Liver Abscess, Amebic
Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Life Cycle Stages
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Wheat Germ Agglutinins
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Protozoan Infections, Animal
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Staining and Labeling
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Amino Acid Sequence
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Transport of the essential nutrient isoleucine in human erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (1/135)The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite derives much of its requirement for amino acids from the digestion of the hemoglobin of its host cell. However, one amino acid, isoleucine, is absent from adult human hemoglobin and must therefore be obtained from the extracellular medium. In this study we have characterized the mechanisms involved in the uptake of isoleucine by the intraerythrocytic parasite. Under physiologic conditions the rate of transport of isoleucine into human erythrocytes infected with mature trophozoite-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites is increased to approximately 5-fold that in uninfected cells, with the increased flux being via the new permeability pathways (NPPs) induced by the parasite in the host cell membrane. Transport via the NPPs ensures that protein synthesis is not rate limited by the flux of isoleucine across the erythrocyte membrane. On entering the infected erythrocyte, isoleucine is taken up into the parasite via a saturable, ATP-, Na+-, and H+-independent system which has the capacity to mediate the influx of isoleucine in exchange for leucine (liberated from hemoglobin). The accumulation of radiolabeled isoleucine within the parasite is mediated by a second (high-affinity, ATP-dependent) mechanism, perhaps involving metabolism and/or the concentration of isoleucine within an intracellular organelle. (+info)
Effect of caspofungin on trophozoites and cysts of three species of Acanthamoeba. (2/135)OBJECTIVES: Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat, without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts that are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. We investigated here the in vitro effectiveness of caspofungin, a new antifungal, against three species of Acanthamoeba. METHODS: Trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba culbertsoni and Acanthamoeba polyphaga were incubated with caspofungin at concentrations varying from 16 to 500 mg/L. RESULTS: The trophozoites of the three tested species were susceptible in vitro to caspofungin at a concentration of 250 mg/L (206 microM). Furthermore, this drug was cysticidal at a concentration of 500 mg/L (412 microM) against A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni. CONCLUSIONS: Caspofungin could represent, if in vivo studies confirm its efficacy, a new anti-Acanthamoeba compound. (+info)
Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase. A protease involved in amino acid regulation with potential for antimalarial drug development. (3/135)Amino acids generated from the catabolism of hemoglobin by intra-erythrocytic malaria parasites are not only essential for protein synthesis but also function in maintaining an osmotically stable environment, and creating a gradient by which amino acids that are rare or not present in hemoglobin are drawn into the parasite from host serum. We have proposed that a Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase (PfLAP) generates and regulates the internal pool of free amino acids and therefore represents a target for novel antimalarial drugs. This enzyme has been expressed in insect cells as a functional 320-kDa homo-hexamer that is optimally active at neutral or alkaline pH, is dependent on metal ions for activity, and exhibits a substrate preference for N-terminally exposed hydrophobic amino acids, particularly leucine. PfLAP is produced by all stages in the intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle of malaria but was most highly expressed by trophozoites, a stage at which hemoglobin degradation and parasite protein synthesis are elevated. The enzyme was located by immunohistochemical methods and by transfecting malaria cells with a PfLAP-green fluorescent protein construct, to the cytosolic compartment of the cell at all developmental stages, including segregated merozoites. Amino acid dipeptide analogs, such as bestatin and its derivatives, are potent inhibitors of the protease and also block the growth of P. falciparum malaria parasites in culture. This study provides a biochemical basis for the antimalarial activity of aminopeptidase inhibitors. Availability of functionally active recombinant PfLAP, coupled with a simple enzymatic readout, will aid medicinal chemistry and/or high throughput approaches for the future design/discovery of new antimalarial drugs. (+info)
Comparison of specific activity and cytopathic effects of purified 33 kDa serine proteinase from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence. (4/135)The pathogenic mechanism of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amebic keratitis (AK) by Acanthamoeba has yet to be clarified. Protease has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GAE and AK. In the present study, we have compared specific activity and cytopathic effects (CPE) of purified 33 kDa serine proteinases from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence (A. healyi OC-3A, A. lugdunensis KA/E2, and A. castellanii Neff). Trophozoites of the 3 strains revealed different degrees of CPE on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. The effect was remarkably reduced by adding phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor. This result indicated that PMSF-susceptible proteinase is the main component causing cytopathy to HCE cells by Acanthamoeba. The purified 33 kDa serine proteinase showed strong activity toward HCE cells and extracellular matrix proteins. The purified proteinase from OC-3A, the most virulent strain, demonstrated the highest enzyme activity compared to KA/E2, an ocular isolate, and Neff, a soil isolate. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified 33 kDa serine proteinase inhibit almost completely the proteolytic activity of culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba. In line with these results, the 33 kDa serine proteinase is suggested to play an important role in pathogenesis and to be the main component of virulence factor of Acanthamoeba. (+info)
Effects of human serum on Balamuthia mandrillaris interactions with human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (5/135)Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba and a causative agent of fatal granulomatous encephalitis. In the transmission of B. mandrillaris into the central nervous system (CNS), haematogenous spread is thought to be the primary step, followed by blood-brain barrier penetration. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the effects of serum from healthy individuals on the viability of B. mandrillaris, and (ii) to determine the effects of serum on B. mandrillaris-mediated blood-brain barrier perturbations. It was determined that normal human serum exhibited limited amoebicidal effects, i.e. approximately 40 % of trophozoites were killed. The residual subpopulation, although viable, remained static over longer incubations. Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which form the blood-brain barrier, it was observed that B. mandrillaris exhibited binding (>80 %) and cytotoxicity (>70 %) to HBMEC. However, normal human serum exhibited more than 60 % inhibition of B. mandrillaris binding and cytotoxicity to HBMEC. ELISAs showed that both serum and saliva samples exhibit the presence of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies. Western blots revealed that normal human serum reacted with several B. mandrillaris antigens with approximate molecular masses of 148, 115, 82, 67, 60, 56, 44, 42, 40 and 37 kDa. Overall, the results demonstrated that normal human serum has inhibitory effects on B. mandrillaris growth and viability, as well as on their binding and subsequent cytotoxicity to HBMEC. A complete understanding of B. mandrillaris pathogenesis is crucial to develop therapeutic interventions and/or to design preventative measures. (+info)
Erythrocyte G protein as a novel target for malarial chemotherapy. (6/135)BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte "ghosts" loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in beta-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other beta2-antagonists. beta-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials. (+info)
Transcriptional analysis of three major putative phosphatidylinositol kinase genes in a parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. (7/135)The current investigation evaluates the expression of phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIK) genes in the parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. The G. lamblia Genome Database revealed the presence of two putative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (gPI3K) and one phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase (gPI4K) genes resembling the catalytic subunit of eukaryotic PIKs. Primers, designed to amplify mRNA of these three genes, were used to measure transcription by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Results suggest that all three PIK genes are expressed in non-encysting and encysting trophozoites. The relative levels of the mRNA were highest in parasites cultured in pre-encysting medium that contained no bile. Two inhibitors of PI3K, LY 294002 and wortmannin were found to inhibit the growth of the trophozoite in culture. However, wortmannin was more effective than LY294002. Altogether, the present study indicates that Giardia is capable of expressing PIKs that are necessary for the growth and differentiation of this pathogen. (+info)
The 29-kilodalton thiol-dependent peroxidase of Entamoeba histolytica is a factor involved in pathogenesis and survival of the parasite during oxidative stress. (8/135)The 29-kDa surface antigen (thiol-dependent peroxidase; Eh29) of Entamoeba histolytica exhibits peroxidative and protective antioxidant activities. During tissue invasion, the trophozoites are exposed to oxidative stress and need to deal with highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this investigation, attempts have been made to understand the role of the 29-kDa peroxidase gene in parasite survival and pathogenesis. Inhibition of eh29 gene expression by antisense RNA technology has shown approximately 55% inhibition in eh29 expression, maximum ROS accumulation, and significantly lower viability in 29-kDa downregulated trophozoites during oxidative stress. The cytopathic and cytotoxic activities were also found to decrease effectively in the 29-kDa downregulated trophozoites. Size of liver abscesses was substantially lower in hamsters inoculated with 29-kDa downregulated trophozoites compared to the normal HM1:IMSS. These findings clearly suggest that the 29-kDa protein of E. histolytica has a role in both survival of trophozoites in the presence of ROS and pathogenesis of amoebiasis. (+info)
IBECS - Resultado p gina 1
In this study we performed light, immunofluorescent and transmission electron microscopy of Colpodella trophozoites to characterize trophozoite morphology and protein distribution. The use of Giemsa staining and antibodies to distinguish Colpodella life cycle stages has not been performed previously. Rhoptry and β-tubulin antibodies were used in immunofluorescent assays (IFA) to identify protein localization and distribution in the trophozoite stage of Colpodella (ATCC 50594). We report novel data identifying doughnut-shaped vesicles in the cytoplasm and apical end of Colpodella trophozoites reactive with antibodies specific to Plasmodium merozoite rhoptry proteins. Giemsa staining and immunofluorescent microscopy identified different developmental stages of Colpodella trophozoites, with the presence or absence of vesicles corresponding to maturity of the trophozoite. These data demonstrate for the first time evidence of rhoptry protein conservation between Plasmodium and Colpodella and ...
In this study, some differences between heme polymerase activity in rings and trophozoites of P. falciparum have been detected. Although equal numbers (2.7 × 107) of infected erythrocytes were used, mean hemozoin synthesis in ring hemolysate was only 50% of that in trophozoites. The initial quantity of hemozoin in the lysates was also lower in the rings than in the trophozoites, but Slater and Cerami (1992) have shown that hemozoin by itself does not have heme polymerase activity. They showed that heme polymerase activity increased linearly with protein concentration in parasite lysate. Obviously, hemoglobin-free P. falciparumparasites are expected to contain less protein at the ring than at the trophozoite stage, and this may account for the differences in hemozoin synthesis observed in the present study. However, Dorn et al. (1995) have shown that protein-free hemozoin can promote formation of additional hemozoin. In the present study, there was more preexisting hemozoin in the trophozoite ...
Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica express a CD59-like molecule in human colon - Semantic Scholar
In vitro studies have proved the presence of epitopes of CD59 in the surface of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). However, it has not been proved if CD59 molecules are expressed in the surface during the trophozoites tissue invasion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the complement-regulatory protein CD59 is present on trophozoites of E. histolytica in human colon. Eleven specimens of amoebic colitis were studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy techniques with a monoclonal antibody against human CD59 molecule. Our results show that a CD59-like molecule is expressed in trophozoites of E. histolytica found in colonic amebic lesions. Also, a CD59-like molecule was detected by western blot analysis in whole lysate of E. histolytica as well as on the plasma membrane by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that E. histolytica can use CD59-like protein against the lytic action of membrane attack complex.
Parasitologists United Journal
Background Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that usually causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent individuals and reverts to life-threatening hyperinfection in immunocompromised individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ivermectin (IVM) treatment on S. stercoralis larvae in-vitro cultured forms. In-vivo evaluation was performed by assessment of parasitological, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes in the lungs of mice with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome before and after treatment with IVM. Materials and methods S. stercoralis larvae were collected from agar plates cultures of positive stool samples from different areas in Menuofyia Governorate. The in-vitro study involved the examination of S. stercoralis larvae grown in agar plates (APC) after exposure for 2 h to IVM (15 μl/ml) by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and after 24 h for larval motility. In-vivo study involved 96 mice that were divided into four groups (24 ...
Parasitologists United Journal
Background Giardia lamblia trophozoites colonize in the upper small intestine resulting in diarrhea and various clinical manifestations, including abdominal pain, anorexia, and signs of malabsorption. A decrease in the level of trace elements might occur because of this absorption deficiency resulting from giardiasis. Experimentally, the excretory secretory product of G. lamblia trophozoites increased the level of reactive oxygen species in mice enterocytes. The levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin are often used as major nonenzymatic oxidative biomarkers. Objective This study was designed to determine the effect of therapy by metronidazole (MTZ) and artemether (ART) on trophozoite and cyst forms in experimentally Giardia spp.-infected hamsters and to reveal the changes in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) serum levels pretreatment and post-treatment. Another objective was to evaluate the impact of this therapy on serum levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin ...
Glucose metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites
G. Penkler, F. Du Toit, W. Adams, M. Rautenbach, D. C. Palm, D. D. Van Niekerk, & J. L. Snoep. (2014). Glucose metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. FAIRDOMHub. http://doi.org/10.15490/seek.1.investigation.56 ...
PfAP2-I Is a Nuclear Protein that May Bind a Conserved TGCA DNA Motif Upstream of Some Invasion Genes. Live fluorescence microscopy of synchronized parasites shows that PfAP2-I-GFP (see Figure S1B) localizes to the nucleus of trophozoite and schizont stage parasites but is not detected in ring stages. Hoechst was used as a nuclear marker. Live microscopy and nuclear fractionation assays show that PfAP2-I localizes exclusively to the nucleus of trophozoite and schizont stage parasites.Santos JM, Josling G, Ross P, Joshi P, Orchard L, Campbell T, Schieler A, Cristea IM, Llinás M. Red Blood Cell Invasion by the Malaria Parasite Is Coordinated by the PfAP2-I Transcription Factor. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 21(6).. See original on MMP ...
Localization of the antigen binding to antibody EH5 in | Open-i
Localization of the antigen binding to antibody EH5 in E. histolytica trophozoites by indirect immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. (A) Amebas treate
Sigma1 Receptors - The potent BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 elicits robust central Aβ pharmacodynamic responses
Supplementary MaterialsFIGURE S1: The PfDis3-ADARcd reproducibly edits particular sites in through the IDC. the editing rate of recurrence in the transcripts with an increase of than one edit sites. Picture_1.JPEG (1.6M) GUID:?DA3700B1-A11E-4C9E-ACF2-4216D199F6B4 FIGURE S2: Reproducibility of PfDis3-RIP assay across developmental phases. Relationship of genic RIP indicators in feeling (s) transcripts and antisense (as) transcripts Rabbit Polyclonal to IRAK2 between natural replicates. Pearson relationship coefficients between natural replicates are shown at top remaining part. The inset Venn diagram displaying the overlap of PfDis3 focuses on determined by PfDis3-RIP between your two replicates. R, T, S shows Ring, Schizont and Trophozoite stage, respectively. Picture_2.jpg (1.3M) GUID:?3CE2FFB1-19A0-4EC3-8727-049FC475ADF8 FIGURE S3: Functions of PfDis3-TRIBE target genes through the IDC in strategies of RIP-seq, HITS-CLIP, or GoldCLIP because of the high history and complicated manipulation ...
The photograph on the left is an iron haematoxylin stained amoeba trophozoite from a fecal smear. The patient had periodic bouts of diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and some blood in the stool. The parasite measures about 25 micrometers in length. What species is represented ...
A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays | BMC Microbiology | Full Text
Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the hosts intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | The Influence of Specific Antibodies and Complement on the Motility and...
Abstract The distribution of peroxidase-labeled normal or specific rabbit immunoglobulin (Ig) in Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Small amounts of normal Ig became attached to the cell surface but did not redistribute. Internalized specific Ig was firmly bound to the inner membranes of phagocytosis vacuoles, while aggregates of normal Ig were dispersed over the vacuolar lumen. The distribution of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Ig in living amebae was correlated with the cell motility at different times. Immobilization coincided with the cellular metabolic processing of internalized material. Remobilization occurred when the Ig was degraded and antibodies again bound to the reappearing surface antigens. E. histolytica activated complement by the classical pathway. Fresh guinea pig serum alone did not produce lysis which, however, did occur when it was added together with normal rabbit Ig. Normal rabbit Ig may constitute a complement-fixing substrate
Entamoeba | mSphere
Entamoeba is a protozoan parasite that thrives in its niche by alternating its two forms between a proliferative trophozoite and dormant cyst. Cysts are the only form able to transmit to a new host and are differentiated from trophozoites in a process termed encystation. During Entamoeba encystation, cell metabolites, components, and morphology drastically change, which occur sequentially in an orchestrated manner.... ...
Balantidiasis | Rudolphs Pediatrics, 23e | AccessPediatrics | McGraw-Hill Medical
The parasite has 2 stages in its life cycle: the trophozoite and the cyst. The cyst is the resting, resistant stage and is the infectious ingested form. The trophozoite form causes manifestations of infection. The cysts are spherical or ovoid with a diameter of 40 to 60 μm and remain viable at room temperature for at least 2 weeks, particularly if kept moist and away from direct sunlight. The motile trophozoite is the form for division. Its shape and size vary with the amount of ingested food, from 30 to 300 μm in length and 30 to 100 μm in width. ...
Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites: Answer to Case 267
This video shows the characteristic falling leaf motility of Giardia. I really like how you can see the shape of the trophozoite in this video. Note in the still shots below that is somewhat flattened laterally and therefore looks like a leaf. It helps explain the pattern of motility that we see ...
Giardia lamblia: Life Cycle, Diseases and laboratory diagnosis - microbeonline
Fresh diarrhoeic specimen: Try to find Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Generally difficult to detect as they attach themselves to the wall of the intestine. A Giemsa or Fields stained faecal smear should be examined if giardiasis is suspected but no trophozoites are detected in a wet mount of the faeces ...
Medical Chemical Corporation: Para-site
Without confirmation using the specific immunoassay to detect the true pathogen, E. histolytica, the report must indicate: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar group (indicate cysts and/or trophozoites); make sure your clients know what this report means in terms of pathogens/nonpathogen (based on trophozoite morphology). If cysts are seen containing a single nucleus and the typical inclusion body, then the organism could be identified to the correct species: Entamoeba polecki. Report Comment: Submit a fresh stool if you want confirmation of the true pathogen (Entamoeba histolytica). The laboratory will then test the fresh stool (fresh, frozen, some acceptable in Cary-Blair) for the presence of the true pathogen, Entamoeba histolytica, antigen. If confirmation of E. histolytica is not performed, then the physician will usually treat if the patient is symptomatic.. Treatment: ...
Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals - IASJ
A total of 90 stool sample was collected from patients with gastroenteritis to detect adenovirus antigen among diarrhea cases. They were tested by general stool examination (GSE), rapid immunochromatographic test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). GSE showed that adenovirus gastroenteritis infection resulted in non-bloody diarrhea, the existence of RBCs in 7% and Pus in 37% of the samples, Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite and cyst were seen in 3% and 2% of the samples respectively. The rapid test showed that 21% of samples were positive for rotavirus, 8% for adenovirus and 3% for astrovirus. Meanwhile, the ELISA test showed that adenovirus was positive in 9% of the samples. These findings established the evidence that adenovirus is significantly the second viral agent that cause gastroenteritis among children after rotavirus. Furthermore, it must be stated that rapid diagnostic methods are important for detection of adenovirus infection.. ...
Giardia lamblia protozoan, TEM - Stock Image Z100/0193 - Science Photo Library
Giardia lamblia protozoan. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a sagittal section through a Giardia lamblia protozoan (green/pink) attached to the microvilli (pink) in the intestine. G. lamblia is a parasite that causes the intestinal illness giardiasis. It exists first as an infectious cyst (not seen), entering the intestine via contaminated water or food. It then develops into a trophozoite, which multiplies in the intestine and blocks nutrient absorption by covering the surface of the intestine and/or damaging the microvilli, the absorptive structures in the intestine. Symptoms of giardiasis include diarrhoea and abdominal cramps. - Stock Image Z100/0193
Ophryocystidae - Wikipedia
Most species in this family infect the Malpigian tubes of beetles. The trophozoite is conical in shape. Two types of schizogony occur in this family. In the first type the schizonts divide into merozoites with small nuclei. These are known as mycetoids merozoites. These develop into trophozoites. In the second form and more common form, the schizonts divide into merozoites with large nuclei: these are known as gregarinoid merozoites and give rise to gametocytes. The merozoites are uninucleated, pyriform cells. These are released into the lumen of the tube and from there infect other cells of the tube. The gametocytes possesses only a single nucleus and are globular in shape. When mature, these become detached from the epithelium. Within the lumen, the gametocytes associate in pairs, fuse and form a zygote. The zygote subsequently becomes a single octozoic spore. ...
Immuno-localization of PfSEP14 on synchronous P. falciparum cultures. Double immunofluorescence assay was performed on unfixed parasites with PfSEP14-specific rat immune serum (dilution 1:200), revealed with FITC-conjugated anti-rat IgG (green) and with anti-Pf332 monoclonal antibody Mab51-22, revealed with TRITC-conjugated anti-mouse IgG (red). Parasite nuclei are stained with DAPI. Bar represents 5mm. At the stage of ring the distribution of PfSEP14 did not co-localize with that obtained with Mab51-22 which, at this stage, cross reacts with RESA. A similar pattern of fluorescence for both antigens appeared instead in trophozoites, while at the schizont stage patterns were distinguishable, in that SEP14-associated fluorescence was diffuse within the parasitized cell and did not appear concentrated at the edges of the schizonts.Birago C, Albanesi V, Silvestrini F, Picci L, Pizzi E, Alano P, Pace T, Ponzi M. A gene-family encoding small exported proteins is conserved across Plasmodium genus. Mol ...
Expression of arginine-metabolizing enzymes in IECs upo | Open-i
Expression of arginine-metabolizing enzymes in IECs upon Giardia infection. Differentiated Caco-2 IECs were in vitro infected with Giardia trophozoites of three
Molecular architecture, function and biogenesis of the ventral disc in Giardia in - Scott Dawson
Giardiasis is the most common cause of acute protozoan intestinal infection worldwide, and chronic giardiasis is a major contributor to high morbidity in develo...
Giardia lamblia, суммарные антитела 630 руб. в Многопрофильной клинике МЕДИОНА на метро Парнас
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Math 30 Ib Standard Level Body Mass Index Portfolio Assignment Essay
Math 30 IB Standard Level Body Mass Index Portfolio Assignment Words May 4th, 11 Pages This portfolio is an investigation into how the median Body Mass Index of a girl will change as she ages.
Math 30 IB Standard Level Body Mass Index Portfolio Assignment - WriteWork
This portfolio is an investigation into how the median Body Mass Index of a girl will change as she ages. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a comparison between a persons height (in meters) and weight (in kilograms) in order to determine whether one is overwei...
Giardia Lamblia - Powys
Os ywr person sydd wedii heintio mewn gr?p risg uchel e.e. yn trin bwyd, yn gweithio mewn meithrinfa, yn nyrs neun gofalu am yr henoed ac ati, ni allant ddychwelyd ir gwaith tan iddynt wellan llwyr am 48 awr. Ar adegau bydd angen sicrhau canlyniadau negyddol i samplau o garthion. Hefyd, maen bosibl y bydd angen gwahardd rhai plant heintiedig o grwpiau chwarae, meithrinfeydd, gofalwyr plant neu ysgolion. Bydd swyddog or adran yn rhoi gwybod i chi os bydd angen gwahardd a phryd y gallwch ailddechrau gweithgareddau ...
Analize - Parazitologie | Bioclinica
Parazitologia: coproparazitologic (ouă, larve paraziți, Giardia lamblia), anticorpi parazitari (trichineloză, toxoplasmoză, toxocaroză, echinococoză).
Antigiardial Activity of Cupania dentata Bark and its Constituents
Accepted November 29, 2011.. Abstract. The MeOH extract of Cupania dentata bark (Sapindaceae) as well as its hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc, and BuOH fractions showed high activity against Giardia lamblia trophozoites (IC50 = 2.12 9.52 μg/mL). The phytochemical study of fractions resulted in the isolation of taraxerone (1), taraxerol (2), scopoletin (3), and two mixtures of steroidal compounds. Taraxerone was the metabolite with the highest giardicidal activity (IC50 = 11.33 μg/mL).. Key words: Cupania dentata, Sapindaceae, giardicidal activity, taraxerone, taraxerol, scopoletin, sterols.. Resumen. El extracto MeOH de Cupania dentata corteza (Sapindaceae) así como sus fracciones de hexano, CH2C12, AcOEt y BuOH mostraron gran actividad contra los trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia (CI50 = 2.12 9.52 μg/mL). El estudio fitoquímico de estas fracciones resultó en el aislamiento de taraxerona (1), taraxerol (2), escopoletina (3) y dos mezclas esteroidales. Taraxerona tuvo la más alta actividad giardicida ...
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Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite of humans that causes amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess: diseases associated with significant levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide . The organism has a simple life cycle, existing as either the motile trophozoite or the infectious, hardy cyst form. Trophozoites of E. histolytica reside within the anaerobic confines of the human colon, lack mitochondria, derive energy from fermentation and reproduce by binary fission. E. histolytica trophozoites can be potent pathogens, possessing an armamentarium that includes a galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine-binding lectin that mediates adherence to host cells, pore-forming proteins (amebapores) that can lyse bacteria or eukaryotic cells, cysteine proteinases that can cleave extracellular-matrix proteins and facilitate invasion into the colonic mucosa, and impressive phagocytic capabilities . During the past three decades, the tools of molecular biology have greatly increased the ...
Balantidium coli - Wikipedia
Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. It is the only member of the ciliate phylum known to be pathogenic to humans. Balantidium coli has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. In trophozoites, the two nuclei are visible. The macronucleus is long and sausage-shaped, and the spherical micronucleus is nested next to it, often hidden by the macronucleus. The opening, known as the peristome, at the pointed anterior end leads to the cytostome, or the mouth. Cysts are smaller than trophozoites and are round and have a tough, heavy cyst wall made of one or two layers. Usually only the macronucleus and sometimes cilia and contractile vacuoles are visible in the cyst. Living trophozoites and cysts are yellowish or greenish in color. Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans. Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease and is acquired by humans via the feco-oral route from the normal host, the pig, where ...
A Detailed, Hierarchical Study of Giardia lamblias Ventral Disc Reveals Novel Microtubule-Associated Protein Complexes | CU...
A Detailed, Hierarchical Study of Giardia lamblias Ventral Disc Reveals Novel Microtubule-Associated Protein Complexes Journal Article ...
Giardiasis Surveillance --- United States, 1992--1997
Giardiasis is the gastrointestinal illness caused by the flagellated protozoan Giardia intestinalis, also known as G. lamblia or G. duodenalis. Giardia is the most commonly diagnosed intestinal parasite in public health laboratories in the United States (1--4). Giardia was the most frequently identified etiologic agent of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States for the years 1976--1994 (5). Giardia is spread from person to person and from animals to humans through fecal-oral transmission, has an incubation period of 3--25 days (median, 7--10 days), and has a two-stage life cycle --- trophozoite and cyst. The life cycle begins with ingested cysts, which release trophozoites (10--20 µm x 5--15 µm) in the duodenum. These trophozoites attach to the surface of the intestinal epithelium by using a ventral sucking disk and then reproduce by binary fission. The trigger for encystment is unclear, but the process results in the inactive, environmentally resistant form of Giardia ...
Giardia lamblia | Article about Giardia lamblia by The Free Dictionary
Looking for Giardia lamblia? Find out information about Giardia lamblia. A genus of zooflagellates that inhabit the intestine of numerous vertebrates, and may cause diarrhea in humans Explanation of Giardia lamblia
Causes of Giardia in Dogs
It can be difficult to diagnose Giardia in dogs, because the protozoa are very, very small and they dont appear in every bowel movement. Your vet may need to perform multiple fecal examinations to diagnose Giardia. Vets use special procedures to identify Giardia. These procedures are the same as the ones used to diagnose hookworms and roundworms. These procedures kill trophozoites and can help make encysted protozoa easier to find. Your vet will mix some of your dogs stool with water and look at it under a microscope to search for trophozoites. Because of their flagella, trophozoites can be seen moving under a microscope. Cysts are often found in firm bowel movements, and can be isolated using a special solution. Your vet will then examine the solution under a microscope. Even interpreting the results of Giardia tests can be difficult, because Giardia is often present in the stools of uninfected dogs, and your dogs diarrhea symptoms may be caused by another disease entirely. Your vet will ...
Giardia lamblia protozoan, SEM - Stock Image Z100/0235 - Science Photo Library
Giardia lamblia protozoan, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This is a single-celled parasite of the intestinal tract. It is most common in tropical regions. This is the trophozoite (active, feeding) life stage of the protozoan. The cell has flagella (hair-like structures), which are used for locomotion. Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, an intestinal disease that causes abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea. It is spread through contaminated food and water. Treatment is with antibiotics or antiprotozoal drugs, such as metronidazole. - Stock Image Z100/0235
Ilaprazole Medline India | Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) piminhibitor.com
activity. Late trophozoite stage parasites were incubated with rabbit polyclonal anti-P12 or anti-P41 antibodies either independently or in combination. Final
Giardia | Kamus Kesehatan
Giardia atau lengkapnya Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis, atau Giardia lamblia intestinalis duodenalis adalah parasit protozoa ber-flagela yang berkoloni di usus manusia dan hewan. Infeksi giardia pada manusia dapat menyebabkan kondisi yang disebut giardiasis.. ...
A new family of giardial cysteine... preview & related info | Mendeley
(2006) Davids et al. PLoS ONE. Since the Giardia lamblia cyst wall is necessary for survival in the environment and host infection, we tested the hypothesis that it contains proteins other than the three known cyst wall proteins. Serial analysis of gene expression during growth and encystation re...
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GUIMAR ES, Sem ramis, SOGAYAR, Maria In s T. Leme and FRANCO, Marcello Analysis of proteins from membrane and soluble fractions of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of two Brazilian axenic strains. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo, Oct 2002, vol.44, no.5, p.239-244. ISSN 0036- ...
Paraziti giardia lamblia shqip Giardia anthelmintică
De asemenea, chisturile paraziților pot fi depozitate pe vase și haine. Malaria nu se poate lua doar daca stam in preajma unui pacient infectat. Garlicaps usturoi eficient în eliminarea viermilor intestinali limbrici şi oxiuri.
Ce este infectia cu Giardia Lamblia si cum se manifesta? | Bioclinica, Quiste giardia
Din Comunitate Buna ziua,sunt din Bucuresti si am un baietel de 5 ani care a fost diagnosticat in urma cu un an cu stafilococul auriu in nas. Simptomatologia pe care o acuzam era una deosebit de severa, incluzand: stare de astenie postprandiala si dupa scaun si, de altfel, stare de slabiciune puternica pe parcursul intregii zile seara parea a fi ceva mai bineameteala, constipatie si nu diaree!
JoVE Author Search: Quihui%7CCota L
Vitamin A, Ability, Absorption, Adaptive Immunity, Architecture, Children, Developing Countries, Diseases, Giardia, Giardia Lamblia, Giardiasis, Health, Immunity, Infectious Diseases, Lamblia, Liver, Persons, Prevalence, Retinol, School
When the art of medicine becomes business as usual « Brian T Maurers Weblog
After 35 years striving to practice the art of medicine, Ive realized that modern medical practice has devolved into a series of business transactions. As I walk down the corridor to see my next patient, I find myself wondering how I will survive.
Simptomele giardiei după tratament - Infecţia cu Giardia (giardiaza)
Scaunul materiile fecale animalelor infectate sau ale oamenilor contin parazitii. Interiorul prezintă resturi de flageli şi nuclei. Care sunt simptomele infestarii cu Giardia?
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Category:Entamoeba histolytica - Wikimedia Commons
Entamoeba histolytica (es); Entamoeba histolytica (hu); Entamoeba histolytica (eu); Entamoeba histolytica (ast); Entamoeba histolytica (ca); Entamoeba histolytica (de); Entamoeba histolytica (ga); Дизентерична амеба (sr-ec); 溶组织内阿米巴 (zh); Entamoeba histolytica (da); Entamoeba histolytica (tr); 溶組織內阿米巴 (zh-hk); Entamoeba histolytica (sv); Entamoeba histolytica (uk); Entamoeba histolytica (la); 溶組織內阿米巴 (zh-hant); 溶组织内阿米巴 (zh-cn); Suoliameba (fi); Дизентерия амебасы (kk); měňavka úplavičná (cs); Entamoeba histolytica (it); Entamoeba histolytica (fr); Entamoeba histolytica (nl); Dizenteriya amyobasi (uz); Entaméba istulìtica (eml); Entamoeba histolytica (en); Դիզենթերիայի ամեոբա (hy); Entamoeba histolytica (vi); дизентерийная амёба (ru); Entamoeba histolytica (pt); انتاموبا هیستولیتیکا (fa); 溶組織內阿米巴 (zh-tw); Entamoeba histolytica (nb); ...
Influence of inflammation on parasitism and area of experimental amoebic liver abscess: an immunohistochemical and morphometric...
The influence of inflammation on the number of trophozoites and on the murine amoebic liver abscess area following infection with Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar was evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and digital morphometry were used to identify and quantify the trophozoites, neutrophils, macrophages, and lesions. Positive correlation was observed between the number of trophozoites and inflammatory cells. A significant decrease in parasitism and inflammation in groups treated with dexamethasone was observed. The scarceness or absence of trophozoites in the treated groups suggest the importance of the inflammatory response in the production of amoebic hepatic abscesses in spite of the inherent virulence of the parasite being decisive in the establishment of the lesion.
Genome Sequencing of Clinically Important Strains of Entamoeba Histolytica | J. Craig Venter Institute
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes invasive intestinal and extraintestinal infections in about 50 million people world-wide resulting in a death toll of up to 100,000 people annually. It remains a significant cause of human death in developing countries such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. However, four out of five E. histolytica infections remain asymptomatic. What determines the outcome of an E. histolytica infection is largely unknown. The DNA content of E. histolytica grown in axenic cultures (in the absence of bacteria) is at least 10 fold higher than in xenic cultures. In turn, re-growth of axenized parasites in the presence of bacteria leads to reduction of DNA content to the original xenic values. A similar reversible increase in genomic DNA content has been described during passage from cyst to trophozoite in E. invadens, a model organism for encystations. There exists evidence to suggest that variation in genome content is the result of the accumulation of multiple copies ...
Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection)
Balantidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite called Balantidium coli. The life cycle of the Balantidium coli begins with cysts in the host. The host consumes contaminated water or food, developing cysts which are considered as the parasite stage that transmits Balantidiasis. Excystation then takes place within the small intestine of the host. During this stage, trophozoites inhabit the large intestine. Within the lumen of the large intestine, the trophozoites replicate through binary fission and it is possible for conjugation to take place during this stage. Encystation of the trophozoites follows resulting in infectious cysts. A number of trophozoites will occupy the colon and multiply there while others go back to the lumen of the large intestine for disintegration. Finally, mature cysts are expelled from the body of the host with feces. Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. Pigs serve as its ideal animal reservoir, thus, Balantidiasis ...
Microbes & Human Health: Excretory-secretory products of Giardia lamblia induce interleukin-8production in human colonic cells...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
Alpha-1 giardin is an annexin with highly unusual calcium-regulated mechanisms
Alpha-giardins constitute the annexin proteome (group E annexins) in the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia and, as such, represent the evolutionary oldest eukaryotic annexins. The dominance of alpha-giardins in the cytoskeleton of Giardiawith its greatly reduced actin content emphasises the importance of the alpha-giardins for the structural integrity of the parasite, which is particularly critical in the transformation stage between cyst and trophozoite. In this study, we report the crystal structures of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of a1-giardin, a protein localised to the plasma membrane of Giardia trophozoites that has recently been identified as a vaccine target. The calcium-bound crystal structure of a1-giardin revealed the presence of a type III site in the first repeat as known from other annexin structures, as well as a novel calcium binding site situated between repeats I and IV. By means of comparison, the crystal structures of three different alpha-giardins known to date ...
Selective Accumulation of Mature Asexual Stages of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in the Placenta | Infection and...
Peripheral blood smears were available for staging from 14 of 17 cases. Ring forms comprised the majority of parasite types observed in all cases (Fig. 1), and mature-stage parasites were observed in only 7 of 14 cases examined. Overall, 96.5% ± 1.9% (range, 79.4 to 100%) of all IEs were ring forms (Fig. 1), and no schizonts were seen. The mean parasitemia of pigmented trophozoites in placental washings was over 200 times higher than that of peripheral blood (11.2% versus 0.048%).. These findings indicate that IEs selectively accumulate in the blood spaces of the placenta. This is predominantly a feature of pigmented trophozoites, which express PfEMP1 on their surface (11) and may adhere to CSA and HA or bind immunoglobulins (4, 8, 14, 18). The intraerythrocytic parasite life cycle lasts approximately 48 h, with 24 h in the ring stage, 12 h as pigmented trophozoites, and 12 h as schizonts (20). Therefore, in the absence of selective processes, random sampling of parasites should yield ...
Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections
Most helminths and protozoa exit the body in the fecal stream.The patient should be instructed to collect feces in a clean waxed or cardboard container and to record the time of collection on the container. Contamination with water (which could contain free-living protozoa) or with urine (which can damage trophozoites) should be avoided. Fecal samples should be collected before ingestion of barium or other contrast agents for radiologic procedures and before treatment with antidiarrheal agents and antacids, because these substances change the consistency of the feces and interfere with microscopic detection of parasites. Because of the cyclic shedding of most parasites in the feces, a minimum of three samples collected on alternate days should be examined. Examination of a single sample can be up to 50% less sensitive. When delays in transport to the laboratory are unavoidable, fecal samples should be kept in polyvinyl alcohol or another fixative to preserve protozoal trophozoites. New ...
Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn ATCC ® 50543™
Entamoeba histolytica ATCC ® 50543™ Designation: HK-9 Clone 4 Isolation: strain HK-9 (=ATCC 30015) monoxenized and cloned via microisolation, then re-axenized
Giant schizonts legal definition of giant schizonts
Definition of giant schizonts in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is giant schizonts? Meaning of giant schizonts as a legal term. What does giant schizonts mean in law?
Entamoebidae media - Encyclopedia of Life
Summary DescriptionAPI English: ER morphology in E. histolytica treated by nitric oxide. Trophozoites expressing GFP-KDEL-FLAG were seeded on glass bottom culture dishes (MatTeck) embedded in a collagen matrix and incubated at 37Â°C. Immediately before imaging 1 mM SNP was added directly to the top of the matrix that then was covered by a coverslip. The amoebas were then imaged using the Perkin Elmer Spinning Disc Confocal Microscope. All images were acquired using the 40Ã objective and taking one stack every minute for 1 h using a 0.5 Âµm Z-step. Date 2012 Source Video S2 from Santi-Rocca J, Smith S, Weber C, Pineda E, Hon C, Saavedra E, Olivos-GarcÃ-a A, Rousseau S, Dillies M, CoppÃ©e J, GuillÃ©n N (2012). Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Sensing Mechanism Is Activated in Entamoeba histolytica upon Treatment with Nitric Oxide. PLOS ONE. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031777. PMID 22384074. PMC: 3286455. Author Santi-Rocca J, Smith S, Weber C, Pineda E, Hon C, Saavedra E, ...
Giardia - TheFourPawsResort 937-644-2275
A dog becomes infected by eating the cyst form of the parasite. In the small intestine, the cyst opens and releases an active form called a trophozoite. These have flagella, hair-like structures that whip back and forth allowing them to move around. They attach to the intestinal wall and reproduce by dividing in two. After an unknown number of divisions, at some stage, in an unknown location, this form develops a wall around itself (encysts) and is passed in the feces. The Giardia in the feces can contaminate the environment and water and infect other animals and people ...
Proteins expressed during this time are known in Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei, Toxoplasma gondii.. This specific developmental stage comes under the not trophozoite umbrella.. ...
Apologetics Press - Gold Watches and Rocking Chairs
Indeed, thats what many thought-and what many still teach. In an article titled, A Homage to Giardia, Kim Nasmyth observed: To learn more about eukaryotes common ancestor, we need to know about protozoan organisms that descend from the earliest offshoots of the eukaryotic lineage. A good candidate is the archaezoan Giardia lamblia,… (1996, 6:1042). Soltys described it this way: Giardia lamblia is considered one of the deepest branching or most primitive eukaryotes in existence… (n.d.).. However, a recent study has evolutionists scrambling for a new missing link. In the report documenting this latest discovery, Tovar and colleagues noted: …here we demonstrate that Giardia contain mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes) bounded by double membranes that function in iron-sulphur protein maturation. Our results indicate that Giardia is not primitively amitochondrial… (2003, 426:172, parenthetical item in orig.). Henze and Martin noted: For years, a unicellular creature ...
Pathogenic flagellates: Giardia lamblia, causative agent for Giardiasis - Gafacom (For health. For knowledge)
Flagellates are unicellular microorganisms. Their locomotion is by lashing a tail-like appendage called a flagellum or flagella and reproduction is by simple binary fission.
What Are Examples of Flagellates? | Reference.com
Some examples of flagellates include trypanosomes and Giardia lamblia. Trypanosome is a parasite that causes sleeping sickness when it comes into contact with a human. Giardia lamblia is also a...
Cell signaling and the cytoskeleton in Giardia lamblia - Presented by Department of Biology - Promotion Biology Seminar | ...
Learning and Relearning Movement Human motor learning depends on a suite of brain mechanisms that are driven by different signals and operate on timescales ranging from minutes to years. Understanding these processes requires identifying how new ...
Giardia Treatment Diet | Livestrong.com
Giardiasis is an intestinal infection by a parasite known as Giardia lamblia. Giardia is the most common parasite to infect travelers in places with unsanitary conditions, according to Drugs.com.
Giardiasis - Harvard Health
Giardiasis is an intestinal illness caused by infection with the parasite Giardia lamblia, which lives in contaminated water. Although the illness most…
Giardia is a devastating parasite for humans. SureAqua products are compact, easy to use and safeguard you against the risk of water borne illnesses.
The trophozoite life stage of Giardia colonizes and proliferates in the small intestine. Trophozoites develop during the course ... The complement of the trophozoite state is the thick-walled cyst form). Trophozoite and cyst stages are shown in the life cycle ... A trophozoite (G. trope, nourishment + zoon, animal) is the activated, feeding stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa such ... In the apicomplexan life cycle the trophozoite undergoes schizogony (asexual reproduction) and develops into a schizont which ...
The trophozoite is conical in shape. Two types of schizogony occur in this family. In the first type the schizonts divide into ... These develop into trophozoites. In the second form and more common form, the schizonts divide into merozoites with large ...
The trophozoites are solitary. Syzygy occurs late in the life cycle. They parasitise the coelom of earthworms and are spread by ...
Trophozoites: Ring forms are unusual. The trophozoite is usually irregular in outline. The nucleus is small and there may be a ...
Young trophozoites contain prominent vacuoles. Schizonts contain 40 to 74 nuclei and have pigment. This species is found in ...
The trophozoites inhabit the gut lumen. They are cylindrical in shape with folds along the surface of the cell. The nucleus is ...
The trophozoites may develop intracellularly or extracellularly. In species where the trophozoites develop extracellularly, ...
... has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. In trophozoites, the two nuclei are ... Once the cyst reaches the small intestine, trophozoites are produced. The trophozoites then colonize the large intestine, where ... Some trophozoites invade the wall of the colon using proteolytic enzymes and multiply, and some of them return to the lumen. In ... Living trophozoites and cysts are yellowish or greenish in color. Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect ...
The trophozoites appear opaque and occasionally granular. Schizogony occurs in the host cell. Morphological sexual ...
The trophozoites live within the gut lumen. They measure 200-300 μm × 40-70 μm. There are 30-40 grooves along the body. Four ...
Structural observations of cultured trophozoites". Experimental Parasitology. 130 (1): 86-90. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2011.10.009 ...
The trophozoite is aseptate. The gamont is sac-like and extends at one end into two branches which divide dichotomously, ...
The trophozoites are large, band like and wide. They have longitudinal striae and are aseptate. A mucron of small pseudopods or ... Cytokinesis occurs to form uninucleate merozoites arranged in clusters in the shape of the trophozoite. The merozoites become ... free by dropping off the parent trophozoite. Gamonts, gametocysts and oocysts are of the actinocephalid type with syzygy ...
Trophozoites The trophozoite shape varies among Retortamonas species. Pyriform, fusiform, and rounded structures have all been ... Retortamonas trophozoites then multiply asexually through lateral binary fission. Eventually the trophozoites encyst, and the ... The trophozoites feed by endocytosis with the help of the posterior, vaned flagellum. Movement in a waving-like motion by the ... Retortamonas trophozoites live within the intestinal tract of its host while cysts are more resilient and can survive in the ...
Microscopic diagnosis can be difficult because the early trophozoites ("ring form") of all four species look identical and it ... species identification is always based on several trophozoites. The biggest pitfall in most laboratories in ...
Young trophozoites are small and occupy three-tenths to four-tenths of the erythrocytes. The nucleus stains rose-red. Larger ... trophozoites are more irregular tending toward amoeboidity. Pigment is in granules and there is no stippling of the host cell. ...
It forms cysts with four nuclei which excyst in the body and become trophozoites. Endolimax nana nuclei have a large endosome ... In stained preparations, the nucleus has a distinct karyosome that, while not as large as that seen in the trophozoite, is ... Living trophozoites are sluggish and generally non-progressive. The single nucleus sometimes is visible in unstained ...
The trophozoites are vermiform with an apical complex. They have few epicytic folds. A dense array of microtubules lies under a ...
The trophozoites are found in the intestinal lumen. They measure 23-31 microns x 11-15 microns. They are initially ovoid and ... The trophozoites develop in multinucleated schizonts which give rise to 8-20 merozoites. The merozoites are 5-6 microns x 1 ...
Species within the genus, Acanthamoeba, are generally free-living trophozoites. These trophozoites are relatively ubiquitous ... In addition to the trophozoite stage, the organism can also form a double-walled cyst which may also be present in the ... Early use of high dose dual therapy helps to eliminate both trophozoite and cyst forms of the organism, while also preventing ... However, no single therapy has been found to eliminate both trophozoite and cystic forms, and to eradicate corneal infection. ...
The trophozoites are worm like with longitudinal folds. The schizonts are globular with multiple nuclei. The gamonts are ...
Trophozoites develop into schizonts which contain multiple merozoites. After a minimum of one week, the sexual stage begins ...
The trophozoites are irregularly shaped with filiform extensions. The schizonts contain 8 to 20 nuclei arranged in a fan. ...
The trophozoites are large, band like and wide. They have longitudinal striae and are aseptate. A mucron of small pseudopods or ... Cytokinesis occurs to form uninucleate merozoites arranged in clusters in the shape of the trophozoite. The merozoites become ... free by dropping off the parent trophozoite. Gamonts, gametocysts and oocysts are of the actinocephalid type with syzygy ...
The active (trophozoite) stage exists only in the host and in fresh loose feces; cysts survive outside the host in water, in ... Once the trophozoites are excysted in the terminal ileum region, they colonize the large bowel, remaining on the surface of the ... The trophozoites will then ingest these dead cells. This damage to the epithelial cell layer attracts human immune cells and ... The trophozoites can also end up in other organs, sometimes via the bloodstream, sometimes via liver abscess rupture or ...
Diagnosis of malaria
Diagnosis of species can be difficult because the early trophozoites ("ring form") of all four species look similar and it is ... species identification is always based on several trophozoites. As malaria becomes less prevalent due to ...
The trophozoites are 9-14 micrometres in diameter. Trophozoites are one of the two forms of I. buetschlii. This form has a ... trophozoite in cecum & colon-->cyst in feces- ingested-->trophozoite in cecum & colon In a research study, amebas were seen in ... Trophozoites are often identified by a stool smear, found in loose stools. The cysts are 8-10 micrometres in diameter, with a ... The trophozoite has a single nucleus, prominent for nuclear endosome and many cytoplasmic vacuoles. The ectoplasm and the ...
T. tenax trophozoites multiply by longitudinal binary fission. These trophozoites are unable to survive the digestive process. ... T. tenax trophozoites survive in the body as mouth scavengers that feed primarily on local microorganisms located between the ... The specimen of choice for diagnosing Trichomonas tenax trophozoite is mouth scrapings. Microscopic examination of tonsillar ... crypts and pyorrheal pockets of patients with T. tenax infections often yields the typical trophozoites. Tartar between the ...
The mature trophozoite undergoes binary fission and up to 16 immature trophozoites are produced. These stay in the host animal ... Trophozoites in the water mature and release flagellated zoospores. The most economically important host is the eastern oyster ... It then becomes a trophozoite, which proliferates in the tissues of the host. P. marinus often infests the hemocytes, cells in ... Inside the cell, the trophozoite produces a vacuole that displaces the cell nucleus. The infested cell is referred to as a ...
The trophozoites have scanty cytoplasm and are irregular in shape. When fully grown they may be round, oval or irregular. They ... The trophozoites produce two to six merozoites per erythrocyte. The merozoites have scanty cytoplasm and do not exceed the size ... The course of the parasitemia showed low levels initially and reaching a peak after 15 days; trophozoites were the most ... The typical distribution after the gametocytes have appeared is trophozoites (80%) schizonts (17%) and gametocytes (3%). P. ...
No data available that match "trophozoites"
- Direct fecal smears to look for two different stages of the Giardia organism called "cysts" or "trophozoites. (petplace.com)
- Collection of samples from the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) during endoscopy and examination for Giardia trophozoites. (petplace.com)
- Giardia is caused by a protozoan parasite known as Giardia trophozoites. (vetinfo.com)
- Dogs may contract the parasite through the ingestion of cysts containing Giardia trophozoites. (vetinfo.com)
- Attachment of Giardia lamblia trophozoites to a cultured human intestinal cell line. (bmj.com)
- Polyphenol-rich extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry, and cloudberry applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis were as effective as metronidazole in causing trophozoite mortality in vitro. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Galactosamine, a Giardia filamentous cyst wall specific-sugar, is below the limits of detection in non-encysting trophozoites. (uncg.edu)
- Each cyst contains two completely formed trophozoites inside of it. (petplace.com)
- Once inside the cat's intestine, the cyst goes through transformation to the "trophozoite" or feeding form of the organism and attaches to the intestinal wall to feed. (vcahospitals.com)
- Untreated G. muris cysts had a thick cyst wall composed of a fibrous outer wall and a thin, electron dense inner membrane which extended from the trophozoite plasma membrane. (epa.gov)
- 1 The organism has a life cycle of a feeding and replicating trophozoite, which, in response to adverse conditions, can form a dormant cyst stage. (arvojournals.org)
- Cyst and trophozoite were counted. (biomol-informatics.com)
- The life cycle of N fowleri consists of 3 stages: trophozoite, a temporary flagellar stage known as amebo-flagellate, and cyst. (medscape.com)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: In vitro encystation and excystation of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. (who.int)
- Nayeem MA, Habibullah CM, Saleem Y, Quadri GS, Ishaq M. In vitro encystation and excystation of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. (who.int)
- Immunomodulatory effect of extracellular vesicles from Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites: Regulation of NETs and respiratory burst during confrontation with human neutrophils. (bvsalud.org)
- In this work we have isolated and characterized the EVs released by trophozoites of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica , the causal agent of amoebiasis , when alone or in coculture with human neutrophils , and determined their effect on neutrophil NETs and ROS production . (bvsalud.org)
- Kobayashi, S & Takeuchi, T 1982, ' Comparative studies on cytopathogenicity of whole, viable trophozoites and lysosome-rich fractions of Entamoeba histolytica ', Japanese Journal of Parasitology , vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 125-130. (elsevier.com)
- 2. El-Hashimi, W. & Pittman, F. Ultrastructure of Entamoeba Histolytica trophozoites obtained from the colon and from in vitro cultures. (scielo.org.mx)
Cysts and trophozoites1
- To compare the antimicrobial effect of topical anesthetics, antivirals, antibiotics, and biocides on the viability of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
- The active (motile) form that lives and multiplies in the intestinal tract is called a "trophozoite. (petplace.com)
- The remaining photomicrographs offer advice on the more difficult task of detecting and identifying intestinal protozoan trophozoites and cysts. (who.int)
- The cytoplasm of fully excysted trophozoites lacked ectoplasmic vacuoles but displayed well developed ribbons of microtubules, probably precursors of the ventral disk, lateral flange, and median bodies and also contained extensive endoplasmic reticulum. (epa.gov)
- This condition always begins with the infection of the colon by E. histolytica trophozoites, which subsequently travel through the bloodstream to extraintestinal tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- They must be differentiated from trophozoites of Plasmodium and gametocytes of Haemoproteus . (msdvetmanual.com)
- Asexual stages seen in blood films are young trophozoites (often called ring forms), mature trophozoites, and the dividing schizonts that yield the merozoites for a new generation. (ivis.org)
- Amebiasis can be diagnosed by microscopic examination of wet mounts of fresh feces to detect either mature trophozoites or cysts. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Trophozoites are actively motile with the help of a broadly rounded, granule-free projection called lobopodium that originates from the surface. (medscape.com)
- As the parasite increases in size this 'ring' morphology disappears and it is called a trophozoite . (tulane.edu)
- Is the Acquired Homologous Immunity to P. Vivax Equally Effective against Sporozoites and Trophozoites? (ajtmh.org)
- In extending our studies of the characteristics and properties of the homologous immunity to P. vivax acquired as a result of recovery from a naturally induced (sporozoites from mosquitoes) infection, it appeared desirable to ascertain whether this defensive mechanism, which is characteristically directed against the trophozoites, is also operative against sporozoites. (ajtmh.org)
- Amoebic trophozoites directly observed in a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by light microscopy. (bmj.com)
- Concurrently, numerous membrane-bound vesicles were seen in the peritrophic space closely adhering to the surface of the trophozoite. (epa.gov)
- trophozoites were identified by histology, thin-section electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining in the lumen of the small intestine and colon of a prairie dog euthanized because of extreme weight loss. (cdc.gov)
- In tissue, trophozoites ingest red and white blood cells and cause tissue destruction, and this stage is the only one in which the ameba multiplies via binary fission. (medscape.com)
- The presence of trophozoites in diseased tissue is an important basis for pathological diagnosis of GAE. (bvsalud.org)
- A fragile, feeding form known as the trophozoite exists in the gut of infected animals. (vcahospitals.com)
- Trophozoites reproduce by dividing, and some transform into the cystic form. (vcahospitals.com)
- The young trophozoite is often called a ring form due to its morphology in Geimsa-stained blood smears. (tulane.edu)
- The trophozoite is the vegetative or feeding stage of the ameba and is the infective form. (medscape.com)
- The ameba progresses to the amebo-flagellate stage when the trophozoites form is exposed to a change in ionic concentration, such as in distilled water. (medscape.com)
- Tertian and quartan fevers are due to the cyclic lysis of red blood cells that occurs as trophozoites complete their cycle in erythrocytes every 2 or 3 days, respectively. (medscape.com)
- In the presence of trophozoites, MMPs-1 and -3 are overexpressed and are associated with fibrillar collagen remodelling. (pasteur.fr)
- The presence of the benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in levofloxacin caused a high level of toxicity to trophozoites and cysts. (arvojournals.org)
- trophozoites: Regulation of NETs and respiratory burst during confrontation with human neutrophils. (bvsalud.org)
- Curcumin (150 mg/kg, p.o., daily during 10 days before infection) considerably prevents liver damage induced at 12 and 48 h post-intrahepatic inoculation of trophozoites and decreases ALT, ALP, and γ -GTP activities, and macroscopic and microscopic observations were consistent with these results. (hindawi.com)
- It reverts to the trophozoite stage within 24 hours. (medscape.com)
- The trophozoite is characterized by a large central nuclear karyosome surrounded by a halo. (medscape.com)