Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Tuberculosis, Laryngeal: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.Tuberculosis, Renal: Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tuberculosis, Oral: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Tuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Mycolic AcidsHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peritonitis, Tuberculous: A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.IndiaMolecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tuberculosis, Cardiovascular: Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.PeruDiarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Tuberculosis, Avian: A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mice, Inbred C57BLRussiaCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.BrazilRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Georgia (Republic)Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Aza CompoundsMicroscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Thioacetazone: A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mycobacterium kansasii: A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.VietnamHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.AmidohydrolasesCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.QuinolinesFluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Benzophenoneidum: An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.AfricaRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/6653)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (2/6653)

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (3/6653)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (4/6653)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (5/6653)

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections. (6/6653)

Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (7/6653)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (8/6653)

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)

  • New WHO recommendations aim to speed up detection and improve treatment outcomes for multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) through use of a novel rapid diagnostic test and a shorter, cheaper treatment regimen. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases (i.e. resistant to, at least, rifampicin and isoniazid) occur each year globally. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • COMPLACENCY in Europe's richest countries is leading to the unchecked spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the World Health Organization warned this week. (newscientist.com)
  • With the number of hard-to-treat strains of the lung disease doubling in recent years, the World Health Organisation on Wednesday urged donors to root out multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (medindia.net)
  • PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 45-year-old woman who had been received long-term treatment with a combination of various anti-mycobacterial drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis starting in 2004. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Untreated tuberculosis (TB) disease represents a greater hazard to a pregnant woman and her fetus than does its treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. (patient.info)
  • Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that can persist for years if it isn't treated. (kidshealth.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention believed at the time that Speaker was suffering from extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was reported that Speaker's father-in-law, Robert C. Cooksey, works for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is a microbiologist who has conducted research on tuberculosis, according to his CDC biography posted on the agency's Web site. (wikipedia.org)
  • So serious is the global threat of tuberculosis that, in 1993, the WHO took the unprecedented step of declaring this disease a global emergency. (bmj.com)
  • Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. (nih.gov)
  • BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guérin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. (ct.gov)
  • Those with medical conditions such as diabetes, immune disorders, end-stage renal disease, gastrectomy/jejuno-ileal bypass, those taking drugs like corticosteroids for long durations, those on chemotherapy for cancer and other drugs that suppress immunity (e.g. drugs used after organ transplants) are at a greater risk of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In the United States, most people with primary tuberculosis get better and have no further evidence of disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is tuberculosis an autoimmune disease? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hello, I'm Dr Philip LoBue , director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (medscape.com)
  • The mission of the Tuberculosis Control Program is to decrease tuberculosis incidence and progress towards its elimination by conducting surveillance activities and case management oversight, developing public health policies, providing technical assistance, networking with local health departments, and increasing the public's awareness of the disease. (in.us)
  • The majority of individuals in the general population who become infected with M. tuberculosis never develop clinical disease [ 3 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Country health information systems provide a rich source of data on the burden of disease caused by tuberculosis (TB) and the effectiveness of programmatic efforts to reduce this burden, both of which are crucial for public health action. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • In addition to reviewing the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this chapter covers a variety of methods for the rapid detection of the disease, including the acid-fast smear, conventional culture, the BACTEC system, immunodiagnostic methods, and DNA-based techniques. (ilo.org)
  • In Kyrgyzstan tuberculosis remains a serious threat to public health, and prisons are a primary breeding ground for the disease. (icrc.org)
  • Although it is a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) is a grave concern for the Kyrgyz prison system. (icrc.org)
  • The photo exhibition, "Behind bars with tuberculosis", organized by MSF and the ICRC, was dedicated to the treatment of the disease in Kyrgyz prisons. (icrc.org)
  • Tuberculosis is an old disease that demands new drugs. (nature.com)
  • These three symposia in the tuberculosis theme will bring together diverse speakers struggling to understand the molecular details of the host-pathogen relationship and how the bacterium may be adapting to human attempts to bring the disease under control. (asbmb.org)
  • Doctors at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center successfully treated a young child with drug-resistant tuberculosis, which may suggest ways to tackle a growing global scourge - and highlight the need for more study of the disease in the young. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Public health groups and Johns Hopkins University students are waging a campaign to ensure that a potentially groundbreaking tuberculosis drug developed by Johns Hopkins becomes available to patients in poor nations where the disease is most pervasive.The. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In colourful saris, five housewives staged a street play in the outskirts of New Delhi about tuberculosis, an age-old disease that India can't seem to shake off and which kills 370,000 people a year. (reuters.com)
  • Today, in less-developed countries where population is dense and hygienic standards poor, tuberculosis remains a major fatal disease. (britannica.com)
  • For a two-patch transmission of tuberculosis (TB), the disease-free equilibrium and the basic reproduction rate R0 are computed. (repec.org)
  • HIV patients should be screened for tuberculosis and given drugs to reduce their risks of developing the disease, which can be caught by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person, the Belgian infectious-disease expert said. (reuters.com)
  • About a third of the world's population is infected with the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, but only a small percentage of people develop the disease, which normally arises when immune levels are weakened due to pregnancy or illness. (reuters.com)
  • Although antibiotics can cure tuberculosis, drug-resistant strains of the disease have proliferated in recent years as a result of medical errors and the failure of patients to take the full six- to nine-month drug treatment course. (reuters.com)
  • In 2007 an Atlanta lawyer infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis flew to and from Europe for his wedding and honeymoon, and then entered the United States from Canada, triggering an international health scare about the disease. (reuters.com)
  • The same year, a Mexican traveler flew across the U.S.-Mexico border 21 times despite warnings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to U.S. border officials that he also had a drug-resistant tuberculosis strain. (reuters.com)
  • Tuberculosis is typically spread through the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or speaks. (healthday.com)
  • Some people are more prone to get TB disease than others, including those whose immunity is compromised by a disease like HIV or diabetes, those who have had tuberculosis in the past and people who abuse alcohol or drugs. (healthday.com)
  • In 2009, 9.4 million people became ill with all types of tuberculosis and 1.7 million died of the disease, according to the WHO. (medindia.net)
  • They are infected with M. tuberculosis, but do not have TB disease. (scdhec.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is a speciality journal focusing on basic experimental research on tuberculosis, notably on bacteriological, immunological and pathogenesis aspects of the disease. (elsevier.com)
  • The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer Andrew "Drew" Speaker flew from Atlanta, Georgia to Paris, France and on to Greece and then Italy before returning on a flight from Prague, Czech Republic to Montreal, Canada, where he crossed over the border and back into the United States while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading and is resistant to all anti-TB drugs. (nursingworld.org)
  • December 3, 2018 - Global funding for tuberculosis (TB) research climbed to a previously unreported high of USD $772 million in 2017, according to a report released today by Treatment Action Group (TAG) and the United Nations-hosted Stop TB Partnership. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The full report published today - Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005 - 2017 - provides final tallies of public, philanthropic, private, and multilateral institutions' contributions to TB research last year. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • After two decades of hunting, a 77-year-old Michigan man came down in 2017 with a case of tuberculosis . (cnn.com)
  • It results from the hematogenous dissemination of the bacillus by an active tuberculosis primary focus, especially in periods of decreased cellular immunity. (springer.com)
  • Immature immunity for example in babies and declining immunity in the elderly makes both these age groups susceptible to tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Innate immunity - The pathophysiology of innate immune response during first encounter of M. tuberculosis with lung cells remains poorly characterized. (uptodate.com)
  • You can only die once," explained Kevin De Cock, the WHO's HIV/AIDS Director, who estimated HIV patients whose immunity levels are weak are more than 20 times more likely to catch tuberculosis than the rest of the population. (reuters.com)
  • In the 18th and 19th centuries, a tuberculosis epidemic rampaged throughout Europe and North America, before the German microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the microbial causes of tuberculosis in 1882. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • During the 18th and 19th centuries, tuberculosis reached near-epidemic proportions in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing societies of Europe and North America . (britannica.com)
  • People infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) are more likely than uninfected people to get sick with other infections and diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). (healthfinder.gov)
  • Vaccine (strain 1331) is a live mycobacteria vaccine derived from attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. (springer.com)
  • Those with other infections like HIV have a lower capacity to fight off tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS , diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria are the leading killers among the infectious diseases. (greenfacts.org)
  • The WHO's large revision of the number of people with both HIV and tuberculosis reflected "better analyses, better data, and better methodology" and not a real increase in the twin infections between 2006 and 2007, De Cock told a Geneva news briefing. (reuters.com)
  • Immunology of tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • The immunology of M. tuberculosis will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • The journal publishes original research and reviews on the host response and immunology of tuberculosis and the molecular biology. (elsevier.com)
  • The journal publishes original research and reviews on the host response and immunology of tuberculosis and the molecular biology, genetics and physiology of the organism, however discourages submissions with a meta-analytical focus (for example, articles based on searches of published articles in public electronic databases, especially where there is lack of evidence of the personal involvement of authors in the generation of such material). (elsevier.com)
  • By now, you've all heard about Andrew Speaker, the man who brought extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis to full-blown US attention. (nature.com)
  • And 55 countries and territories worldwide have reported at least one case of "extensively drug-resistant" tuberculosis or XDR-TB, which is virtually untreatable with today's medicines, according to the WHO study. (reuters.com)
  • See 'Natural history, microbiology, and pathogenesis of tuberculosis' . (uptodate.com)
  • MDR-TB does not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-tuberculosis drugs. (nursingworld.org)
  • MDR-TB fails to respond to standard anti-tuberculosis drugs, making it much more complex and costly to treat and increasing the threat that it will spread much more widely especially in poorer environments where it thrives. (medindia.net)
  • In addition, the successful elimination of tuberculosis as a major threat to public health in the world has been complicated by the rise of new strains of the tubercle bacillus that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. (britannica.com)
  • Retrieved on January 22, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Tuberculosis-Causes.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Also called metastatic tuberculous abscess, is a multibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis. (springer.com)
  • Resistance to tuberculosis depends on the general health and living conditions of the individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control worldwide. (who.int)
  • Resistance to tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a formidable obstacle to effective TB care and prevention globally. (who.int)
  • The emergence of drug resistance is a major threat to global tuberculosis (TB) care and control. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • They work in cooperation with the ministries of justice and health, helping treat TB patients in penal medical institutions by providing direct medical care, supporting screening for tuberculosis in the prison system and trying to curb the alarming rate of drug resistance. (icrc.org)
  • The global tuberculosis (TB) crisis is fueled by several factors, including the alarming rise in drug resistance, reliance on obsolete, harsh drugs that often don't work, lack of diagnostic tests that are practical for use in low-resource settings, and lackluster political commitment. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Despite significant advances in prophylaxis and treatment, tuberculosis continues as a serious public health problem, and resistance to the agents used for treatment continues to increase. (nih.gov)
  • Once Speaker was in Europe, however, test results showed his strain of tuberculosis was even rarer than originally thought, leading public health officials to try to persuade Speaker to turn himself in to Italian health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This so-called extremely drug resistant strain, or XDR tuberculosis, was first noticed in South Africa, fueled by the HIV epidemic that weakens patients' ability to fight such diseases. (voanews.com)
  • The Program carries out functions distinct from those of PEPFAR (the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. (interaction.org)
  • MDR-TB is a threat to all countries as it is difficult and expensive to treat," said Michel Kazatchkine, executive director of the Global Fund to Fights AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. (medindia.net)
  • Most importantly, tuberculosis also became the focus of attention for many investigations during the 19th and even the 20th centuries. (springer.com)
  • Presented by NTU Museum and LKCMedicine, Tuberculosis: The Never-ending Battle is an exhibition tracing Singapore's battle against tuberculosis from the 19th century to the present day. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • What are the two types of tuberculosis? (webmd.com)
  • However, the impact of new approaches will be negligible if the wealthy Western nations fail to address the gross global inequities in healthcare provision, 2 which account for the fact that 98% of deaths from tuberculosis occur in the poorer developing countries (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • an estimated one out of every four deaths from tuberculosis involves an individual coinfected with HIV . (britannica.com)
  • Emerging molecular biologic technologies hold the promise of more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and more definitive epidemiologic linkages of cases of TB. (ilo.org)
  • Literature from these two distinct fields of research are reviewed to propose that the emergent virulent strains of M. tuberculosis are in the process of convergent evolution with pathogenic fungi, and are increasing the prominence of conserved traits from environmental phylogenetic ancestors that facilitate their evasion of host defenses and dissemination. (medscape.com)
  • [ 15 ] This information has contributed to the emergence of a broader concept: a working hypothesis that the more virulent strains, especially outbreak strains of M. tuberculosis , are hypo-inflammatory for a Th1-type immune response. (medscape.com)
  • In its latest Global Tuberculosis Control report, released on Tuesday, the United Nations agency also doubled its estimate of how many HIV-infected people catch and die from tuberculosis, and warned especially deadly strains are continuing to spread in all corners of the world. (reuters.com)
  • The WHO said that about 500,000 people worldwide have been diagnosed with multi-drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis, which cannot be treated with two or more front-line drugs. (reuters.com)
  • Blood sugar levels that we see in diabetes impair the immune system and allow the tuberculosis organisms to get the upper hand,' says Chaisson. (voanews.com)
  • In February 2014, 25 community volunteers were trained within the UN Joint Programme "Sustaining livelihoods affected by the Aral Sea disaster" to improve awareness on tuberculosis and other chronic respiratory diseases among the population of five districts of Karakalpakstan. (unv.org)
  • Vietnamese tuberculosis refers to certain forms of chronic melioidosis that look clinically very similar to tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary TB is due to subsequent reactivation of semi-dormant M. tuberculosis and is usually precipitated by impaired immune function such as malnutrition, AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy. (patient.info)
  • Due to medicial attention toward HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis has resurged. (urbandictionary.com)
  • That global tuberculosis death toll includes 1.3 million HIV-negative people and 456,000 who were also infected with the AIDS virus, deaths from which are strictly classified in health statistics as HIV fatalities. (reuters.com)
  • This is a list of famous people and celebrities who had, or are believed to have had tuberculosis , also known as consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gardner Association for the Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis, How to Prevent Consumption , poster, USA, c. 1900, 13.9 x 17.4 cm. (nih.gov)