Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.
Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/6653)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (2/6653)

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (3/6653)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (4/6653)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (5/6653)

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections. (6/6653)

Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (7/6653)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (8/6653)

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)

Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16: Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 16. (Contd) Tuberculosis Cases by Country of Origin: United States, 2002 - PDF. Table 17. Tuberculosis Cases and Case Rates per 100,000 Population: States, 2002 and 2001 - PDF , HTML. Table 18. Tuberculosis Cases by Age Group: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 19. Tuberculosis Cases by Race/Ethnicity: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 20. Tuberculosis Cases, U.S.-born Persons and Foreign-born Persons: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 21. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Country of Origin: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 22. Tuberculosis Cases in Foreign-born Persons by Number of Years in the United States: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 23. Tuberculosis Cases by Form of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 24. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases by Site of Disease: States, 2002 - PDF. Table 25. Tuberculosis Cases in Residents of ...
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a major strategy for tuberculosis control in the United States, Canada, and selected resource-intensive countries (1, 2). Given the decline in tuberculosis cases in the United States since 1992, interest in treating patients with LTBI is renewed in order to eliminate the large reservoir of individuals at risk for progression to tuberculosis (1, 3). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, such professional organizations as the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and others (13) recommend targeted testing of persons at increased risk for tuberculosis and provision of therapy for LTBI after active tuberculosis disease has been excluded. Persons at greatest risk for progression to active tuberculosis disease after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis include those with HIV infection (the greatest single risk factor for progression) or recent tuberculosis infection, immigrants with LTBI from high ...
The disease essays on tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a making mistakes now essay rod-shaped bacterium abstract tuberculosis essay example the bacteria known as mycobacterium math help and answers tuberculosis is the primary culprit essays on tuberculosis for the disease tuberculosis. tuberculosis is an infectious disease. essays on tuberculosis it is thought that as many as 2 billion people have birds beak lab report essay been exposed to the tb bacillus and are therefore human development essay topics at risk of brown v board of education essay developing the active disease free【 essay on tuberculosis 】- use this essays as a template to follow ny bar exam essays while writing your own paper. thanks! since it is aerobic it can easily be inhaled and deposited in the lungs, which make people more personal essay for pharmacy school vulnerable to disease tuberculosis essay lack essays on tuberculosis of medical care: if a person pay someone to do my math homework who is on ...
Tuberculosis remains one of the major diseases afflicting children throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends tuberculosis disease screening in children who live in the household of a smear-positive case, but lack effective measures for this management in high-burden countries to perform this routinely. WHO has recently called for more studies to define the global epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis, because the literature remains scant, dominated primarily by studies from industrialized countries and South Africa, but few epidemiologic studies of pediatric tuberculosis have been published from Asia. Children account for 10-15% of all new cases of tuberculosis worldwide. For a long time, childhood tuberculosis was neglected because of the paucibacillary characteristic of the disease in pediatric population. However, recent works have reinforced the role of childhood tuberculosis as an indicator of the effectiveness of control-programmes and also in the dissemination ...
To allow for a common understanding, the following working definitions have been used in this document. Some have been defined in earlier documents, others are new and address specific issues raised in this European framework. 1) Latent infection. A latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (or latent tuberculosis infection) is a subclinical infection with tubercle bacilli without clinical, bacteriological or radiological signs or symptoms of manifest disease 9, 11. Typically this is an individual who has a positive tuberculin test and normal chest radiography. They may be a known contact of a previous case of tuberculosis. 2) Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is defined as the clinically, bacteriologically and/or radiographically manifest disease 9. 3) Low tuberculosis incidence countries. Low tuberculosis incidence countries have been defined as those with a crude case notification rate ,10 (all cases) per 100,000 inhabitants and declining 9. For the purposes of this Framework the ...
Childhood tuberculosis is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in high burden TB countries. It has had a low priority for research and development globally and was not given much attention in the past on ways and means to operationalize the case management strategies within the context of National TB Control Programmes. The current thesis focuses on various cohorts of childhood TB and audit of the case management practices within the routine national TB control programme of Pakistan. The thesis also documents the lessons learned during this research and development. Our initial retrospective cohorts were based on the review of patient records, focused on the case notification, treatment outcomes and case management practices of patients registered during two complete years 2004 and 2005, when NTP had no particular emphasis on childhood TB and had recently expanded the DOTS strategy for adults. These results we compared with those of patients registered during 2006 and 2007, when ...
The Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre was established at Chennai in 1956 and renamed as Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC) in 1978. The Centre has made significant contributions in different areas of research on tuberculosis including the immunology and molecular biology. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated TRC as a collaborating centre for tuberculosis control programme in India. Many of the research findings of the Centre have received worldwide recognition and had significant impact on the formulation of tuberculosis control programmes in Asia, Africa, South America and some parts of Europe. The Centre imparts training in laboratory diagnosis and controlled clinical trials of tuberculosis. It is also actively engaged in evolving comprehensive methodologies for strengthening the case-finding and case-holding components of National Tuberculosis Control Programme. ...
Children account for a major proportion of the global tuberculosis disease burden, especially in endemic areas. However, the accurate diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis remains a major challenge. This review provides an overview of the most important recent advances in the diagnosis of intrathoracic childhood tuberculosis: (1) symptom-based approaches, including symptom-based screening of exposed children and symptom-based diagnosis of active disease; (2) novel immune-based approaches, including T cell assays and novel antigen-based tests; and (3) bacteriological and molecular methods that are more rapid and/or less expensive than conventional culture techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis and/or drug-resistance testing. Recent advances have improved our ability to diagnose latent infection and active tuberculosis in children, but establishing a diagnosis of either latent infection or active disease in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge, particularly in high-burden settings. ...
Recommendations for drug allocation, tuberculosis prevention, and patient care during isoniazid shortages Summary: Shortages of isoniazid (INH), a cornerstone drug for treating tuberculosis disease (TB) and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), are continuing. This notice gives an update on the shortages and expands general guidance to public health officials and clinicians about how to adjust practices in response to the shortages from that outlined in CDCs December 21, 2012, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (http://www.cdc.aov/mmwr/Dreview/mmwrhtml/mm6150a4.htm). It also outlines national plans for restoring INH supplies and lists published guidance that could assist in making treatment decisions when INH is unavailable ...
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis). This poses several challenges similar to those encountered in the pre-chemotherapy era, including the inability to cure tuberculosis, high mortality, and the need for alternative methods to prevent disease transmission. This phenomenon mirrors the worldwide increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of other MDR pathogens, such as malaria, HIV, and Gram-negative bacteria. MDR and XDR tuberculosis are associated with high morbidity and ...
CALIFORNIA LAW. HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE SECTION 121362. 121362.. Each health care provider who treats a person for active tuberculosis disease, each person in charge of a health facility, or each person in charge of a clinic providing outpatient treatment for active tuberculosis disease shall promptly report to the local health officer at the times that the health officer requires, but no less frequently than when there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person has active tuberculosis disease, and when a person ceases treatment for tuberculosis disease. Situations in which the provider may conclude that the patient has ceased treatment include times when the patient fails to keep an appointment, relocates without transferring care, or discontinues care. The initial disease notification report shall include an individual treatment plan that includes the patients name, address, date of birth, tuberculin skin test results, pertinent radiologic, microbiologic, and pathologic reports, whether ...
Background: The annual risk of tuberculosis infection is 1. (88-91%) were the highest as compared to figures of the state and country. Failure rate Canagliflozin manufacture was maximum in Kangra Tuberculosis Models (TU)-6.5% and the default rate was 7.2% in TU Palampur. The tuberculosis cases have fallen down from 6,462/100, 000 in 1999 to 2,195/100, 000 in 2005 following the introduction of RNTCP in 1999. Age specific (15-55 years) and sex-wise males were more affected than the females (59-64%). Conclusions: Continue expense in the program to sustain progress achieved. Investigate the cause of high proportion of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Investigate Kangra TU unit with a high default rate. (Koch bacillus).[1] The World Health Business (WHO) has recognized 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries that combined contributes 80% of the global burden of TB. Asia carries the largest number of TB cases worldwide. Globally, estimated cases of infectious TB are 16-20 million, estimated new cases ...
A hallmark of M. tuberculosis is its ability to infect, survive in, and persist in human macrophages. Acquired immunity, mediated primarily by MHC-II-restricted IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, controls M. tuberculosis infection but fails to eradicate the organism. When acquired immunity fails because of aging, malnutrition, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, persistent macrophage-bound M. tuberculosis bacilli emerge to cause reactivation tuberculosis. The mechanism(s) used by M. tuberculosis to persist for many years in macrophages in the face of highly developed and active acquired T-cell responses, reflected in strongly positive tuberculin skin test reactivity, is poorly understood. Earlier studies established that M. tuberculosis can interfere with IFN-γ-mediated activation and IFN-γR signaling in human macrophages (41). However, the molecules of M. tuberculosis that are responsible for interference with IFN-γ signaling have not been characterized.. In earlier studies, we ...
Background: The adherence to policies of National TB Control Programme (NTP) to manage a case of tuberculosis (TB) is a fundamental step to have a successful programme in any country. Childhood TB services faces an unmet challenge of case management due to difficulty with diagnosis and relatively new policies. For control of childhood TB in Pakistan, NTP developed and piloted its guidelines in 2006-2007. The objective of this study was to compare the documented case management practices of pediatricians and its impact on the outcome before and after introducing NTP policy guidelines. Findings: An audit of case management practices of a historical cohort study was done in children below 15 years who were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment at all nine public hospitals in three districts in province of Punjab. The study period was two years pre-intervention (2004-05) and two years post-intervention (2006-07) after implementation of new NTP policy guidelines for childhood TB. There were 920 ...
RATIONALE: Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Melbourne, Australia), and Mantoux tests to identify latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 160 healthy adults without active tuberculosis attending a voluntary counseling and testing center for HIV infection in Khayelitsha, a deprived urban South African community with an HIV antenatal seroprevalence of 33% and a tuberculosis incidence of 1,612 per 100,000. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and sixty (74 HIV(+) and 86 HIV(-)) persons were enrolled. A lower proportion of Mantoux results was positive in HIV-infected subjects compared with HIV-uninfected subjects (p , 0.01). By ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025, the global tuberculosis treatment market was valued at US$ 838.4 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,306.6 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 4.9 % from 2017 to 2025.. Market Insights. About one-third of the worlds population is suffering with latent tuberculosis, people infected with mycobacterium infection have a 10% risk to fall ill with tuberculosis, however people with compromised immunity such as HIV, diabetes and tobacco addiction are at a higher risk to get tuberculosis. The drugs utilized to fight tuberculosis is categorized as first-line treatment and second-line treatment on the basis of the severity of illness.. Browse the full report Tuberculosis Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects, and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/tuberculosis-treatment-market. In the base year ...
India is rolling out a new program to expedite the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB cases to speed treatment. While children generally respond well to TB treatments, a pediatric TB case is usually severe and requires a quick, accurate diagnosis to ensure effective treatment. FIND and the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program have worked in India to establish an infrastructure to aid in accurately and quickly diagnosing children, developing a courier system to quickly relay samples from clinic to lab for diagnosis and relay results back to the health provider via text message within 24 hours. The organizations have also led an initiative that has added over 600 GeneXpert diagnostic machines throughout India. Indias goal is to make the GeneXpert machines a front-line tool for TB diagnosis.. Research conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Sanofi has created an antibody capable of killing 99 percent of HIV strains. Fighting HIV is ...
Dye C, Watt CJ, Bleed DM, Hosseini SM, Raviglione MC. Evolution of tuberculosis control and prospects for reducing tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and deaths globally. J Am Med Assoc 2005;293:2767-75. Zumla A, Raviglione M, Hafner R, Von Reyn CF. Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2013;368:745-55. Meena L, Rajni. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J 2010;277:2416-27. Sarkar S, Suresh MR. An overview of tuberculosis chemotherapy-a literature review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;14:148-61. Zhang Y, Yew W. Mechanisms of drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Disease 2009;13:1320-30. Kumar G, Malhotra S, Shafiq N, Pandhi P, Khuller G, Sharma S. In vitro physicochemical characterization and short-term in vivo tolerability study of ethionamide loaded PLGA nanoparticles: potentially effective agent for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J Microencapsul 2011;28:717-28. OHara P, Hickey AJ. Respirable PLGA microspheres containing rifampicin for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Newer drugs and targets in tuberculosis. AU - Subramanian, Harish Thanu. AU - Meena Kumari, K.. AU - Amberkar Mohan Babu, V.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - In the year 2013, nine million people suffered from tuberculosis. Around 1.5 million people (men, woman and children) died due to tuberculosis. About 1.1 million people with HIV developed tuberculosis. The major drawbacks of tuberculosis treatment in a patient are multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Recently newer drugs and targets have been the key focus of research in finding the permanent cure for tuberculosis. The FDA has recently approved a new tuberculosis drug bedaquiline. The drugs under trials are delamanid, pretomanid, sutezolid and SQ109. Drugs in preclinical development showing promising results are benzothiazinone, spectinamide, capuramycin, TBI-166 (Riminophenazines antibiotic). The various lead compounds which showed promising activity against ...
Research in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, however, shows that the use of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans can help to determine earlier if treatment for tuberculosis is working or if the disease is MDR.. Tuberculosis and HIV have been linked since the AIDS epidemic began. Approximately 33.2 million people across the world are living with HIV, and an estimated one-third of them are co-infected with tuberculosis. In 2008, the number of MDR tuberculosis cases reached between 390,000-510,000, or 3.6 percent of all incident tuberculosis cases. MDR tuberculosis is very difficult to treat and is often fatal.. Early detection of drug resistance of tuberculosis allows the initiation of an appropriate treatment, which may significantly affect patient survival. Currently, more than two-thirds of patients with MDR tuberculosis die, said Mike Sathekge, MD, PhD, lead author of the study Use of 18F-FDG PET to Predict Response to First-Line Tuberculostatics in ...
What is Tuberculosis?  Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.  TB is spread through the air from one person to another. When an infected individual coughs, laughs, sneezes, or sings, droplet nuclei containing tuberculosis bacteria enter the air and may be inhaled by others.  TB is not spread by shaking someones hand, sharing food or drink, kissing  Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.  TB is spread through the air from one person to another. When an infected individual coughs, laughs, sneezes, or sings, droplet nuclei containing tuberculosis bacteria enter the air
Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria has appealed to federal, state and local governments to provide more treatment centres for the management of drug resistant tuberculosis.. Dr Vivian Ibeziako, the Programme Manager, Drug Resistant Tuberculosis of the Institute, said on Friday in Lagos, that there currently 22 tuberculosis treatment centres in Nigeria.. Ibeziako made the call at the on-going review meeting organised by the institute and National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme which begun on Thursday.. According to her, the 22 tuberculosis treatment centres in the country are funded with global funds.. Global funds provide most of the drugs which made them to introduce shorter regimen, because it is better than the longer regimen, she said.. Promoting more centres that can manage drug resistant tuberculosis is necessary in all health centres.. More communities need treatment centres to tackle the missing cases of tuberculosis among the people.. We have a lot of missing cases in ...
The first edition of Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children was published in 2006. It resulted in the revision or development of guidelines for child TB management by national TB programmes in many TB-endemic countries. Now, however, newly published evidence and new recommendations have made it necessary to update the original 2006 guidance.
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This study shows that current or ex-smokers had a higher prevalence of M tuberculosis infection than never smokers and that there was a slightly higher risk of infection for those who smoked more than 15 pack-years than for those who smoked less, although this was not significant. This suggests that the increased risk of disease and death from tuberculosis among smokers may be due, at least in part, to an increased risk of smokers becoming infected with M tuberculosis.. An unexpected finding was the positive association between a positive TST and income. It should be noted, however, that the mean incomes in the study area are low, and that the categorisation threshold used in the analyses identifies only the poorest in the community. Nevertheless, the reason for their lower TST rates requires further study, including the possibility of lower risk of exposure through fewer social contacts.. Our study confirms previous studies that showed an association between smoking and tuberculosis infection ...
In an interview given recently to Shobha Shukla - CNS, Dr Somya Swaminathan, MD in Paediatric TB, and a Scientist at the National Institute for research in Tuberculosis (Indian Council of Medical Research - ICMR), said that: Pediatric TB is difficult to control, because the infection spreads through the air borne route, and children get it from adults. So the only way to prevent childhood TB is to tackle adult TB more seriously. Contact to contact TB testing must be done. All family members of a TB patient, especially children, should be tested, and started on chemo-prophylaxis. That way we can reduce the burden of paediatric TB. The general awareness level about TB is very poor, even amongst educated people. They do not know how it spreads, how it can be diagnosed and treated and what they can do to reduce the burden of TB. As it is an air borne infection, anybody can get it. The most important risk factor in children is malnutrition, as poor nutrition makes one more susceptible to it. Other ...
Objective To evaluate the benefit to tuberculosis (TB) prevention and cure by the set up of tuberculosis special out-patient clinic in general hospital. Methods Annul TB surveillance data in Minhang district of 2003 and 2005 were analyzed. Results Three TB special out-patient clinics were set up in general hospital of Minhang district in 2004. The number of confirmed TB cases increased 118% in 2005 compared with it was in 2003, and the sputum smear positive rate increased from 31.6% to 42.4%, the case cure rate was from 83.3% to 81.7%. Conclusion The number of confirmed TB cases was increased while the cure rate was not declined by setting up TB special out-patient clinic in general hospital.
Tuberculosis research at LUMC aims to resolve the huge need for better vaccines, biomarkers and diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) remains an enormous problem worldwide. TB is the leading cause of death among all infectious diseases. One third to one fourth of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis, every year almost 10 million new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) occur, and 1.8 million people die from TB. Next to these already daunting numbers, there is the increasing threat of anti-microbial resistance: multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant bacterial strains are rapidly emerging, making treatment difficult and sometimes impossible. Additional problems are the often fatal course of TB in AIDS patients in developing countries (a high proportion of AIDS victims dies from TB); the increasing spread of TB due to migration from TB endemic areas to low endemic countries such as the EU; and the rising co-epidemic of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which makes people ...
Description of disease Active tuberculosis. Treatment Active tuberculosis. Symptoms and causes Active tuberculosis Prophylaxis Active tuberculosis
Abubakar I et al. Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective. J Infect Dis. 2012;205 Suppl 2:S293-300.. Bafica A, Scanga CA, Serhan C, Machado F, et al. Host control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by 5-lipoxygenase-dependent lipoxin production. J Clin Invest. 2005 June 1;115(6):1601-1606.. Baker MA, Lin HH, Chang HY, Murray MB. The risk of tuberculosis disease among persons with diabetes mellitis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(6):818-25.. Bastian I, Colebunders R. Treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Drugs. 1999;58(4):633-661.. Ben mrad M, Gherissi D, Mouthon L, Salmon-Ceron D. Tuberculosis risk among patients with systemic diseases. Presse Med. 2009;38(2):274-90.. Bope: Conns Current Therapy 2012. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.. Bornman L, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa: a case-control and ...
Abubakar I et al. Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective. J Infect Dis. 2012;205 Suppl 2:S293-300.. Bafica A, Scanga CA, Serhan C, Machado F, et al. Host control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by 5-lipoxygenase-dependent lipoxin production. J Clin Invest. 2005 June 1;115(6):1601-1606.. Baker MA, Lin HH, Chang HY, Murray MB. The risk of tuberculosis disease among persons with diabetes mellitis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(6):818-25.. Bastian I, Colebunders R. Treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Drugs. 1999;58(4):633-661.. Ben mrad M, Gherissi D, Mouthon L, Salmon-Ceron D. Tuberculosis risk among patients with systemic diseases. Presse Med. 2009;38(2):274-90.. Bope: Conns Current Therapy 2012. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.. Bornman L, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa: a case-control and ...
Background: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis. A focus on prevalent tuberculosis enables estimation of the contribution of hyperglycaemia to the population prevalence of tuberculosis. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Prevalent tuberculosis was defined by the presence of a respiratory sample that was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Glycaemia was measured by ...
Objectives To describe cases and estimate the annual incidence of tuberculosis in correctional facilities. Methods We analyzed 2002 to 2013 National Tuberculosis Surveillance System case reports to characterize individuals who were employed or incarcerated in correctional facilities at time they were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Incidence was estimated with Bureau of Justice Statistics denominators. Results Among 299 correctional employees with tuberculosis, 171 (57%) were US-born and 82 (27%) were female. Among 5579 persons incarcerated at the time of their tuberculosis diagnosis, 2520 (45%) were US-born and 495 (9%) were female. Median estimated annual tuberculosis incidence rates were 29 cases per 100 000 local jail inmates, 8 per 100 000 state prisoners, and 25 per 100 000 federal prisoners. The foreign-born proportion of incarcerated men 18 to 64 years old increased steadily from 33% in 2002 to 56% in 2013. Between 2009 and 2013, tuberculosis screenings were reported as leading to 10% of ...
In 2006, a total of 13,767 tuberculosis (TB) cases (4.6 per 100,000 population) were reported in the United States, representing a 3.2% decline from the 2005 rate. This report summarizes provisional 2006 TB incidence data from the National TB Surveillance System and describes trends since 1993. The TB rate in 2006 was the lowest recorded since national reporting began in 1953, but the rate of decline has slowed since 2000. The average annual percentage decline in the TB incidence rate decreased from 7.3% per year during 1993--2000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.9%--7.8%) to 3.8% during 2000--2006 (CI = 3.1%--4.5%). Foreign-born persons and racial/ethnic minority populations continue to be affected disproportionately by TB in the United States. In 2006, the TB rate among foreign-born persons in the United States was 9.5 times that of U.S.-born persons.* The TB rates among blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were 8.4, 21.2, and 7.6 times higher than rates among whites, respectively. The slowing of ...
This chapter focuses on the fundamental nature of exposure and infection of pediatric tuberculosis, emphasizing how and why children should be approached differently from adults. The effects of these differences on the public health approach to tuberculosis control in children are also explained in the chapter. Disease occurs when signs or symptoms or radiographic manifestations caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis become apparent. Infants are more likely to experience signs and symptoms, probably because of their small airway diameters relative to the parenchymal and lymph node changes in primary tuberculosis. The hallmark of primary pulmonary tuberculosis is the relatively large size and importance of the lymphadenitis compared with the less significant size of the initial parenchymal focus. The most common manifestations are at the anatomic site of the existing tuberculosis, but new onset of tuberculomas, lymphadenopathy, and abdominal manifestations can occur. As with tuberculin skin test (TSTs),
Background. We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, the timing for the initiation of ART during tuberculosis treatment remains unresolved. Methods. We conducted a three-group, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in South Africa involving 642 ambulatory patients, all with tuberculosis (confirmed by a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli), human immunodeficiency virus infection, and a CD4+ T-cell count of less than 500 per cubic millimeter. Findings in the earlier- ART group (ART initiated within 4 weeks after the start of tuberculosis treatment, 214 patients) and later-ART group (ART initiated during the first 4 weeks of the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment, 215 patients) are presented here. Results. At baseline, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 150 per cubic millimeter, and the median viral load was 161,000 copies per milliliter, with no significant differences between the two groups. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Towards cash transfer interventions for tuberculosis prevention, care and control. T2 - Key operational challenges and research priorities. AU - Boccia, Delia. AU - Pedrazzoli, Debora. AU - Wingfield, Tom. AU - Jaramillo, Ernesto. AU - Lönnroth, Knut. AU - Lewis, James. AU - Hargreaves, James. AU - Evans, Carlton A.. PY - 2016/6/21. Y1 - 2016/6/21. N2 - Background: Cash transfer interventions are forms of social protection based on the provision of cash to vulnerable households with the aim of reduce risk, vulnerability, chronic poverty and improve human capital. Such interventions are already an integral part of the response to HIV/AIDS in some settings and have recently been identified as a core element of World Health Organizations End TB Strategy. However, limited impact evaluations and operational evidence are currently available to inform this policy transition. Discussion: This paper aims to assist national tuberculosis (TB) programs with this new policy direction by ...
Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis appears to be increasing in England and Wales. The trends in extrapulmonary tuberculosis and factors associated with these trends were examined. Methods: National tuberculosis surveillance data from 1999-2006 for England and Wales were used, including demographic, clinical and laboratory information. Trends in the proportion of tuberculosis cases with extrapulmonary disease were investigated using the ?2 trend test and associated factors using logistic regression. Results: Among all the cases of tuberculosis, the proportion with extrapulmonary disease increased from 48% in 1999 (2717 cases) to 53% in 2006 (4205 cases, p. ...
Div of TB Elimination. Evaluation of the Brazilian National TB Surveillance System. Most epidemiologists, public health policy makers, TB program managers, and health experts would agree that TB surveillance is a crucial tool in their decision making. Where disagreement may arise among the various stakeholders is in their assessment of the system s reliability, completeness of coverage, and utility, among other attributes. For example, in Brazil, the national TB surveillance system (SINAN-TB: Sistema de Informa o de Agravos de Notifica o-Tuberculose) reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) approximately 74,500 new TB cases in 2001, whereas WHO s own estimate of TB cases in Brazil for that year was approximately 110,500 a substantial difference (WHO estimates total TB cases based on TB incidence reappraisals in reporting countries).1,2 In recognition of the importance of accurate surveillance data, the Brazilian Ministry of Health invited the International Research and Programs Branch ...
Yayehirad A Melsew, Allen C Cheng, Emma S McBryde, Justin T Denholm, EeLaine Tay, Romain Ragonnet, James M Trauer. European Respiratory Journal 2019; Profiles of tuberculosis disease activation among contacts of patients with tuberculosis. The risk of a person progressing to TB disease after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains poorly understood, with some contacts developing TB in the early period following exposure, while others take many years to progress or never do so [1, 2]. We described profiles and patterns of contacts progression to TB disease following exposure by linking a large, prospectively collected contact investigation dataset from Victoria, Australia to data on subsequent cases of active TB disease, after obtaining ethical approval from Monash Universitys, Human Research Ethics Committee. Unlike many past studies, this approach offers the opportunity to disaggregate by various characteristics of both index patient and exposed contact.. ...
South Africa is one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries that contribute 80 % of the global tuberculosis cases. Tuberculosis is infectious and due to its rapid and easy transmission route poses a threat to population health. Considering the importance of social and psychological factors in influencing health outcomes, appraising knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis, remain vital for effective tuberculosis control. The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors that predict knowledge about tuberculosis among 18-64 year old adults in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey method was used. Multi-stage disproportionate, stratified cluster sampling was used to select households within enumeration areas stratified by province and locality type. Based on the Human Sciences Research Council 2007 master sample, 500 Enumerator Areas representative of the socio-demographic profile of South Africa were identified and a random sample of 20 households was randomly selected from each Enumerator
Tuberculosis Control Program Abstract: The mission of the Connecticut Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program is to interrupt and prevent transmission of TB, prevent emergence of drug-resistant TB, and reduce and prevent death, disability, illness, emotional trauma, family disruption, and social stigma caused by TB.Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. It particularly affects persons living in crowded conditions and in poverty (e.g., homeless) and persons who have HIV infection (e.g., injection drug users). The TB Control Program (Program) works in collaboration with health care providers and municipal health departments to conduct surveillance for TB disease and latent TB infection, screening, treatment, and containment activities. Program activities include: Identifying all persons diagnosed or suspected of having TB through reporting to the Program by health care providers, local health authorities and laboratories. Collecting and
TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW, CAUSE, AND PATHOGENESIS Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) common, and in many cases lethal infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was identified and described on 24 March 1882 by Robert Koch Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body most commonly occurs in the lungs pulmonary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis cases increased in Washington state for the first time after several years of decline.. Last year, 209 cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported - a 13 percent increase from the 185 cases reported in 2012. The TB rate in Washington has historically been lower than the national average, but in 2013 it matched the national rate.. Tuberculosis can be a very serious, even fatal disease. Treatment is difficult for people because it requires taking multiple medications for several months, State Health Officer Dr. Kathy Lofy said.. Its important for public health and the health care community to stay vigilant and work together to control tuberculosis, she said.. Lofy said TB is a dangerous disease. Its a bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs but can attack other parts of the body.. Most symptoms include fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss and a persistent cough. Some people may be infected with TB and have no symptoms.. Timely treatment with proper antibiotics is ...
Drug resistance is a challenge for the global control of tuberculosis. We examined mortality in patients with tuberculosis from high-burden countries, according to concordance or discordance of results from drug susceptibility testing done locally and in a reference laboratory.
In the 1980s, after a steady decline during preceding decades, there was a resurgence in the rate of tuberculosis in the United States that coincided with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Disease patterns since have changed, with a higher incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary disease now found. Extrapulmonary sites of infection commonly include lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular areas, although any organ can be involved. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be elusive, necessitating a high index of suspicion. Physicians should obtain a thorough history focusing on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis. Antituberculous therapy can minimize morbidity and mortality but may need to be initiated empirically. A negative smear for acid-fast bacillus, a lack of granulomas on histopathology, and failure to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not exclude the diagnosis. Novel diagnostic modalities such as adenosine deaminase
Introduction: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) arising in extra-oral region in head and neck are rare, and when swellings arise from other sites such as infraorbital region, cheek, etc, tuberculosis is not usually considered for the differential diagnosis (DD) and often the diagnosis is missed and appropriate treatment is delayed. Case Report: We report a rare entity of primary tuberculosis, which presented as infraorbital swelling and our technique of performing sublabial approach to the swelling with endoscopic guided excision of the swelling and also we have review of literature of similar cases of primary tuberculosis presenting as swelling over the face over the past 5 year. Conclusion: Primary EPTB should be considered as DD in cases of chronic facial swelling.
This program offers tuberculosis (TB) testing to high risk clients in corrections, refugees, migrants, homeless persons, persons who have lived in TB endemic countries, and persons that are contacts of an active TB case. Some individuals may need TB testing required for employment. Routine TB testing of the general population is not necessary nor recommended.. If results are positive, individuals are referred to their primary provider for evaluation and medication orders. Medication for treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease is available, free of charge to individuals with these conditions.. More information on tuberculosis is available on the following websites ...
A young child, 19 months of age, presented with a second episode of tuberculosis after full recovery from initial tuberculosis disease 6 months earlier. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from both episodes were genotyped and differed from one another. We present the first case of proven tuberculosis reinfection in a likely immunocompetent child, living in a high-risk environment favorable for exposition to M. tuberculosis but in a low-incidence country ...
The present study has as objectives: To establish the relationship that exists among the level of knowledge, practices on feeding and the nutritional state of the patients with tuberculosis of the center of health José Carlos Mariátegui; to identify the level of knowledge has more than enough the patients feeding with tuberculosis, to identify the practices on the patients feeding with tuberculosis; to value the nutritional state of the patients with tuberculosis; to establish the existent relationship between the level of knowledge and the practices on the patients feeding with tuberculosis; to establish the existent relationship among the practices on feeding and the nutritional state of the patients with tuberculosis; being the hypotheses: The level of knowledge is related directly with the practices on the patients feeding with tuberculosis; the practices on feeding are related directly with the nutritional state of the patients with tuberculosis ...
Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... Tuberculosis (TB) screening, testing, and education[edit]. Based on recommendations from The Center for Disease Control and ... 3.1 Tuberculosis (TB) screening, testing, and education *3.1.1 Initial hiring process ...
HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection[edit]. Eswatini not only has the highest adult HIV prevalence globally, it also has the ... "New, More Convenient Tuberculosis Services Are Saving Women's Lives in Eswatini". ICAP at Columbia University. March 22, 2019. ... "Declining tuberculosis notification trend associated with strengthened TB and expanded HIV care in Swaziland". Public Health ... 2018). Global tuberculosis report 2018. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/ ...
J04A Drugs for treatment of tuberculosis[edit]. J04AA Aminosalicylic acid and derivatives[edit]. J04AA01 Aminosalicylic acid. ... J04AK Other drugs for treatment of tuberculosis[edit]. J04AK01 Pyrazinamide. J04AK02 Ethambutol. J04AK03 Terizidone. J04AK04 ... J04AM Combinations of drugs for treatment of tuberculosis[edit]. J04AM01 Streptomycin and isoniazid. J04AM02 Rifampicin and ... 1 J04A Drugs for treatment of tuberculosis *1.1 J04AA Aminosalicylic acid and derivatives ...
Tuberculosis in immigrants[edit]. Tuberculosis (TB) was a leading cause of death among young men and women in many North ...
Public health policies and the anti-tuberculosis campaign[edit]. Noël Browne, as Clann na Poblachta TD and Health Minister, ... Noël Browne, who had been attracted to the party because of its commitment to fight tuberculosis, and Peadar Cowan, a former ... One of these was a successful anti-tuberculosis (TB) campaign. Free mass X-rays were introduced to identify TB sufferers, who ...
Human and cattle tuberculosis[edit]. Koch initially believed that human (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and cattle tuberculosis ... Tuberculosis treatment and tuberculin[edit]. Koch gave much of his research attention on tuberculosis throughout his career. ... Speaking at the Third International Congress on Tuberculosis, held in London in July 1901, he said that cattle tuberculosis is ... By then 1061 patients with tuberculosis of internal organs and of 708 patients with tuberculosis of external tissues were given ...
She serves as the Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction, Tuberculosis,[23] Physiology ...
Tuberculosis. 1929.. *. Home Health Manual. 1930.. *. After 40 - What?. 1935.. *. Practical Birth Control. 1935.. ...
Tuberculosis. 2. 12. weeks[36] Typhoid. 7. 21. days See also[edit]. *Latent period ...
Perrin P (June 2015). "Human and tuberculosis co-evolution: An integrative view". Tuberculosis. 95 Suppl 1: S112-S116. doi: ... It is possible that the human genome has evolved in part from our exposure to M. tuberculosis. Animal model studies and whole ... In the case of M. tuberculosis, animal model studies were used to suggest evidence of a locus which was correlated with ... The genetic loci that have been identified to be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis are HLA-DR, INF-γ, SLC11A1, VDR ...
Tuberculosis usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tularemia Francisella tularensis Typhoid fever Salmonella enterica subsp. ...
infection: e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, tuberculosis, Gram negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumoniae), anaerobic ... upper (e.g., sarcoid, tuberculosis, silicosis/pneumoconiosis, ankylosing spondylitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis) ... which is extremely useful when looking for evidence of primary tuberculosis). ...
It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.[5] Externally, magnesium sulfate paste is used to treat skin inflammations such as small boils or localised infections. Known in the UK as 'drawing paste' it ...
... which form in the lungs as a result of an infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the patients with tuberculosis. ... Main article: Tuberculosis. Tubercles are nodules that contain caseous necrosis, ...
Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Janssen Pharmaceutica Rare pediatric disease Vimizim Morquio syndrome BioMarin Pharmaceutical ... "FDA approves new drug for treatment-resistant forms of tuberculosis that affects the lungs". U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
Tuberculosis}}. (none). Tuberculosis. Infectious disease templates. Footer. Pathology. Pathogenic bacteria. {{Gram-negative ...
Multidrug-Resistant "Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ... In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe;[58] by 1918 one in six ... For example, pulmonary tuberculosis is often a primary infection, but an infection that happened only because a burn or ... He mentioned that people can transmit disease to others by breath, noted contagion with tuberculosis, and discussed the ...
Tuberculosis control 69.2 211.1 59.5 273.9 135.3 100.1 244.8 1094.0 Reproductive health care 173.8 66.8 77.4 165.2 84.9 207.6 ... Cheaper high-tech tuberculosis (TB) test: In August 2012, the foundation, in partnership with PEPFAR (United States President's ... The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: The foundation has donated more than $6.6 billion for global health ... The foundation has donated billions of dollars to help sufferers of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, protecting millions of ...
In the developed world, the most common cause is liver cirrhosis.[3] Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, ... Liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, blockage of the hepatic vein[3]. ...
In the early 1900s, Jefferson County was severely stricken with an outbreak of tuberculosis. There were many tuberculosis cases ... L. J. Dittmar was President of the Board of Tuberculosis Hospital. *^ "Sanatorium Has Waiting List for Treatment, Effective In ... a b Report of Board of Tuberculosis Hospitals (1915). Freepages.history.rootsweb.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-27. ... The Board of Tuberculosis Hospital kept the name when they bought the land and opened the sanatorium.[5] It is not known ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactome has been analyzed using a bacterial two-hybrid screen (B2H). ...
"Tuberculosis overview". BVA. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2014. "Bovine TB: Simplifications debunked". Black, R. (12 July ... Ward, A. I.; Smith, G. C.; Etherington, T. R.; Delahay, R. J. (2009). "Estimating the risk of cattle exposure to tuberculosis ... In autumn 2009, Scotland was declared officially tuberculosis-free under EU rules, so there are no proposals to cull badgers ... Referring to the group's final report, he further argues that whilst cattle can get tuberculosis from badgers, the true problem ...
Tuberculosis (3%) 7. Diabetes (2.8) 8. Road injury (2.7%) 9. Preterm birth (2.5%) Making up 8% of the total estimated ...
diagnosis for tuberculosis. The tine test is a multiple-puncture tuberculin skin test used to aid in the medical diagnosis of ... "Comparison of Mantoux and Tine Tuberculin Skin Tests in BCG-Vaccinated Children Investigated for Tuberculosis". PLoS ONE. 4 (11 ... Dacso, CC; Walker, HK; Hall, WD; Hurst, JW (1990). "Skin Testing for Tuberculosis". PMID 21250210.. ... tuberculosis (TB). The tine test is similar to the Heaf test, although the Mantoux test is usually used instead. There are ...
"Heatherton Tuberculosis Sanatorium". City of Kingston. Archived from the original on 2008-11-22. Retrieved 2008-10-17.. ... to the refurbished Heatherton Tuberculosis Sanatorium[71] or to other psychiatric institutions. Acutely unwell patients that ...
... is a tool for screening for tuberculosis (TB) and for tuberculosis diagnosis. It is one of the major tuberculin skin tests used ... screen for tuberculosis. The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin ... Dacso, C. C. (1990). "Chapter 47: Skin Testing for Tuberculosis". In Walker, H. K.; Hall, W. D.; Hurst, J.W. Clinical Methods: ... Starke JR (Jul 1996). "Tuberculosis Skin Testing: New Schools of Thought". Pediatrics. 98 (1): 123-125. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID ...
Tuberculosis control initiative Saksham or Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Boys. MoWCD. 2014. Skill ...
Tuberculosis Exposure Control. *Mercury Exposure. *Ionizing Radiation Exposure. *Fire Escape Plan. *Emergency Action Plan ...
M. tuberculosis group. MTC. M. tuberculosis. M. bovis. M. africanum. M. microti. M. canetti. M. caprae. M. pinnipedii. MPM. R1P ... Advances in Tuberculosis Research, 14, 235-287.. *^ "Mycobacterium Avium Complex. MAI; MAC Information". Patient Info. 29 ... They can be differentiated from M. tuberculosis and each other via commercially available DNA probes.[3] :245 ... Jones-Lopez, Edward C.; Ellner, Jerrold J. (2011). "Chapter 35: Tuberculosis and Atypical Mycobacterial Infections". In ...
M. tuberculosis. M. bovis. M. africanum. M. microti. M. canetti. M. caprae. M. pinnipedii. MPM. R1P M. marinum. R2S M. ...
... What is TB?. symptoms of TB disease. People with TB disease Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease ... Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. CS227840_A. What Does a Positive Test for TB How is TB Disease Treated? Infection Mean?. ...
Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis, 1-5 Slide Sets. *The Tuberculosis (TB) in Correctional Settingsplus icon *Facilitator Guide ... Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2017. *Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in ... Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in the United States. *Targeted Tuberculosis Testing and Treatment of Latent ... People living with HIV are more likely than others to become sick with tuberculosis (TB). This is because HIV weakens the ...
What is open tuberculosis? Meaning of open tuberculosis medical term. What does open tuberculosis mean? ... Looking for online definition of open tuberculosis in the Medical Dictionary? open tuberculosis explanation free. ... See tuberculosis.. renal tuberculosis disease of the kidney due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually from bacillemia in cases ... Tuberculosis bacilli can spread to other parts of the body by way of the blood, producing miliary tuberculosis. When a large ...
December 3, 2018 - Global funding for tuberculosis (TB) research climbed to a previously unreported high of USD $772 million in ... The full report published today - Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005 - 2017 - provides final tallies of public, ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. TB usually affects the lungs, but sometimes can affect other organs, ... The name tuberculosis comes from tubercles. These are small, hard lumps that form when the immune system builds a wall around ... Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. TB usually affects the lungs, but sometimes can affect other organs, ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. In humans it is caused by... ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. In humans it is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Management of active tuberculosis[2]. *Notification: all cases of TB must be notified under under the Public Health (Infectious ... Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection[2]. Treatment of LTBI should be considered for people in the following groups, once ...
... (TB) is making a comeback in the United States today - particularly among the homeless, those in prison, and those ... Tuberculosis. TB Basics. Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is a disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium ... In older infants and children, the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) usually ... Tuberculosis in older children and adults may be of this type.. The most prominent symptom is a persistent fever, with sweating ...
The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, ... tuberculosis. Introduction tuberculosis (TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most ... The human type ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis ), first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch , is spread by people themselves. It is ... common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and ...
The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer Andrew "Drew" Speaker flew from Atlanta, Georgia to ... Once Speaker was in Europe, however, test results showed his strain of tuberculosis was even rarer than originally thought, ... Speakers earlier diagnosis was incorrect and that he instead had multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), a more treatable ... "Flight Itinerary of U.S. Traveler with Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB) (May 30, 2007)". Cdc.gov. Archived from ...
... drug resistance arises due to improper use of antibiotics in the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients. ... Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Resistance to tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a formidable obstacle to effective TB care ... Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis surveillance. Surveillance of drug resistance in TB over the past two decades has informed and ... Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control ...
What is Tuberculosis? TB is an infection or disease caused by a germ that you breathe into your lungs. There are two forms of ...
La Tuberculosis. Acerca de ... La Tuberculosis. ¿Qué es la tuberculosis?. La tuberculosis (TB) es una enfermedad causada por ... La bacteria de la tuberculosis puede atacar cualquier parte de su cuerpo, pero usualmente ataca los pulmones. ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although ... Tuberculosis.. Pai M1,2, Behr MA1, Dowdy D3, Dheda K4, Divangahi M1, Boehme CC5, Ginsberg A6, Swaminathan S7, Spigelman M8, ... Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas ( ... Tuberculosis - drugs in the 2016 development pipeline. [Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017] ...
... contains radiological findings of genitourinary tuberculosis including ivp,, hsg, usg and ct findings in kidney, ureter, ... Genitourinary tract tuberculosis. Lobar calcification in a large destroyed right kidney in a patient with renal tuberculosis. ... Genitourinary tract tuberculosis. Intravenous urography series in a man with renal tuberculosis shows marked irregularity of ... Chest x ray  Abnormal in 50 %  Active pulmonary tuberculosis - 5- 10%  Sequelae of old tuberculosis of past infection. ...
Tuberculosis once again occupies a special position in the areas of infec- tious diseases and microbiology. This disease has ... Tuberculosis has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, especially in highly ur- banized Europe, until a few ... Tuberculosis once again occupies a special position in the areas of infec- tious diseases and microbiology. This disease has ... Most importantly, tuberculosis also became the focus of attention for many investigations during the 19th and even the 20th ...
Tuberculosis. Br Med J 1957; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5010.107-b (Published 12 January 1957) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 2009 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ...
... is a disease caused by the bacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs, although it can affect other ... TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly ... Treatment of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. Epidemiology of tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis ... HOW DOES TUBERCULOSIS OCCUR?. The tuberculosis (TB) bacteria are spread through the air from a person who is ill with active TB ...
Rothman, Sheila M. (1994). Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History ... Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933), country music singer, sang about the woes of tuberculosis in the song T.B. Blues (co-written with ... Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938), American author, died of tuberculosis of the brain. His 1929 novel, Look Homeward, Angel, makes ... This is a list of famous people and celebrities who had, or are believed to have had tuberculosis, also known as consumption. ...
A university student has been found dead in his room after dying of pulmonary tuberculosis, police said. ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is making a comeback in the United States today. Find out whos at risk, what to watch for, and how doctors ... Tuberculosis. What Is Tuberculosis?. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium ... How Is Tuberculosis Diagnosed?. A latent tuberculosis infection causes no signs or symptoms, and a chest X-ray wont show any ... How Is Tuberculosis Treated?. Most people with tuberculosis dont need treatment in a hospital and can be cared for at home. ...
The annual decrease in tuberculosis reported in the U.S. during 2020 is far larger than any reported during the last decade. ... Tuberculosis - United States, 2020. Molly Deutsch-Feldman, PhD; Robert H. Pratt; Sandy F. Price; Clarisse A. Tsang, MPH; Julie ... Table 1. Tuberculosis (TB) disease case counts, incidence, and annual percentage changes, by U.S. Census division and state - ... Table 2. Tuberculosis disease case numbers and incidence per 100,000 persons, by race/ethnicity and birth origin - United ...
Health Information on Tuberculosis: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - English PDF What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - Русский (Russian) PDF ... What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - English PDF What Is Tuberculosis? Should I Be Tested? - español (Spanish) PDF ... Tuberculosis (TB) Blood Test (IGRA) - English PDF Tuberculosis (TB) Blood Test (IGRA) - Afan Oromoo (Oromo) PDF ...
... tuberculosis complex should not be counted in tuberculosis morbidity statistics unless there is concurrent tuberculosis.. *Use ... Isolation of M. tuberculosis from a clinical specimen,* OR. *Demonstration of M. tuberculosis complex from a clinical specimen ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ... Tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/tuberculosis/case- ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Managing tuberculosis has not been difficult in the past two decades; but short course oral regimens that sterilise tuberculous ... In developed countries it is respiratory physicians who have the most extensive knowledge of tuberculosis. With few exceptions ... Clinical Tuberculosis. BMJ 1994; 308 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6942.1516 (Published 04 June 1994) Cite this as: BMJ ... most other consultants to allow them to supervise drug treatment after diagnosis of pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. ...
... tuberculosis (tb, for short) is almost always curable. doctors prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria that cause it. ... Minnesota Department of Health: "Home Respiratory Precautions for Patients with Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis." ... Minnesota Department of Health: "Home Respiratory Precautions for Patients with Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis." ... With the proper treatment, tuberculosis (TB, for short) is almost always curable. ...
Through state funding, the Program provides anti-tuberculosis medications to hundreds of medical clinicians; reimburses ... Tuberculosis Control Program, is located at 410 Capitol Avenue, MS# 11TUB,Hartford, CT 06134 and can be reached by calling (860 ... and social stigma caused by TB.Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable ... The mission of the Connecticut Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program is to interrupt and prevent transmission of TB, prevent ...
Tuberculosis. Number. NG33. Date issued. January 2016. Other details. Is this a recommendation for the use of a technology only ...
This may depend on the type of tuberculosis that is suspected. ... investigations that may be used to diagnose tuberculosis. ... This may depend on the type of tuberculosis that is suspected.. Pulmonary tuberculosis. In this type of tuberculosis the lesion ... Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculosis outside the lungs. Related Stories. *Researchers discover new weapon to combat ... Those with suspected tuberculosis of the nervous system or of the brain and meninges (layers of cells that cover the brain and ...
  • an infectious, inflammatory, reportable disease that is chronic in nature and usually affects the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), although it may occur in almost any part of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus the stage is set for the development of a chronic pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis at a later time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and nervous systems may also be affected. (infoplease.com)
  • Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. (nih.gov)
  • A university student has been found dead in his room after dying of pulmonary tuberculosis, police said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The number of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is increasing concomitantly with the increase of pulmonary tuberculosis. (springer.com)
  • The initial treatment is equivalent to that of pulmonary tuberculosis, but has some particularities such as difficulty in confirming possible drug resistance. (springer.com)
  • Much focus is justly given to pulmonary tuberculosis, one of the key medical scourges of humanity, but this disease also often manifests itself in organs outside of the lungs. (springer.com)
  • In pulmonary tuberculosis the usual symptoms are cough for longer than three weeks, bloody sputum, fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. (conservapedia.com)
  • This causes a condition known as pulmonary tuberculosis , a highly infectious stage of the disease. (britannica.com)
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j. from 93 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Play media Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis is also seen as an opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This secondary tuberculosis infection (endogenous reinfection) can occur at any time the patient's resistance is lowered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For this reason, periodic evaluation for evidence of the disease is extremely important for anyone who has had a primary tuberculosis infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first or primary infection with tuberculosis bacilli usually presents no symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If, however, the infection is not controlled, the patient develops the symptoms of progressive primary tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria. (thebody.com)
  • When M. tuberculosis is first encountered (primary infection), host macrophages in the lung engulf the organisms and carry them to hilar lymph nodes in an attempt to control infection. (patient.info)
  • In older infants and children, the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) usually produces no signs or symptoms, and a chest X-ray shows no signs of infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Another type of infection is called reactivation tuberculosis . (kidshealth.org)
  • In older infants and children, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is the first infection with the tuberculosis bacteria, usually produces no signs or symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • HIV infection renders a person infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis much more likely to develop overt tuberculosis, and the evolution of the disease is considerably accelerated. (bmj.com)
  • At present, about 8-10% of all cases of tuberculosis worldwide are related to HIV infection, but the association is much more common in many African countries, often 20% or more. (bmj.com)
  • Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • This page links to tuberculosis (TB) related questions, including what is TB, what is latent TB infection, and what is active TB disease. (healthfinder.gov)
  • If you have tuberculosis (TB) infection, you may need treatment so you will not get TB disease later. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) can be diagnosed with a skin test or with a blood test, followed by a clinical evaluation and imaging (usually a chest X-ray) to make sure the tuberculosis is not active and causing disease [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • A latent tuberculosis infection causes no signs or symptoms, and a chest X-ray won't show any signs of infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • testing may be used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis infection caused by the most medically important AFB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
  • Travellers to areas with high incidence of tuberculosis and immigrants from countries with high incidence are at risk of bringing the infection to countries where the prevalence of the condition is lower. (news-medical.net)
  • Disseminated tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection in which mycobacteria have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) infection can develop after breathing in droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze by someone infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The resurgence of tuberculosis worldwide has intensified research efforts directed at examining the host defense and pathogenic mechanisms operative in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (nih.gov)
  • Increased attention to this disease and the integration of animal models and human studies have afforded us a greater understanding of tuberculosis and the steps necessary to combat this infection. (nih.gov)
  • Today, I would like to share important information about the latest recommendations for testing for and treating latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. (medscape.com)
  • Assuming the infection was not completely cleared by the immune system (which sometimes happens if the bacterial load was small enough), post primary tuberculosis can occur - this is a reactivation of TB following primary tuberculosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic). (everything2.com)
  • The progression from latent tuberculosis infection to active disease remains poorly understood. (uptodate.com)
  • This demonstrates that the innate and adaptive immune response of the host in controlling tuberculosis (TB) infection is effective. (uptodate.com)
  • Mycobacterial and host factors that adversely affect these two arms of the immune system contribute to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active disease. (uptodate.com)
  • Mouse studies have shown that after about 14 days of infection, the predominant cell type infected with M. tuberculosis is the myeloid dendritic cell rather than the alveolar macrophage [ 6 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Thus, during the very early phase of lung infection, the interaction of M. tuberculosis with lung epithelial cells may affect later dendritic cell and alveolar macrophage migration and ultimately clinical outcome. (uptodate.com)
  • The recognition of M. tuberculosis by a group of PRRs called toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers cell signal transduction that induces a proinflammatory response that is supposed to control the infection [ 8 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as a state of persistent immune response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens without evidence of clinically manifested active TB. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Tuberculosis is an extremely contagious bacterial infection that is transmitted through the air. (wikihow.com)
  • Tuberculosis infection TB is present in about a third of the global human population, though 90% of people infected with tuberculosis will never have clinically evident or "active" tuberculosis. (wikihow.com)
  • [1] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source Most people's immune response keeps the infection from causing symptoms or spreading to others, leading to a condition called latent tuberculosis infection. (wikihow.com)
  • It is extremely important to undergo treatment for active tuberculosis infection immediately, to remove the bacteria from your body and reduce the risk of infecting others. (wikihow.com)
  • Without treatment, however, tuberculosis can be a lethal infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tuberculosis, also called TB, is an infection caused by bacteria. (familydoctor.org)
  • Healthy people who get infected with the tuberculosis bacteria are often able to fight off the infection. (familydoctor.org)
  • If the body is not able to contain the infection and the bacteria continue to grow, active tuberculosis develops. (familydoctor.org)
  • The best way to prevent getting a tuberculosis infection is to avoid being in close contact with a person who has active TB disease. (familydoctor.org)
  • Tuberculosis, commonly called TB, is a bacterial infection that can be spread through the air. (cnn.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection that usually affects the lungs. (aidsmap.com)
  • Baltimore once suffered the highest rate of tuberculosis infection of any large city in the country - 75 cases per 100,000 people in 1966. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Particularly among infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults (organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients, for example), the primary infection may spread through the body, causing miliary tuberculosis , a highly fatal form if not adequately treated. (britannica.com)
  • Adults with diabetes and latent tuberculosis (TB) infection are at higher risk for progressing to active TB disease if they are not screened and treated. (ihs.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is a dangerous bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. (healthday.com)
  • If a tuberculosis infection does become active, it most commonly involves the lungs (in about 90% of cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura (in tuberculous pleurisy), the central nervous system (in tuberculous meningitis), the lymphatic system (in scrofula of the neck), the genitourinary system (in urogenital tuberculosis), and the bones and joints (in Pott disease of the spine), among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans it is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (which includes M. tuberculosis , M. bovis and M. africanum ). (patient.info)
  • Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is a disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (kidshealth.org)
  • In most cases, only a tuberculin skin test (used to figure out if someone has been infected by the tuberculosis bacteria) is positive, indicating that the child has been infected. (kidshealth.org)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease caused when bacteria attack the respiratory system. (michigan.gov)
  • La tuberculosis (TB) es una enfermedad causada por una bacteria. (in.gov)
  • La bacteria de la tuberculosis puede atacar cualquier parte de su cuerpo, pero usualmente ataca los pulmones. (in.gov)
  • Los síntomas de la TB dependen de la parte del cuerpo en que la bacteria de la TB está creciendo. (in.gov)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (uptodate.com)
  • The tuberculosis (TB) bacteria are spread through the air from a person who is ill with active TB that involves the lungs or airways. (uptodate.com)
  • Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (kidshealth.org)
  • This is when people have the M. tuberculosis bacteria in their bodies, but they don't feel sick or have symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • This is when people with M. tuberculosis bacteria become sick and have symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Now, researchers may have made a step toward the development of new vaccines and treatments for the disease, after uncovering evidence that suggests tuberculosis bacteria fools the immune system into damaging the lungs, enabling the bacteria to become airborne. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers have found evidence that tuberculosis bacteria cause the immune system to attack healthy lung tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that spreads when a person breathes in bacteria breathed out by an infected person. (who.int)
  • It also allows TB bacteria in their bodies to develop into multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is substantially more difficult and costly to treat. (forbes.com)
  • A person can be infected with the bacteria that cause TB but not actually have active tuberculosis. (familydoctor.org)
  • Did you know that one out of every three people is infected with the bacteria that cuase tuberculosis (TB)? (nature.com)
  • Mario Raviglione, director of the WHO's Stop TB department, said that because tuberculosis bacteria thrive in stagnant air, "simply opening the doors" can reduce the chances that patients, inmates and others will become infected with the disease that killed about 1.8 million people in 2007. (reuters.com)
  • Citing research showing that ultra-violet light can zap tuberculosis bacteria, Raviglione said all efforts to improve natural light in prisons and hospitals could help reduce threats from contagious droplets. (reuters.com)
  • Many people have the tuberculosis bacteria in their body without ever getting sick. (healthday.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organization: "Tuberculosis. (webmd.com)
  • According to the 2014 World Health Organization report, an estimated 9 million people developed tuberculosis and 1.5 million died [ 2 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases (i.e. resistant to, at least, rifampicin and isoniazid) occur each year globally. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • By Julie Manoharan Last year, the World Health Organization released updated procedures on how best to tackle the global scourge of tuberculosis. (nature.com)
  • She has an extensively drug-resistant form of tuberculosis, or XDR-TB, which is a relatively rare form of the disease that is resistant to at least four of the core anti-TB drugs, according to the World Health Organization . (cnn.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 80 percent of the South African population has latent Tuberculosis (TB), with about 450,000 active TB cases in 2013 alone . (ibm.com)
  • COMPLACENCY in Europe's richest countries is leading to the unchecked spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the World Health Organization warned this week. (newscientist.com)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - Ventilation and some sunshine could go a long way to reduce tuberculosis risks in hospitals and prisons, two strongholds of the contagious lung disease, the World Health Organization said. (reuters.com)
  • New WHO recommendations aim to speed up detection and improve treatment outcomes for multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) through use of a novel rapid diagnostic test and a shorter, cheaper treatment regimen. (who.int)
  • In most resource-poor countries with a high TB-burden, patients with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis (TB) seek care from a wide array of health-care providers. (who.int)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Tuberculosis? (kidshealth.org)
  • Culture results may take time to come and treatment with anti tubercular drugs may be started on the basis of microscopy if there are symptoms of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • You won't have any symptoms of tuberculosis unless you have active TB. (familydoctor.org)
  • However, most people who have active tuberculosis experience symptoms. (familydoctor.org)
  • Active disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , as evidenced by a confirmatory culture, or, in the absence of culture, suggestive clinical symptoms. (aidsmap.com)
  • In 2009 Ruhul Amin from Chittagong, the port city of Bangladesh, began to experience a persistent cough and fever - typical symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). (interaction.org)
  • The symptoms look pretty similar to typical tuberculosis: Severe cough, fever, weight loss, chest pain. (cnn.com)
  • But when tuberculosis begins causing symptoms, it's called TB disease and can be quite dangerous if treatment isn't administered. (healthday.com)
  • Tuberculosis symptoms are similar to a bad bout of flu. (healthday.com)
  • Anyone with symptoms of tuberculosis should receive a full range of tests. (andalucia.com)
  • Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis is contagious when it's airborne and can be inhaled by others. (kidshealth.org)
  • tuberculosis (TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. (infoplease.com)
  • Is Tuberculosis Contagious? (kidshealth.org)
  • Tuberculosis, however, is not a contagious disease unlike other infections like flu, the common cold etc. (news-medical.net)
  • A Palm Beach County high school student is being treated for tuberculosis, a contagious disease that if not treated properly, can be fatal. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Though tuberculosis is not known for being especially contagious, it can be rather easy to transmit, since TB is spread through infected aerosols via coughing, spitting, speaking, kissing, and sneezing. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, airborne disease. (interaction.org)
  • In this condition, sometimes called latent tuberculosis, the affected person is not contagious . (britannica.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs of the lungs or throat are capable of spreading that are spread from person to person through germs to others. (cdc.gov)
  • But in some cases, TB can progress and spread all over the lungs (called progressive tuberculosis ) or to other organs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Tuberculosis (often called "TB") mainly infects the lungs , but can affect other organs. (kidshealth.org)
  • In this type of tuberculosis the lesion more often than not lies in the lungs. (news-medical.net)
  • Primary tuberculosis usually appears in the central upper portion of the lungs with a pleural effusion or collection of fluid around the lungs. (news-medical.net)
  • In patients with tuberculosis suspected outside the lungs several tests are suggested. (news-medical.net)
  • Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs. (familydoctor.org)
  • Tuberculosis can affect any organ in the body, but the primary disease is in the lungs. (conservapedia.com)
  • Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis is spread from one person to the next through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis may become a chronic illness and cause extensive scarring in the upper lobes of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis - drugs in the 2016 development pipeline. (nih.gov)
  • Cite this: Latent Tuberculosis: New Testing Recommendations - Medscape - Dec 19, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease. (patient.info)
  • Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that can persist for years if it isn't treated. (kidshealth.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention believed at the time that Speaker was suffering from extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was reported that Speaker's father-in-law, Robert C. Cooksey, works for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is a microbiologist who has conducted research on tuberculosis, according to his CDC biography posted on the agency's Web site. (wikipedia.org)
  • So serious is the global threat of tuberculosis that, in 1993, the WHO took the unprecedented step of declaring this disease a global emergency. (bmj.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (nih.gov)
  • BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guérin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal disease transmitted through the air and is fully treatable and preventable. (ct.gov)
  • Those with medical conditions such as diabetes, immune disorders, end-stage renal disease, gastrectomy/jejuno-ileal bypass, those taking drugs like corticosteroids for long durations, those on chemotherapy for cancer and other drugs that suppress immunity (e.g. drugs used after organ transplants) are at a greater risk of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In the United States, most people with primary tuberculosis get better and have no further evidence of disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is tuberculosis an autoimmune disease? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hello, I'm Dr Philip LoBue , director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (medscape.com)
  • Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease of cattle. (rspca.org.uk)
  • Evidence for Pott's disease - tuberculosis of the spine - has been found in Egyptian mummies. (everything2.com)
  • The mission of the Tuberculosis Control Program is to decrease tuberculosis incidence and progress towards its elimination by conducting surveillance activities and case management oversight, developing public health policies, providing technical assistance, networking with local health departments, and increasing the public's awareness of the disease. (in.us)
  • The majority of individuals in the general population who become infected with M. tuberculosis never develop clinical disease [ 3 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Country health information systems provide a rich source of data on the burden of disease caused by tuberculosis (TB) and the effectiveness of programmatic efforts to reduce this burden, both of which are crucial for public health action. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • In addition to reviewing the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this chapter covers a variety of methods for the rapid detection of the disease, including the acid-fast smear, conventional culture, the BACTEC system, immunodiagnostic methods, and DNA-based techniques. (ilo.org)
  • A bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis , causes the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a multisystemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (or TB, TB germs), a rod-shaped bacterium. (medicinenet.com)
  • In Kyrgyzstan tuberculosis remains a serious threat to public health, and prisons are a primary breeding ground for the disease. (icrc.org)
  • Although it is a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) is a grave concern for the Kyrgyz prison system. (icrc.org)
  • The photo exhibition, "Behind bars with tuberculosis", organized by MSF and the ICRC, was dedicated to the treatment of the disease in Kyrgyz prisons. (icrc.org)
  • Tuberculosis is an old disease that demands new drugs. (nature.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a curable infectious disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis ('M. tuberculosis' or 'M.Tb'), or other bacterium in the M. tuberculosis complex (that is , M. bovis or M. africanum ). (nice.org.uk)
  • These three symposia in the tuberculosis theme will bring together diverse speakers struggling to understand the molecular details of the host-pathogen relationship and how the bacterium may be adapting to human attempts to bring the disease under control. (asbmb.org)
  • Tuberculosis , also known as "TB" or "consumption", is a multi-system disease caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (conservapedia.com)
  • Doctors at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center successfully treated a young child with drug-resistant tuberculosis, which may suggest ways to tackle a growing global scourge - and highlight the need for more study of the disease in the young. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Public health groups and Johns Hopkins University students are waging a campaign to ensure that a potentially groundbreaking tuberculosis drug developed by Johns Hopkins becomes available to patients in poor nations where the disease is most pervasive.The. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In colourful saris, five housewives staged a street play in the outskirts of New Delhi about tuberculosis, an age-old disease that India can't seem to shake off and which kills 370,000 people a year. (reuters.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) , infectious disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (britannica.com)
  • Today, in less-developed countries where population is dense and hygienic standards poor, tuberculosis remains a major fatal disease. (britannica.com)
  • Dr. KEN CASTRO (Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of TB Elimination): These were usually children who lived in a household where the adult had tuberculosis. (npr.org)
  • Faster sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples and analysis of resistance genes could enable better disease treatment, the researchers said. (genomeweb.com)
  • HIV patients should be screened for tuberculosis and given drugs to reduce their risks of developing the disease, which can be caught by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person, the Belgian infectious-disease expert said. (reuters.com)
  • About a third of the world's population is infected with the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, but only a small percentage of people develop the disease, which normally arises when immune levels are weakened due to pregnancy or illness. (reuters.com)
  • Although antibiotics can cure tuberculosis, drug-resistant strains of the disease have proliferated in recent years as a result of medical errors and the failure of patients to take the full six- to nine-month drug treatment course. (reuters.com)
  • In 2007 an Atlanta lawyer infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis flew to and from Europe for his wedding and honeymoon, and then entered the United States from Canada, triggering an international health scare about the disease. (reuters.com)
  • The same year, a Mexican traveler flew across the U.S.-Mexico border 21 times despite warnings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to U.S. border officials that he also had a drug-resistant tuberculosis strain. (reuters.com)
  • Tuberculosis is typically spread through the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or speaks. (healthday.com)
  • Some people are more prone to get TB disease than others, including those whose immunity is compromised by a disease like HIV or diabetes, those who have had tuberculosis in the past and people who abuse alcohol or drugs. (healthday.com)
  • The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer Andrew "Drew" Speaker flew from Atlanta, Georgia to Paris, France and on to Greece and then Italy before returning on a flight from Prague, Czech Republic to Montreal, Canada, where he crossed over the border and back into the United States while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading and is resistant to all anti-TB drugs. (nursingworld.org)
  • Global tuberculosis report 2015. (springer.com)
  • Worldwide incidence of TB declined at a rate of 1.5% each year between 2000 and 2013, according to the WHO's Global Tuberculosis Report in 2014 . (forbes.com)
  • The causative agent is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (also known as the tubercle bacillus ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The human type ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis ), first identified in 1882 by Robert Koch , is spread by people themselves. (infoplease.com)
  • Bovine TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) which is part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (michigan.gov)
  • Is a chronic, progressive, and potentially disfiguring form of cutaneous tuberculosis, which occurs in patients with a high degree of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
  • PPD, Mantoux technique, TB skin test) technique consists in one injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the superficial dermis, in the middle third of the left forearm. (springer.com)
  • The lesion develops from direct inoculation in the skin of previously sensitized individuals with moderate to high immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (springer.com)
  • Smith I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence. (springer.com)
  • A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (springer.com)
  • The cause of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an aerobic bacterium that divides every 16-20 hours. (everything2.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, på foreldet norsk også kalt tuberkelbasillen , er en syrefast bakterie som forårsaker de fleste tilfeller av tuberkulose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis er en Gram-positiv obligat aerob mycobakterie , som deler seg hver 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utseendemessig er Mycobacterium tuberculosis en liten stav som kan motstå svake desinfeksjonsmidler og kan overleve i tørr fase i flere uker, men vokser kun innenfor en organisme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human host serves as the only natural reservoir for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (uptodate.com)
  • TB is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (who.int)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , shown in red, is known to propagate in macrophage cells (left), but loses that ability when MenJ is knocked out (right). (eurekalert.org)
  • Humans are the only known hosts for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (although it can infect animals). (medicinenet.com)
  • More than one million people die each year from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections and a growing percentage of new infections-at least 9%-are caused by strains of the bacterium that can't be killed with many of the drugs now available. (nature.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent responsible, is an obligate human pathogen that has infected mankind since the dawn of time. (asbmb.org)
  • Natasha Nesbitt (State University of New York, Stony Brook) will present a lecture titled "Cholesterol Metabolism in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Chewing through the Fat. (asbmb.org)
  • Miriam Braunstein (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine) will deliver a lecture titled "Protein Export via the Accessory Sec System of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (asbmb.org)
  • TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb ). (aidsmap.com)
  • We analyzed 98 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex platform to enhance SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis pangenome, Venus clam immune transcriptome, and more. (genomeweb.com)
  • Sequencing of DNA isolated from people buried in an 18th century churchyard finds that victims often were infected with more than one strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (genomeweb.com)
  • It is caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (healthday.com)
  • The main cause of TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some other parts of the world bovine tuberculosis, which is carried by unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from tuberculous cattle, is more prevalent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In humans, most TB is caused by M. Tuberculosis , although cases involving the bovine counterpart M. Bovis are not uncommon. (everything2.com)
  • In his case, he likely inhaled infectious pathogens of bovine tuberculosis, a mycobacterium that can sicken humans, while removing a dead deer's infected organs, the CDC said. (cnn.com)
  • What is bovine tuberculosis? (cnn.com)
  • Bovine tuberculosis is quite rare, accounting for less than 2% of total tuberculosis, or TB, cases in the US. (cnn.com)
  • It's treated mostly the same too, except bovine tuberculosis resists pyrazinamide , one of the antibiotics used to treat TB, the CDC said. (cnn.com)
  • The average person's risk of bovine tuberculosis is low. (cnn.com)
  • As with tuberculosis, the risk for bovine TB is heightened outside the US. (cnn.com)
  • December 3, 2018 - Global funding for tuberculosis (TB) research climbed to a previously unreported high of USD $772 million in 2017, according to a report released today by Treatment Action Group (TAG) and the United Nations-hosted Stop TB Partnership. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • The full report published today - Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005 - 2017 - provides final tallies of public, philanthropic, private, and multilateral institutions' contributions to TB research last year. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • After two decades of hunting, a 77-year-old Michigan man came down in 2017 with a case of tuberculosis . (cnn.com)
  • People infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) are more likely than uninfected people to get sick with other infections and diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). (healthfinder.gov)
  • Vaccine (strain 1331) is a live mycobacteria vaccine derived from attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. (springer.com)
  • Those with other infections like HIV have a lower capacity to fight off tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS , diarrhoeal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria are the leading killers among the infectious diseases. (greenfacts.org)
  • The WHO's large revision of the number of people with both HIV and tuberculosis reflected "better analyses, better data, and better methodology" and not a real increase in the twin infections between 2006 and 2007, De Cock told a Geneva news briefing. (reuters.com)
  • Primary tuberculosis is a person's first exposure to M. TB. (everything2.com)
  • Primary tuberculosis of the reproductive system is rare and is usually brought from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream. (britannica.com)
  • TB can be contracted in two ways: By either breathing M. Tuberculosis from the same air as a TB sufferer, or by drinking milk contaminated with M. Bovis . (everything2.com)
  • This comprehensive product serves as a valuable resource to numerous fields of medicine due to the presence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis throughout the human body. (springer.com)
  • The authors are writing for clinicians managing patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the book is well suited for this audience. (springer.com)
  • It results from the hematogenous dissemination of the bacillus by an active tuberculosis primary focus, especially in periods of decreased cellular immunity. (springer.com)
  • Immature immunity for example in babies and declining immunity in the elderly makes both these age groups susceptible to tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Innate immunity - The pathophysiology of innate immune response during first encounter of M. tuberculosis with lung cells remains poorly characterized. (uptodate.com)
  • You can only die once," explained Kevin De Cock, the WHO's HIV/AIDS Director, who estimated HIV patients whose immunity levels are weak are more than 20 times more likely to catch tuberculosis than the rest of the population. (reuters.com)
  • By now, you've all heard about Andrew Speaker, the man who brought extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis to full-blown US attention. (nature.com)
  • And 55 countries and territories worldwide have reported at least one case of "extensively drug-resistant" tuberculosis or XDR-TB, which is virtually untreatable with today's medicines, according to the WHO study. (reuters.com)
  • Secondary TB is due to subsequent reactivation of semi-dormant M. tuberculosis and is usually precipitated by impaired immune function such as malnutrition, AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy. (patient.info)
  • In February 2014, 25 community volunteers were trained within the UN Joint Programme "Sustaining livelihoods affected by the Aral Sea disaster" to improve awareness on tuberculosis and other chronic respiratory diseases among the population of five districts of Karakalpakstan. (unv.org)
  • Vietnamese tuberculosis refers to certain forms of chronic melioidosis that look clinically very similar to tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • See 'Natural history, microbiology, and pathogenesis of tuberculosis' . (uptodate.com)
  • A potentially more serious, widespread form of TB is called "disseminated tuberculosis", it is also known as miliary tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called metastatic tuberculous abscess, is a multibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis. (springer.com)
  • Cutaneous tuberculosis: epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical aspects - part I. An Bras Dermatol. (springer.com)
  • Resistance to tuberculosis depends on the general health and living conditions of the individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control worldwide. (who.int)
  • Resistance to tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a formidable obstacle to effective TB care and prevention globally. (who.int)
  • Drug resistance can lead to more dangerous types of tuberculosis that are harder to treat. (kidshealth.org)
  • The emergence of drug resistance is a major threat to global tuberculosis (TB) care and control. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • They work in cooperation with the ministries of justice and health, helping treat TB patients in penal medical institutions by providing direct medical care, supporting screening for tuberculosis in the prison system and trying to curb the alarming rate of drug resistance. (icrc.org)
  • The global tuberculosis (TB) crisis is fueled by several factors, including the alarming rise in drug resistance, reliance on obsolete, harsh drugs that often don't work, lack of diagnostic tests that are practical for use in low-resource settings, and lackluster political commitment. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Despite significant advances in prophylaxis and treatment, tuberculosis continues as a serious public health problem, and resistance to the agents used for treatment continues to increase. (nih.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used method to check for tuberculosis is a skin test. (familydoctor.org)
  • Once Speaker was in Europe, however, test results showed his strain of tuberculosis was even rarer than originally thought, leading public health officials to try to persuade Speaker to turn himself in to Italian health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This so-called extremely drug resistant strain, or XDR tuberculosis, was first noticed in South Africa, fueled by the HIV epidemic that weakens patients' ability to fight such diseases. (voanews.com)
  • In addition, the successful elimination of tuberculosis as a major threat to public health in the world has been complicated by the rise of new strains of the tubercle bacillus that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. (britannica.com)
  • Most importantly, tuberculosis also became the focus of attention for many investigations during the 19th and even the 20th centuries. (springer.com)
  • Tuberculosis (too-bur-kyuh-LOW-sis) was one of the worst diseases of the 19th century. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the 18th and 19th centuries, a tuberculosis epidemic rampaged throughout Europe and North America, before the German microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the microbial causes of tuberculosis in 1882. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • During the 18th and 19th centuries, tuberculosis reached near-epidemic proportions in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing societies of Europe and North America . (britannica.com)
  • Presented by NTU Museum and LKCMedicine, Tuberculosis: The Never-ending Battle is an exhibition tracing Singapore's battle against tuberculosis from the 19th century to the present day. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • What are the two types of tuberculosis? (webmd.com)
  • However, the impact of new approaches will be negligible if the wealthy Western nations fail to address the gross global inequities in healthcare provision, 2 which account for the fact that 98% of deaths from tuberculosis occur in the poorer developing countries (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • an estimated one out of every four deaths from tuberculosis involves an individual coinfected with HIV . (britannica.com)
  • However, most people with tuberculosis can be treated as outpatients and cared for at home. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people with tuberculosis don't need treatment in a hospital and can be cared for at home. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people with tuberculosis are cured by a strictly followed, six-month drug regimen that is provided to patients with support and supervision. (nursingworld.org)
  • There is a vaccine for tuberculosis, but it is rarely administered in the United States and is often used in countries where tuberculosis is more common. (healthday.com)
  • Emerging molecular biologic technologies hold the promise of more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and more definitive epidemiologic linkages of cases of TB. (ilo.org)
  • Owing, in part, to the difficult conditions in the country's prisons, the incidence of tuberculosis there is about three dozen times higher than that in the general population. (icrc.org)
  • People living in areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. (news-medical.net)
  • The global prevalence of tuberculosis was nearly stable in 2007, with 9.27 million new cases reported compared to 9.24 million in 2006. (reuters.com)
  • Even though treatment may require months to complete, it's very important that the full course of medicine be taken in order for tuberculosis to be cured. (kidshealth.org)
  • See 'Treatment of latent tuberculosis' below. (uptodate.com)
  • With the proper treatment, tuberculosis (TB, for short) is almost always curable. (webmd.com)
  • What's the Treatment for Tuberculosis? (webmd.com)
  • What is the treatment for tuberculosis? (medicinenet.com)
  • Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious condition that requires very long and difficult treatment with toxic medicines. (icrc.org)
  • The fourth edition of the "Treatment of tuberculosis: Guidelines" recommended, among other changes, increasing the dosage of tuberculosis medication required to treat children. (nature.com)
  • In recent months, researchers have pointed to a host of problems plaguing the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in children, especially those younger than age 5. (nature.com)
  • Seven weeks after arriving, the patient -- who also spent time in Missouri and Tennessee -- sought treatment and was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. (cnn.com)
  • Today posters are published warning of both AIDS and tuberculosis together, and on the importance of not interrupting treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Local health centres are in charge of providing treatment for tuberculosis sufferers and for keeping tabs on the problems in terms of how it affects the local population or specific groups. (andalucia.com)
  • Our regional health authorities have even made provisions to track down and supervise anyone with tuberculosis who does not follow through with treatment or who does not seem able to follow a treatment plan on their own. (andalucia.com)
  • In Nature this week: metagenomic study of tuberculosis victims from the 18th century, and more. (genomeweb.com)
  • Retrieved on January 22, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Tuberculosis-Causes.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Blood sugar levels that we see in diabetes impair the immune system and allow the tuberculosis organisms to get the upper hand,' says Chaisson. (voanews.com)
  • The WHO said that about 500,000 people worldwide have been diagnosed with multi-drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis, which cannot be treated with two or more front-line drugs. (reuters.com)
  • Secondary tuberculosis develops as a result of either endogenous or exogenous reinfection by the tubercle bacillus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the most common form of clinical tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, Public Health England and NHS England have designed a collaborative tuberculosis strategy for England that brings together best practice in clinical care, social support and public health. (nice.org.uk)
  • Useful for the detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens (sputa, pus or tissues) by microscopy. (luc.edu)
  • This is a list of famous people and celebrities who had, or are believed to have had tuberculosis , also known as consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gardner Association for the Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis, How to Prevent Consumption , poster, USA, c. 1900, 13.9 x 17.4 cm. (nih.gov)