  • In our study, 1 M. tuberculosis Beijing strain was isolated from a bronchial fluid sample collected in Blida from the location at which 15 M. tuberculosis Beijing isolates had been identified ≈10 years earlier from 14 workers from Algeria and 1 from China ( 5 ). (
  • You've been diagnosed as having reactivation tuberculosis of the basal pulmonary lobe(s). (