Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.HistoryBCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).

A train passenger with pulmonary tuberculosis: evidence of limited transmission during travel. (1/1105)

In January 1996, smear- and culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed for a 22-year-old black man after he had traveled on two U.S. passenger trains (29.1 hours) and a bus (5.5 hours) over 2 days. To determine if transmission had occurred, passengers and crew were notified of the potential exposure and instructed to undergo a tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 240 persons who completed screening, 4 (2%) had a documented TST conversion (increase in induration of > or = 10 mm between successive TSTs), 11 (5%) had a single positive TST (> or = 10 mm), and 225 (94%) had a negative TST (< 10 mm). For two persons who underwent conversion, no other risk factors for a conversion were identified other than exposure to the ill passenger during train and/or bus travel. These findings support limited transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a potentially highly infectious passenger to other persons during extended train and bus travel.  (+info)

Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta. (2/1105)

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

Differential avian and human tuberculin skin testing in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. (3/1105)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity of differential avian and human delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing in the diagnosis of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with culture proved non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymph node infections who also had differential avian and human skin testing performed over a 10 year period from 1986 to 1996. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty four patients had non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from lymph nodes over this period, 59 of whom had differential skin testing performed. The sensitivity of a response of >/= 10 mm to the avian precipitin was 58 of 59. No patient had both a negative human and avian Mantoux. The sensitivity of the human Mantoux alone for diagnosing non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection was 81% for a response of >/= 5 mm and 66% for >/= 10 mm. Ten patients had a 0 human response. Fifty five of the 59 patients had an avian response at least 2 mm greater than the human response. CONCLUSION: The avian Mantoux is a very sensitive method of diagnosing non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in children. The human Mantoux is not sensitive enough to be used alone as a surrogate to diagnose non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.  (+info)

Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Toronto. (4/1105)

BACKGROUND: Injection drug users are at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis (TB). The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Toronto, as indicated by a positive tuberculin skin test result. An additional objective was to identify predictors of a positive skin test result in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving self-selected injection drug users in the city of Toronto. A total of 171 participants were recruited through a downtown Toronto needle-exchange program from June 1 to Oct. 31, 1996. RESULTS: Of 167 subjects tested, 155 (92.8%) returned for interpretation of their skin test result within the designated timeframe (48 to 72 hours). Using a 5-mm cut-off, the prevalence rate of positive tuberculin skin test results was 31.0% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 38.9%). Birth outside of Canada and increasing age were both predictive of a positive result. INTERPRETATION: There is a high burden of M. tuberculosis infection in this population of injection drug users. The compliance observed with returning for interpretation of skin test results indicates that successful TB screening is possible among injection drug users.  (+info)

Comparison between a whole blood interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin testing for the detection of tuberculosis infection among patients at risk for tuberculosis exposure. (5/1105)

A new test that measures interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release in whole blood following stimulation with tuberculin has the potential to detect tuberculosis infection using a single blood draw. The IFN-gamma release assay was compared with the standard tuberculin skin test (TST) among 467 intravenous drug users at risk for tuberculosis in urban Baltimore. Among 300 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative patients, the IFN-gamma release assay was positive in 177 (59%), whereas the TST was positive in 71 (24%), for a percent agreement of 59% (kappa=26%). Among 167 HIV-seropositive subjects, the IFN-gamma release assay identified 32 reactors (19%); the TST identified 16 reactors (9.6%), for a percent agreement of 82% (kappa=28%). The IFN-gamma release assay detected more reactors than did the TST, but its agreement with TST was weak. As the TST is an imperfect standard, further evaluation of the IFN-gamma release assay among uninfected persons and persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis will be useful.  (+info)

Tuberculin skin testing among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program. (6/1105)

Low income, medically underserved communities are at increased risk for tuberculosis. Limited population-based national data are available about tuberculous infection in young people from such backgrounds. To determine the prevalence of a positive tuberculin skin test among economically disadvantaged youth in a federally funded job training program during 1995 and 1996, the authors evaluated data from medical records of 22,565 randomly selected students from over 100 job training centers throughout the United States. An estimated 5.6% of students had a documented positive skin test or history of active tuberculosis. Rates were highest among those who were racial/ethnic minorities, foreign born, and (among foreign-born students) older in age (p < 0.001). Weighted rates (adjusting for sampling) were 1.3% for white, 2.2% for Native American, 4.0% for black, 9.6% for Hispanic, and 40.7% for Asian/Pacific Islander students; rates were 2.4% for US-born and 32.7% for foreign-born students. Differences by geographic region of residence were not significant after adjusting for other demographic factors. Tuberculin screening of socioeconomically disadvantaged youth such as evaluated in this study provides important sentinel surveillance data concerning groups at risk for tuberculous infection and allows recommended public health interventions to be offered.  (+info)

Immune responses induced in cattle by virulent and attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strains: correlation of delayed-type hypersensitivity with ability of strains to grow in macrophages. (7/1105)

Comparison of immune responses induced in cattle by virulent and attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis will assist in identifying responses associated with resistance or susceptibility to disease. Four strains of M. bovis, one which is virulent in guinea pigs (WAg201) and three which are attenuated in guinea pigs (an isoniazid-resistant strain [WAg405], ATCC 35721, and BCG) were compared for their abilities to induce immune responses in cattle and to grow in bovine lung alveolar macrophage cultures. Extensive macroscopic lesions were found only in cattle inoculated with the virulent M. bovis strain. Strong antibody responses to M. bovis culture filtrate, as well as persistently high levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-2 released from purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures, were observed in the cattle inoculated with the virulent strain compared to those inoculated with the attenuated strains. All cattle inoculated with the virulent strain or two of the attenuated strains (WAg405 and ATCC 35721) elicited strong delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to PPD in skin tests, while animals inoculated with BCG induced only a weak response. The three strains which produced strong skin test responses proliferated well in bovine alveolar macrophages and induced high levels of proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs compared to BCG. Our study showed that skin test responsiveness to PPD correlated with the ability of the strains to grow in alveolar macrophages rather than to their pathogenicity in cattle.  (+info)

Safety and effectiveness of BCG vaccination in preterm babies. (8/1105)

AIM: To assess the cell mediated immune response to BCG vaccine in preterm babies. METHODS: Sixty two consecutive preterm babies born at < 35 weeks of gestation were randomly allocated into two groups. Babies in group A were vaccinated early at 34-35 weeks and group B were vaccinated late at 38-40 weeks of postconceptional age. The two groups were similar in terms of: gestational age (mean (SD) 33.1 (1. 1) and 33 (1.2) weeks, respectively); birthweight 1583 (204) and 1546 (218) g; neonatal problems; socioeconomic status; and postnatal weight gain. The cell mediated immune response to BCG was assessed using the Mantoux test and the lymphocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT) 6-8 weeks after BCG vaccination. Induration of >5 mm after the Mantoux test was taken as a positive response. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the tuberculin conversion rates (80% and 80.7%, respectively), positive LMIT (86.6% and 90.3%, respectively), or BCG scar (90.0% and 87.1%, respectively) among the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity seems to be an unlikely cause for poor vaccine uptake. Preterm babies can be effectively vaccinated with BCG at 34-35 weeks of postconceptional age, the normal time of discharge in a developing country.  (+info)

  • The material used for the test consists of a purified solution of protein (PPD, or purified protein derivative) extracted from the bacteria. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, and FoxP3 and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene expressions in peripheral blood of patients with tuberculosis and patients with positive tuberculin skin test before and after Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) activation with Purified Protein Derivative (PPD). (
  • Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at 2 HIV clinics in Atlanta to assess the utility of two IGRA tests (T-SPOT. (
  • The main data problem was the large proportion of missing values in the covariates percentage of T CD4+ lymphocytes and the tuberculin test results: only 157 patients (31.8%) had both covariates recorded. (
  • These situations may lead to inaccurate test results. (
  • Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5 9 mm and of 10 14 mm. (
  • The findings suggest that these two analytes might be useful complements to HbA1c in clinical practice, especially when HbA1c testing is not available, or when HbA1c results might be considered unreliable. (
  • In 1908 three Philadelphia physicians, Samuel McClintock Hamill, Howard C. Carpenter and Thomas A. Cope reported the results of comparisons of several diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. (
  • The ease of implementing the test (application of a few drops of tuberculin to the surface of the eye) and the relatively quicker results obtained thereby made it attractive to clinicians in search of an effective diagnostic tool. (
  • In the Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association (November 1908) , L. M. Warfield explains that the skin test is more sensitive, as it gives positive results from people who have already recovered from tuberculosis, or who show no signs of disease. (
  • The results of all Mantoux tests were read approximately 72 hours after inoculation (most positive results become evident in 8 to 72 hours). (
  • The imputation method allows us to assess the protective character of positivity for the tuberculin test for the lowest CD4+ level. (
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis found fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) to be moderately sensitive and highly specific with high overall diagnostic accuracy for detecting colorectal cancer (Ann Intern Med 2014;160:171-81). (
  • The authors emphasized, however, that the diagnostic performance of FITs depends on the cutoff value for a positive test result. (
  • On the other hand, HbA1c, a measure of long-term glucose exposure in the blood, has been the primary test used to manage diabetes, and in 2010, also was recommended as a diagnostic test for the disease. (
  • The Heaf test , for example, was easier to administer consistently, and probably easier to interpret, but harder to manufacture. (
  • In February 1908, an article by Floyd and Hawes saw the eye test as safer than the skin test - they could be summarized to say "the advantages of the ophthalmo-tuberculin reaction over the cutaneous or subcutaneous methods is that it is absolutely painless, whereas both of the others are painful or disagreeable to say the least. (
  • There were 24 reports and no deaths, indicating that such reactions are rare (0.08 reported reactions per million doses of tuberculin). (
  • The skin test reaction should be read between 48 and 72 hours after administration by a health care worker trained to read TST results. (
  • [ 2 ] However, most TB cases in the United States are diagnosed through a combination of findings, including results from one of these tests. (
  • Results of the test depend on your risk for TB. (
  • Type of tuberculin test did not modify these results. (
  • Repeated tests with follow-up are required for all persons who do not report their results. (
  • View test results, schedule appointments, or request prescription refills from the convenience of your computer or mobile device. (
  • RESULTS One hundred and twenty four patients had non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from lymph nodes over this period, 59 of whom had differential skin testing performed. (
  • In conclusion, these results show that tuberculin skin test does not enable any conclusive statements regarding the immune status of patients following treatment for severe acute malnutrition. (
  • This paper presents the results and discusses the utility of the test for this purpose. (
  • Strength of association between test results and incidence of TB was summarised using cumulative incidence ratios (CIRs with 95% CIs). (
  • In addition, factors associated with the non-application of the test and with positive TST results were also analyzed. (
  • The main data problem was the large proportion of missing values in the covariates percentage of T CD4+ lymphocytes and the tuberculin test results: only 157 patients (31.8%) had both covariates recorded. (
  • False negative results are seen if there is bacterial contamination of the tuberculin solution, corticosteroid therapy, viral infections (HIV, influenza, EBV) and poor nutrition. (
  • My opinion is that medical assistants are permitted to report their observations of the results of the test to the overseeing/delegating physician. (
  • As a practicing CMA, our provider, be them NP or MD allows us to read and document our findings when an abnormal is discovered we are to refer to our doctor for follow up observations, Our doctor takes over on all abnormal reading of any test results that are discovered. (
  • Early empirical treatment for possible but not yet definitive miliary TB increases the likelihood of survival and should never be withheld while test results are pending. (
  • This paper aimed to analyze tuberculin skin test (TST) results in IBD patients at a reference center in Brazil . (
  • Forty-one patients (34.5%) were taking immunosuppressive drugs ( azathioprine or prednisone ) at the time of the TST, and six of these patients (14.6%) had positive test results. (
  • How Do You Understand Your Breathing Test Results? (
  • The initial skin test completed as part of the two-step process may stimulate the immune response, and a positive reaction may occur when the person is retested one to 4 weeks later. (
  • Widespread bovine Tb in cattle has been diagnosed in some parts of Cameroon following comparative cervical tuberculin test, detection of Tb lesions during abattoir slaughter meat inspection, acid fast staining of bacilli, and molecular analysis of cultured isolates [ 1 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • METHOD Retrospective review of all patients with culture proved non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymph node infections who also had differential avian and human skin testing performed over a 10 year period from 1986 to 1996. (
  • We undertook this retrospective review of culture proven non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections to determine the sensitivity of skin testing with both avian sensitin and human tuberculin in children. (