Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phosphites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eflornithine: An inhibitor of ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Triose-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC 5.3.1.1.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A type C phospholipase specific for GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. It plays a role in the breaking of GPI MEMBRANE ANCHORS.Melarsoprol: Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Nifurtimox: A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Kinetoplastida: An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Trypanosoma rangeli: A hemoflagellate parasite affecting domestic and wild animals, as well as humans and invertebrates. Though it induces an immune response, it is non-pathogenic in humans and other vertebrates. It is cross-reactive with TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI and can thus cause false positives for CHAGAS DISEASE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
... specifically inhibits respiration and in vitro growth of long slender bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei". Mol. ... "The efficacy of ascofuranone in a consecutive treatment on Trypanosoma brucei brucei in mice". Parasitol. Int. 52 (2): 155-64. ... The AOX pathway is found to be the exclusive electron transport pathway in Trypanosoma brucei, the organism that causes African ...
... specifically inhibits respiration and in vitro growth of long slender bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei". Mol. ... "The efficacy of ascofuranone in a consecutive treatment on Trypanosoma brucei brucei in mice". Parasitol. Int. 52 (2): 155-64. ... The compound is effective both in vitro cell culture and in infections in mice. Ascofuranone has also been reported to have ... Magae J, Suzuki S, Nagai K, Yamasaki M, Ando K, Tamura G (1986). "In vitro effects of an antitumor antibiotic, ascofuranone, on ...
... showed antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Investigation of possible mechanisms revealed that the compounds bind ... In vitro tests of some aporphine derivatives isolated from Cassytha filiformis, namely actinodaphnine, cassythine, and ...
For example, aphids are crop pests and the tsetse fly carries the organism Trypanosoma brucei that causes African sleeping ... In vitro cultivation of rickettsia-like-organisms from Glossina spp. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 81, 331-335. The Viruses That ... Unlike tsetse's P-symbiont Wigglesworthia, though, Sodalis has been cultured in vitro. During pregnancy in viviparous mammals, ...
Dunbar DA, Wormsley S, Lowe TM, Baserga SJ (2000). "Fibrillarin-associated box C/D small nucleolar RNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. ... O-Methylation of Target RNA in Vitro". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6663-6668. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.19.6663-6668.2002 ... Small nucleolar RNA TBR7 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule identified in Trypanosoma brucei which functions in the ... TBR7 was one of seventeen snoRNAs identified in Trypanosoma brucei by immunoprecipitation with anti-fibrillarin antibodies. It ...
Antibody-mediated trypanosome killing can also be observed in vitro by a complement-mediated lysis assay. However, with each ... T. brucei brucei - Causes animal trypanosomiasis, along with several other species of Trypanosoma. T. b. brucei is not ... Trypanosoma brucei is a species of parasitic kinetoplastid belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. The parasite is the cause of a ... Trypanosoma brucei brucei (as well as related species T. equiperdum and T. evansi) is not human infective because it is ...
Dunbar, DA; Wormsley S; Lowe TM; Baserga SJ (2000). "Fibrillarin-associated box C/D small nucleolar RNAs in Trypanosoma brucei ... O-Methylation of Target RNA in Vitro". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6663-6668. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.19.6663-6668.2002 ... "The genes for small nucleolar RNAs in Trypanosoma brucei are organized in clusters and are transcribed as a polycistronic RNA ...
... is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule identified in Trypanosoma brucei which functions in the ... O-methylation of target RNA in vitro". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6663-6668. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.19.6663-6668.2002 ... TBR6 was one of seventeen snoRNAs identified in Trypanosoma brucei by immunoprecipitation with anti-fibrillarin antibodies. ... "The genes for small nucleolar RNAs in Trypanosoma brucei are organized in clusters and are transcribed as a polycistronic RNA ...
It is formed from tryptophan, along with indole-3-acetic acid in rats infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. An efficient ... Tryptophol shows genotoxicity in vitro. Tryptophol is a quorum sensing molecule for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is ... It is produced by the trypanosomal parasite (Trypanosoma brucei) in sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis). It is found in ... Tryptophan in Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 131 (4): 459-62. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Localization of a Variable Surface Glycoprotein Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase-C in Trypanosoma brucei brucei". ... The latter mechanism is used in vitro; i.e., the membrane proteins released from the membranes in the enzymatic assay are ... The variable surface glycoproteins from the sleeping sickness protozoan Trypanosoma brucei are attached to the plasma membrane ...
Od triptofana, formiraju ga , uz indol-3-sirćetnu kiselinu i pacovi koji su inficirani protozoom Trypanosoma brucei gambiense ... Triptofol ispoljava genotoksičnost in vitro.[19] Triptofol je molekula kvorumske percepcije za kvasac Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Stibbs, H. H.; Seed, J. R. (1975). "Short-Term Metabolism of \14C]Tryptophan in Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense ... Trypanosoma brucei), koja izaziva bolest spavanja (afrička tripanozomijaza).[1][4] ...
... and also parasites like Trypanosoma brucei. Compton, J (1991). "Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification". Nature. 350 (6313 ... "NASBA isothermal enzymatic in vitro nucleic acid amplification optimized for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection". Journal of ... "Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with oligochromatography for detection of Trypanosoma brucei in clinical samples". ...
"A proteomic analysis of arsenical drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei". Proteomics. 6 (9): 2726-32. doi:10.1002/pmic. ... In vitro analysis of factors regulating the juvenile hormone titer of insects, in: K., K.E.a.M. (Ed.), Invertebrate Tissue ... In vitro analysis of factors regulating the juvenile hormone titer of insects, in: Kurstack, E., Maramorosch, K. (Eds.), ... They are also consistent with a model advanced by others that corpora allata maintained in vitro of day 0 M. sexta larva ...
The molecule acts by inhibiting Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14α-desmethylase activity in vitro. It exhibits no toxicity in mouse ... "Crystal structures of Trypanosoma brucei sterol 14alpha-demethylase and implications for selective treatment of human ...
... as a potential anti Trypanosoma brucei agent". Chemistry: A European Journal. 18 (27): 8403-13. doi:10.1002/chem.201200482. ... There is evidence from an in vitro study to suggest that the introduction of specific varied preparations containing orlistat, ... Orlistat also show potential activities mycobacteria and Trypanosoma brucei parasite (see further reading). At the standard ...
In Trypanosoma brucei, the cell surface is covered by a dense coat of ~5 x 106 VSG dimers, ~90% of all cell surface protein. It ... In Trypanosoma congolense, in vitro analyses of the incorporated sugars after hydrolysis of the glycoprotein showed that ... "Localization of a Variable Surface Glycoprotein Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase-C in Trypanosoma brucei brucei". ... They form a 12-15 nm surface coat and were first isolated from Trypanosoma brucei in 1975 by George Cross. VSG allows the ...
... specifically inhibits respiration and in vitro growth of long slender bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei". Mol. ... "Respiration of bloodstream forms of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei is dependent on a plant-like alternative oxidase" ( ... "The efficacy of ascofuranone in a consecutive treatment on Trypanosoma brucei brucei in mice". Parasitol. Int. 52 (2): 155-64. ... Unusually, the bloodstream form of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which is the cause of sleeping sickness, depends ...
... followed by Trypanosoma brucei, the latter being confined to the African continent. Trypanosoma cruzi groups with trypanosomes ... In-Vitro Test Analysis against Leishmania HGPRT to inhibitors". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 83: 78-96. ... The Leishmania genomes share a conserved core proteome of about 6200 genes with the related trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei ... evidence for paraphyly of Trypanosoma and six other genera". Mol Biol Evol. 20 (4): 644-652. doi:10.1093/molbev/msg062. Momen H ...
This was first observed in rats infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. and correlation with protein intake has been ... In 2010 in vitro experiments proved this concept of IAA as an immunotoxin when used in preclinical studies of targeted cancer ... Tryptophan in Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense". J Infect Dis. 131 (4): 459-462. doi:10.1093/infdis/131.4.459. ... Antibody-targeted horseradish peroxidase associated with indole-3-acetic acid induces apoptosis in vitro in hematological ...
Stibbs HH, Seed JR (Apr 1975). "Short-term metabolism of (14-C) tryptophan in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (Nov 2000). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Research. 10 (11 ... modulations of its functional interactions by in vitro and in vivo structural modifications". Biochemistry. 38 (36): 11711-21. ...
... method for rapid detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2 (1): e147. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd. ... using manganese loaded calcein which starts fluorescing upon complexation of manganese by pyrophosphate during in vitro DNA ...
... acetyltransferase in Trypanosoma brucei". Molecular and biochemical parasitology. 111 (2): 309-17. doi:10.1016/s0166-6851(00) ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... Naa10 is essential in D. melanogaster, C. elegans and T. brucei. In S. cerevisiae, Naa10 function is not essential but yNAA10Δ ... "Purified recombinant hARD1 does not catalyse acetylation of Lys532 of HIF-1alpha fragments in vitro". FEBS Letters. 580 (8): ...
"The exopolyphosphatase TbrPPX1 of Trypanosoma brucei". BMC Microbiology. 11 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-4. "1T6C". ... in vitro and in vivo. The results of these studies of polyphosphate by the Kornberg lab led Kornberg to speculate that due to ...
... and particulate NAD+-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the microbodies of the bloodstream form to Trypanosoma brucei ... and lipid accumulation of in vitro Sprague-Dawley rat preadipocytes". Journal of Dairy Science. 94 (2): 676-83. doi:10.3168/jds ...
"Nuclear DBF-2-related Kinases Are Essential Regulators of Cytokinesis in Bloodstream Stage Trypanosoma brucei". Journal of ... YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in mouse and human epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. The upstream ...
... , also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei. There are two types that infect humans, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (TbG) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (TbR). TbG causes over 98% of reported cases. Both are usually transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly and are most common in rural areas. Initially, in the first stage of the disease, there are fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains. This begins one to three weeks after the bite. Weeks to months later the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness and trouble sleeping. Diagnosis is via finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph ...
... is a parasite species in the genus Trypanosoma. It causes the disease nagana, also known as animal trypanosomiasis, affecting cattle or wild mammals such as the nyala. It is mainly occurring in West Africa, although it has spread to South America. Symptoms of T. vivax include "rapid weight loss, lethargy, weakness, clumsiness, pale mucosa, swelling of superficial lymph nodes, anemia, and fluctuating pyrexia, causing[...]a drop in animal productivity." A novel proline racemase of medical and veterinary importance has been described in T. vivax (B8LFE4). The smallest variable surface glycoprotein (40 kDa in size) to date has been found in T. vivax, which bears little carbohydrate. It also produces vivapain, a cysteine peptidase. Batista JS, Rodrigues CM, García HA, Bezerra FS, Olinda RG, Teixeira MM, Soto-Blanco B (2011). "Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in ...
Üks põhilik küsimus trypanosoma uurimisel on see, kuidas enamikku VSG geene hoitakse nii "vaikselt", ja kuidas neid geene ümber lülitatakse. Ekspresseeritud VSG on alati paigutatud ekspressioonitsooni - leidub suurte ja keskmiste kromosoomide telomeeridel. Sel ajal kui on vähemalt 20 tuntud ekspressioonitsooni, aktiivseks võib olla ainult üks neist. Selle protsessiga kaasuvad mitmed mehhanismid, kuid täpne geenide vaigistamise olemus ei ole veel selge.[9] VSG-d on võimalik ümber lülitada kas aktiivse ekspressiooni muutmisel (aktiivse kohta vahetamine varem vaiksele kohale) või VSG geeni vahetamisel aktiivses kohas. Genoom sisaldab palju võimalikke VSG geenide koopiaid, nii minikromosoomidel kui ka korduvates sektsioonides kromosoomide sisemuses. Need on peamiselt vaiksed, tüüpiliselt vahelejäänud sektorid või enneaegsed stoppkoodonid, kuid need on olulised uute VSG geenide evolutsioonis. Umbes 10% T. brucei genoomist võib ...
... , or dourine (French, from the Arabic darina, meaning mangy (said of a female camel), feminine of darin, meaning dirty), is a disease of horses and other members of the family Equidae. The disease is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, which belongs to an important genus of parasitic protozoa, and is the only member of the genus that is spread through sexual intercourse. The occurrence of dourine is notifiable in the European Union under legislation from the OIE. There currently is no vaccine and although clinical signs can be treated, there is no cure. Trypanosoma equiperdum is one of three known strains from the Trypanosoma family; along with Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma equiperdum has been discovered to be most closely linked ...
The glycosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle that contains the glycolytic enzymes. The term was first used by Scott and Still in 1968 after they realized that the glycogen in the cell was not static but rather a dynamic molecule. It is found in a few species of protozoa including the Kinetoplastida which included the suborders Trypanosomatina and Bodonina, most notably in the human pathogenic trypanosomes, which can cause sleeping sickness and Chagas's disease, and leishmaniasis. The organelle is bounded by a single membrane and contains a dense proteinaceous matrix. It is believed to have evolved from the peroxisome. This has been verified by work done on Leishmania genetics. The glycosome is currently being researched as a possible target for drug therapies. Glycosomes are unique to kinetoplastids. The term glycosome is also used for glycogen-containing structures found in hepatocytes responsible for storing sugar, but these are not membrane bound organelles. Glycosomes ...
Professor Keith Gull CBE, FRS (born 29 May 1948) is a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow and Professor of Molecular microbiology at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford. He has been the principal of St Edmund Hall, Oxford since 1 October 2009, succeeding Michael Mingos. Gull was educated at Eston Grammar School and King's College London where he was awarded a first class Bachelor of Science degree in 1969 followed by a PhD in 1973. On completion of his PhD, he moved to a lectureship at the University of Kent. He held a personal chair at Kent when he moved to the University of Manchester where he spent the 1990s involved with the development of the School of Biological Sciences as Head of Biochemistry and Research Dean. He moved to Oxford in 2002. He was Chairman of the Biochemical Society (1999-2002), and is a trustee of Cancer Research UK. According to Google Scholar and Scopus his most cited peer-reviewed scientific papers are on Trypanosoma ...
Protozoa are largely defined by their method of locomotion, including flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia.[34] While there has been considerable debate on the classification of protozoa caused by their sheer diversity, in one system there are currently seven phyla recognized under the kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Loukozoa, Percolozoa, Microsporidia and Sulcozoa.[35][36] Protozoa, like plants and animals, can be considered heterotrophs or autotrophs.[32] Autotrophs like Euglena are capable of producing their energy using photosynthesis, while heterotrophic protozoa consume food by either funneling it through a mouth-like gullet or engulfing it with pseudopods, a form of phagocytosis.[32] While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction.[32] Protozoa with sexual capability include the pathogenic species Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma ...
Protozoa are largely defined by their method of locomotion, including flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia.[33] While there has been considerable debate on the classification of protozoa caused by their sheer diversity, in one system there are currently seven phyla recognized under the kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Loukozoa, Percolozoa, Microsporidia and Sulcozoa.[34][35] Protozoa, like plants and animals, can be considered heterotrophs or autotrophs.[31] Autotrophs like Euglena are capable of producing their energy using photosynthesis, while heterotrophic protozoa consume food by either funneling it through a mouth-like gullet or engulfing it with pseudopods, a form of phagocytosis.[31] While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction.[31] Protozoa with sexual capability include the pathogenic species Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma ...
... , also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei. There are two types that infect humans, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (TbG) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (TbR). TbG causes over 98% of reported cases. Both are usually transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly and are most common in rural areas. Initially, in the first stage of the disease, there are fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains. This begins one to three weeks after the bite. Weeks to months later the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness and trouble sleeping. Diagnosis is via finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph ...
കാർലോസ് ചാഗാസ്(Portuguese: [ˈkaʁˌlus ʒuʃˌtʃĩniˈɐ̃nu ʁiˈbejɾu ˈʃaˌɡɐʃ], July 9, 1879 - November 8, 1934) ബ്രസീലിയൻ ശരീരശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞനും ബാക്ടീരിയോളജിസ്റ്റും ആയിരുന്നു. 1909ൽ American trypanosomiasis എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന ചാഗാസ് രോഗം കണ്ടുപിടിച്ചു. ഈ സമയം റൊയോ ഡി ജനീറൊവിലെ ഓസ്‌വാൾഡോ ക്രൂസ് ഇൻസ്റ്റിട്യൂട്ടിൽ ജോലിചെയ്യുകയായിരുന്നു. ...
Chagas kaqmanta unquy o Trypanosomiasis americana kaqqa, huk q'uñi pampa khurumanta unquy kay protozoariohuchayuqrayku rikhurinTrypanosoma cruzi.[1] Kay rikhurin huk ch'uspirayku sutichasqas winchucas.[1] Infeccion thaskiyninmanhina sintomasninqa tikrakun. Qallariyninpiqa mana sintomas kanchu utaq ancha pisi kanku, chaymanta kaywan hamunkuman: q'aja, punkiy ganglios linfáticos, uma nanay, wach'isqapi punkiy ima.[1] 8-12 semanas qhipantaqa runakunaqa yaykunku kay fase cronica kay unquymanta, chanta huk, 60-70% kaqpi kayqa ni hayk'aq wak sintomastawan qukunchu.[2][3] Huknin 30 40% kaq runakunamantaqa aswan sintomasta riqsin kay 10 30 wata qhipanta kay infeccion qallariyninmantapacha.[3] Kaypis hamun kay sunqumanta ventrículos hatunyayninwan kay 20 30% kaqpi, kaytaq chaymanta apan kay insuficiencia cardíacakaqman. [1] Huk 10% kaq runakunapi qukullanmantaq kay hukhatun esófago utaq huk hatun colon.[1] ...
Üks põhilik küsimus trypanosoma uurimisel on see, kuidas enamikku VSG geene hoitakse nii "vaikselt", ja kuidas neid geene ümber lülitatakse. Ekspresseeritud VSG on alati paigutatud ekspressioonitsooni - leidub suurte ja keskmiste kromosoomide telomeeridel. Sel ajal kui on vähemalt 20 tuntud ekspressioonitsooni, aktiivseks võib olla ainult üks neist. Selle protsessiga kaasuvad mitmed mehhanismid, kuid täpne geenide vaigistamise olemus ei ole veel selge.[9] VSG-d on võimalik ümber lülitada kas aktiivse ekspressiooni muutmisel (aktiivse kohta vahetamine varem vaiksele kohale) või VSG geeni vahetamisel aktiivses kohas. Genoom sisaldab palju võimalikke VSG geenide koopiaid, nii minikromosoomidel kui ka korduvates sektsioonides kromosoomide sisemuses. Need on peamiselt vaiksed, tüüpiliselt vahelejäänud sektorid või enneaegsed stoppkoodonid, kuid need on olulised uute VSG geenide evolutsioonis. Umbes 10% T. brucei genoomist võib ...
Tsetse have an unusual life cycle. Female tsetse only fertilize one egg at a time and keep each egg in their uterus while the offspring develops internally during the first larval stages. During this time, the female feeds the developing offspring with a milky substance secreted by a modified gland in the uterus. In the third larval stage, the tsetse larva finally leave the uterus and crawl into the ground. There it forms a hard outer shell and becomes the pupa. It completes its metamorphosis into an adult fly. This takes twenty to thirty days, while the larva relies on stored resources. Normally, insect larvae feed themselves before pupation, but tsetse development (before it emerges as a full adult) occurs without feeding. The development is based only on nutritional resources provided by the female parent, which shows how blood is a rich source of nutrition. The female must get enough energy for her needs, for the needs of her developing offspring, and to store the resources which her ...
INFECTIOUS DISEASES; TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX; TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE; TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI; GLOSSINA MORSITANS; GOATS; CALVES; ... Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense or T. brucei infection rates in Glossina morsitans maintained in vitro on the blood of goat or ...
... on Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms. DHA is considered an energy source for many different cell types. T. brucei takes up ... 20465636 - Committed differentiation of hair follicle bulge cells into sebocytes: an in vitro study.. 23055106 - Isolation and ... on Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms. DHA is considered an energy source for many different cell types. T. brucei takes up ... Antiproliferative effect of dihydroxyacetone on Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms: cell cycle progression, subcellular ...
The dissociation of histone proteins a-d from the chromatin ofTrypanosoma brucei brucei procyclic culture forms was ... Brun R, Schoenenberger M (1979) Cultivation and in vitro cloning of procyclic forms oftrypanosoma brucei in semi-defined medium ... Histone-DNA interactions in the chromatin of procyclicTrypanosoma brucei brucei *Klaus Bender1. , ... The dissociation of histone proteins a-d from the chromatin ofTrypanosoma brucei brucei procyclic culture forms was ...
In vitro cytocidal effects on Trypanosoma brucei and inhibition of Leishmania major GP63 by peptidomimetric metalloprotease ... In vitro exoantigen from Herpetomonas samuelpessoai which protects mice against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Rev Inst Med Trop ... gp63-like molecules have been described inother human pathogenic trypanosomatids, including Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi. In ... Expression and function of the Trypanosoma brucei major surface protease (GP63) genes. J Biol Chem 278: 24658-24664. [ Links ] ...
Chalcone and acyl hydrazide derivatives are known to retard the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and inhibit the ... Trypanosoma brucei brucei, transmitted by tsetse fly to cattle, causes a disease (Nagana) of great economic importance in parts ... T. b. brucei also serves as a model for related Trypanosoma species, which cause human sleeping sickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... brucei. RESULTS: Several related chalcones, acyl hydrazides, and amides killed cultured bloodstream forms of T. b. brucei, with ...
trypanosoma brucei brucei: in vitro production of metacyclic forms.. an in vitro method has been established to obtain ... inhibitory effect of trypanosoma brucei brucei on glossina morsitans midgut trypsin in vitro.. the ability of trypanosoma ... in vitro cultivation of trypanosoma brucei from the salivary glands of glossina morsitans.. two strains of trypanosoma brucei ... antigenic analysis by agglutination of trypanosoma brucei brucei parasitemias initiated in mice with in vitro-produced ...
... what is needed to bring biomarker panels into in vitro diagnostics? Expert Rev Proteomics 2009, 6: 675-689. 10.1586/epr.09.83 ... Astrocyte activation correlates with cytokine production in central nervous system of Trypanosoma brucei brucei -infected mice ... Gibson W: Will the real Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense please step forward? Trends Parasitol 2002, 18: 486-490. 10.1016/S1471- ... Sleeping sicknessBiomarkersTrypanosoma brucei rhodesienseCerebrospinal fluidStage determination. Background. Human African ...
... fuscipes fed on blood meal infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei as compared with G. f. fuscipes fed on uninfected blood meal ... and trypsin activities has been shown to stimulate transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclics in vitro. ... This suggests some form of interaction of T. b. brucei or the parasite products with Gpl within the tsetse midgut leading to ...
... brucei brucei. The… (more). ▼ African animal trypanosomosis or nagana is a tsetse fly-transmitted disease, caused by ... Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and to a lesser extent T. brucei brucei. The disease causes major losses in revenue in many ... During in vitro applications, analysis of the induction of apoptosis and metabolic effects were assessed using flow cytometry ... Trypanosoma congolense is the major… (more). ▼ African animal trypanosomiasis is a major threat to African agriculture causing ...
Clones of animal-infective bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei (stocks S.427 and LUMP 227) were made by transferring a ... In vitro cloning of animal-infective bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei Parasitology. 1980 Apr;80(2):371-82. doi: 10.1017/ ... Trypanosoma brucei brucei / growth & development* * Trypanosoma brucei brucei / immunology * Trypanosoma brucei brucei / ... Clones of animal-infective bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei (stocks S.427 and LUMP 227) were made by transferring a ...
These compounds also showed moderate in vitro activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and may thus represent interesting ... against Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (TbGAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme whose inhibition deprives ... were predicted to possess significant affinity towards the enzyme and were therefore tested in an in vitro enzyme assay using ... In Silico Identification and in Vitro Activity of Novel Natural Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate- ...
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense]), as is pentamidine (2) ([genus-species: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense]). The arsenical ... A Class of 5-Nitro-2-furancarboxylamides with Potent Trypanocidal Activity against [genus-species: Trypanosoma brucei] in Vitro ... 1000-fold more potent than nifurtimox against in vitro Trypanosoma brucei with very low cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells. ... Trypanosoma brucei brucei] bloodstream-form (strain 427) or drug-resistant strains were cultured at 37 °C in HMI9 medium ...
As defined in this study, T. brucei may be a useful model to follow other changes in gene expression, metabolism or ... of intermediate and stumpy morphology to the procyclic forms characteristic for the insect midgut stage was studied in vitro. ... The differentiation of mammalian stage Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms comprising predominantly parasites ... Synchronous differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei from bloodstream to procyclic forms in vitro.. @article{ ...
On the Cultivation of Trypanosoma Brucei in Vitro * Ardzroony Packchanian https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1959.8.168 ... with special reference to Trypanosoma brucei.. Two Uganda strains of Tr. brucei were successfully cultured on NN and NNP media ... brucei have been maintained in vitro on NNP medium by monthly transfer for periods of from 2 months to over 3 years. The ... brucei were obtained on NNP medium two times from guinea pigs, 24 times from rats, 47 times from house mice (Mus musculus) and ...
On the Cultivation of Trypanosoma Brucei in Vitro * Ardzroony Packchanian Pages: 168-174 ... with special reference to Trypanosoma brucei.. Two Uganda strains of Tr. brucei were successfully cultured on NN and NNP media ... brucei have been maintained in vitro on NNP medium by monthly transfer for periods of from 2 months to over 3 years. The ... brucei were obtained on NNP medium two times from guinea pigs, 24 times from rats, 47 times from house mice (Mus musculus) and ...
TK is essential for in vitro growth and infectivity in mice.. A. Growth analysis of TK c-null cells and wild-type SM cells ±Tet ... The human pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma brucei possess both de novo and salvage routes for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine ... Pyrimidine Salvage Enzymes Are Essential for De Novo Biosynthesis of Deoxypyrimidine Nucleotides in Trypanosoma brucei.. Leija ... Pyrimidine Salvage Enzymes Are Essential for De Novo Biosynthesis of Deoxypyrimidine Nucleotides in Trypanosoma brucei ...
Artemisinins inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vitro growth. Yuliya V Mishina. Department of ... trypanosoma brucei gambiense*trypanosoma brucei brucei*plasmodium falciparum*antiprotozoal agents*parasitic sensitivity tests* ... Resistance to this activity has arisen in two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei - Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma ... C-terminal mutants of apolipoprotein L-I efficiently kill both Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. ...
... brucei forms that are cultured in vitro with the observations that have been carried out on tsetse-infective forms in vivo. ... brucei forms that are cultured in vitro with the observations that have been carried out on tsetse-infective forms in vivo. ... brucei in vitro, these outstanding questions can finally be addressed. ... brucei in vitro, these outstanding questions can finally be addressed. ...
... and phagocytosis are triggered in vitro in microglia by bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei. ... and phagocytosis are triggered in vitro in microglia by bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei. ... and phagocytosis are triggered in vitro in microglia by bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei ...
Brun R, Schononberger M. Cultivation and in vitro cloning of procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma brucei in a semi-defined ... Respiration of bloodstream forms of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei is dependent on a plant-like alternative oxidase. J ... Bienen EJ, Saric M, Pollakis G, Grady RW, Clarkson AB., Jr Mitochondrial development in Trypanosoma brucei brucei transitional ... The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. Science. 2005;309:416-422. doi: 10.1126/science.1112642. [PubMed] [ ...
In Vitro Synthesized Small Interfering RNAs Elicit RNA Interference in African Trypanosomes: AN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANALYSIS ... Double-stranded RNA induces mRNA degradation in Trypanosoma brucei. Huân Ngô, Christian Tschudi, Keith Gull, and Elisabetta ... Double-stranded RNA induces mRNA degradation in Trypanosoma brucei Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... RNA Interference in Trypanosoma brucei: ROLE OF THE N-TERMINAL RGG DOMAIN AND THE POLYRIBOSOME ASSOCIATION OF ARGONAUTE ...
Volatile components of four Ethiopian Artemisia species extracts and their in vitro antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activities.( ... In vitro Trypanosoma brucei brucei HL-60 cells Artemisia absinthium Artemisia abyssinica Artemisia afra Artemisia annua ... Artemisinins inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vitro growth. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, ... growing in Ethiopia were tested in vitro against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The most active extract was ...
1996) In vitro import of proteins into mitochondria of Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania tarentolae. J. Cell Sci. 109, 517-523 ... They include Trypanosoma brucei, two subspecies of which cause human sleeping sickness, and Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania ... 2009) Mitochondrial carrier family inventory of Trypanosoma brucei brucei: Identification, expression and subcellular ... 2011) Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial respiratome: composition and organization in procyclic form. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 10, ...
... while the peanut enzyme readily hydrolyzes PI in vitro, the T. brucei enzyme was reported to be virtually inactive against PI ... Trypanosoma brucei. The two enzymes differ in their reported ability to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (PI); ... These results suggest that the function of T. brucei GPI-PLC may be to regulate PI as well as (or instead of) GPI levels. ... brucei GPI-PLC by incubating the purified enzyme with Triton X-100/PI-mixed micelles and by studying PI hydrolysis. We found ...
"Artemisinins inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vitro growth," Antimicrobial Agents and ... V. Rosenkranz and M. Wink, "Alkaloids induce programmed cell death in bloodstream forms of Trypanosomes (Trypanosoma b. brucei ... D. Steverding, "The transferrin receptor of Trypanosoma brucei," Parasitology International, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 191-198, 2000. ... and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells. Netsanet Worku,1,2 Andualem Mossie,3 August Stich,4 ...
  • We tested the effects of these compounds on the growth of bloodstream forms of T. b. brucei in cell culture and in a murine trypanosomiasis model, and investigated their ability to inhibit trypanopain-Tb, the major cysteine proteinase of T. b. brucei. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The presence of only small amounts of this protein and the relatively weak interactions of histones a and d with the DNA suggest that the mechanisms involved in chromatin compaction in T. b. brucei are different from those in higher eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • trypanosomes from 14 first-peak parasitemias initiated in mice by injection of in vitro-produced metacyclics were stabilated. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chalcone and acyl hydrazide derivatives are known to retard the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and inhibit the malarial cysteine proteinase, falcipain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: Several related chalcones, acyl hydrazides, and amides killed cultured bloodstream forms of T. b. brucei, with the most effective compound reducing parasite numbers by 50% relative to control populations at a concentration of 240 nM. (ox.ac.uk)
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