A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases of plants.
true,false. search. search query. case_sensitive. true,false. max. max results. Clusters. GET. Filter. true,false. Cluster. PUT ... Cluster. cluster.data_center.id,name. cluster.name. cluster.version.major. cluster.version.minor. cluster.cpu.id. cluster. ... Cluster. cluster.data_center.id,name. cluster.name. cluster.version.major. cluster.version.minor. cluster.cpu.id. cluster. ... Cluster. cluster.name. cluster.description. cluster.cpu.id. cluster.version.major. cluster.version.minor. cluster.memory_policy ...
"Cluster & Eno - Cluster / Brian Eno". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 October 2020. True, Chris. "Andy Fraser". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 ... Eno had previously worked with Cluster on their album Cluster & Eno released in 1977. Additional musicians included Dave ... Jaki Liebezeit of the German krautrock group Can played drums on "Backwater", while German ambient music group Cluster ... and Dieter Moebius and Roedelius of Cluster. Over one hundred tracks were written with only ten making the album's final cut. ...
Cluster'S (with fellow Cluster Edge main casts Hiro Shimono, Hiroyuki Yoshino and Jun Fukuyama) DAIZ (formerly known as ... Michizumi Kuze True Love Story 3 - Minoru Kubota Under The Moon - Sena Amamiya VitaminX Series - Goro Fuumonji Vampire Knight ... Yuki Makihara Cluster Edge - Fon Aina Sulfur D.C.S.S. ~Da Capo Second Season~ - Suginami Doraemon - Navi Robot Happy Seven - ... Luppi Cluster Edge ~Kimi wo Matsu Mirai e no Akashi~ - Fon Aina Sulfer Dark Chronicle - Rococo DEAR My SUN!! ~Musuko★Ikusei★ ...
True to form, the next skill development response was the chuck nurse, known as a rocking cannon in the United Kingdom. With ... Gathers Big Cluster. High Run of 165. Mostly Cushion Shots. Sutton Not in Form. Schaefer Has Little Trouble. The New York Times ... Hoppe Maintains Row of Victories Billiard Champion Takes Measure of Morningstar in 18.2 True Play at Astor. Cochran Makes Long ...
"UAH professor watching galaxy he discovered collide with cluster". Retrieved 25 July 2016. "MUSE Reveals True Story Behind ... As the galaxy moves to the center of the cluster at 7 million kilometers per hour, it is stripped by hot gas, thus creating a ... ESO 137-001 is a barred spiral galaxy located in the constellation Triangulum Australe and in the cluster Abell 3627. ... "Galaxy Cluster Has Two 'Tails' to Tell". NASA. Retrieved 27 October 2010. " ...
... it is a true alternative energy cluster. Here you will find researchers, students, scientists, business investment ...
The wilderness is part of the Kimberling Creek Cluster. The area is about 3 miles west of Bastian, Virginia in Bland County in ... With no official trails, the area offers the true wilderness experience amongst old growth forests. While there are some ... Kimberling Creek Cluster General Information: Wilderness.net - Kimberling Creek Wilderness - General Information, accessdate: ...
It's possible to extend a cluster by adding servers. Fault tolerance. The system is a cluster of shards, where each shard is a ... The main features of the ClickHouse DBMS are: True column-oriented DBMS. Nothing is stored with the values. For example, ...
However, the true nature of the cluster remains unknown. GCIRS 13E is a small cluster dominated by a few massive stars. It is ... GCIRS 13E could also be a dark star cluster which forms in the inner Galaxy if the evaporation rate of stars from the cluster ... It is believed to be a cluster of hot massive stars, possibly containing an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) at its centre. ... The stars are possibly the remains of a globular cluster where a middleweight black hole could develop through runaway star ...
The same is true for all other non-User connections. "Overview-Product Features" (PDF). Novell NetWare 6.0 - Novell Cluster ... Novell Cluster Services was also improved to support 32-node clusters; the base NetWare 6.0 product included a two-node ... Multinode all-active cluster (up to 32 nodes). Any NetWare server in the cluster can restart resources (applications, services ... Novell Cluster Services (NCS), a replacement for SFT-III Oracle 8i with a 5-user license The Cluster Services improved on SFT- ...
While minPts intuitively is the minimum cluster size, in some cases DBSCAN can produce smaller clusters. A DBSCAN cluster ... The opposite is not true, so a non-core point may be reachable, but nothing can be reached from it. Therefore, a further notion ... Each cluster contains at least one core point; non-core points can be part of a cluster, but they form its "edge", since they ... If a point is found to be a dense part of a cluster, its ε-neighborhood is also part of that cluster. Hence, all points that ...
... category clusters; and so on. If every axiom in the theory is true in the interpretation, then the interpretation is called a ... A conceptual schema must have three important characteristics: Consistent with the infrastructure of the business and true ...
Gassendi, Pierre (1657). The Mirrour Of True Nobility & Gentility, being the life of N.C. Fabricius, Lord of Peiresk. London. ... Jones, Kenneth Glyn (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 337. ISBN ...
Asterisms may coincide with true star clusters. For example, the open clusters The Pleiades (Seven Sisters) and The Hyades in ... Kemble's Cascade, a chain of stars that ends in open cluster NGC 1502, in Camelopardalis. Napoleon's Hat (Picot 1), in Bootes ( ... "A star hop through Monoceros including M 50, The Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264), Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261), NGC ... The Christmas Tree shape of the Christmas Tree Cluster, in Monoceros. It is made up of about approximately 40 stars. The ...
Its flower heads are bright yellow spherical clusters. Very few flower heads are produced at a time, but flowering occurs over ... red-eyed wattle has phyllodes rather than true leaves. The phyllodes range from four to eight centimetres long, and from six to ...
Adults of these bugs overwinter in gregarious clusters. They emerge in spring (April or May). Adults and larvae feed together ... Xanthochilus saturnius, the Mediterranean seed bug, is a species of true bugs belonging to the family Rhyparochromidae. ... These small true bugs have distinctive markings of black-on-tan. The head and scutellum are black, while pronotum shows a large ...
The RM1000 used software called ICF to manage the cluster interconnects. ICF went on to provide the cluster foundation in the ... With each CPU capable of 92 MIPS, the Nile systems were true supercomputers. Their last product, the Reliant RM 1000, known ...
The first true DPICM was the 155 mm M483, produced in the 1970s. By 1975, an improved version, the M483A1, was being used. The ... They are banned by some countries under the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Development work for DPICM projectiles began in ... The air-to-surface variety of this kind of munition is better known as a cluster bomb. ... 30 November 2015 US Army searches for cluster munitions alternatives - Dmilt.com, 6 June 2013 Lockheed Martin GMLRS Alternative ...
... is a cluster point of C {\displaystyle {\mathcal {C}}} in X {\displaystyle X} then x {\displaystyle x} is a cluster point of B ... The same is true of other important families of sets such as any neighborhood basis at a given point, which in general is also ... induced filter) converges to a point if and only if the same is true of the original filter (resp. net). This characterization ... Explicitly, what is meant is that the following statement is true for AA-subnets: If B {\displaystyle {\mathcal {B}}} and F {\ ...
"Mumbai: Bhendi Bazaar redevelopment project chugs on sub-cluster II work starts". Mid Day. 1 September 2018. "Is India's ... biggest ever urban redevelopment too good to be true?". The Guardian. 21 November 2018. "Bhendi Bazaar redevelopment: Peace ...
The episode merges many storylines developed previously in the series: the true nature of Pink Diamond's death, revealed in "A ... Despite Steven's efforts, the Cluster is awakened, manifesting as a giant arm. However, it remains in control of itself and ... Working together, the Crystal Gems overwhelm Blue Diamond, while the Cluster disables both ships and retreats to rest. The ... and the Cluster, last seen in the season three episode "Gem Drill". It was viewed by 0.974 million people and received critical ...
Mathematical procedures are used to cluster individuals by similarity. Just as a map is a scaled approximation of true ... In theory, a true and complete tree for all living organisms or for any DNA sequence could be generated. Clade Linnaean ... geography, a phylogenetic tree is an approximation of the true complete evolutionary relationships. For example, in a full tree ...
These form round clusters or a tower-shaped masses. Only about 10% of these eggs hatch. The larvae then feed on the rest of the ... The true whelks occur worldwide in all seas from tropical oceans to the cold seas of the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean. ... True whelks can even attack fish caught in a net by extending their probosces to twice the length of their own bodies. The ... True whelks are carnivores and scavengers. They feed on clams, carrion, and sometimes even on detritus. Their sense of smell is ...
Like most Acacia species, it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. These are a grey-olive colour, and may be up to 12 ... The flowers are yellow, and held in cylindrical clusters. The pods are around 8 centimetres (3 in) long and have a lemon-green ...
Like most Acacia species, it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. These are green with a faint red margin, up to ten ... The flowers are yellow, and held in cylindrical clusters. The pods are four sided and thick, up to fifteen centimetres long. ...
Can clustered planar drawings be found in polynomial time? Can the graph isomorphism problem be solved in polynomial time? Can ... true? Do one-way functions exist? Is public-key cryptography possible? Log-rank conjecture Can integer factorization be done in ... RL problem Unique games conjecture Is the exponential time hypothesis true? Is the strong exponential time hypothesis (SETH) ...
It is a member of NGC 1316 subgroup, part of Fornax Cluster. Its size is 2.8' x 2.4' which with average distance gives diameter ... Distance of this galaxy is somewhere between 55 and 88 Mly, but true distance is unknown. Average distance between two ... NGC 1317 (also known as NGC 1318) is barred spiral galaxy in constellation Fornax, in Fornax cluster. It was discovered by ... estimates is around 70 million light-years, which means NGC 1317 is also in Fornax Cluster. Dunlop, Storm (2005). Atlas of the ...
A speaker of the southern languages can manage to understand the northern two, but the reverse is not true." F. Trager (1971 ... The consonant cluster analysis is similar to G. Trager's later reanalysis of Taos. (See: Taos phonology: Consonants). This is ...
... the false vacuum forms finite clusters (NTS's) surrounded by the percolated true vacuum. The trapped charge stabilizes clusters ... in a cluster of size L {\displaystyle L} . The number of particle in a cluster is Q ( r ) ≃ r V ξ η n Q {\displaystyle Q(r)\ ... Thus big clusters are born very rarely and if the minimum stable charge Q min {\displaystyle Q_{\min }} is present, then ... If the first order phase transition occurs, then nucleating bubbles of true vacuum grow and percolate, shrinking regions filled ...
... depending on the position of the cluster in a word. The Bengali writing system is, therefore, not always a true guide to ... graphical forms of consonant clusters, in which the constituent consonants of a cluster are readily apparent from the graphical ... Many consonant clusters have different sounds than their constituent consonants. For example, the combination of the consonants ... Native Bengali words do not allow initial consonant clusters; the maximum syllabic structure is CVC (i.e. one vowel flanked by ...
For example, in her senior year of high school she wrote a piece called, "Lulu's Wedding (A True Story)" in which she recalled ... Abram Kardiner was also affected by these ideas, and in time, the concept of "modal personality" was born: the cluster of ... Instead of romanticizing the event, she revealed the true, unromantic, arranged marriage that Lulu went through because the man ...
... and experience have unfolded to me that the best and true method of cure is founded on the principle, similia similibus ... "A cluster of lead poisoning among consumers of Ayurvedic medicine". International Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... "even if there were no true effect of placebo, one would expect to record differences between placebo and no-treatment groups ... a person not diagnosed with science-based medicine may never originally have had a true illness diagnosed as an alternative ...
... and lawrencium by the relativistic coupled-cluster method". Phys. Rev. A. 52 (1): 291-296. Bibcode:1995PhRvA..52..291E. doi: ... The same is true for actinium. NotesEdit. *^ Ytterbite was named after the village it was discovered near, plus the -ite ending ... "Formation of Yttrium Oxide Clusters Using Pulsed Laser Vaporization". Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 26 (2): 345-348. doi:10.5012/ ...
True leaves or euphylls of larger size and with more complex venation did not become widespread in other groups until the ... At the core of each bundle are clusters of two distinct types of conducting cells: Xylem. Cells that bring water and minerals ... Bracts and pseudanthia (false flowers) replace normal flower structures when the true flowers are greatly reduced (e.g. spurges ... True-lover's Knot). In leaves with reticulate venation, veins form a scaffolding matrix imparting mechanical rigidity to leaves ...
right/true' when measuring truth value, and, on the other hand, non-dichotomous data consisting of a spectrum of values, such ... Cluster analysis. *Classification. *Structural equation model *Factor analysis. *Multivariate distributions *Elliptical ... This is often justified on the basis that the ordinal type in behavioural science is in fact somewhere between the true ordinal ... Ideally, a scale of measurement should have a true zero-point and identical intervals. . . . Scales of hardness lack these ...
Though chloroplast DNA is not associated with true histones,[15] in red algae, a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by ... In primitive red algae, the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are clustered in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and ...
Such a constraint means that it is not possible for all A1,...,An to be true and at the same time all of B1,...,Bm to be false ... in a cluster of genes (lac(X)) - called an operon - that is expressed when the amounts (amt) of glucose are low and lactose are ...
Why are there not more clusters at indoor PCR test sites?[edit]. I just went to work for a week and would like to get tested, ... The same is true for the gamma variant. As such, it is in my opinion not too far a leap to say that people who previously were ... 4.1 Why are there not more clusters at indoor PCR test sites? ... this direction of electron flow is true, independent of any ...
3. Modularity of a graph clustering, the difference of the number of cross-cluster edges from its expected value.. monotone. A ... In some definitions the same property should also be true for all subgraphs of the given graph.. spectral. spectrum. The ... A branch-decomposition of G is a hierarchical clustering of the edges of G, represented by an unrooted binary tree with its ... A graph property is something that can be true of some graphs and false of others, and that depends only on the graph structure ...
The check-in area is located in the public area at Level 1 and houses 118 counters organised in eight clusters, called check-in ... "Ist es richtig, dass Ermittler den BER-Bossen auf die Pelle rücken?" [Is it true that investigators are destroying the ...
scipy.stats.mannwhitneyu(x, y, use_continuity=True): Computes the Mann-Whitney rank test on samples x and y.. ... Cluster analysis. *Classification. *Structural equation model *Factor analysis. *Multivariate distributions *Elliptical ...
All these may confound the statistical analysis and either decrease the sensitivity to true volumetric effects, or increase the ... Example of a VBM analysis on patients who experience cluster headaches.. Voxel-based morphometry is a computational approach to ...
The full syndrome now known as Lyme disease was not recognized until a cluster of cases originally thought to be juvenile ... but this is not believed to be true because no evidence of persistent infection can be found after standard treatment.[20] A ...
4 ions.[66] The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge4− and other cluster (Zintl) ions such as ... may not be true due to relativistic effects.[149] The relativistic stabilisation of the 8s orbital also increases ununennium's ... 3 cluster, composed of three regular octahedra where each octahedron is connected to both of the others by one face each. All ... 2 cluster, composed of two regular octahedra connected to each other by one face ...
Preston, Richard (2002). The demon in the freezer: a true story. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50856-2.. ... The spatial clustering for this disease is still in development as a lack of easy-available diagnosis, limited public health ... Incubation periods as long as Lassa fever may affect spatial clustering of the disease by limiting the understanding of the ... surveillance infrastructure, and high clustering of incidence near high intensity sampling make for an incomplete look at the ...
The name coral is somewhat misleading, as fire corals are not true corals but are more closely related to Hydra and other ... The hairs possess clusters of stinging cells and capture prey, which is then engulfed by gastrozooids, or feeding polyps, ...
Certain true ferns, e.g., Osmunda regalis have sporangia in tight clusters which may appear flower-like. ... The sporangia are typically clustered into a sorus (pl., sori). Associated with each sorus in many species is a membranous ...
Murphy, Jim (2003). An American Plague: The True and Terrifying Story of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793. New York: Clarion ... Cases of fever clustered at first around the Arch Street wharf. Rush blamed "some damaged coffee which putrefied on the wharf ... The Arch Street wharf, where the first cluster of cases was identified[1] ...
It is a true cultigen and does not exist in its wild state.[7][8] The most ancient evidence of its domestication is among the ... Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the ... but it is not related to true ginger. The plant contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[36] The United States Food ...
Mair, Victor H.; Hoh, Erling (2009). The True History of Tea. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-25146-1.. ... in tea plants are not necessarily the evidence of the dualism hypothesis from the researches using the statistical cluster ... Pests of tea include mosquito bugs of the genus Helopeltis (which are true bugs that must not be confused with the dipteran) ...
As true apex predators, healthy adult white-tailed eagles have no known natural predators.[3][192] ... of forests are state owned and clusters of 10 or more trees are preserved around each white-tailed eagle eyrie.[64] The Swedish ... recovery of this formerly endangered species is a true success story for nature conservation. The story also shows how local ...
Gambino, Richard (2000). Vendetta: The True Story of the Largest Lynching in U.S. History. Guernica Editions. ISBN 978-1-55071- ... Most are clustered along Canal Street and Poydras Street in the Central Business District. ... A true-color satellite image taken on NASA's Landsat 7, 2004 ...
... fruits clustered by genetic similarity, ternary diagram based on data from Curk, et al. (2016)[18] ... true-breeding species are of hybrid origin. ... True species. *Australian and Papuan wild limes. *Biasong/ ...
It was good for the nerves, the chest, the stomach - what can I say? - it was a true panacea."[36] It was this so-called " ... produced in clusters of 10-20; they are 4 mm across on 10 mm long stems, and being wind-pollinated, are apetalous. The fruit is ...
Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the true mammalian egg in a pet dog (von Baer, 1827). ... Many of the homeotic genes of Drosophila are clustered in two complexes called the bithorax complex (BX-C) (Lewis 1952, 1963, ... Only in the late 1950s when ultrasound was first used for uterine scanning, was the true developmental chronology of human ... The resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into ...
"Groups & Clusters of Galaxies". NASA/Chandra. Retrieved January 15, 2007.. *^ Ricker, P. "When Galaxy Clusters Collide". San ... Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A. (1999). "What is the True Fraction of Barred Spiral Galaxies?". Astrophysics and Space Science. ... Clusters of galaxies consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity.[136] Clusters of galaxies are ... extended structure of groups and clusters of galaxies centered on the Virgo Cluster.[144] And the Virgo Supercluster itself is ...
The Disappearing Spoon - and other true tales from the Periodic Table (Black Swan) London, 2010 ISBN 978-0-552-77750-6 ... Collected by Byzantine scientists from the tenth century, the corpus of the Greek alchemists is a cluster of incoherent ... Note: "...it is surely true that had Mendeleev never lived modern chemists would be using a Periodic Table" and "Dmitri ... An even surface examination of the Greek texts shows that a very small part only was organized according to true experiments of ...
... "winter cluster". The worker bees huddle around the queen bee at the center of the cluster, shivering to keep the center between ... Rice, wheat, and corn are all wind-pollinated, because this is true of all grasses. ... The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold. The outside edges of ... the cluster stay at about 8-9 °C (46-48 °F). The colder the weather is outside, the more compact the cluster becomes. During ...
The RNA world hypothesis, if true, has important implications for the definition of life. For most of the time that followed ...
Previous message: [Beowulf] The True Cost of HPC Cluster Ownership *Next message: [Beowulf] The True Cost of HPC Cluster ... Previous message: [Beowulf] The True Cost of HPC Cluster Ownership *Next message: [Beowulf] The True Cost of HPC Cluster ... Beowulf] The True Cost of HPC Cluster Ownership. Joe Landman landman at scalableinformatics.com Tue Aug 11 11:01:37 PDT 2009 * ... But there are far too many people that think a cluster is a pile-o-PCs + a cheap switch + a cluster distro. Its the how do I ...
True North Cashew Crunch Nut Cluster found at Hannaford Supermarket. Add to online shopping list or grocery cart for Hannaford ...
Newly discovered mature galaxy cluster, revised big bang theory?. Posted Thu, 10 Mar 2011 08:01:00 GMT by Tamara Croes ...
True. *False. *Use the following choices for Questions 7a-c. *Cluster. *Epidemic ...
Covid-19: Two new clusters detected, says Health DG * * 2. * Nation 1h ago Covid-19: Contact tracing involving over 100 people ... Designing headbands to make wishes come true @media only screen and (max-width: 960px){ #sideNote { position: initial ! ...
Chapter 12 Clustering Technologies * Network Load-Balancing Clusters * True Server Clusters * Conclusion ... This highly instructive book also provides an introduction to clustering services, and thoroughly documents steps that should ...
TRUE. Instructs ndbd or ndbmtd to execute as a daemon process. This is the default behavior. --nodaemon. can be used to prevent ... MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual / ... / MySQL NDB Cluster 7.3 and NDB Cluster 7.4 / NDB Cluster Programs / ndbd - The NDB Cluster ... For example, to start the cluster with only half of the data nodes (nodes 2, 3, 4, and 5) running in a 4-node cluster, you can ... For options common to most NDB Cluster programs (including ndbd), see Section 18.4.29, "Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs ...
... clustering data, and silhouette criterion values used to evaluate the optimal number of data clusters. ... Cluster the data in x. using the gmdistribution. Gaussian mixture distribution algorithm, with SharedCov. set to true. and ... Clustering algorithm. kmeans. , linkage. , gmdistribution. , matrix of clustering solutions , function handle. Clustering ... Clustering algorithm used to cluster the input data, stored as a valid clustering algorithm name or function handle. If the ...
Strange But True - Irresistible Headlines & VideoStrange NewsMore,,. * *. West Toledo homeowner shoots would-be burglar. West ... Group files Cancer Cluster lawsuit against Whirlpool - Toledo News Now, News, Weather, Sports, Toledo, OH. Member Center:* ... Cancer Cluster: Clyde finally seeing some action on cancer triggers. *Editorial Response: Viewers respond to Clyde cancer ... The Cancer Cluster families are anxiously awaiting those results, interfacing with the EPA, and processing the results of their ...
Strange But True - Irresistible Headlines & VideoStrange NewsMore,,. * *. Ridgeland homeowner ordered to take down Christmas ... Filmmaker completes cancer cluster documentary. Filmmaker completes cancer cluster documentary. Filmmaker Adam Garcia has ... Cancer Cluster: Additional families to meet with Ohio Department of Health. Cancer Cluster: Additional families to meet with ... Map released of expanded cancer cluster. Families in the expanded cancer cluster region received a detailed map Monday at their ...
Partition large arrays across the combined memory of your cluster using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.. This function fully ... true. ) if all the elements are nonzero and returns logical 0. (. false. ) if one or more elements are zero. ... true. ). In practice, all. is a natural extension of the logical AND operator. ...
Baby deaths cluster at Adelaide hospital prompts investigation after four die in past month. Posted. 33mminutes agoWed ... Curatorial advisor and music industry stalwart Leanne de Souza said the project shows Brisbanes true love for music. ... High Rotation exhibition turns up the volume on Brisbanes true love of music. ABC Radio Brisbane ...
true. ! Cluster-specified seed toggle. The random_substitution.inp file above tells random_substitution.x to replace 0.02 (i.e ... clustering.x will then look at all supercells and generate the clustering_energy.dat file. Plot the results found in clustering ... Much of the analysis we typically carry out is to plot the clustering factor and the variance. Clustering factor is discussed ... Clustering Information. After your array job runs, then analysis begins. Much of these commands only work if you are in bash ...
Paper Ghosts Podcast Investigates A Mysterious Cluster Of Rural Connecticut Abductions In Paper Ghosts, true crime author M ... The Best True Crime Podcasts To Cozy Up With This Holiday Season These jaw-dropping true crime podcasts are sure to spark ... The Best True Crime Podcasts To Listen To While Youre Stuck Indoors Coronavirus has more people than ever staying home, so ... New True Crime Podcast The Lost Kids Exposes The Twisted Troubled Teen Industry The new podcast investigates missing teen ...
... true\) + .statusIsSuccess().tableHasColumnOnlyWithValues(Member, server-1, server-2); + + // verify cluster config is ... cluster.startLocatorVM(0); + server1 = cluster.startServerVM(1, group1, locator.getPort()); + server2 = cluster.startServerVM ... true, + help = JDBC_DRIVER_CLASS__HELP) String jdbcDriver, + @CliOption(key = JNDI_NAME, mandatory = true, help = JNDI_NAME__ ... true,1 org/apache/geode/management/internal/cli/functions/CreateIndexFunction,true,1 +org/apache/geode/management/internal/cli/ ...
The true class is one of the two, no matter that we might not be able to guess correctly from the observation of a particular ... The members of one cluster should be similar to one another and dissimilar to the members of other clusters. A clustering ... Clustering: is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more ... The task of clustering is to find structure (e.g. groups) in your data that you did not know before. Clustering has been ...
heatmap.2 computes the distance matrix and runs clustering algorithm before scaling, whereas heatplot (when dualScale=TRUE. ) ... symbreak=TRUE. is recommended when scaling is applied. It will adjust the colour scale, so it breaks around 0. In the current ... dualScale=TRUE. argument in the heatplot function, applies only row-based centering and scaling (description). Then, it ... differences in heatmap/clustering defaults in R (heatplot versus heatmap.2)?. Ask Question ...
is the number of true positives, T. N. {\displaystyle TN}. is the number of true negatives, F. P. {\displaystyle FP}. is the ... Hard clustering: each object belongs to a cluster or not. *Soft clustering (also: fuzzy clustering): each object belongs to ... Cluster tendency[edit]. To measure cluster tendency is to measure to what degree clusters exist in the data to be clustered, ... Centroid-based clustering[edit]. Main article: k-means clustering. In centroid-based clustering, clusters are represented by a ...
geeairmoe2: On the now cable stations it became cluster flop. geeairmoe2: non-cable stations. AGplusone: Ah-ha, a true ... ddavitt: True Will SCIFIMUSIC: good point geeairmoe joelrmpls: True. Neat discussion of that in some of the fencing stuff in ... joelrmpls: True. And its taken quite a few years for us to get to that now. von krag: back ddavitt: At start of book he is ... ddavitt: true. von krag: good point ddavitt: OK, but going back to marie, was she a real catalyst? rjjusu: I agree Joel, many ...
Communicable Diseases Cluster; Malawi. National Tuberculosis Control Programme; International Union against Tuberculosis and ... True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi / M. K. Kruyt ... [‎et al.]‎. ... 1999)‎. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi / M. K. Kruyt ... [‎et al.]‎. Bulletin of the ...
PUT _cluster/settings { "persistent": { "search.remote.remotenode1.skip_unavailable": true}} When finished, GET _cluster/ ... GET _cluster/settings The output pane on the right will then display _cluster/settings. which will list the master server and ... Updating _cluster/settings. Once all nodes have been updated using the steps above, log into Kibana on the master server. If ... cluster/settings. for SecurityOnion. . Our new standard is to lowercase these settings so youll now have a new entry for ...
Luke, so true! The neuroscience cluster is growing in Seattle. Ive had the opportunity to come across some of these projects ... Never in my time covering the local scene has it occurred to me think of Seattle a cluster of neuroscience R&D. ...
... provides fault-tolerant clustering technology and redundant architecture to eliminate single points of failure and protect ... The following steps detail adding a node to a cluster:. *. Unless auto.allow.hosts. is set to true. , use the efm allow-node. ... Adding Nodes to a Cluster¶. You can add a node to a Failover Manager cluster at any time. When you add a node to a cluster, you ... CLUSTER. variable within each unit file, changing the specified cluster name from efm. to the new cluster name. For example, ...
Oracle Solaris Cluster Geographic Edition Data Replication Guide for Sun StorageTek Availability SuitePart Number: 821- ... clresource create -g apprg1 -t SUNWHAStoragePlus \ -p FilesystemMountPoints=/global/sample -p Affinityon=TRUE rs-hasp ... cluster-paris. cluster and the cluster-newyork. cluster.. Note - Replication of each device group requires a logical host on ... cluster-paris. cluster and the cluster-newyork. cluster. The avspg. protection group protects the application data by ...
true. / false. Enable ACLs? Defaults to false. yarn.admin.acl. Admin ACL ACL to set admins on the cluster. ACLs are of for ... Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing it via a ... This document describes how to install and configure Hadoop clusters ranging from a few nodes to extremely large clusters with ... To start a Hadoop cluster you will need to start both the HDFS and YARN cluster. ...
true. / false. Enable ACLs? Defaults to false.. yarn.admin.acl. Admin ACL. ACL to set admins on the cluster. ACLs are of for ... Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing RPMs. ... To start a Hadoop cluster you will need to start both the HDFS and YARN cluster. ... To start a Hadoop cluster you will need to start both the HDFS and YARN cluster. ...
TRUE. Instructs ndbd or ndbmtd to execute as a daemon process. This is the default behavior. --nodaemon. can be used to prevent ... For example, to start the cluster with only half of the data nodes (nodes 2, 3, 4, and 5) running in a 4-node cluster, you can ... NDB Cluster Disk Data files (see Section 21.5.10, "NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables"). ... Home MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6 ...
In order to solve these problems, an algorithm fused by regional clustering and two-stage SVM classifier is proposed in this ... In the first stage, a fast motion regional clustering algorithm is used to detect moving image patches as the truck candidate ... experimental results in container terminal show that the fusion algorithm with regional clustering and two-stage SVM has higher ... TRUE. FALSE. Accuracy. APT. (ms). TRUE. FALSE. Accuracy. APT. (ms). Test Set 1. day. 50. 50. 0. 100%. 185.4. 50. 0. 100%. 423.6 ...
clustering. When true. , clustering component is enabled.. clustering.engine. Declares which clustering engine to use. If not ... conf/clustering/carrot2/. carrot.outputSubClusters. If true. and the algorithm supports hierarchical clustering, sub-clusters ... bool name=clustering,true,/bool, ,bool name=clustering.results,true,/bool, ,!-- Logical field to physical field mapping ... clustering.collection. When true. , the component will perform clustering of the whole document index (this section does not ...
If SQL Prompt alerts you to a table without a clustered index, investigate the reason for its absence carefully. It is rare ... Clustered indexes are used to organize the table, while non-clustering indexes are used to support queries. Clustered index ... A clustered index has a special importance in SQL Server. A table without a clustered index is technically not a table but a ... A clustered index is usually chosen to embody a Primary key. By specifying a clustered index for a key, you determine the way ...
  • Clustering algorithm, specified as one of the following. (mathworks.com)
  • you can specify a clustering algorithm using a function handle . (mathworks.com)
  • Cluster analysis itself is not one specific algorithm , but the general task to be solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appropriate clustering algorithm and parameter settings (including parameters such as the distance function to use, a density threshold or the number of expected clusters) depend on the individual data set and intended use of the results. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, the k-means algorithm represents each cluster by a single mean vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters are modeled using statistical distributions, such as multivariate normal distributions used by the expectation-maximization algorithm . (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxations of the complete connectivity requirement (a fraction of the edges can be missing) are known as quasi-cliques, as in the HCS clustering algorithm . (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to solve these problems, an algorithm fused by regional clustering and two-stage SVM classifier is proposed in this paper. (aimsciences.org)
  • In the first stage, a fast motion regional clustering algorithm is used to detect moving image patches as the truck candidate sub-windows. (aimsciences.org)
  • Compared with existing traditional algorithm, experimental results in container terminal show that the fusion algorithm with regional clustering and two-stage SVM has higher efficiency and better truck recognition performance. (aimsciences.org)
  • By default in Solr, the clustering algorithm is applied to the search result of each single query -- this is called an on-line clustering. (apache.org)
  • A clustering algorithm is the actual logic (implementation) that discovers relationships among the documents in the search result and forms human-readable cluster labels. (apache.org)
  • Depending on the choice of the algorithm the clusters may (and probably will) vary. (apache.org)
  • The score is algorithm-specific and is meaningful only in relation to the scores of other clusters in the same set. (apache.org)
  • Within the learning framework of maximum weighted likelihood (MWL) proposed by Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this paper will develop a batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization (RPEM) algorithm for density mixture clustering provided that all observations are available before the learning process. (hindawi.com)
  • In the literature, one promising way is to develop a clustering algorithm that is able to perform a correct clustering without preassigning the exact number of clusters. (hindawi.com)
  • More recently, Cheung [ 13 , 14 ] has proposed a general learning framework, namely, Maximum Weighted Likelihood (MWL), through which an adaptive Rival Penalized EM (RPEM) algorithm has been proposed for density mixture clustering. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there have been proposed an extensive number of techniques for clustering space-related data, many of the traditional clustering algorithm specified by them suffer from a number of drawbacks. (wikibooks.org)
  • The next session will introduce this new approach, DBSCAN, which stands for density-based algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases with noise. (wikibooks.org)
  • Furthermore, as will be explained in the following sections, the DBSCAN algorithm requires at most two parameters: a density metric and the minimum size of a cluster. (wikibooks.org)
  • Initially, each object is assigned to its own cluster and then the algorithm proceeds iteratively, at each stage joining the two most similar clusters, continuing until there is just a single cluster. (ethz.ch)
  • This way the hierarchical cluster algorithm can be 'started in the middle of the dendrogram', e.g., in order to reconstruct the part of the tree above a cut (see examples). (ethz.ch)
  • But as with clustering in general, what a particular methodology identifies as "clusters" is defined (explicitly, or, more often, implicitly) by the clustering algorithm itself. (pnas.org)
  • So far, some of the state-of-the-art works related to clustering for pdfs can be mentioned as follows: Chen and Hung proposed a simple but effective automatic clustering algorithm for pdfs based on ad hoc technique [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DBSCAN is, arguably, the most popular density-based clustering algorithm. (springer.com)
  • In this paper we present a new density-based clustering algorithm which uses reverse nearest neighbour (RNN) and has a single parameter. (springer.com)
  • The RNN queries enable our algorithm to estimate densities taking more than a single entity into account, and to recover clusters that are not well-separated or have different densities. (springer.com)
  • We also present a novel clustering algorithm for defining cognate groups, which utilizes the classification decisions generated by the SVM classifier. (scribd.com)
  • This algorithm performs well in the hard-clustering problem for pure cell types and excels at identifying transitional cells with soft memberships. (pnas.org)
  • Called semisoft clustering with pure cells (SOUP), this algorithm reveals the clustering structure for both pure cells and transitional cells with soft memberships. (pnas.org)
  • It can be achieved by various algorithms that differ significantly in their understanding of what constitutes a cluster and how to efficiently find them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion of a "cluster" cannot be precisely defined, which is one of the reasons why there are so many clustering algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, different researchers employ different cluster models, and for each of these cluster models again different algorithms can be given. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion of a cluster, as found by different algorithms, varies significantly in its properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding these "cluster models" is key to understanding the differences between the various algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class identification task assisted by spatial clustering algorithms has a wide range of applications as finding relevant information on increasingly large spatial databases have recently become a highly demanded task. (wikibooks.org)
  • Many databases have clusters with a broad variety of shapes (Figure 1), hence the traditional k-partitioning algorithms will fail to produce satisfactory results. (wikibooks.org)
  • Two different algorithms are found in the literature for Ward clustering. (ethz.ch)
  • The primary difference of these algorithms is the way to approach center of cluster. (hindawi.com)
  • We extend the capabilities of MixSim , a framework which is useful for evaluating the performance of clustering algorithms, on the basis of measures of agreement between data partitioning and flexible generation methods for data, outliers and noise. (springer.com)
  • With MixSim , FSDA now integrates in the same environment state of the art robust clustering algorithms and principled routines for their evaluation and calibration. (springer.com)
  • By modeling cells as a continuous mixture of K discrete types we obtain more parsimonious results than obtained with standard clustering algorithms. (pnas.org)
  • The correspondences between data nodes and Cluster hosts is completely configurable. (mysql.com)
  • a clique , that is, a subset of nodes in a graph such that every two nodes in the subset are connected by an edge can be considered as a prototypical form of cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can add or remove nodes from the cluster as your demand for resources grows or shrinks. (enterprisedb.com)
  • You can start the nodes of a Failover Manager cluster in any order. (enterprisedb.com)
  • If a new master or standby node joins a cluster, all of the existing nodes will also confirm that they can connect to the database on the new node. (enterprisedb.com)
  • on all nodes of the primary and secondary clusters of the protection group. (oracle.com)
  • This document describes how to install and configure Hadoop clusters ranging from a few nodes to extremely large clusters with thousands of nodes. (apache.org)
  • In the future, metrics will be added for shard leaders and cluster nodes, including aggregations from per-core metrics. (apache.org)
  • See Section 21.3.3.6, "Defining NDB Cluster Data Nodes" , for more information. (mysql.com)
  • The total maximum number of nodes in an NDB Cluster is 255. (mysql.com)
  • This number includes all SQL nodes (MySQL Servers), API nodes (applications accessing the cluster other than MySQL servers), data nodes, and management servers. (mysql.com)
  • I have an openssi cluster with 3 nodes (for the begining). (sourceforge.net)
  • Parallel ESSL supports SPMD parallel processing applications on clusters of processor nodes connected by a high speed switch using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library provided in Parallel Environment. (ibm.com)
  • the security identity authenticated by one web application is recognized by other web applications on the same virtual host, and it is propagated to other nodes in the cluster. (apache.org)
  • This is the timeout for messages that transfer state to/from the other nodes in the cluster. (apache.org)
  • A case-control study to identify community venues associated with genetically clustered multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease in Lima, Peru. (cdc.gov)
  • We performed a cross-border molecular epidemiology anal- of the 17 isolates of the cross-border MDR TB cluster C8- ysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Peru, Spain, and LPMDR (7 from Florence, 2 from Milan, 2 from Lima, Italy. (cdc.gov)
  • At each step in a hierarchical clustering, either two subclusters are merged (agglomerative clustering) or one subcluster is divided into two subclusters (divisive clustering). (scirp.org)
  • A dissimilarity measure defines which two subclusters will be merged at each step in agglomerative clustering, and might be based on a probability density function or a proper distance function. (scirp.org)
  • for example, DBSCAN and OPTICS defines clusters as connected dense regions in the data space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motivated by the dynamics of development, in which cells of recognizable types, or pure cell types, transition into other types over time, we propose a method of semisoft clustering that can classify both pure and intermediate cell types from data on gene expression from individual cells. (pnas.org)
  • Popular notions of clusters include groups with small distances between cluster members, dense areas of the data space, intervals or particular statistical distributions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical clusters and droughts are commonplace. (latimes.com)
  • Clustering or cluster analysis is a well-known unsupervised statistical learning tech- nique, which describes the formation of groups in a data set based on the relation between the observations. (scirp.org)
  • A lawsuit was filed Wednesday by the Fremont law firm Albrechta and Coble in Sandusky County regarding the Clyde Cancer Cluster. (wtol.com)
  • A federal judge on Monday dismissed several counts of a lawsuit alleging Whirlpool Corporation improperly handled and disposed of chemicals, causing the Clyde Cancer Cluster. (wtol.com)
  • This document demonstrates, on several famous data sets, how the dendextend R package can be used to enhance Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (through better visualization and sensitivity analysis). (r-project.org)
  • Hierarchical cluster analysis on a set of dissimilarities and methods for analyzing it. (ethz.ch)
  • This function performs a hierarchical cluster analysis using a set of dissimilarities for the n objects being clustered. (ethz.ch)
  • Hybrid clustering combines partitional and hierarchical clustering for computational effectiveness and versatility in cluster shape. (scirp.org)
  • On the other hand, the hier- archical clustering technique does not impose restrictions on the cluster shape, but it has extensive computational complexity. (scirp.org)
  • Hybrid clustering takes advantage of the versatility of hierarchical clustering, but avoids the computational costs, and can be described as follows: Initially, a partitional clustering defines K subclusters. (scirp.org)
  • To plot this data , copy and edit the files from cluster_analysis_tools directory to your directory from its current location which is /auto/data2/lewis_group/fireball2009/util/cluster_analysis_tools on moutaineer.hpc.wvu.edu). (google.com)
  • The result of a cluster analysis shown as the coloring of the squares into three clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster ) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster analysis as such is not an automatic task, but an iterative process of knowledge discovery or interactive multi-objective optimization that involves trial and failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the term clustering , there are a number of terms with similar meanings, including automatic classification , numerical taxonomy , botryology (from Greek βότρυς "grape"), typological analysis , and community detection . (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering (or cluster analysis ) plugin attempts to automatically discover groups of related search hits (documents) and assign human-readable labels to these groups. (apache.org)
  • In particular, clustering analysis provides a useful tool to solve the several computer vision problems, for example, multithresholding of gray level images, analysis of the Hough space, and range image segmentation, formulated in the feature space paradigm [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In general, one kind of clustering analysis can be formulated as a density mixture modeling, in which each mixture component represents the density distribution of a data cluster. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequently, the task of clustering analysis is to identify the dense regions of the input (also called observation interchangeably) densities in a mixture. (hindawi.com)
  • Some working examples of RPy doing some simple clustering/data analysis with a file being read and the munched,some thing simple which gives me a way to think. (sourceforge.net)
  • Cluster analysis is divided into two kinds: hard (crisp) clustering and soft (fuzzy) clustering [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Rousseeuw, P.J.: Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. (springer.com)
  • The percentage of clustered cases in our analysis was higher than average values obtained elsewhere, even for susceptible isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • git commit: AMBARI-7241 Configs: actions should not appear for non-operator cluster users. (mail-archive.com)
  • Repository: ambari Updated Branches: refs/heads/trunk c91fab72a - 2b78d36ea AMBARI-7241 Configs: actions should not appear for non-operator cluster users. (mail-archive.com)
  • An object of class hclust which describes the tree produced by the clustering process. (ethz.ch)
  • Here, we propose six data-independent properties to evaluate density-based dissimilarity measures associated with hybrid clustering, regarding equality, orthogonality, symmetry, outlier and noise observations, and light-tailed models for heavy-tailed clusters. (scirp.org)
  • Spatial clustering techniques are a subset of clustering techniques applied on databases whose records have attributes intrinsically related to some spatial semantics. (wikibooks.org)
  • The following sections describe how to configure a Hadoop cluster. (apache.org)
  • This article will describe one such option - xCAT: The Extreme Cluster Administration Toolkit. (linux-mag.com)
  • In Section 4, we describe our method of clustering cognates. (scribd.com)
  • 7. The computer implemented method of claim 6 , wherein each of said attributes is used to describe multiple clusters. (google.com.br)
  • heatmap.2, as default uses euclidean measure to obtain distance matrix and complete agglomeration method for clustering, while heatplot uses correlation , and average agglomeration method, respectively. (stackoverflow.com)
  • This guide shows a tried and tested method of installing and testing an Intel® True Scale Fabric. (intel.com)
  • The rows are ordered based on the order of the hierarchical clustering (using the "complete" method). (r-project.org)
  • At each stage distances between clusters are recomputed by the Lance-Williams dissimilarity update formula according to the particular clustering method being used. (ethz.ch)
  • Ward's minimum variance method aims at finding compact, spherical clusters. (ethz.ch)
  • The complete linkage method finds similar clusters. (ethz.ch)
  • The single linkage method (which is closely related to the minimal spanning tree) adopts a 'friends of friends' clustering strategy. (ethz.ch)
  • Choose three) A. Clustering is a data mining method. (issuu.com)
  • A method and system for finding a conjunctive cluster is disclosed. (google.com.br)
  • 4. The computer implemented method of claim 3 , wherein said third group represents a biclique or conjunctive cluster. (google.com.br)
  • 5. The computer implemented method of claim 4 , wherein said conjunctive cluster represents overlapping clusters. (google.com.br)
  • 6. The computer implemented method of claim 5 , wherein each of said points belongs to multiple clusters. (google.com.br)
  • 8. The computer implemented method of claim 7 , wherein a point is not clustered if it does not fall into a specified number of largest clusters in a set of clusters. (google.com.br)
  • Moreover, using soft membership estimates of cell type cluster centers leads to better estimates of developmental trajectories. (pnas.org)
  • Each cluster included cases distributed among various health centers. (cdc.gov)
  • differences in heatmap/clustering defaults in R (heatplot versus heatmap.2)? (stackoverflow.com)
  • Left typical cluster pairs for different overlap parameter values \(\lambda \) , simulated in the regression framework proposed by Riani et al. (springer.com)
  • We also show that it is possible to estimate a good value for this parameter using a clustering validity index. (springer.com)
  • n is the number of observations in the sample data, and K is the number of proposed clustering solutions. (mathworks.com)
  • The common understanding of a cluster is that the observa- tions within the cluster are more closely related to each other than to the observations in another cluster. (scirp.org)
  • The definition of closely related observations depends both on the problem at hand and the user's understanding of the cluster concept, and hence there exists a wide range of clustering techniques. (scirp.org)
  • gives the number of observations per cluster. (ethz.ch)
  • Since, for n observations there are n-1 merges, there are 2^{(n-1)} possible orderings for the leaves in a cluster tree, or dendrogram. (ethz.ch)
  • Single observations are the tightest clusters possible, and merges involving two observations place them in order by their observation sequence number. (ethz.ch)
  • Clustering is concerned with coherently grouping observations without any explicit concept of true groupings. (pnas.org)
  • Clustering here is defined as the root-mean-square distances of the substit utional sites (as compared to the perfect 1st nearest neighbor distance). (google.com)
  • Is it therefore conceivable that a massive star cluster could exist very near its own Schwarzschild radius, even though the stars themselves were still spaced at astronomical distances? (physicsforums.com)
  • The Palomar cluster redshifts reach out as far as 1.1 - implying distances of 5 to 8 billion light-years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this case the dissimilarities between the clusters are the squared Euclidean distances between cluster means. (ethz.ch)
  • Represents a True or False value on the diagram. (ni.com)
  • Represents a group, or cluster, of mixed-type data elements on the diagram. (ni.com)
  • Column j contains the cluster indices for each of the N points in the j th clustering solution. (mathworks.com)
  • Filmmaker Adam Garcia has finished his documentary on the eastern Sandusky County childhood cancer cluster. (wtol.com)
  • CSM is supported for existing clusters, but Extreme Cloud Administration Toolkit (xCAT) is now the recommended solution for administration of new cluster deployments. (ibm.com)
  • is an object consisting of sample data, clustering data, and silhouette criterion values used to evaluate the optimal number of data clusters. (mathworks.com)
  • creates a silhouette criterion clustering evaluation object using additional options specified by one or more name-value pair arguments. (mathworks.com)
  • Our sample included only 20% of the total MDR isolates in Lima, and the recruitment period we used was shorter than that recommended ( 5 ) to efficiently capture transmission clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • The cluster valves are interceptors in the invocation chain for HTTP requests, and the clustering implementation uses these valves to make intelligent decision around data and when data should be replicated. (apache.org)
  • While I see no reason why this should be impossible in theory, the required star density or the size of this cluster would have to be extremely large. (physicsforums.com)
  • So all one has to do is to find the average density of some kind of star cluster and plug it in. (physicsforums.com)
  • Nevertheless, it needs to preassign an appropriate number of density components, that is, the number of clusters. (hindawi.com)
  • The restrictions mentioned above can be overcome by using a new approach, which is based on density for deciding which clusters each element will be in. (wikibooks.org)
  • The idea behind constructing clusters based on the density properties of the database is derived from a human natural clustering approach. (wikibooks.org)
  • The clusters and consequently the classes are easily and readily identifiable because they have an increased density with respect to the points they possess. (wikibooks.org)
  • This leads to considering the probability density functions (pdfs) as other object in clustering besides the discrete element [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Density-based clustering is the task of discovering high-density regions of entities (clusters) that are separated from each other by contiguous regions of low-density. (springer.com)
  • Roughly, the mixture may overfit the data if too many components are utilized, whereas a mixture with too few components may not be flexible enough to approximate the true underlying model. (hindawi.com)
  • Spectral graph clustering-clustering the vertices of a graph based on their spectral embedding-is commonly approached via K -means (or, more generally, Gaussian mixture model) clustering composed with either Laplacian spectral embedding (LSE) or adjacency spectral embedding (ASE). (pnas.org)
  • The identifier part is mandatory, everything else is optional but at least one of the text fields (title or content) will be required to make the clustering process reasonable. (apache.org)
  • The content (text) for clustering can be sourced from either a stored text field or context-filtered using a highlighter, all these options are explained below in the configuration section. (apache.org)
  • One of the more interesting pieces of data is to plot the clustering information as a function of the total energy. (google.com)
  • In this type of plot , we can determine the energetics as it correlates to the clustering of the substit utional sites. (google.com)
  • The change replicates the same projects and design than for the clustering of Jetty Web-applications over WADI. (apache.org)
  • Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing it via a packaging system as appropriate for your operating system. (apache.org)
  • The rest of the machines in the cluster act as both DataNode and NodeManager. (apache.org)
  • Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing RPMs. (apache.org)
  • ssh and rsh both work from-to all the machines in the cluster. (beowulf.org)
  • By this, we mean that individual rows of the columns selected should take as little storage space as possible because the clustered index is also used in non-clustered index lookups. (red-gate.com)
  • It helps a lot if the clustered index is ever-increasing, so that the rows are arranged in ascending sort-order of the clustered index. (red-gate.com)
  • If new rows always have a higher value in the clustered index key then no insertions of rows into the sequence are required, only additions at the end. (red-gate.com)
  • A rolling restart of the cluster also frees any memory used by deleted rows. (mysql.com)
  • Then, a theoretical overlapping index is defined as the probability of intersection between the cluster of outliers and a strip around the regression plane where the cluster of "good" data resides. (springer.com)
  • Note - Replication of each device group requires a logical host on the local cluster and a logical host on the partner cluster. (oracle.com)
  • For more information, see Configuring Logical Hostnames in Oracle Solaris Cluster Geographic Edition System Administration Guide about configuring logical hostnames. (oracle.com)
  • A primary key is a logical construct and a clustered index is a special way of physically storing data. (red-gate.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering has been well recognized for decades in both children and adults, but it was not until 1988 when Gerald Reaven described a specific clustering of cardiometabolic risks as "syndrome X" that the concept that evolved into "the metabolic syndrome" (MetS) was born. (aappublications.org)
  • But you could e.g. take 1000 Twitter messages, try to clustering and then examine what (and if) relation the clusters expose. (stackoverflow.com)
  • On the other hand, the single points scattered around the database are outliers, which means they do not belong to any clusters as a result of being in an area with relatively low concentration. (wikibooks.org)
  • The other methods can be regarded as aiming for clusters with characteristics somewhere between the single and complete link methods. (ethz.ch)
  • Cluster Systems Management (CSM) - Designed to minimise the cost and complexity of administering IBM Cluster Systems built on IBM System x and IBM Power Systems by enabling comprehensive management and monitoring of the entire environment from a single point of control. (ibm.com)
  • Using multiple flower clusters atop single, branched stems, fillers augment arrangements through texture, color and depth. (ehow.com)
  • supports feature of single sign on in cluster. (apache.org)
  • Attacks often occur in clusters which typically last for weeks or months and occasionally more than a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • These headaches are called cluster headaches because they often occur in bouts of frequent attacks (cluster periods) that can last from weeks to months, usually followed by remission periods that can last for months and sometimes years. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Though CH is strictly unilateral, there are some documented cases of "side-shift" between cluster periods, or, rarely, simultaneous (within the same cluster period) bilateral cluster headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, chemosensory clusters may be found in the distal portion of the airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Author: gdamour Date: Tue Dec 11 00:33:18 2007 New Revision: 603174 URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=603174&view=rev Log: Add support for the clustering of Tomcat Web-applications over WADI. (apache.org)
  • In such clustering, a dissimilarity measure plays a crucial role in the hierarchical merging. (scirp.org)
  • The dissimilarity measure has great impact on the final clustering, and data-independent properties are needed to choose the right dissimilarity measure for the problem at hand. (scirp.org)
  • Figure 1 shows one way of categorising clustering techniques, which will be helpful for the understanding of hybrid clustering and dissimilarity measures. (scirp.org)
  • Compute the overall silhouette value for the clustering solution by averaging the silhouette values for all points. (mathworks.com)
  • Compute the overall silhouette value for the clustering solution by averaging the silhouette values for all points within each cluster, and then averaging those values across all clusters. (mathworks.com)
  • With Microsoft HPC Pack you can deploy an on-premises Windows compute cluster and dynamically extend to Azure when you need additional capacity. (microsoft.com)
  • This highly instructive book also provides an introduction to clustering services, and thoroughly documents steps that should be taken to ensure the security of the server and its resources. (oreilly.com)
  • The following table includes command options specific to the NDB Cluster data node program ndbd . (mysql.com)
  • the rebooted Master node will return to the cluster as a second Master node. (enterprisedb.com)
  • You can add a node to a Failover Manager cluster at any time. (enterprisedb.com)
  • When you add a node to a cluster, you must modify the cluster to allow the new node, and then tell the new node how to find the cluster. (enterprisedb.com)
  • Install a Failover Manager agent and configure the cluster properties file on the new node. (enterprisedb.com)
  • Configure the cluster members file on the new node, adding an entry for the Membership Coordinator. (enterprisedb.com)
  • When the new node joins the cluster, Failover Manager will send a notification to the administrator email provided in the user.email property, and/or will invoke the specified notification script. (enterprisedb.com)
  • How to fix: Follow the following procedure: - do a rolling restart of your cluster (draining every node before restart). (apache.org)
  • wrote: Hi, I have restarted a node in my cluster, and after that hell breaks loose. (apache.org)
  • See the complete list of configuration parameters in Section 21.3.3, "NDB Cluster Configuration Files" . (mysql.com)
  • take a look at tune-main-cluster-mpi and change cluster queues and qsub parameters to better suit your needs. (ac.be)
  • However, its cluster recovery capabilities depend on the combination of the two parameters. (springer.com)
  • ndbd is the process that is used to handle all the data in tables using the NDB Cluster storage engine. (mysql.com)
  • If you set this attribute to false, and the underlying replications fails to start, the Valve will start and it will attempt to join the cluster and start replication as part of the heartbeat process. (apache.org)
  • included 36 (60%) of 60 isolates in 9 clusters (Appendix 2, https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/EID/article/25/3/18-0574-App2. (cdc.gov)
  • Heaps, which are tables without clustered indexes, are treated in SQL Server as the naughty sister of tables and they have, in the past, generally lived up to their reputation. (red-gate.com)
  • For a well-used OLTP database system that is seeing lots of changes, and many fast, simple queries, then clustered indexes become the obvious choice. (red-gate.com)
  • Clustered indexes are used to organize the table, while non-clustering indexes are used to support queries. (red-gate.com)
  • We provide a clear and concise demonstration of a "two-truths" phenomenon for spectral graph clustering in which the first step-spectral embedding-is either Laplacian spectral embedding, wherein one decomposes the normalized Laplacian of the adjacency matrix, or adjacency spectral embedding given by a decomposition of the adjacency matrix itself. (pnas.org)
  • Recent theoretical results provide deeper understanding of the problem and solutions and lead us to a "two-truths" LSE vs. ASE spectral graph clustering phenomenon convincingly illustrated here via a diffusion MRI connectome dataset: The different embedding methods yield different clustering results, with LSE capturing left hemisphere/right hemisphere affinity structure and ASE capturing gray matter/white matter core-periphery structure. (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this paper is to cogently present a "two-truths" phenomenon in spectral graph clustering, to understand this phenomenon from a theoretical and methodological perspective, and to demonstrate the phenomenon in a real-data case consisting of multiple graphs each with multiple categorical vertex class labels. (pnas.org)
  • Parallel Environment is designed to help engineers develop, test, debug, tune and run high-performance parallel applications in C, C++ and Fortran on IBM Power Systems and IBM System x clusters running on AIX or Linux operating systems. (ibm.com)
  • General Parallel File System (GPFS) - GPFS™ is a high-performance cluster file management infrastructure for AIX, Linux, Windows® and mixed clusters that provides world-class performance, scalability and availability for your file data. (ibm.com)
  • Juxtaposing all 20 interpolated surfaces, we point-wisely screened for the highest cluster frequencies and stored it in parallel with the respective cluster label. (blogspot.com)
  • The accompanying photographic drawing shows typical flower and foliage characteristics of 'EURZ0002' with colors being as true as possible with an illustration of this type. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chemosensory clusters are aggregates formed by a small number of chemosensory cells with characteristics similar to those found in the taste cells of the oropharyngeal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elements forming the chemosensory clusters share common morphological and biochemical characteristics with the taste cells located in taste buds of the oropharyngeal cavity. (wikipedia.org)