Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Tuberculosis, Laryngeal: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.Tuberculosis, Renal: Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tuberculosis, Oral: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Tuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Mycolic AcidsHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peritonitis, Tuberculous: A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.IndiaMolecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tuberculosis, Cardiovascular: Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.PeruDiarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Tuberculosis, Avian: A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mice, Inbred C57BLRussiaCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.BrazilRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Georgia (Republic)Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Aza CompoundsMicroscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Thioacetazone: A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mycobacterium kansasii: A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.VietnamHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.AmidohydrolasesCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.QuinolinesFluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Benzophenoneidum: An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.AfricaRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/6653)Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis. (+info)
Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (2/6653)During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community. (+info)
Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (3/6653)Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies. (+info)
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (4/6653)Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization. (+info)
Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (5/6653)Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity. (+info)
The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections. (6/6653)Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate. (+info)
Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (7/6653)This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. (+info)
Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (8/6653)The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB. (+info)
Tuberculosis Information CD-ROM
Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16: Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16. (Contd) Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 17. Tuberculosis Cases and Case Rates per 100,000 Population: States, 2002 and 2001 - PDF , HTML. Table 18. Tuberculosis Cases by Age Group: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 19. Tuberculosis Cases by Race/Ethnicity: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 20. Tuberculosis Cases, U.S.-born Persons and Foreign-born Persons: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 21. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Country of Origin: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 22. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Number of Years in the United States: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 23. Tuberculosis Cases by Form of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 24. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases by Site of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 25. Tuberculosis Cases in Residents of ...
New and Better Tools for Latent Tuberculosis Infection | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a major strategy for tuberculosis control in the United States, Canada, and selected resource-intensive countries (1, 2). Given the decline in tuberculosis cases in the United States since 1992, interest in treating patients with LTBI is renewed in order to eliminate the large reservoir of individuals at risk for progression to tuberculosis (1, 3). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, such professional organizations as the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and others (13) recommend targeted testing of persons at increased risk for tuberculosis and provision of therapy for LTBI after active tuberculosis disease has been excluded. Persons at greatest risk for progression to active tuberculosis disease after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis include those with HIV infection (the greatest single risk factor for progression) or recent tuberculosis infection, immigrants with LTBI from high ...
Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Infection in Children | Bentham Science
Tuberculosis remains one of the major diseases afflicting children throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends tuberculosis disease screening in children who live in the household of a smear-positive case, but lack effective measures for this management in high-burden countries to perform this routinely. WHO has recently called for more studies to define the global epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis, because the literature remains scant, dominated primarily by studies from industrialized countries and South Africa, but few epidemiologic studies of pediatric tuberculosis have been published from Asia. Children account for 10-15% of all new cases of tuberculosis worldwide. For a long time, childhood tuberculosis was neglected because of the paucibacillary characteristic of the disease in pediatric population. However, recent works have reinforced the role of childhood tuberculosis as an indicator of the effectiveness of control-programmes and also in the dissemination ...
Tuberculosis Research Centre - communityhealth.in
The Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre was established at Chennai in 1956 and renamed as Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC) in 1978. The Centre has made significant contributions in different areas of research on tuberculosis including the immunology and molecular biology. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated TRC as a collaborating centre for tuberculosis control programme in India. Many of the research findings of the Centre have received worldwide recognition and had significant impact on the formulation of tuberculosis control programmes in Asia, Africa, South America and some parts of Europe. The Centre imparts training in laboratory diagnosis and controlled clinical trials of tuberculosis. It is also actively engaged in evolving comprehensive methodologies for strengthening the case-finding and case-holding components of National Tuberculosis Control Programme. ...
Recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Children account for a major proportion of the global tuberculosis disease burden, especially in endemic areas. However, the accurate diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis remains a major challenge. This review provides an overview of the most important recent advances in the diagnosis of intrathoracic childhood tuberculosis: (1) symptom-based approaches, including symptom-based screening of exposed children and symptom-based diagnosis of active disease; (2) novel immune-based approaches, including T cell assays and novel antigen-based tests; and (3) bacteriological and molecular methods that are more rapid and/or less expensive than conventional culture techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis and/or drug-resistance testing. Recent advances have improved our ability to diagnose latent infection and active tuberculosis in children, but establishing a diagnosis of either latent infection or active disease in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge, particularly in high-burden settings. ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Recommendations for drug allocation, tuberculosis prevention, and patient care during isoniazid...
Recommendations for drug allocation, tuberculosis prevention, and patient care during isoniazid shortages Summary: Shortages of isoniazid (INH), a cornerstone drug for treating tuberculosis disease (TB) and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), are continuing. This notice gives an update on the shortages and expands general guidance to public health officials and clinicians about how to adjust practices in response to the shortages from that outlined in CDCs December 21, 2012, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (http://www.cdc.aov/mmwr/Dreview/mmwrhtml/mm6150a4.htm). It also outlines national plans for restoring INH supplies and lists published guidance that could assist in making treatment decisions when INH is unavailable ...
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis). This poses several challenges similar to those encountered in the pre-chemotherapy era, including the inability to cure tuberculosis, high mortality, and the need for alternative methods to prevent disease transmission. This phenomenon mirrors the worldwide increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of other MDR pathogens, such as malaria, HIV, and Gram-negative bacteria. MDR and XDR tuberculosis are associated with high morbidity and ...
LA County Department of Public Health - Tuberculosis Control Program
CALIFORNIA LAW. HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE SECTION 121362. 121362.. Each health care provider who treats a person for active tuberculosis disease, each person in charge of a health facility, or each person in charge of a clinic providing outpatient treatment for active tuberculosis disease shall promptly report to the local health officer at the times that the health officer requires, but no less frequently than when there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person has active tuberculosis disease, and when a person ceases treatment for tuberculosis disease. Situations in which the provider may conclude that the patient has ceased treatment include times when the patient fails to keep an appointment, relocates without transferring care, or discontinues care. The initial disease notification report shall include an individual treatment plan that includes the patients name, address, date of birth, tuberculin skin test results, pertinent radiologic, microbiologic, and pathologic reports, whether ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-Kilodalton Lipoprotein Inhibits Gamma Interferon-Regulated HLA-DR and FcγR1 on Human...
A hallmark of M. tuberculosis is its ability to infect, survive in, and persist in human macrophages. Acquired immunity, mediated primarily by MHC-II-restricted IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, controls M. tuberculosis infection but fails to eradicate the organism. When acquired immunity fails because of aging, malnutrition, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, persistent macrophage-bound M. tuberculosis bacilli emerge to cause reactivation tuberculosis. The mechanism(s) used by M. tuberculosis to persist for many years in macrophages in the face of highly developed and active acquired T-cell responses, reflected in strongly positive tuberculin skin test reactivity, is poorly understood. Earlier studies established that M. tuberculosis can interfere with IFN-γ-mediated activation and IFN-γR signaling in human macrophages (41). However, the molecules of M. tuberculosis that are responsible for interference with IFN-γ signaling have not been characterized.. In earlier studies, we ...
Effect of HIV-1 infection on T-Cell-based and skin test detection of tuberculosis infection
RATIONALE: Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Melbourne, Australia), and Mantoux tests to identify latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 160 healthy adults without active tuberculosis attending a voluntary counseling and testing center for HIV infection in Khayelitsha, a deprived urban South African community with an HIV antenatal seroprevalence of 33% and a tuberculosis incidence of 1,612 per 100,000. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and sixty (74 HIV(+) and 86 HIV(-)) persons were enrolled. A lower proportion of Mantoux results was positive in HIV-infected subjects compared with HIV-uninfected subjects (p , 0.01). By ...
Research Delivers Insight Into The Tuberculosis Treatment Market That Is Projected To Mark A Considerable CAGR Of 4.9 % During...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global tuberculosis treatment market was valued at US$ 838.4 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,306.6 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 4.9 % from 2017 to 2025.. Market Insights. About one-third of the worlds population is suffering with latent tuberculosis, people infected with mycobacterium infection have a 10% risk to fall ill with tuberculosis, however people with compromised immunity such as HIV, diabetes and tobacco addiction are at a higher risk to get tuberculosis. The drugs utilized to fight tuberculosis is categorized as first-line treatment and second-line treatment on the basis of the severity of illness.. Browse the full report Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/tuberculosis-treatment-market. In the base year ...
Research Roundup: An effective Rotavirus vaccine, prioritizing pediatric TB diagnostics, and a powerful HIV antibody
India is rolling out a new program to expedite the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB cases to speed treatment. While children generally respond well to TB treatments, a pediatric TB case is usually severe and requires a quick, accurate diagnosis to ensure effective treatment. FIND and the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program have worked in India to establish an infrastructure to aid in accurately and quickly diagnosing children, developing a courier system to quickly relay samples from clinic to lab for diagnosis and relay results back to the health provider via text message within 24 hours. The organizations have also led an initiative that has added over 600 GeneXpert diagnostic machines throughout India. Indias goal is to make the GeneXpert machines a front-line tool for TB diagnosis.. Research conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Sanofi has created an antibody capable of killing 99 percent of HIV strains. Fighting HIV is ...
Newer drugs and targets in tuberculosis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Newer drugs and targets in tuberculosis. AU - Subramanian, Harish Thanu. AU - Meena Kumari, K.. AU - Amberkar Mohan Babu, V.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - In the year 2013, nine million people suffered from tuberculosis. Around 1.5 million people (men, woman and children) died due to tuberculosis. About 1.1 million people with HIV developed tuberculosis. The major drawbacks of tuberculosis treatment in a patient are multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Recently newer drugs and targets have been the key focus of research in finding the permanent cure for tuberculosis. The FDA has recently approved a new tuberculosis drug bedaquiline. The drugs under trials are delamanid, pretomanid, sutezolid and SQ109. Drugs in preclinical development showing promising results are benzothiazinone, spectinamide, capuramycin, TBI-166 (Riminophenazines antibiotic). The various lead compounds which showed promising activity against ...
PET Scans Predict Effectiveness of Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV Patients - Healthcanal.com :...
Research in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, however, shows that the use of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans can help to determine earlier if treatment for tuberculosis is working or if the disease is MDR.. Tuberculosis and HIV have been linked since the AIDS epidemic began. Approximately 33.2 million people across the world are living with HIV, and an estimated one-third of them are co-infected with tuberculosis. In 2008, the number of MDR tuberculosis cases reached between 390,000-510,000, or 3.6 percent of all incident tuberculosis cases. MDR tuberculosis is very difficult to treat and is often fatal.. "Early detection of drug resistance of tuberculosis allows the initiation of an appropriate treatment, which may significantly affect patient survival. Currently, more than two-thirds of patients with MDR tuberculosis die," said Mike Sathekge, MD, PhD, lead author of the study "Use of 18F-FDG PET to Predict Response to First-Line Tuberculostatics in ...
Tuberculosis By Fion Kung. Objective Describe tuberculosis Describe sigh and symptoms of tuberculosis Describe the...
What is Tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. When an infected individual coughs, laughs, sneezes, or sings, droplet nuclei containing tuberculosis bacteria enter the air and may be inhaled by others. TB is not spread by shaking someones hand, sharing food or drink, kissing Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. When an infected individual coughs, laughs, sneezes, or sings, droplet nuclei containing tuberculosis bacteria enter the air
Guidance for National Tuberculosis Programmes on the Management of Tuberculosis in Children
The first edition of Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children was published in 2006. It resulted in the revision or development of guidelines for child TB management by national TB programmes in many TB-endemic countries. Now, however, newly published evidence and new recommendations have made it necessary to update the original 2006 guidance.
Association between smoking and tuberculosis infection: a population survey in a high tuberculosis incidence area | Thorax
This study shows that current or ex-smokers had a higher prevalence of M tuberculosis infection than never smokers and that there was a slightly higher risk of infection for those who smoked more than 15 pack-years than for those who smoked less, although this was not significant. This suggests that the increased risk of disease and death from tuberculosis among smokers may be due, at least in part, to an increased risk of smokers becoming infected with M tuberculosis.. An unexpected finding was the positive association between a positive TST and income. It should be noted, however, that the mean incomes in the study area are low, and that the categorisation threshold used in the analyses identifies only the poorest in the community. Nevertheless, the reason for their lower TST rates requires further study, including the possibility of lower risk of exposure through fewer social contacts.. Our study confirms previous studies that showed an association between smoking and tuberculosis infection ...
Citizen News Service - CNS: Patients' Charter for TB Care, and childhood TB
In an interview given recently to Shobha Shukla - CNS, Dr Somya Swaminathan, MD in Paediatric TB, and a Scientist at the National Institute for research in Tuberculosis (Indian Council of Medical Research - ICMR), said that: "Pediatric TB is difficult to control, because the infection spreads through the air borne route, and children get it from adults. So the only way to prevent childhood TB is to tackle adult TB more seriously. Contact to contact TB testing must be done. All family members of a TB patient, especially children, should be tested, and started on chemo-prophylaxis. That way we can reduce the burden of paediatric TB. The general awareness level about TB is very poor, even amongst educated people. They do not know how it spreads, how it can be diagnosed and treated and what they can do to reduce the burden of TB. As it is an air borne infection, anybody can get it. The most important risk factor in children is malnutrition, as poor nutrition makes one more susceptible to it. Other ...
Active tuberculosis. Causes, symptoms, treatment Active tuberculosis
Tuberculosis | University of Maryland Medical Center
Abubakar I et al. Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective. J Infect Dis. 2012;205 Suppl 2:S293-300.. Bafica A, Scanga CA, Serhan C, Machado F, et al. Host control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by 5-lipoxygenase-dependent lipoxin production. J Clin Invest. 2005 June 1;115(6):1601-1606.. Baker MA, Lin HH, Chang HY, Murray MB. The risk of tuberculosis disease among persons with diabetes mellitis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(6):818-25.. Bastian I, Colebunders R. Treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Drugs. 1999;58(4):633-661.. Ben mrad M, Gherissi D, Mouthon L, Salmon-Ceron D. Tuberculosis risk among patients with systemic diseases. Presse Med. 2009;38(2):274-90.. Bope: Conns Current Therapy 2012. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.. Bornman L, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa: a case-control and ...
Abubakar I et al. Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective. J Infect Dis. 2012;205 Suppl 2:S293-300.. Bafica A, Scanga CA, Serhan C, Machado F, et al. Host control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by 5-lipoxygenase-dependent lipoxin production. J Clin Invest. 2005 June 1;115(6):1601-1606.. Baker MA, Lin HH, Chang HY, Murray MB. The risk of tuberculosis disease among persons with diabetes mellitis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(6):818-25.. Bastian I, Colebunders R. Treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Drugs. 1999;58(4):633-661.. Ben mrad M, Gherissi D, Mouthon L, Salmon-Ceron D. Tuberculosis risk among patients with systemic diseases. Presse Med. 2009;38(2):274-90.. Bope: Conns Current Therapy 2012. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.. Bornman L, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa: a case-control and ...
The association of hyperglycaemia with prevalent tuberculosis : a population-based cross-sectional study
Background: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis. A focus on prevalent tuberculosis enables estimation of the contribution of hyperglycaemia to the population prevalence of tuberculosis. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Prevalent tuberculosis was defined by the presence of a respiratory sample that was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Glycaemia was measured by ...
Trends in Tuberculosis Incidence --- United States, 2006
In 2006, a total of 13,767 tuberculosis (TB) cases (4.6 per 100,000 population) were reported in the United States, representing a 3.2% decline from the 2005 rate. This report summarizes provisional 2006 TB incidence data from the National TB Surveillance System and describes trends since 1993. The TB rate in 2006 was the lowest recorded since national reporting began in 1953, but the rate of decline has slowed since 2000. The average annual percentage decline in the TB incidence rate decreased from 7.3% per year during 1993--2000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.9%--7.8%) to 3.8% during 2000--2006 (CI = 3.1%--4.5%). Foreign-born persons and racial/ethnic minority populations continue to be affected disproportionately by TB in the United States. In 2006, the TB rate among foreign-born persons in the United States was 9.5 times that of U.S.-born persons.* The TB rates among blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were 8.4, 21.2, and 7.6 times higher than rates among whites, respectively. The slowing of ...
ASMscience | Tuberculosis in Infants
This chapter focuses on the fundamental nature of exposure and infection of pediatric tuberculosis, emphasizing how and why children should be approached differently from adults. The effects of these differences on the public health approach to tuberculosis control in children are also explained in the chapter. Disease occurs when signs or symptoms or radiographic manifestations caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis become apparent. Infants are more likely to experience signs and symptoms, probably because of their small airway diameters relative to the parenchymal and lymph node changes in primary tuberculosis. The hallmark of primary pulmonary tuberculosis is the relatively large size and importance of the lymphadenitis compared with the less significant size of the initial parenchymal focus. The most common manifestations are at the anatomic site of the existing tuberculosis, but new onset of tuberculomas, lymphadenopathy, and abdominal manifestations can occur. As with tuberculin skin test (TSTs),
Towards cash transfer interventions for tuberculosis prevention, care and control: Key operational challenges and research...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Towards cash transfer interventions for tuberculosis prevention, care and control. T2 - Key operational challenges and research priorities. AU - Boccia, Delia. AU - Pedrazzoli, Debora. AU - Wingfield, Tom. AU - Jaramillo, Ernesto. AU - Lönnroth, Knut. AU - Lewis, James. AU - Hargreaves, James. AU - Evans, Carlton A.. PY - 2016/6/21. Y1 - 2016/6/21. N2 - Background: Cash transfer interventions are forms of social protection based on the provision of cash to vulnerable households with the aim of reduce risk, vulnerability, chronic poverty and improve human capital. Such interventions are already an integral part of the response to HIV/AIDS in some settings and have recently been identified as a core element of World Health Organizations End TB Strategy. However, limited impact evaluations and operational evidence are currently available to inform this policy transition. Discussion: This paper aims to assist national tuberculosis (TB) programs with this new policy direction by ...
Increase in extra pulmonary tuberculosis in England and Wales 1999-2006 - UEA Digital Repository
Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis appears to be increasing in England and Wales. The trends in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and factors associated with these trends were examined. Methods: National tuberculosis surveillance data from 1999-2006 for England and Wales were used, including demographic, clinical and laboratory information. Trends in the proportion of tuberculosis cases with extrapulmonary disease were investigated using the ?2 trend test and associated factors using logistic regression. Results: Among all the cases of tuberculosis, the proportion with extrapulmonary disease increased from 48% in 1999 (2717 cases) to 53% in 2006 (4205 cases, p. ...
Tuberculosis Information CD-ROM
Div of TB Elimination. Evaluation of the Brazilian National TB Surveillance System. Most epidemiologists, public health policy makers, TB program managers, and health experts would agree that TB surveillance is a crucial tool in their decision making. Where disagreement may arise among the various stakeholders is in their assessment of the system s reliability, completeness of coverage, and utility, among other attributes. For example, in Brazil, the national TB surveillance system (SINAN-TB: Sistema de Informa o de Agravos de Notifica o-Tuberculose) reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) approximately 74,500 new TB cases in 2001, whereas WHO s own estimate of TB cases in Brazil for that year was approximately 110,500 a substantial difference (WHO estimates total TB cases based on TB incidence reappraisals in reporting countries).1,2 In recognition of the importance of accurate surveillance data, the Brazilian Ministry of Health invited the International Research and Programs Branch ...
Predictors of knowledge about tuberculosis: results from SANHANES I, a national, cross-sectional household survey in South...
South Africa is one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries that contribute 80 % of the global tuberculosis cases. Tuberculosis is infectious and due to its rapid and easy transmission route poses a threat to population health. Considering the importance of social and psychological factors in influencing health outcomes, appraising knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis, remain vital for effective tuberculosis control. The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors that predict knowledge about tuberculosis among 18-64 year old adults in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey method was used. Multi-stage disproportionate, stratified cluster sampling was used to select households within enumeration areas stratified by province and locality type. Based on the Human Sciences Research Council 2007 master sample, 500 Enumerator Areas representative of the socio-demographic profile of South Africa were identified and a random sample of 20 households was randomly selected from each Enumerator
DPH: Tuberculosis Control Program
Tuberculosis Control Program Abstract: The mission of the Connecticut Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program is to interrupt and prevent transmission of TB, prevent emergence of drug-resistant TB, and reduce and prevent death, disability, illness, emotional trauma, family disruption, and social stigma caused by TB.Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. It particularly affects persons living in crowded conditions and in poverty (e.g., homeless) and persons who have HIV infection (e.g., injection drug users). The TB Control Program (Program) works in collaboration with health care providers and municipal health departments to conduct surveillance for TB disease and latent TB infection, screening, treatment, and containment activities. Program activities include: Identifying all persons diagnosed or suspected of having TB through reporting to the Program by health care providers, local health authorities and laboratories. Collecting and
Obligate aerobe acid-fast rods TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW, CAUSE, AND PATHOGENESIS Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle...
TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW, CAUSE, AND PATHOGENESIS Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) common, and in many cases lethal infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was identified and described on 24 March 1882 by Robert Koch Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body most commonly occurs in the lungs pulmonary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis rate increasing in Washington state | Daily Sun News mobile version
Tuberculosis cases increased in Washington state for the first time after several years of decline.. Last year, 209 cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported - a 13 percent increase from the 185 cases reported in 2012. The TB rate in Washington has historically been lower than the national average, but in 2013 it matched the national rate.. "Tuberculosis can be a very serious, even fatal disease. Treatment is difficult for people because it requires taking multiple medications for several months," State Health Officer Dr. Kathy Lofy said.. "Its important for public health and the health care community to stay vigilant and work together to control tuberculosis," she said.. Lofy said TB is a dangerous disease. Its a bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs but can attack other parts of the body.. Most symptoms include fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss and a persistent cough. Some people may be infected with TB and have no symptoms.. Timely treatment with proper antibiotics is ...
Drug susceptibility testing and mortality in patients treated for tuberculosis in high-burden countries: a multicentre cohort...
Guide for Developing a Community-Based Patient Safety Advisory Council | Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality
The Guide for Developing a Community-Based Patient Safety Advisory Council consists of the following sections:. Chapter 2. Patient Safety Advisory Councils. This portion serves as an introduction to how and why patient advisory councils have become part of the patient safety movement. This portion of the guide will be most useful to individuals who are considering whether they want to develop a council. It includes a description of the benefits of creating a community-based patient advisory council for patients, health care providers, and the community. The information in this section could be used as justification and validation to gain support for developing a council from leadership and governing bodies. Particularly highlighted is the experience of the Aurora Health Care project, which led to the creation of this guide and is referred to throughout the guide as an exemplary model of a community-based advisory council.. Chapter 3. Steps to Creating a Patient Safety Advisory Council. This ...
Collaboration between the Indian Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme and private practitioners in India improved the case notification of tuberculosis while maintaining good treatment outcomes. Compared with historical surveillance data from the same project areas in a limited number of projects involving private practitioners, higher mean case notification rates were observed after implementation of the public-private mix project. Furthermore, limited data from non-governmental organisations and private industry medical services showed their ability to work with the Indian tuberculosis control programme and successfully diagnose and treat large numbers of patients with tuberculosis. A strong public sector tuberculosis control programme proved critical for provision of necessary advocacy, training, and supervision. These findings highlight the feasibility of building public-private collaborations and the considerable potential they hold for improving tuberculosis control in ...
Tuberculosis infection and disease among schoolchildren: the influence of the HIV epidemic and of other factors. | Journal of...
BACKGROUND: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has caused an excess of tuberculosis cases in Spain and in other countries, but its impact on tuberculosis infection is less well understood. This study presents a massive screening undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection in a cohort of primary school entrants. The evolution of the risk of infection is studied by comparison with previous data in the same population. METHODS: Tuberculin skin test screening with 2TU of PPD RT 23 of first grade students in the primary schools of Barcelona, in the 1994-95 school year (cohort born in 1988). Information was also sought from families of unscreened children. Contacts of PPD+ children were traced to locate index cases. The results were also linked to the case registry of the tuberculosis control programme. RESULTS: The prevalence of tuberculin reactors free of BCG vaccination among the 11,080 schoolchildren screened belonging to the 1988 cohort was 0.76%. A 3% annual decline in the annual risk of ...
Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments
Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that non-communicable diseases-such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse-have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are ...
5 WAYS TO PROTECT YOURSELF FROM TUBERCULOSIS (Doctor's Ask - Diseases 2018)
Doctors Ask: The World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated annually on March 24th. WHO warns that tuberculosis with multiple drug resistance is widespread in Ukraine, so the first place is precisely the prevention of tuberculosis. 5 ways to protect yourself from tuberculosis The use of milk from animals sick of tuberculosis can cause human tuberculosis, as well as meat infected with tuberculosis.
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100;000 people) in Malawi
... was last measured at 227 in 2014, according to the World Bank. Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100;000 people) in Malawi.
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100;000 people) in High income nonOECD
... was last measured at 52 in 2014, according to the World Bank. Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100;000 people) in High income nonOECD.
Trends in Tuberculosis --- United States, 2010
In 2010, a total of 11,181 tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States, for a rate of 3.6 cases per 100,000 population, which was a decline of 3.9% from 2009 and the lowest rate recorded since national reporting began in 1953 (1). This report summarizes provisional 2010 data from the National TB Surveillance System and describes trends since 1993. Despite an average decline in TB rates of 3.8% per year during 2000--2008, a record decline of 11.4% in 2009 (2), and the 2010 decline of 3.9%, the national goal of TB elimination (defined as ,0.1 case per 100,000 population) by 2010 was not met (3). Although TB cases and rates decreased among foreign-born and U.S.-born persons, foreign-born persons and racial/ethnic minorities were affected disproportionately by TB in the United States. In 2010, the TB rate among foreign-born persons in the United States was 11 times greater than among U.S.-born persons. TB rates among Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and Asians were seven, eight, and 25 ...
Drug-resistant Tuberculosis continues to spread: new report. Concern about childhood TB
GeneXpert-A Game-Changer for Tuberculosis Control? | proLékaře.cz
1. World Health Organization 2010 Global tuberculosis control Geneva World Health Organization. 2. BoehmeCCNabetaPHillemannDNicolMPShenaiS 2010 Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med 363 11 1005 1015. 3. BoehmeCCNicolMPNabetaPMichaelJSGotuzzoE 2011 Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 377 9776 1495 1505. 4. NathansonENunnPUplekarMFloydKJaramilloE 2010 MDR tuberculosis-critical steps for prevention and control. N Engl J Med 363 11 1050 1058. 5. CoxHKebedeYAllamuratovaSIsmailovGDavletmuratovaZ 2006 Tuberculosis recurrence and mortality after successful treatment: impact of drug resistance. PLoS Med 3 10 e384 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030384. 6. ChaudharyMGuptaSKhareSLalS 2010 Diagnosis of tuberculosis in an era of HIV pandemic: a review of current status and future prospects. Indian J Med Microbiol ...
Georgia Tuberculosis Prevention Project mHealth Module | URC
Tuberculosis Drug Shows Promise Against Latent Bacteria - Redorbit
Tuberculosis drug shows promise against latent bacteria WASHINGTON, Sept. 12 (Xinhua) -- A new study has shown that an investigational drug R207910, currently in clinical trials against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains, is quite effective at killing latent bacteria, a report said on Friday. This revelation suggests that R207910 may lead to improved and shortened treatments for this globally prevalent disease, researchers from Johnson & Johnson reported in the Sept. 12 issue of Journal of Biological Chemistry. Despite numerous treatment advances, tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious disease -- fueled by co-infection of HIV patients, the rise of drug-resistant strains, and the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to become dormant and linger in the lungs. People can be infected, asymptotically, with latent TB and is at risk of developing active TB disease during their life time. The research team tested R207910 on dormant M. tuberculosis in three different laboratory models of latency. ...
Antibiotic sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates; a retrospective study from a Saudi tertiary hospital
ConclusionResistance to first-line TB drugs is higher in extra-pulmonary TB isolates than pulmonary isolates. Nearly one-fourth of all M. tuberculosis clinical strains were resistant to the antibiotics tested in mono-resistant or multi-resistant manners. Women had greater resistance to TB drug ethambutol as compared to men. Meanwhile, extra-pulmonary TB specimens, specifically that from tissu...
Georgia Tuberculosis Prevention Project - Federal Grant
Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Protocol, PDF
Tuberculosis prevention and control (Resolution)
PPT - Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis PowerPoint Presentation - ID:85438
Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis. 4. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease . Module 4: Objectives. At completion of this module, learners will be able to: List groups of people who should receive high priority for latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment Slideshow 85438 by HarrisCezar
World Tuberculosis Day - When is World Tuberculosis Day? - Holidays.net
World Tuberculosis Day. World Tuberculosis Day is a holiday observed every year on March 24th. Not only does this date commemorates the discovery of tuberculosis (TB), but the primary purpose of the holiday is to increase awareness about the infectious disease as well as treatment measures to help prevent its spread and related deaths. While not a public holiday, the celebrations are crucial to the education, and hopefully the eventual elimination of this deadly disease. Due to the worldwide prevalence of TB, World Tuberculosis Day is observed in several different countries every year.. Tuberculosis Defined. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of the lungs. It is spread from person to person through extremely contagious bacteria. While direct contact can spread the disease, droplets from coughs and sneezes can also transmit TB through the shared airspaces.. People contract numerous other types of infections every year that are treated with antibiotics. What makes TB so dangerous, however, is ...
Eugene Lindsay Opie
In 1923 he became the Director of the Phipps Institute for the Study and Treatment of Tuberculosis at the University of ... Opie narrowed his general interest in infectious disease to focus on tuberculosis, an international scourge in the early part ... Significant new data were accrued on influenza, tuberculosis, and "trench fever" (bartonellosis) during that time. Upon ... tuberculosis and other diseases, died yesterday in the Bryn Mawr (Pa.) Hospital. He was 97 years old. Despite his age, Dr. Opie ...
Davi Kopenawa Yanomami
Massive blood - cavitary tuberculosis or tumor such as lung cancer of lung, or lung abscess; bronchiectasis; lung infarction; ... Brownish - chronic bronchitis (greenish/yellowish/brown); chronic pneumonia (whitish-brown); tuberculosis; lung cancer. Yellow ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Other pathogens can also be found. Purulent ...
Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. World Health Organization, 12 volumes 1997-2008. Dye, C.; ... Dye, C.; Glaziou, P.; Floyd, K.; Raviglione, M. (2012). "Prospects for Tuberculosis Elimination". Annual Review of Public ... Dye, C.; Williams, B. G. (2009). "Slow Elimination of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Science Translational Medicine. 1 (3 ... Williams, B. G. (2010). "The Population Dynamics and Control of Tuberculosis". Science. 328 (5980): 856-861. doi:10.1126/ ...
"The PE and PPE proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Tuberculosis. 91 (5): 441-447. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2011.04.004. ... she identified several PE/PPE family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative pathogen of tuberculosis, and ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis Macrophage India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected bibliography section " ... Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Nair, Shiny; Ghosh, Sudip (2012-03-01). "Pathogenesis in tuberculosis: transcriptomic approaches to ...
Tuberculosis research project wins Times Higher Education award", 4 December 2013. Retrieved on 23 November 2014. UCL Hospitals ... 2009), Tuberculosis: a comprehensive clinical reference, Saunders/Elsevier, ISBN 978-1-4160-3988-4 McCloskey, B.; Endericks, T ... In 2011 and 2012, Zumla received four more major international prizes for his work combating tuberculosis, TB/HIV/AIDS, and ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62342-9. Zumla A., Raviglione M., Hafner R., Fordham, von Reyn C. (2013). "Tuberculosis". New England ...
Dinesh K. Bhargava
Public health genomics
Perrin P (June 2015). "Human and tuberculosis co-evolution: An integrative view". Tuberculosis. 95 Suppl 1: S112-S116. doi: ... It is possible that the human genome has evolved in part from our exposure to M. tuberculosis. Animal model studies and whole ... In the case of M. tuberculosis, animal model studies were used to suggest evidence of a locus which was correlated with ... The genetic loci that have been identified to be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis are HLA-DR, INF-γ, SLC11A1, VDR ...
Solid lipid nanoparticle
The Saskatoon Sanatorium was a tuberculosis sanatorium established in 1925 by the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League as the ... The Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League evolved into The Lung Association of Saskatchewan and focused on other respiratory ... "Tuberculosis". University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 2011-02-20. "The Lung Association of Saskatchewan 100-year Timeline". The ... "Saskatchewan Leads Canada, North America and the World in the Fight Against Tuberculosis" (PDF). Western Development Museum. ...
His research in the area has been concerned with mycobacterial, particularly tuberculosis, related proteins. The specific ... Chetnani, B.; Kumar, P.; Surolia, A.; Vijayan, M. (9 July 2010). "M. tuberculosis pantothenate kinase: Dual substrate ... Vijayan, M. (2005). "Structural biology of mycobacterial proteins: The Bangalore effort". Tuberculosis. 85 (5-6): 357-366. doi: ... "Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Variability in quaternary structure and its ...
Brahm Shanker Srivastava
"Selective identification of new therapeutic targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IVIAT approach". Tuberculosis. 82 (4-5): ... Bacterial genetics Mycobacterium tuberculosis India portal Medicine portal Long link - please select award year to see details ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific DNA fragment". Justia Patents. 2017. World Intellectual Property Organization (2001). ... Ranjana Srivastava, Deepak Kumar, Brahm Shanker Srivastava (2 August 2006). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific DNA fragment ...
... identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as cause of tuberculosis (1882), posed Koch's postulates influenced by his teacher Jakob ... Koch took his research into a new direction-applied research-to develop a tuberculosis treatment and use the profits to found ... In 1901 at the London Congress on Tuberculosis, Koch stated on theoretical grounds that M bovis, which infects cows, was not ... Tuberculin's main use rapidly became in determining M tuberculosis infection-a use remaining till today-but this use soon ...
Open Source Drug Discovery
The first action involved development of drugs for tuberculosis (TB) bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The project has two ... "Open source drug discovery- A new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development". Tuberculosis. doi: ... An integrative genomics map of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 89 (5): 386-7. doi:10.1016/j. ... The collaborative work has identified more than 60 potential drug targets of M. tuberculosis. There are seven targets that are ...
... has been developed to treat cases of tuberculosis and chlamydia. It is very good treatment for tuberculosis because ... A longer half-life allows for few treatments and dosage which makes this an up-and-coming drug for tuberculosis, CDAD, and ... Of the most common are Chlamydia infection, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and tuberculosis (TB). Using ... Chlamydia infection Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Trachoma Tuberculosis Leprosy Buruli ulcer "Rifalazil - 129791-92 ...
Tawny-bellied cotton rat
A novel model for pulmonary tuberculosis". Tuberculosis. 87: 145-154. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2006.07.001. Musser, G. G.; Carleton, ... Some of the diseases tested on the cotton rat are respiratory syncytial virus, and pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV type-1. In ... The species was found to undergo an equivalent infection to pulmonary tuberculosis as humans. This is an upgrade over the ... Future research is underway to use the cotton rat for studying pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by HIV-1 due to similarities ...
Dubaniewicz A, Moszkowska G, Szczerkowska Z (2005). "Frequency of DRB1-DQB1 two-locus haplotypes in tuberculosis: preliminary ... DRB1*1601 is associated with tuberculosis risk DRB1*1602: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic heart disease, Takayasu ... report". Tuberculosis (Edinb). 85 (4): 259-67. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2004.12.003. PMID 15958261. Garavito G, Yunis E, Egea E, ...
Directly observed treatment, short-course
1997 "Tuberculosis." WHO factsheet (revised). No. 104. March 1996. "TB: Join the DOTS." The Economist. May 20, 1995. P. 89. " ... "Controlling Tuberculosis in China." In Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health, edited by Ruth Levine, 31-37. ... DOTS-Plus is for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). As of 1997, in its revised guidelines for national TB control ... "Framework for Effective Tuberculosis Control." World Health Organization. Document WHO/TB/94.179. World Bank. 1993. World ...
Endobronchial tuberculosis commonly leads to bronchiectasis, either from bronchial stenosis or secondary traction from fibrosis ... Bronchiectasis may result from a number of infective and acquired causes, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, immune system ... Catanzano, Tara (5 September 2005). "Primary Tuberculosis". eMedicine Specialties Encyclopedia. Connecticut: WebMD. Archived ... Tuberculosis, pneumonia, inhaled foreign bodies, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and bronchial tumours are the major ...
Globalization and disease
The bacterium that causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is generally spread when an infected person coughs and ... Antibiotic-resistant TB is also known as "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis." "Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis" is a pandemic ... Tuberculosis (TB) has been one of history's greatest killers, taking the lives of over 3 million people annually. It has been ... Nonetheless, it is still important to put in the effort to help and treat patients with "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis" in ...
1957 in association football
on Breastfeeding and maternal tuberculosis; acquired 2006-08-19 Nemir R, O'Hare D (1985). "Congenital tuberculosis. Review and ... It is not safe for mothers with active, untreated tuberculosis to breastfeed until they are no longer contagious. According to ... Breastfeeding might harm the baby also if the mother has untreated pulmonary tuberculosis, is taking certain medications that ...
... as well as for the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the major causative agent of tuberculosis. In this latter case, ICL ... Thus, ICL is a current inhibition target for therapeutic treatments of tuberculosis. Because of its use by pathogenic fungi and ... Lee, Y-V; Wahab, HA; Choong, YS (2015). "Potential Inhibitors for Isocitrate Lyase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Non-M. ... Muñoz-Elías, EJ; McKinney JD (Jun 2005). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyases 1 and 2 are jointly required for in vivo ...
In between, he took a hiatus from work and obtained Diploma in Tuberculosis Diseases (TDD) from Cardiff University School of ... He published seven books which included Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Diseases of the Chest, Medical Problems of Old Age and more ... The National Academy of Sciences, Italy awarded him the Eugeno Morelli Prize in 1969 and the Italian Tuberculosis Association ... His researches also covered several other diseases such as cerebral malaria, basal tuberculosis, lung atelectasis, ...
7 shows an example of detection times of Tuberculosis bacteria as a function of the initial amount of bacteria present in a ... 2011) and rapid detection of tuberculosis (Braissant et al. 2010, Rodriguez et al. 2011). Fig. ... Tuberculosis (Edinb). 90 (1): 57-59. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2009.11.001. PMID 19969505. Rodríguez, D; Daniels AU; Urrusti JL; Wirz ... D; Braissant O (October 2011). "Evaluation of a low-cost calorimetric approach for rapid detection of tuberculosis and other ...
Tuberculosis: General Information
Data & Statistics | TB | CDC
Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis, 1-5 Slide Sets. *The Tuberculosis (TB) in Correctional Settingsplus icon *Facilitator Guide ... Tuberculosis Surveillance Data Training - Report of Verified Case of Tuberculosis. *Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide ... Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2017. *Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in ... Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in the United States. *Targeted Tuberculosis Testing and Treatment of Latent ...
Open tuberculosis | definition of open tuberculosis by Medical dictionary
What is open tuberculosis? Meaning of open tuberculosis medical term. What does open tuberculosis mean? ... Looking for online definition of open tuberculosis in the Medical Dictionary? open tuberculosis explanation free. ... See tuberculosis.. renal tuberculosis disease of the kidney due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually from bacillemia in cases ... Tuberculosis bacilli can spread to other parts of the body by way of the blood, producing miliary tuberculosis. When a large ...
Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005 - 2017 | Treatment Action Group
Tuberculosis (TB) - TheBody.com
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. TB usually affects the lungs, but sometimes can affect other organs, ... The name tuberculosis comes from tubercles. These are small, hard lumps that form when the immune system builds a wall around ... Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. TB usually affects the lungs, but sometimes can affect other organs, ...
Tuberculosis | Doctor | Patient
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. In humans it is caused by... ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. In humans it is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Management of active tuberculosis. *Notification: all cases of TB must be notified under under the Public Health (Infectious ... Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Treatment of LTBI should be considered for people in the following groups, once ...
... (TB) is making a comeback in the United States today - particularly among the homeless, those in prison, and those ... Tuberculosis. TB Basics. Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is a disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium ... In older infants and children, the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) usually ... Tuberculosis in older children and adults may be of this type.. The most prominent symptom is a persistent fever, with sweating ...
... (TB) is making a comeback in the United States today - particularly among the homeless, those in prison, and those ... Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly ... In older infants and children, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is the first infection with the tuberculosis ... Tuberculosis is contagious when its airborne and can be inhaled by others. In general, kids are not considered contagious, and ...
tuberculosis | Infoplease
The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, ... tuberculosis. Introduction tuberculosis (TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most ... The human type ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis ), first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch , is spread by people themselves. It is ... common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and ...
2007 tuberculosis scare - Wikipedia
The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer Andrew "Drew" Speaker flew from Atlanta, Georgia to ... Once Speaker was in Europe, however, test results showed his strain of tuberculosis was even rarer than originally thought, ... Speakers earlier diagnosis was incorrect and that he instead had multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), a more treatable ... "Flight Itinerary of U.S. Traveler with Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB) (May 30, 2007)". Cdc.gov. Archived from ...
WHO | Drug-resistant tuberculosis
... drug resistance arises due to improper use of antibiotics in the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients. ... Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Resistance to tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a formidable obstacle to effective TB care ... Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis surveillance. Surveillance of drug resistance in TB over the past two decades has informed and ... Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control ...
Tuberculosis | Mass.gov
ISDH: La Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis | The BMJ
HIV infection renders a person infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis much more likely to develop overt tuberculosis, and the ... Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, being responsible for 3 million deaths annually. Among those ... So serious is the global threat of tuberculosis that, in 1993, the WHO took the unprecedented step of declaring this disease a ... The tragedy of this situation is that treating tuberculosis is one of the most effective and cost effective of all health ...
Tuberculosis. - PubMed - NCBI
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although ... Tuberculosis.. Pai M1,2, Behr MA1, Dowdy D3, Dheda K4, Divangahi M1, Boehme CC5, Ginsberg A6, Swaminathan S7, Spigelman M8, ... Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas ( ... Tuberculosis - drugs in the 2016 development pipeline. [Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017] ...
Genito urinary tuberculosis
... contains radiological findings of genitourinary tuberculosis including ivp,, hsg, usg and ct findings in kidney, ureter, ... Genitourinary tract tuberculosis. Lobar calcification in a large destroyed right kidney in a patient with renal tuberculosis. ... Genitourinary tract tuberculosis. Intravenous urography series in a man with renal tuberculosis shows marked irregularity of ... Chest x ray Abnormal in 50 % Active pulmonary tuberculosis - 5- 10% Sequelae of old tuberculosis of past infection. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis | SpringerLink
Tuberculosis once again occupies a special position in the areas of infec- tious diseases and microbiology. This disease has ... Tuberculosis has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, especially in highly ur- banized Europe, until a few ... Tuberculosis once again occupies a special position in the areas of infec- tious diseases and microbiology. This disease has ... Most importantly, tuberculosis also became the focus of attention for many investigations during the 19th and even the 20th ...
Tuberculosis | The BMJ
Tuberculosis | Summary | NNDSS
Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 2009 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ...
... is a disease caused by the bacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs, although it can affect other ... TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly ... Treatment of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. Epidemiology of tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis ... HOW DOES TUBERCULOSIS OCCUR?. The tuberculosis (TB) bacteria are spread through the air from a person who is ill with active TB ...
List of tuberculosis cases - Wikipedia
Rothman, Sheila M. (1994). Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History ... Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933), country music singer, sang about the woes of tuberculosis in the song T.B. Blues (co-written with ... Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938), American author, died of tuberculosis of the brain. His 1929 novel, Look Homeward, Angel, makes ... This is a list of famous people and celebrities who had, or are believed to have had tuberculosis, also known as consumption. ...
Student dies of tuberculosis - Telegraph
Tuberculosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus
Health Information on Tuberculosis: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - English PDF What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - Русский (Russian) PDF ... What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - English PDF What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - español (Spanish) PDF ... Tuberculosis (TB) Blood Test (IGRA) - English PDF Tuberculosis (TB) Blood Test (IGRA) - Afan Oromoo (Oromo) PDF ...
Tuberculosis | 2009 Case Definition
... tuberculosis complex should not be counted in tuberculosis morbidity statistics unless there is concurrent tuberculosis.. *Use ... Isolation of M. tuberculosis from a clinical specimen,* OR. *Demonstration of M. tuberculosis complex from a clinical specimen ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ...
Bovine Tuberculosis - Scientific American
How is tuberculosis treated?
... tuberculosis (tb, for short) is almost always curable. doctors prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria that cause it. ... Minnesota Department of Health: "Home Respiratory Precautions for Patients with Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis." ... Minnesota Department of Health: "Home Respiratory Precautions for Patients with Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis." ... With the proper treatment, tuberculosis (TB, for short) is almost always curable. ...
DPH: Tuberculosis Control Program
Through state funding, the Program provides anti-tuberculosis medications to hundreds of medical clinicians; reimburses ... Tuberculosis Control Program, is located at 410 Capitol Avenue, MS# 11TUB,Hartford, CT 06134 and can be reached by calling (860 ... and social stigma caused by TB.Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable ... The mission of the Connecticut Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program is to interrupt and prevent transmission of TB, prevent ...
Tuberculosis | NICE
This may depend on the type of tuberculosis that is suspected. ... investigations that may be used to diagnose tuberculosis. ... This may depend on the type of tuberculosis that is suspected.. Pulmonary tuberculosis. In this type of tuberculosis the lesion ... Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculosis outside the lungs. Related Stories. *Researchers discover new weapon to combat ... Those with suspected tuberculosis of the nervous system or of the brain and meninges (layers of cells that cover the brain and ...
Tuberculosis | SpringerLink
... is increasing concomitantly with the increase of pulmonary tuberculosis. Migration, increasing immunosuppression factors, and ... The number of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) ... Tuberculosis in New York City - turning the tide. N Engl J Med ... Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis CTB Cutaneous tuberculosis Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Scrofuloderma ... Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis. Is the most common form of exogenous cutaneous tuberculosis. The lesion develops from direct ...
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- an infectious, inflammatory, reportable disease that is chronic in nature and usually affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), although it may occur in almost any part of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A university student has been found dead in his room after dying of pulmonary tuberculosis, police said. (telegraph.co.uk)
- The number of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is increasing concomitantly with the increase of pulmonary tuberculosis. (springer.com)
- The initial treatment is equivalent to that of pulmonary tuberculosis, but has some particularities such as difficulty in confirming possible drug resistance. (springer.com)
- Much focus is justly given to pulmonary tuberculosis, one of the key medical scourges of humanity, but this disease also often manifests itself in organs outside of the lungs. (springer.com)
- In pulmonary tuberculosis the usual symptoms are cough for longer than three weeks, bloody sputum, fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. (conservapedia.com)
- This causes a condition known as pulmonary tuberculosis , a highly infectious stage of the disease. (britannica.com)
- https://doi.org/10.1016/j. from 93 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
- Tuberculosis is also seen as an opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This secondary tuberculosis infection (endogenous reinfection) can occur at any time the patient's resistance is lowered. (thefreedictionary.com)
- For this reason, periodic evaluation for evidence of the disease is extremely important for anyone who has had a primary tuberculosis infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The first or primary infection with tuberculosis bacilli usually presents no symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- If, however, the infection is not controlled, the patient develops the symptoms of progressive primary tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. (thebody.com)
- When M. tuberculosis is first encountered (primary infection), host macrophages in the lung engulf the organisms and carry them to hilar lymph nodes in an attempt to control infection. (patient.info)
- In older infants and children, the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) usually produces no signs or symptoms, and a chest X-ray shows no signs of infection. (kidshealth.org)
- Another type of infection is called reactivation tuberculosis . (kidshealth.org)
- In older infants and children, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria, usually produces no signs or symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
- HIV infection renders a person infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis much more likely to develop overt tuberculosis, and the evolution of the disease is considerably accelerated. (bmj.com)
- At present, about 8-10% of all cases of tuberculosis worldwide are related to HIV infection, but the association is much more common in many African countries, often 20% or more. (bmj.com)
- Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. (nih.gov)
- This page links to tuberculosis (TB) related questions, including what is TB, what is latent TB infection, and what is active TB disease. (healthfinder.gov)
- If you have tuberculosis (TB) infection, you may need treatment so you will not get TB disease later. (healthfinder.gov)
- Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) can be diagnosed with a skin test or with a blood test, followed by a clinical evaluation and imaging (usually a chest X-ray) to make sure the tuberculosis is not active and causing disease [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
- testing may be used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis infection caused by the most medically important AFB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
- Travellers to areas with high incidence of tuberculosis and immigrants from countries with high incidence are at risk of bringing the infection to countries where the prevalence of the condition is lower. (news-medical.net)
- Disseminated tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection in which mycobacteria have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system . (medlineplus.gov)
- Tuberculosis (TB) infection can develop after breathing in droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze by someone infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
- The resurgence of tuberculosis worldwide has intensified research efforts directed at examining the host defense and pathogenic mechanisms operative in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (nih.gov)
- Increased attention to this disease and the integration of animal models and human studies have afforded us a greater understanding of tuberculosis and the steps necessary to combat this infection. (nih.gov)
- Today, I would like to share important information about the latest recommendations for testing for and treating latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. (medscape.com)
- The progression from latent tuberculosis infection to active disease remains poorly understood. (uptodate.com)
- This demonstrates that the innate and adaptive immune response of the host in controlling tuberculosis (TB) infection is effective. (uptodate.com)
- Mycobacterial and host factors that adversely affect these two arms of the immune system contribute to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active disease. (uptodate.com)
- Mouse studies have shown that after about 14 days of infection, the predominant cell type infected with M. tuberculosis is the myeloid dendritic cell rather than the alveolar macrophage [ 6 ]. (uptodate.com)
- Thus, during the very early phase of lung infection, the interaction of M. tuberculosis with lung epithelial cells may affect later dendritic cell and alveolar macrophage migration and ultimately clinical outcome. (uptodate.com)
- The recognition of M. tuberculosis by a group of PRRs called toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers cell signal transduction that induces a proinflammatory response that is supposed to control the infection [ 8 ]. (uptodate.com)
- Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as a state of persistent immune response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens without evidence of clinically manifested active TB. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- Tuberculosis is an extremely contagious bacterial infection that is transmitted through the air. (wikihow.com)
- Tuberculosis infection TB is present in about a third of the global human population, though 90% of people infected with tuberculosis will never have clinically evident or "active" tuberculosis. (wikihow.com)
- X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source Most people's immune response keeps the infection from causing symptoms or spreading to others, leading to a condition called latent tuberculosis infection. (wikihow.com)
- It is extremely important to undergo treatment for active tuberculosis infection immediately, to remove the bacteria from your body and reduce the risk of infecting others. (wikihow.com)
- Without treatment, however, tuberculosis can be a lethal infection. (medicinenet.com)
- Tuberculosis, also called TB, is an infection caused by bacteria. (familydoctor.org)
- Healthy people who get infected with the tuberculosis bacteria are often able to fight off the infection. (familydoctor.org)
- If the body is not able to contain the infection and the bacteria continue to grow, active tuberculosis develops. (familydoctor.org)
- The best way to prevent getting a tuberculosis infection is to avoid being in close contact with a person who has active TB disease. (familydoctor.org)
- Tuberculosis, commonly called TB, is a bacterial infection that can be spread through the air. (cnn.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection that usually affects the lungs. (aidsmap.com)
- Baltimore once suffered the highest rate of tuberculosis infection of any large city in the country - 75 cases per 100,000 people in 1966. (baltimoresun.com)
- Particularly among infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults (organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients, for example), the primary infection may spread through the body, causing miliary tuberculosis , a highly fatal form if not adequately treated. (britannica.com)
- Adults with diabetes and latent tuberculosis (TB) infection are at higher risk for progressing to active TB disease if they are not screened and treated. (ihs.gov)
- Tuberculosis is a dangerous bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. (healthday.com)
- Without treatment for latent TB infection, approximately 10 percent of the persons who become infected will develop tuberculosis disease sometime in their lifetime. (scdhec.gov)
- A diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (LTB), also called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) means a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the patient does not have active tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The main risk is that approximately 10% of these patients (5% in the first two years after infection and 0.1% per year thereafter) will go on to develop active tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- HIV infection is the greatest known risk factor for the progression of latent M. tuberculosis infection to active TB. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans it is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (which includes M. tuberculosis , M. bovis and M. africanum ). (patient.info)
- Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is a disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (kidshealth.org)
- In most cases, only a tuberculin skin test (used to figure out if someone has been infected by the tuberculosis bacteria) is positive, indicating that the child has been infected. (kidshealth.org)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease caused when bacteria attack the respiratory system. (michigan.gov)
- La tuberculosis (TB) es una enfermedad causada por una bacteria. (in.gov)
- La bacteria de la tuberculosis puede atacar cualquier parte de su cuerpo, pero usualmente ataca los pulmones. (in.gov)
- Los síntomas de la TB dependen de la parte del cuerpo en que la bacteria de la TB está creciendo. (in.gov)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (uptodate.com)
- The tuberculosis (TB) bacteria are spread through the air from a person who is ill with active TB that involves the lungs or airways. (uptodate.com)
- Now, researchers may have made a step toward the development of new vaccines and treatments for the disease, after uncovering evidence that suggests tuberculosis bacteria fools the immune system into damaging the lungs, enabling the bacteria to become airborne. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers have found evidence that tuberculosis bacteria cause the immune system to attack healthy lung tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that spreads when a person breathes in bacteria breathed out by an infected person. (who.int)
- It also allows TB bacteria in their bodies to develop into multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is substantially more difficult and costly to treat. (forbes.com)
- A person can be infected with the bacteria that cause TB but not actually have active tuberculosis. (familydoctor.org)
- Did you know that one out of every three people is infected with the bacteria that cuase tuberculosis (TB)? (nature.com)
- Their distinctive lipid-rich cell wall structure has set them apart from most bacteria, and for pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis it is key for its growth, viability and virulence characteristics. (medscape.com)
- Mario Raviglione, director of the WHO's Stop TB department, said that because tuberculosis bacteria thrive in stagnant air, "simply opening the doors" can reduce the chances that patients, inmates and others will become infected with the disease that killed about 1.8 million people in 2007. (reuters.com)
- Citing research showing that ultra-violet light can zap tuberculosis bacteria, Raviglione said all efforts to improve natural light in prisons and hospitals could help reduce threats from contagious droplets. (reuters.com)
- Many people have the tuberculosis bacteria in their body without ever getting sick. (healthday.com)
- Persons who have tuberculosis in their lungs cough the bacteria into the air and others become infected by breathing in the bacteria. (scdhec.gov)
- Approximately 150,000 South Carolinians are infected with the tuberculosis bacteria. (scdhec.gov)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a bacteria and was once the leading cause of death in the United States. (bouldercounty.org)
- To convert to active tuberculosis, the bacteria must become active. (wikipedia.org)
- Even after completing the full course of medication, there is no guarantee that the tuberculosis bacteria have all been killed. (wikipedia.org)
Multidrug resistant tu5
- New WHO recommendations aim to speed up detection and improve treatment outcomes for multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) through use of a novel rapid diagnostic test and a shorter, cheaper treatment regimen. (who.int)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases (i.e. resistant to, at least, rifampicin and isoniazid) occur each year globally. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- COMPLACENCY in Europe's richest countries is leading to the unchecked spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the World Health Organization warned this week. (newscientist.com)
- With the number of hard-to-treat strains of the lung disease doubling in recent years, the World Health Organisation on Wednesday urged donors to root out multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (medindia.net)
- PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 45-year-old woman who had been received long-term treatment with a combination of various anti-mycobacterial drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis starting in 2004. (nii.ac.jp)
World Health Organ5
- World Health Organization: "Tuberculosis. (webmd.com)
- According to the 2014 World Health Organization report, an estimated 9 million people developed tuberculosis and 1.5 million died [ 2 ]. (uptodate.com)
- By Julie Manoharan Last year, the World Health Organization released updated procedures on how best to tackle the global scourge of tuberculosis. (nature.com)
- She has an extensively drug-resistant form of tuberculosis, or XDR-TB, which is a relatively rare form of the disease that is resistant to at least four of the core anti-TB drugs, according to the World Health Organization . (cnn.com)
- GENEVA (Reuters) - Ventilation and some sunshine could go a long way to reduce tuberculosis risks in hospitals and prisons, two strongholds of the contagious lung disease, the World Health Organization said. (reuters.com)
- In most resource-poor countries with a high TB-burden, patients with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis (TB) seek care from a wide array of health-care providers. (who.int)
- Culture results may take time to come and treatment with anti tubercular drugs may be started on the basis of microscopy if there are symptoms of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
- You won't have any symptoms of tuberculosis unless you have active TB. (familydoctor.org)
- However, most people who have active tuberculosis experience symptoms. (familydoctor.org)
- Active disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , as evidenced by a confirmatory culture, or, in the absence of culture, suggestive clinical symptoms. (aidsmap.com)
- In 2009 Ruhul Amin from Chittagong, the port city of Bangladesh, began to experience a persistent cough and fever - typical symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). (interaction.org)
- The symptoms look pretty similar to typical tuberculosis: Severe cough, fever, weight loss, chest pain. (cnn.com)
- But when tuberculosis begins causing symptoms, it's called TB disease and can be quite dangerous if treatment isn't administered. (healthday.com)
- Tuberculosis symptoms are similar to a bad bout of flu. (healthday.com)
- Anyone with symptoms of tuberculosis should receive a full range of tests. (andalucia.com)
- Only by required testing (required in some jobs) or developing symptoms of active tuberculosis and visiting a medical doctor who does testing will a person know they have been exposed. (wikipedia.org)
- If a person has symptoms of tuberculosis, it is wise to be tested. (wikipedia.org)
- Once a person has been diagnosed with Latent Tuberculosis (LTBI) and a medical doctor confirms no active tuberculosis, the person should remain alert to symptoms of active tuberculosis for the remainder of his or her life. (wikipedia.org)
- Tuberculosis is contagious when it's airborne and can be inhaled by others. (kidshealth.org)
- tuberculosis (TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. (infoplease.com)
- Tuberculosis, however, is not a contagious disease unlike other infections like flu, the common cold etc. (news-medical.net)
- A Palm Beach County high school student is being treated for tuberculosis, a contagious disease that if not treated properly, can be fatal. (sun-sentinel.com)
- Though tuberculosis is not known for being especially contagious, it can be rather easy to transmit, since TB is spread through infected aerosols via coughing, spitting, speaking, kissing, and sneezing. (urbandictionary.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, airborne disease. (interaction.org)
- In this condition, sometimes called latent tuberculosis, the affected person is not contagious . (britannica.com)
- Active tuberculosis can be contagious while latent tuberculosis is not, and it is therefore not possible to get TB from someone with latent tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- If a person had latent tuberculosis, they do not have active/contagious tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs of the lungs or throat are capable of spreading that are spread from person to person through germs to others. (cdc.gov)
- But in some cases, TB can progress and spread all over the lungs (called progressive tuberculosis ) or to other organs. (kidshealth.org)
- The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and nervous systems may also be affected. (infoplease.com)
- In this type of tuberculosis the lesion more often than not lies in the lungs. (news-medical.net)
- Primary tuberculosis usually appears in the central upper portion of the lungs with a pleural effusion or collection of fluid around the lungs. (news-medical.net)
- In patients with tuberculosis suspected outside the lungs several tests are suggested. (news-medical.net)
- Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs. (familydoctor.org)
- Tuberculosis can affect any organ in the body, but the primary disease is in the lungs. (conservapedia.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease found primarily in the lungs. (scdhec.gov)
- Tuberculosis does not always settle in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
- The causative agent is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (also known as the tubercle bacillus ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The human type ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis ), first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch , is spread by people themselves. (infoplease.com)
- Bovine TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) which is part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (michigan.gov)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (nih.gov)
- Is a chronic, progressive, and potentially disfiguring form of cutaneous tuberculosis, which occurs in patients with a high degree of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
- PPD, Mantoux technique, TB skin test) technique consists in one injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the superficial dermis, in the middle third of the left forearm. (springer.com)
- The lesion develops from direct inoculation in the skin of previously sensitized individuals with moderate to high immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
- Smith I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence. (springer.com)
- A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (springer.com)
- Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (news-medical.net)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis, på foreldet norsk også kalt tuberkelbasillen , er en syrefast bakterie som forårsaker de fleste tilfeller av tuberkulose . (wikipedia.org)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis er en Gram-positiv obligat aerob mycobakterie , som deler seg hver 16. (wikipedia.org)
- Utseendemessig er Mycobacterium tuberculosis en liten stav som kan motstå svake desinfeksjonsmidler og kan overleve i tørr fase i flere uker, men vokser kun innenfor en organisme. (wikipedia.org)
- The human host serves as the only natural reservoir for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (uptodate.com)
- TB is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (who.int)
- Tuberculosis (TB) meningitis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which leads to the condition in just one-to-two per cent of infected people. (dailymail.co.uk)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis , shown in red, is known to propagate in macrophage cells (left), but loses that ability when MenJ is knocked out (right). (eurekalert.org)
- A bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis , causes the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a multisystemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (or TB, TB germs), a rod-shaped bacterium. (medicinenet.com)
- Humans are the only known hosts for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (although it can infect animals). (medicinenet.com)
- More than one million people die each year from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections and a growing percentage of new infections-at least 9%-are caused by strains of the bacterium that can't be killed with many of the drugs now available. (nature.com)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent responsible, is an obligate human pathogen that has infected mankind since the dawn of time. (asbmb.org)
- Natasha Nesbitt (State University of New York, Stony Brook) will present a lecture titled "Cholesterol Metabolism in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Chewing through the Fat. (asbmb.org)
- Miriam Braunstein (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine) will deliver a lecture titled "Protein Export via the Accessory Sec System of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (asbmb.org)
- TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb ). (aidsmap.com)
- Tuberculosis , also known as "TB" or "consumption", is a multi-system disease caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (conservapedia.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) , infectious disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (britannica.com)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis , an etiologic agent of tuberculosis, exacts a heavy toll in terms of human morbidity and mortality. (medscape.com)
- We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex platform to enhance SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity. (cdc.gov)
- Faster sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples and analysis of resistance genes could enable better disease treatment, the researchers said. (genomeweb.com)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis pangenome, Venus clam immune transcriptome, and more. (genomeweb.com)
- Sequencing of DNA isolated from people buried in an 18th century churchyard finds that victims often were infected with more than one strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (genomeweb.com)
- It is caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (healthday.com)
- Untreated tuberculosis (TB) disease represents a greater hazard to a pregnant woman and her fetus than does its treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. (patient.info)
- Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that can persist for years if it isn't treated. (kidshealth.org)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention believed at the time that Speaker was suffering from extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). (wikipedia.org)
- It was reported that Speaker's father-in-law, Robert C. Cooksey, works for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is a microbiologist who has conducted research on tuberculosis, according to his CDC biography posted on the agency's Web site. (wikipedia.org)
- So serious is the global threat of tuberculosis that, in 1993, the WHO took the unprecedented step of declaring this disease a global emergency. (bmj.com)
- Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. (nih.gov)
- BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guérin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. (healthfinder.gov)
- Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. (ct.gov)
- Those with medical conditions such as diabetes, immune disorders, end-stage renal disease, gastrectomy/jejuno-ileal bypass, those taking drugs like corticosteroids for long durations, those on chemotherapy for cancer and other drugs that suppress immunity (e.g. drugs used after organ transplants) are at a greater risk of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
- In the United States, most people with primary tuberculosis get better and have no further evidence of disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Is tuberculosis an autoimmune disease? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hello, I'm Dr Philip LoBue , director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (medscape.com)
- The mission of the Tuberculosis Control Program is to decrease tuberculosis incidence and progress towards its elimination by conducting surveillance activities and case management oversight, developing public health policies, providing technical assistance, networking with local health departments, and increasing the public's awareness of the disease. (in.us)
- The majority of individuals in the general population who become infected with M. tuberculosis never develop clinical disease [ 3 ]. (uptodate.com)
- Country health information systems provide a rich source of data on the burden of disease caused by tuberculosis (TB) and the effectiveness of programmatic efforts to reduce this burden, both of which are crucial for public health action. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- In addition to reviewing the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this chapter covers a variety of methods for the rapid detection of the disease, including the acid-fast smear, conventional culture, the BACTEC system, immunodiagnostic methods, and DNA-based techniques. (ilo.org)
- In Kyrgyzstan tuberculosis remains a serious threat to public health, and prisons are a primary breeding ground for the disease. (icrc.org)
- Although it is a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) is a grave concern for the Kyrgyz prison system. (icrc.org)
- The photo exhibition, "Behind bars with tuberculosis", organized by MSF and the ICRC, was dedicated to the treatment of the disease in Kyrgyz prisons. (icrc.org)
- Tuberculosis is an old disease that demands new drugs. (nature.com)
- These three symposia in the tuberculosis theme will bring together diverse speakers struggling to understand the molecular details of the host-pathogen relationship and how the bacterium may be adapting to human attempts to bring the disease under control. (asbmb.org)
- Doctors at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center successfully treated a young child with drug-resistant tuberculosis, which may suggest ways to tackle a growing global scourge - and highlight the need for more study of the disease in the young. (baltimoresun.com)
- Public health groups and Johns Hopkins University students are waging a campaign to ensure that a potentially groundbreaking tuberculosis drug developed by Johns Hopkins becomes available to patients in poor nations where the disease is most pervasive.The. (baltimoresun.com)
- In colourful saris, five housewives staged a street play in the outskirts of New Delhi about tuberculosis, an age-old disease that India can't seem to shake off and which kills 370,000 people a year. (reuters.com)
- Today, in less-developed countries where population is dense and hygienic standards poor, tuberculosis remains a major fatal disease. (britannica.com)
- For a two-patch transmission of tuberculosis (TB), the disease-free equilibrium and the basic reproduction rate R0 are computed. (repec.org)
- HIV patients should be screened for tuberculosis and given drugs to reduce their risks of developing the disease, which can be caught by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person, the Belgian infectious-disease expert said. (reuters.com)
- About a third of the world's population is infected with the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, but only a small percentage of people develop the disease, which normally arises when immune levels are weakened due to pregnancy or illness. (reuters.com)
- Although antibiotics can cure tuberculosis, drug-resistant strains of the disease have proliferated in recent years as a result of medical errors and the failure of patients to take the full six- to nine-month drug treatment course. (reuters.com)
- In 2007 an Atlanta lawyer infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis flew to and from Europe for his wedding and honeymoon, and then entered the United States from Canada, triggering an international health scare about the disease. (reuters.com)
- The same year, a Mexican traveler flew across the U.S.-Mexico border 21 times despite warnings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to U.S. border officials that he also had a drug-resistant tuberculosis strain. (reuters.com)
- Tuberculosis is typically spread through the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or speaks. (healthday.com)
- Some people are more prone to get TB disease than others, including those whose immunity is compromised by a disease like HIV or diabetes, those who have had tuberculosis in the past and people who abuse alcohol or drugs. (healthday.com)
- In 2009, 9.4 million people became ill with all types of tuberculosis and 1.7 million died of the disease, according to the WHO. (medindia.net)
- They are infected with M. tuberculosis, but do not have TB disease. (scdhec.gov)
- Tuberculosis is a speciality journal focusing on basic experimental research on tuberculosis, notably on bacteriological, immunological and pathogenesis aspects of the disease. (elsevier.com)
- In some other parts of the world bovine tuberculosis, which is carried by unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from tuberculous cattle, is more prevalent. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In his case, he likely inhaled infectious pathogens of bovine tuberculosis, a mycobacterium that can sicken humans, while removing a dead deer's infected organs, the CDC said. (cnn.com)
- What is bovine tuberculosis? (cnn.com)
- Bovine tuberculosis is quite rare, accounting for less than 2% of total tuberculosis, or TB, cases in the US. (cnn.com)
- It's treated mostly the same too, except bovine tuberculosis resists pyrazinamide , one of the antibiotics used to treat TB, the CDC said. (cnn.com)
- The average person's risk of bovine tuberculosis is low. (cnn.com)
- One-third of the world's population is infected with the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
- The tuberculosis skin test is a test used to determine if someone has developed an immune response to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). (medicinenet.com)
- What causes tuberculosis? (familydoctor.org)
- The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer Andrew "Drew" Speaker flew from Atlanta, Georgia to Paris, France and on to Greece and then Italy before returning on a flight from Prague, Czech Republic to Montreal, Canada, where he crossed over the border and back into the United States while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- A new multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading and is resistant to all anti-TB drugs. (nursingworld.org)
Global Tuberculosis Report2
- December 3, 2018 - Global funding for tuberculosis (TB) research climbed to a previously unreported high of USD $772 million in 2017, according to a report released today by Treatment Action Group (TAG) and the United Nations-hosted Stop TB Partnership. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- The full report published today - Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005 - 2017 - provides final tallies of public, philanthropic, private, and multilateral institutions' contributions to TB research last year. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- After two decades of hunting, a 77-year-old Michigan man came down in 2017 with a case of tuberculosis . (cnn.com)
- It results from the hematogenous dissemination of the bacillus by an active tuberculosis primary focus, especially in periods of decreased cellular immunity. (springer.com)
- Immature immunity for example in babies and declining immunity in the elderly makes both these age groups susceptible to tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
- Innate immunity - The pathophysiology of innate immune response during first encounter of M. tuberculosis with lung cells remains poorly characterized. (uptodate.com)
- You can only die once," explained Kevin De Cock, the WHO's HIV/AIDS Director, who estimated HIV patients whose immunity levels are weak are more than 20 times more likely to catch tuberculosis than the rest of the population. (reuters.com)
Case of tuberculosis1
18th and 19th centuries2
- In the 18th and 19th centuries, a tuberculosis epidemic rampaged throughout Europe and North America, before the German microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the microbial causes of tuberculosis in 1882. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- During the 18th and 19th centuries, tuberculosis reached near-epidemic proportions in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing societies of Europe and North America . (britannica.com)
- People infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) are more likely than uninfected people to get sick with other infections and diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). (healthfinder.gov)
- Vaccine (strain 1331) is a live mycobacteria vaccine derived from attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. (springer.com)
- Those with other infections like HIV have a lower capacity to fight off tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
- Respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS , diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria are the leading killers among the infectious diseases. (greenfacts.org)
- The WHO's large revision of the number of people with both HIV and tuberculosis reflected "better analyses, better data, and better methodology" and not a real increase in the twin infections between 2006 and 2007, De Cock told a Geneva news briefing. (reuters.com)
- 2019. Tuberculosis Causes . (news-medical.net)
- Immunology of tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
- The immunology of M. tuberculosis will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
- The journal publishes original research and reviews on the host response and immunology of tuberculosis and the molecular biology. (elsevier.com)
- The journal publishes original research and reviews on the host response and immunology of tuberculosis and the molecular biology, genetics and physiology of the organism, however discourages submissions with a meta-analytical focus (for example, articles based on searches of published articles in public electronic databases, especially where there is lack of evidence of the personal involvement of authors in the generation of such material). (elsevier.com)
- By now, you've all heard about Andrew Speaker, the man who brought extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis to full-blown US attention. (nature.com)
- And 55 countries and territories worldwide have reported at least one case of "extensively drug-resistant" tuberculosis or XDR-TB, which is virtually untreatable with today's medicines, according to the WHO study. (reuters.com)
Pathogenesis of tuberculosis1
- See 'Natural history, microbiology, and pathogenesis of tuberculosis' . (uptodate.com)
- This is the most common form of clinical tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cutaneous tuberculosis: epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical aspects - part I. An Bras Dermatol. (springer.com)
- Useful for the detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens (sputa, pus or tissues) by microscopy. (luc.edu)
- Although M. tuberculosis has a highly conserved genome, [ 1 ] new strains are emerging, generating diversity in virulence and clinical outcome. (medscape.com)
- MDR-TB does not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-tuberculosis drugs. (nursingworld.org)
- MDR-TB fails to respond to standard anti-tuberculosis drugs, making it much more complex and costly to treat and increasing the threat that it will spread much more widely especially in poorer environments where it thrives. (medindia.net)
Develop active tuberculosis2
Latent and active1
- Retrieved on January 22, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Tuberculosis-Causes.aspx. (news-medical.net)
- Also called metastatic tuberculous abscess, is a multibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis. (springer.com)
- Thus the stage is set for the development of a chronic pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis at a later time. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This comprehensive product serves as a valuable resource to numerous fields of medicine due to the presence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis throughout the human body. (springer.com)
- The authors are writing for clinicians managing patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the book is well suited for this audience. (springer.com)
- Resistance to tuberculosis depends on the general health and living conditions of the individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control worldwide. (who.int)
- Resistance to tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a formidable obstacle to effective TB care and prevention globally. (who.int)
- The emergence of drug resistance is a major threat to global tuberculosis (TB) care and control. (tsoshop.co.uk)
- They work in cooperation with the ministries of justice and health, helping treat TB patients in penal medical institutions by providing direct medical care, supporting screening for tuberculosis in the prison system and trying to curb the alarming rate of drug resistance. (icrc.org)
- The global tuberculosis (TB) crisis is fueled by several factors, including the alarming rise in drug resistance, reliance on obsolete, harsh drugs that often don't work, lack of diagnostic tests that are practical for use in low-resource settings, and lackluster political commitment. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- Despite significant advances in prophylaxis and treatment, tuberculosis continues as a serious public health problem, and resistance to the agents used for treatment continues to increase. (nih.gov)
- Even though treatment may require months to complete, it's very important that the full course of medicine be taken in order for tuberculosis to be cured. (kidshealth.org)
- See 'Treatment of latent tuberculosis' below. (uptodate.com)
- With the proper treatment, tuberculosis (TB, for short) is almost always curable. (webmd.com)
- What's the Treatment for Tuberculosis? (webmd.com)
- What is the treatment for tuberculosis? (medicinenet.com)
- Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious condition that requires very long and difficult treatment with toxic medicines. (icrc.org)
- The fourth edition of the "Treatment of tuberculosis: Guidelines" recommended, among other changes, increasing the dosage of tuberculosis medication required to treat children. (nature.com)
- In recent months, researchers have pointed to a host of problems plaguing the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in children, especially those younger than age 5. (nature.com)
- Seven weeks after arriving, the patient -- who also spent time in Missouri and Tennessee -- sought treatment and was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. (cnn.com)
- Today posters are published warning of both AIDS and tuberculosis together, and on the importance of not interrupting treatment. (nih.gov)
- Local health centres are in charge of providing treatment for tuberculosis sufferers and for keeping tabs on the problems in terms of how it affects the local population or specific groups. (andalucia.com)
- Our regional health authorities have even made provisions to track down and supervise anyone with tuberculosis who does not follow through with treatment or who does not seem able to follow a treatment plan on their own. (andalucia.com)
- Various treatment regimens are in use to treat latent tuberculosis, which generally need to be taken for several months. (wikipedia.org)
- Once Speaker was in Europe, however, test results showed his strain of tuberculosis was even rarer than originally thought, leading public health officials to try to persuade Speaker to turn himself in to Italian health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
- This so-called extremely drug resistant strain, or XDR tuberculosis, was first noticed in South Africa, fueled by the HIV epidemic that weakens patients' ability to fight such diseases. (voanews.com)
- The Program carries out functions distinct from those of PEPFAR (the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. (interaction.org)
- MDR-TB is a threat to all countries as it is difficult and expensive to treat," said Michel Kazatchkine, executive director of the Global Fund to Fights AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. (medindia.net)
- Most importantly, tuberculosis also became the focus of attention for many investigations during the 19th and even the 20th centuries. (springer.com)
- Presented by NTU Museum and LKCMedicine, Tuberculosis: The Never-ending Battle is an exhibition tracing Singapore's battle against tuberculosis from the 19th century to the present day. (ntu.edu.sg)
Types of tuberculosis1
- What are the two types of tuberculosis? (webmd.com)
Deaths from tuberculosis2
- However, the impact of new approaches will be negligible if the wealthy Western nations fail to address the gross global inequities in healthcare provision, 2 which account for the fact that 98% of deaths from tuberculosis occur in the poorer developing countries (fig 1). (bmj.com)
- an estimated one out of every four deaths from tuberculosis involves an individual coinfected with HIV . (britannica.com)
Vaccine for tuberculosis1
Diagnosis of Tuberculosis1
Incidence of tuberculosis1
Prevalence of tuberculosis2
- Literature from these two distinct fields of research are reviewed to propose that the emergent virulent strains of M. tuberculosis are in the process of convergent evolution with pathogenic fungi, and are increasing the prominence of conserved traits from environmental phylogenetic ancestors that facilitate their evasion of host defenses and dissemination. (medscape.com)
- [ 15 ] This information has contributed to the emergence of a broader concept: a working hypothesis that the more virulent strains, especially outbreak strains of M. tuberculosis , are hypo-inflammatory for a Th1-type immune response. (medscape.com)
- In its latest Global Tuberculosis Control report, released on Tuesday, the United Nations agency also doubled its estimate of how many HIV-infected people catch and die from tuberculosis, and warned especially deadly strains are continuing to spread in all corners of the world. (reuters.com)
- The WHO said that about 500,000 people worldwide have been diagnosed with multi-drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis, which cannot be treated with two or more front-line drugs. (reuters.com)
- In February 2014, 25 community volunteers were trained within the UN Joint Programme "Sustaining livelihoods affected by the Aral Sea disaster" to improve awareness on tuberculosis and other chronic respiratory diseases among the population of five districts of Karakalpakstan. (unv.org)
- Vietnamese tuberculosis refers to certain forms of chronic melioidosis that look clinically very similar to tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Secondary TB is due to subsequent reactivation of semi-dormant M. tuberculosis and is usually precipitated by impaired immune function such as malnutrition, AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy. (patient.info)
- Due to medicial attention toward HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis has resurged. (urbandictionary.com)
- That global tuberculosis death toll includes 1.3 million HIV-negative people and 456,000 who were also infected with the AIDS virus, deaths from which are strictly classified in health statistics as HIV fatalities. (reuters.com)