Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/2449)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (2/2449)

Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae.  (+info)

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (3/2449)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Human uterine lymphocytes. (4/2449)

During the luteal phase and the early months of pregnancy, there is a dense mucosal infiltration of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. These uterine NK cells have a phenotype (CD56bright, CD16-, mCD3-) which distinguishes them from peripheral blood NK cells (CD56dim, CD16bright, mCD3-). The uterine NK cells are in close association with extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells which infiltrate into the decidua and maternal spiral arteries. This subpopulation of trophoblast expresses two human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, HLA-G and HLA-C. Circulating NK cells express receptors for HLA class I molecules. We have recently found evidence that similar receptors are present on decidual NK cells belonging to both the Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR) and CD94 families. The repertoire of NK receptors expressed varies between different women. The findings indicate that decidual NK cells do have receptors for trophoblast HLA class I molecules. Experiments are underway to determine the effects of this interaction on NK cell function.  (+info)

The CTLA-4 gene is expressed in placental fibroblasts. (5/2449)

In order to elucidate the mechanisms that ensure survival of the allogeneic fetus, we are investigating the expression pattern of genes that are involved in peripheral self-tolerance in tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation and may modulate peripheral self-tolerance. Previously, we reported the preferential transmission of maternally-inherited shorter alleles at a 3'-UTR microsatellite locus to liveborn children, but random transmission of paternally-inherited alleles, suggesting that CTLA-4 may be involved in the maintenance of tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. In this report, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 mRNA and protein are indeed expressed in fetal tissues at the maternal-fetal interface throughout gestation.  (+info)

Role of proteases in implantation. (6/2449)

Implantation of the embryo into the endometrium is a critical step in the establishment of pregnancy and the failure of embryos to implant is a major limiting factor in the success of reproductive technologies. Furthermore, one or more of the molecules of importance at implantation could provide a suitable target for post-coital contraception. While there is considerable species variation in the extent to which the trophoblast invades the maternal endometrium and makes contact with the maternal blood supply, many of the molecular mechanisms are conserved among species. Three families of protease are involved in the matrix degradation required for implantation: the cysteine, serine and matrix metalloproteinases. Other proteases are required for the activation of regulatory molecules. Although trophoblast from all species appears to have a high invasive potential, this is limited by the presence of partner protease inhibitors, the presence of which provides restraint to this invasion. It is the balance between the proteases and their inhibitors at any focal point that determines the site and extent of trophoblast invasion. This review examines the literature regarding proteases and their inhibitors at early implantation sites across a range of species with very different forms of placentation and evaluates their common features and their dissimilarities.  (+info)

CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5. (7/2449)

The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which may be related to Schwann cell migration and adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade into the endometrium during implantation and placentation. CD9 was detected immunohistochemically on the extravillous trophoblasts in the cell columns of first trimester placentae, but not on villous trophoblasts. In the second and third trimester, CD9 was highly expressed on the extravillous trophoblasts in the basal plate of placentae, and in the chorion laeve in the fetal membrane of term placentae. The molecular mass of CD9 in the chorion laeve was shown to be 27 kDa by Western blotting. The mRNA of CD9 was also detected in the chorion laeve by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteins were purified from chorion laeve by affinity chromatography with anti-integrin alpha3 and alpha5 monoclonal antibodies and Western blotting, revealed that CD9 was associated with both integrins. These findings indicate that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule present in the extravillous trophoblasts. Since it is associated with integrin alpha5 which has been proposed to regulate trophoblast invasion, CD9 may be implicated in trophoblast invasion at the feto-maternal interface.  (+info)

CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (8/2449)

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

Trophoblasts are specialized cells that make up the outer layer of a blastocyst, which is a hollow ball of cells that forms in the earliest stages of embryonic development. In humans, this process occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. The blastocyst consists of an inner cell mass (which will eventually become the embryo) and an outer layer of trophoblasts.

Trophoblasts play a crucial role in implantation, which is the process by which the blastocyst attaches to and invades the lining of the uterus. Once implanted, the trophoblasts differentiate into two main layers: the cytotrophoblasts (which are closer to the inner cell mass) and the syncytiotrophoblasts (which form a multinucleated layer that is in direct contact with the maternal tissues).

The cytotrophoblasts proliferate and fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblasts, which have several important functions. They secrete enzymes that help to degrade and remodel the extracellular matrix of the uterine lining, allowing the blastocyst to implant more deeply. They also form a barrier between the maternal and fetal tissues, helping to protect the developing embryo from the mother's immune system.

Additionally, trophoblasts are responsible for the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products. The syncytiotrophoblasts in particular play a key role in this process by secreting hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which helps to maintain pregnancy, and by forming blood vessels that allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste between the mother and fetus.

Abnormalities in trophoblast development or function can lead to a variety of pregnancy-related complications, including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational trophoblastic diseases such as hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Placentation is the process by which the placenta, an organ that provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products, is formed and develops during pregnancy. It involves the attachment of the fertilized egg (embryo) to the uterine wall and the development of specialized structures that facilitate the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste between the mother and the fetus.

In humans, placentation begins when the embryo implants into the endometrium, or the lining of the uterus, about 6-10 days after fertilization. The outer layer of the embryo, called the trophoblast, invades the endometrial tissue and forms a structure called the placenta.

The placenta consists of both maternal and fetal tissues. The fetal portion of the placenta is derived from the chorionic villi, which are finger-like projections that develop on the surface of the embryo and increase the surface area for exchange. The maternal portion of the placenta is made up of modified endometrial tissue called decidua.

The placenta grows and develops throughout pregnancy, providing a vital connection between the mother and fetus. Proper placentation is essential for a healthy pregnancy and fetal development. Abnormalities in placentation can lead to complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Chorionic villi are finger-like projections of the chorion, which is the outermost extraembryonic membrane in a developing embryo. These structures are composed of both fetal and maternal tissues and play a crucial role in the early stages of pregnancy by providing a site for exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and the developing fetus.

Chorionic villi contain fetal blood vessels that are surrounded by stromal cells, trophoblasts, and connective tissue. They are formed during the process of implantation, when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall. The chorionic villi continue to grow and multiply as the placenta develops, eventually forming a highly vascular and specialized organ that supports fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy.

One important function of chorionic villi is to serve as the site for the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that can be detected in the mother's blood and urine during early pregnancy. This hormone plays a critical role in maintaining pregnancy by signaling the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone, which helps to prevent menstruation and support fetal growth.

Abnormalities in chorionic villi can lead to various pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or intrauterine growth restriction. For this reason, chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a diagnostic procedure that may be performed during early pregnancy to obtain fetal cells for genetic testing and diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic disorders.

Choriocarcinoma is a rapidly growing and invasive type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which are abnormal growths that develop in the tissues that are supposed to become the placenta during pregnancy. It occurs when a malignant tumor develops from trophoblast cells, which are normally found in the developing embryo and help to form the placenta.

Choriocarcinoma can occur after any type of pregnancy, including normal pregnancies, molar pregnancies (a rare mass that forms inside the uterus after conception), or ectopic pregnancies (when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus). It is characterized by the presence of both trophoblastic and cancerous cells, which can produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone.

Choriocarcinoma can spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, brain, or vagina, through the bloodstream. It is important to diagnose and treat choriocarcinoma early to prevent serious complications and improve the chances of a successful treatment outcome. Treatment typically involves surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

The decidua is a specialized type of tissue that lines the uterus during pregnancy. It forms after the implantation of a fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterine lining, and it plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.

The decidua is composed of several layers, including the decidual capsularis, which surrounds the embryo, and the decidual parietalis, which lines the rest of the uterus. The tissue is rich in blood vessels and contains a variety of immune cells that help to protect the developing fetus from infection.

During pregnancy, the decidua produces various hormones and growth factors that support the growth of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, the decidua is shed along with the placenta in a process called childbirth or parturition.

It's worth noting that abnormalities in the decidua can contribute to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

"Pregnancy proteins" is not a standard medical term, but it may refer to specific proteins that are produced or have increased levels during pregnancy. Two common pregnancy-related proteins are:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): A hormone produced by the placenta shortly after fertilization. It is often detected in urine or blood tests to confirm pregnancy. Its primary function is to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen during early pregnancy until the placenta takes over these functions.

2. Pregnancy-Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (SP1): A protein produced by the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy. Its function is not well understood, but it may play a role in implantation, placentation, and protection against the mother's immune system. SP1 levels increase throughout pregnancy and are used as a marker for fetal growth and well-being.

These proteins have clinical significance in monitoring pregnancy progression, detecting potential complications, and diagnosing certain pregnancy-related conditions.

HLA-G antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins from inside the cell to the surface, where they can be recognized by the immune system's T-cells.

HLA-G antigens are primarily expressed in fetal tissues, including trophoblast cells that make up the placenta, and are involved in protecting the fetus from rejection by the mother's immune system during pregnancy. They have also been found to have immunosuppressive effects in other contexts, such as in cancer and transplantation.

HLA-G antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or "alleles" of the HLA-G gene that can be inherited from each parent. These genetic differences can affect the structure and function of the HLA-G molecule and may have implications for disease susceptibility and immune responses.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder, typically characterized by the onset of high blood pressure (hypertension) and damage to organs, such as the kidneys, after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is often accompanied by proteinuria, which is the presence of excess protein in the urine. Pre-eclampsia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated or unmanaged.

The exact causes of pre-eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is believed that placental issues, genetic factors, and immune system problems may contribute to its development. Risk factors include first-time pregnancies, history of pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies, chronic hypertension, obesity, older age (35 or older), and assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies.

Pre-eclampsia can progress to a more severe form called eclampsia, which is characterized by the onset of seizures. HELLP syndrome, another severe complication, involves hemolysis (breaking down of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

Early detection and management of pre-eclampsia are crucial to prevent severe complications. Regular prenatal care, including frequent blood pressure checks and urine tests, can help identify early signs of the condition. Treatment typically involves close monitoring, medication to lower blood pressure, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity, and, in some cases, delivery of the baby if the mother's or baby's health is at risk.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Giant cells are large, multinucleated cells that result from the fusion of monocytes or macrophages. They can be found in various types of inflammatory and degenerative lesions, including granulomas, which are a hallmark of certain diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. There are several types of giant cells, including:

1. Langhans giant cells: These have a horseshoe-shaped or crescentic arrangement of nuclei around the periphery of the cell. They are typically found in granulomas associated with infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and histoplasmosis.
2. Foreign body giant cells: These form in response to the presence of foreign material, such as a splinter or suture, in tissue. The nuclei are usually scattered throughout the cell cytoplasm.
3. Touton giant cells: These are found in certain inflammatory conditions, such as xanthomatosis and granulomatous slack skin. They have a central core of lipid-laden histiocytes surrounded by a ring of nuclei.
4. Osteoclast giant cells: These are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption. They can be found in conditions such as giant cell tumors of bone and Paget's disease.

It is important to note that the presence of giant cells alone does not necessarily indicate a specific diagnosis, and their significance must be interpreted within the context of the overall clinical and pathological findings.

A blastocyst is a stage in the early development of a fertilized egg, or embryo, in mammals. It occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization and consists of an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts, which will eventually form the placenta, and an inner cell mass, which will give rise to the fetus. The blastocyst is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. This stage is critical for the implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.

The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane that surrounds the developing conceptus (the embryo or fetus and its supporting structures). It forms early in pregnancy as an extraembryonic structure, meaning it arises from cells that will not become part of the actual body of the developing organism. The chorion plays a crucial role in pregnancy by contributing to the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the growing embryo/fetus and removes waste products.

One of the most important functions of the chorion is to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that signals the presence of pregnancy and maintains the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for preparing the uterus for implantation and maintaining the pregnancy.

The chorion consists of two layers: an inner cytotrophoblast layer and an outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. The cytotrophoblast layer is made up of individual cells, while the syncytiotrophoblast layer is a multinucleated mass of fused cytotrophoblast cells. These layers interact with the maternal endometrium (the lining of the uterus) to form the placenta and facilitate exchange between the mother and the developing fetus.

In summary, the chorion is a vital extraembryonic structure in pregnancy that contributes to the formation of the placenta, produces hCG, and interacts with the maternal endometrium to support fetal development.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

Placental lactogen is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy in humans and some other mammals. It is similar in structure to human growth hormone and prolactin, and has both growth-promoting and lactogenic (milk-producing) properties. Placental lactogen plays an important role in regulating maternal metabolism during pregnancy, promoting the growth and development of the fetus, and preparing the mother's body for lactation after birth. It helps to stimulate the growth of the mammary glands and the production of milk by increasing the availability of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the mother's bloodstream. Placental lactogen also helps to regulate the mother's insulin sensitivity, which can affect her energy levels and the growth of the fetus.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Placental circulation refers to the specialized circulatory system that develops during pregnancy to allow for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother's blood and the fetal blood in the placenta. The placenta is a highly vascular organ that grows within the uterus and is connected to the developing fetus via the umbilical cord.

In the maternal side of the placenta, the spiral arteries branch into smaller vessels called the intervillous spaces, where they come in close contact with the fetal blood vessels within the villi (finger-like projections) of the placenta. The intervillous spaces are filled with maternal blood that flows around the villi, allowing for the exchange of gases and nutrients between the two circulations.

On the fetal side, the umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta, and one umbilical vein that returns oxygenated blood back to the fetus. The umbilical arteries branch into smaller vessels within the villi, where they exchange gases and nutrients with the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces.

Overall, the placental circulation is a crucial component of fetal development, allowing for the growing fetus to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients to support its growth and development.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 (FGF4) is a growth factor that belongs to the fibroblast growth factor family. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Specifically, FGF4 has been implicated in the development of the musculoskeletal system, where it helps regulate the growth and patterning of limbs and bones.

FGF4 exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, known as fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). This interaction triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

In addition to its role in development, FGF4 has also been implicated in various pathological processes, including cancer. For example, elevated levels of FGF4 have been observed in certain types of tumors, where it may contribute to tumor growth and progression by promoting the survival and proliferation of cancer cells.

A hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy, is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which is a group of rare disorders that involve abnormal growth of the placental tissue.

In a hydatidiform mole, there is an abnormal fertilization event leading to the growth of a mass of grapelike cysts in the uterus instead of a normal pregnancy. The chromosomes from the sperm and egg do not combine properly, resulting in an extra set of chromosomes, which leads to the development of the mole.

Hydatidiform moles can be complete or partial:

* Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM): This type arises when an egg without a nucleus is fertilized by one or two sperm, leading to the growth of abnormal placental tissue with no embryo. The chromosomes come from the father only, and there are typically 46 chromosomes, all of paternal origin.
* Partial hydatidiform mole (PHM): This type occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or a single sperm that duplicates itself, resulting in an abnormal placenta with some fetal tissue. The chromosomes are of both maternal and paternal origin, and the placental tissue has a mix of normal and abnormal cells.

Hydatidiform moles can cause vaginal bleeding, rapid uterine enlargement, and high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone in the blood. They are usually detected during an ultrasound exam and require medical treatment to prevent complications such as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, a malignant form of GTD that can spread to other organs.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Keratin-7 is not a medical term itself, but it is a specific type of keratin protein that is often used in pathology as a marker for certain types of carcinomas. Keratins are a family of fibrous proteins that make up the structural framework of epithelial cells, which line the surfaces and glands of the body.

Keratin-7 is typically expressed in simple epithelia, such as those found in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, bile ducts, and respiratory and genitourinary tracts. It can be used as a marker to help identify carcinomas that arise from these tissues, such as adenocarcinomas of the pancreas or biliary system.

In medical terminology, keratin-7 positivity is often reported in the pathology report of a biopsy or surgical specimen to indicate the presence of this protein in cancer cells. This information can be helpful in determining the origin and behavior of the tumor, as well as guiding treatment decisions.

Trophoblastic neoplasms are a group of rare tumors that originate from the trophoblast, which is the outer layer of cells that surrounds a developing embryo and helps to form the placenta during pregnancy. These tumors can be benign or malignant and are characterized by their ability to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that is normally produced during pregnancy.

There are several types of trophoblastic neoplasms, including:

1. Hydatidiform mole: A benign growth that forms in the uterus when a fertilized egg implants but does not develop into a normal embryo. There are two types of hydatidiform moles: complete and partial. Complete moles have no fetal tissue, while partial moles have some fetal tissue.
2. Invasive mole: A malignant form of hydatidiform mole that invades the uterine wall and may spread to other parts of the body.
3. Choriocarcinoma: A rapidly growing and highly invasive malignant tumor that can arise from a hydatidiform mole, a normal pregnancy, or an ectopic pregnancy. It can spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, and brain.
4. Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT): A rare type of trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from the cells that attach the placenta to the uterine wall. It is usually slow-growing but can be aggressive in some cases.
5. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT): Another rare type of trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from the cells that form the placental villi. It is typically low-grade and has a good prognosis, but it can recur in some cases.

The treatment for trophoblastic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular monitoring of hCG levels is also important to ensure that the tumor has been completely removed and to detect any recurrence early.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Fetal growth retardation, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a condition in which a fetus fails to grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by various factors such as maternal health problems, placental insufficiency, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic disorders. The fetus may be smaller than expected for its gestational age, have reduced movement, and may be at risk for complications during labor and delivery. It is important to monitor fetal growth and development closely throughout pregnancy to detect any potential issues early on and provide appropriate medical interventions.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Tubal pregnancy, also known as an ectopic pregnancy, is a type of pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg implants and starts to develop in the tube instead of the uterine lining. This condition is not viable and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The symptoms of a tubal pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, dizziness or fainting, and pelvic discomfort or tenderness. If you suspect that you have a tubal pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment options for tubal pregnancies include medication or surgery to remove the embryo and repair or remove the affected fallopian tube.

Extraembryonic membranes are specialized structures that form around the developing embryo in utero and provide vital support and protection during fetal development. There are three main extraembryonic membranes: the amnion, the chorion, and the allantois.

The amnion is the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo itself, forming a fluid-filled sac known as the amniotic cavity. This sac provides a protective cushion for the developing embryo and helps to regulate its temperature and moisture levels.

The chorion is the outermost of the extraembryonic membranes, and it forms the boundary between the developing fetus and the mother's uterine wall. The chorion contains blood vessels that exchange nutrients and waste products with the mother's circulation, allowing for the growth and development of the fetus.

The allantois is a small membranous sac that arises from the developing fetal gut and eventually becomes part of the umbilical cord. It serves as a reservoir for fetal urine and helps to exchange waste products between the fetal and maternal circulations.

Together, these extraembryonic membranes play a critical role in supporting fetal development and ensuring a healthy pregnancy.

A Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site (also known as Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor or PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which are tumors that develop from the tissue that would normally become the placenta during pregnancy.

PSTT originates from the intermediate trophoblast cells, which invade the uterine wall and cause bleeding at the site of implantation during a normal pregnancy. These tumors typically occur in women who have had a prior pregnancy, with a median age of diagnosis around 35 years old.

PSTTs are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms for an extended period. However, some common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, irregular menstrual periods, or pelvic pain. In rare cases, PSTT can metastasize to other organs such as the lungs, liver, or brain.

The diagnosis of PSTT is made through a combination of imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI) and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained via biopsy or curettage. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy in cases where there is evidence of metastasis or high-risk features. Regular follow-up with serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels and imaging studies is essential to monitor for recurrence.

Embryo loss is a medical term that refers to the miscarriage or spontaneous abortion of an embryo, which is the developing offspring from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of pregnancy. Embryo loss can occur at any point during this period and may be caused by various factors such as chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health issues, infections, environmental factors, or lifestyle habits.

Embryo loss is a common occurrence, with up to 30% of pregnancies ending in miscarriage, many of which happen before the woman even realizes she is pregnant. In most cases, embryo loss is a natural process that occurs when the body detects an abnormality or problem with the developing embryo and terminates the pregnancy to prevent further complications. However, recurrent embryo loss can be a sign of underlying medical issues and may require further evaluation and treatment.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The invasion of a specific type of trophoblast (extravillous trophoblast) into the maternal uterus is a vital stage in the ... cytotrophoblasts in the tips of villi can differentiate into another type of trophoblast called the extravillous trophoblast. ... Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are cells that can regenerate and they are similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the fact ... Failure of the trophoblast to invade sufficiently is important in the development of some cases of pre-eclampsia. Invasion of ...
Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), are one form of differentiated trophoblast cells of the placenta. They are invasive ... Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells migrate from anchoring villi, and invade into the decidua basalis. Their main function is ... EVTs derive from progenitor cytotrophoblasts (CYTs), as does the other main trophoblast subtype, syncytiotrophoblast (SYN). ... They are sometimes called intermediate trophoblast. EVTs that derive from CYT cells on the surface of placental chorionic villi ...
... differentiated from villous intermediate trophoblast The function of the implantation site intermediate trophoblast is to ... differentiated from villous intermediate trophoblast Chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast at chorionic laeve of fetal ... Intermediate trophoblast is a distinct subtype of trophoblastic tissue that arises from the cytotrophoblast. It is sub- ... Villous intermediate trophoblast polyhedral and uniform nuclei prominent cell border; abundant eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm ...
Trophoblast cells, found in the human placenta, produce many different types of microRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs play a role in ... They are also expressed highly in trophoblast-derived vesicles, including exosomes. C19MC miRNAs have been shown to be among ... Some placental cell lines derived from trophoblasts also express C19MC miRNA, including the choriocarcinoma lines JEG3, JAr, ... Doridot L, Miralles F, Barbaux S, Vaiman D (November 2013). "Trophoblasts, invasion, and microRNA". Frontiers in Genetics. 4: ...
It has even been proposed that uNK contributes to the protection of extravillous trophoblast (EVT), important cells that ... Soares MJ, Varberg KM (2018). "Trophoblast". Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second ed.). pp. 417-423. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ... Secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells and maternal uterine immune cells, within the decidua, work ... which is believed to have an immunosuppressive effect through modulation of leukocyte response to trophoblasts. KIRs are ...
In the late blastocyst the trophectoderm is known as the trophoblast. The trophoblast gives rise to the chorion and amnion, the ... Trophoblasts express integrin on their cell surfaces which allow for adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the uterine wall. ... Trophoblast cells also secrete factors to make the blastocoel. After implantation, cytotrophoblast is the inner layer of the ... During implantation, the trophoblast gives rise to extraembryonic membranes and cell types that will eventually form most of ...
cffDNA originates from placental trophoblasts. Fetal DNA is fragmented when placental microparticles are shed into the maternal ... confirmation that the origin is the trophoblast". Prenatal Diagnosis. Wiley-Blackwell. 27 (5): 415-8. doi:10.1002/pd.1700. PMID ...
Trophoblast are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large ... "Trophoblast - embryology". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary > trophectoderm Retrieved August 2010 Jia, Huanxiang; Xu, Ming ... MAP3K4 controls the activity of CBP histone acetyltransferase which acetylates histones H2A and H2B to maintain the trophoblast ... "MAP3K4/CBP-Regulated H2B Acetylation Controls Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Trophoblast Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 8 ( ...
ISBN 978-3-527-60528-6. Duttaroy, Asim K.; Basak, Sanjay (October 2016). Human Placental Trophoblasts: Impact of Maternal ...
Strong staining was observed in placental trophoblasts. Lymphoid tissues, glial cells and myocytes were weakly stained or ...
The blastomeres in the blastocyst are arranged into an outer layer called the trophoblast. The trophoblast then differentiates ... The trophoblast will also develop two sub-layers: the cytotrophoblast, which is in front of the syncytiotrophoblast, which in ... Both the embryoblast and the trophoblast will turn into two sub-layers. The inner cells will turn into the hypoblast layer, ... At the end of the second week of development, some cells of the trophoblast penetrate and form rounded columns into the ...
"Centre for Trophoblast Research". Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology website ResearchGate page providing an updated list ... the Centre for Trophoblast Research, a major international centre for placental research including >20 research groups), the ...
There are three different types of trophoblasts: cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts, and intermediate trophoblasts. Each of ... Trophoblast Research - Volume 39. 116: 38-42. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2021.02.013. PMID 33685753. S2CID 232161179. Di Fiore R, ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by the trophoblast and can be measured in both urine and blood. Another ... It is based on clinical findings and the identification of a malignant trophoblast. One prevalent symptom is vaginal bleeding ...
These cells differentiate into many placental cells types, including extravillous trophoblast cells. Extravillous trophoblast ... This impairs extravillus trophoblast cells invasion to the maternal spiral arteries, causing high resistance and low blood flow ... After the first trimester trophoblasts enter the spiral arteries of the mother to alter the spiral arteries and thereby gain ... When paternally inherited, DLX5 and its SNP rs73708843 are shown to play a role in trophoblast proliferation, affecting ...
Administrator (2015-11-18). "Michelle L Oyen". www.trophoblast.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2022-03-23. Smith, Matt (2 February 2021 ...
Trophoblast glycoprotein, also known as TPBG, 5T4, Wnt-Activated Inhibitory Factor 1 or WAIF1, is a human protein encoded by a ... "Entrez Gene: TPBG trophoblast glycoprotein". Zhao Y, Malinauskas T, Harlos K, Jones EY (Apr 2014). "Structural insights into ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ... "Isolation of a cDNA encoding 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein. An antigen associated with metastasis contains leucine- ...
Beard believed that the following about the trophoblast: 1) The trophoblast represented the larval phase of human development 2 ... In response to the irresponsible trophoblast's properties, Beard advocated the use of pancreatic enzymes to treat cancer. In ... These problematic germ cells ultimately developed into an "irresponsible trophoblast", as coined by Beard. This term implied ... Ross, Colin A. (5 November 2014). "The Trophoblast Model of Cancer". Nutrition and Cancer. 67 (1): 61-67. doi:10.1080/ ...
Aplin JD, Kimber SJ (July 2004). "Trophoblast-uterine interactions at implantation". Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2 ...
Inflammatory cells of maternal origin could access the foetal villous stoma in multiple ways: The villous trophoblast barrier ... Labarrere C, Faulk W (1990). "MHC Class II Reactivity of Human Villous Trophoblast in Chronic Inflammation of Unestablished ... "Trophoblast interaction with fibrin matrix. Epithelialization of perivillous fibrin deposits as a mechanism for villous repair ... villi lose their layer of continuous epithelial syncytiotrophoblast as the villi mature into invasive intermediate trophoblasts ...
Trophoblast cells of the placenta were found to be important in facilitating blood flow to the uterus. Moffett has come out ... Moffett has been at the forefront of research into the immunology of trophoblast invasion and its role in placentation for over ... These genes are involved in chemical signalling between placenta trophoblast cells and natural killer immune cells. In 2018, ... the culture of human trophoblast cells and the link between KIR/HLA-C variants to pre-eclampsia, puerperal sepsis and ...
Mouillet JF, Chu T, Nelson DM, Mishima T, Sadovsky Y (2010). "MiR-205 silences MED1 in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts". ... Mouillet JF, Chu T, Nelson DM, Mishima T, Sadovsky Y (2010). "MiR-205 silences MED1 in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts". ... and silences MED1 expression in human trophoblasts exposed to hypoxia. microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles are being ...
"MiR-205 silences MED1 in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts". FASEB Journal. 24 (6): 2030-9. doi:10.1096/fj.09-149724. PMC ...
It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with ... HLA-F is also expressed in decidual extravillous trophoblasts. During pregnancy, HLA-F interacts with T reg cells and ... extravillous trophoblast cells). Its expression increases and translocated onto the cell surface during the second trimester, ... extravillous trophoblasts mediating maternal tolerance to the fetus. During the interaction between HLA-F and the heavy chain ( ...
Dempsey LA, Plummer TB, Coombes SL, Platt JL (2000). "Heparanase expression in invasive trophoblasts and acute vascular damage ...
Morrish DW, Dakour J, Li H (August 1998). "Functional regulation of human trophoblast differentiation". Journal of Reproductive ... gene stimulates the formation of a non-mitotic multinucleate syncytium from proliferative cytotrophoblasts during trophoblast ...
Green JA, Xie S, Roberts RM (January 1998). "Pepsin-related molecules secreted by trophoblast". Rev. Reprod. 3 (1): 62-9. doi: ...
In the placenta, TRPV6 is expressed in trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. In mice, TRPV6 mRNA and protein are expressed in ... Loss of TRPV6 in murine placenta severely impairs Ca2+ transport across trophoblast and reduces embryo growth, induces bone ... trophoblasts fluid shear stress (FSS) is known to induce a TRPV6-mediated Ca2+ influx and promote microvilli formation through ... "Expression of calcium channels along the differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells from human term placenta". Biology of ...
"Evidence that extravillous trophoblast fusion into multinuclear trophoblast giant cells involves a mesenchymal-epithelial ... PIF also has a series of anti-apoptotic impacts in human extravillous trophoblasts, mediated by the TP53 gene. Apoptosis is a ... Trophoblast cells form the outer lining of the blastocyst in preimplantation development, eventually forming more ... PIF is thought to modulate and facilitate the depth of the trophoblast's invasion into the uterus at physiological doses. ...
Moss Ralph W. (December 2008). "Enzymes, trophoblasts, and cancer: the afterlife of an idea (1924-2008)". Integrative Cancer ... that all forms of cancer arise from undifferentiated cells called trophoblasts. Krebs Sr. revived this theory by the ...
Belkacemi L, Gariépy G, Mounier C, Simoneau L, Lafond J (June 2003). "Expression of calbindin-D28k (CaBP28k) in trophoblasts ...
The invasion of a specific type of trophoblast (extravillous trophoblast) into the maternal uterus is a vital stage in the ... cytotrophoblasts in the tips of villi can differentiate into another type of trophoblast called the extravillous trophoblast. ... Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are cells that can regenerate and they are similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the fact ... Failure of the trophoblast to invade sufficiently is important in the development of some cases of pre-eclampsia. Invasion of ...
... abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA ... NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation Hum Mol Genet. 2014 ... abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA ... Reduced NLRP7 levels alter DNA methylation and accelerate trophoblast lineage differentiation. NLRP7 thus appears to function ...
... pattern in the DNA ploidy histograms of hydatidiform moles and nonmolar abortuses is caused by accumulation of trophoblasts in ...
BMP4-directed trophoblast differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is mediated through a DeltaNp63+ cytotrophoblast stem ... Little is known about early trophoblast differentiation in the human embryo, owing to lack of a proper in vitro model system. ... We also establish that, similar to in vivo events, hESC differentiation into trophoblast is characterized by a p63+/KRT7+ CTB ... Taken together, our results establish that BMP4-treated hESCs are an excellent model of human trophoblast differentiation, ...
View the Gabrielle Rizzuto Lab page for The immunology of trophoblast tumors. ... Gestational trophoblast-derived tumors are relatively rare cancers that can arise post-pregnancy. The most common subtype, ... Choriocarcinoma most often arises after a non-viable "molar" pregnancy where the trophoblast cells contain only paternal DNA. ... Then, we will use our immunologic tools (antigen tetramers, etc) to interrogate host immune responses to trophoblast tumor ...
Wnt3a Activates the WNT-YAP/TAZ Pathway to Sustain CDX2 Expression in Bovine Trophoblast Stem Cells.. Wang C, Han X, Zhou Z, ... Wnt3a Activates the WNT-YAP/TAZ Pathway to Sustain CDX2 Expression in Bovine Trophoblast Stem Cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2019. ...
Hypoxia potentiates trophoblast column outgrowth. To test the effect of exposure to differing levels of oxygen on trophoblast ... DCT, distal column trophoblast; MC, mesenchymal core; PCT, proximal column trophoblast. Scale bars: 100 µm. ... DCT, distal column trophoblast; MC, mesenchymal core; PCT, proximal column trophoblast. Scale bars: 100 µm. ... Shown are annotations of trophoblast/placental subtypes: CTB, cytotrophoblast; DCT; distal column trophoblast; MC, mesenchymal ...
During implantation the embryo attaches to the endometrial surface and trophoblast traverses the uterine epithelium, anchoring ... When trophoblast cells were lysed with NH(4)OH on day 8, it was apparent that the area underneath the trophoblast outgrowth had ... Degradation of extracellular matrix by mouse trophoblast outgrowths: a model for implantation RH Glass, RH Glass ... RH Glass, J Aggeler, A Spindle, RA Pederson, Z Werb; Degradation of extracellular matrix by mouse trophoblast outgrowths: a ...
Senescence In Genotoxic Amniocytes And Stressed Trophoblasts Home ‹ 2012 Abstracts ‹ Senescence In Genotoxic Amniocytes And ... We also assessed the presence of SAHF in trophoblasts from pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=12) and from pregnancies ... Conclusion: Increased SAHF formation in amniocytes and in trophoblasts that were previously found to express shorter telomeres ... We studied senescence in amniocytes and placentas from aneuploidic fetuses, in trophoblasts from IUGR fetuses, and from ...
Trophoblast Stem Cells. / Oda, Mayumi; Shiota, Kunio; Tanaka, Satoshi. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 419, 2006, p. 387-400.. ... In the trophoblast cell lineage, a subset of the trophectoderm cells maintains the capacity to proliferate and contribute to ... In the trophoblast cell lineage, a subset of the trophectoderm cells maintains the capacity to proliferate and contribute to ... In the trophoblast cell lineage, a subset of the trophectoderm cells maintains the capacity to proliferate and contribute to ...
Placenta Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) International Federation of Placenta Associations (IFPA) The International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy The Evelyn Trust Reproductive BioMedicine Online Society for Gynecological Investigation
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4 and trophoblast stem cells5. We define the transcriptomes of the final cell states of trophoblast invasion: placental bed ... Extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) derived from placental villi infiltrate the decidua, transforming the maternal arteries ... Defects in trophoblast invasion and arterial transformation established during early pregnancy underlie common pregnancy ... Together, our data provide a comprehensive analysis of postimplantation trophoblast differentiation that can be used to inform ...
Quantifying the syncytialisation of human placental trophoblast BeWo cells grown in vitro ... Quantifying the syncytialisation of human placental trophoblast BeWo cells grown in vitro ...
... Nature 586, 101-107 (2020) doi:10.1038/s41586-020- ...
... the dataset contains cells within the trophoblast lineage between pre-implantation trophoblast and second trimester trophoblast ... Our human trophoblast atlas provides a powerful analytical resource to delineate trophoblast cell fate acquisition, to ... A molecular atlas of human trophoblast development to mid-gestation. To track trophoblast lineage specification during human ... where yij is the expression of a gene i in a cell j along the trophoblast trajectory, μij and σij are the mean and standard ...
9) Trophoblast external to barrier. The only "invasion" of uterine tissue occurs at the chorionic girdle with the development ... eCG is definitely now known to be produced by the trophoblast of the chorionic girdle. The cells can be cultured in vitro and ... There is vascular proliferation and an excess of trophoblast. Higher magnification of previous photograph to show the abnormal ... Here, trophoblast invades the endometrium, destroys its epithelium and elicits an intense, yet transitory, lymphocellular and ...
9) Trophoblast external to barrier. There is none.. 10) Endometrium. True decidual transformation of the endometrium does not ... Note the prominent trophoblast beneath the vascular chorionic plate. 6) Umbilical cord. The umbilical cord contains 4 large ... A small amount of pigment, typical of the pigment of the "hematophagous organ" can be found in foci of trophoblast beneath the ... Occasional binucleate cells interrupt the cuboidal trophoblast of the villous surface. The fetal capillaries protrude ...
Altered protein O‑GlcNAcylation in placentas from mothers with diabetes causes aberrant endocytosis in placental trophoblast ... Altered protein O‑GlcNAcylation in placentas from mothers with diabetes causes aberrant endocytosis in placental trophoblast ... Altered protein O‑GlcNAcylation in placentas from mothers with diabetes causes aberrant endocytosis in placental trophoblast ... Altered protein O‑GlcNAcylation in placentas from mothers with diabetes causes aberrant endocytosis in placental trophoblast ...
4. Regulation of the Primary Human Trophoblast Cell Secretome by Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling [C] . Susan T ... 1. Hedgehog signaling through GLI1 and GLI2 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human trophoblasts [J] . Tang ... Hedgehog signaling through GLI1 and GLI2 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human trophoblasts 展開▼ ... Here, we investigated the effects of hedgehog (HH) signaling on EMT in human trophoblasts, and further explored the underlying ...
Methods: In this in vitro study, trophoblast cells were divided into six groups, the control group (trophoblast cells were ... Curcumin induces apoptosis in trophoblast model cell line * Tatit Nurseta Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Faculty of ... Keywords: apoptosis, curcumin, eNOS, hydatidiform mole, trophoblast Abstract. Background: Several studies have reported that ... Curcumin induces apoptosis in trophoblast model cell line. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2018Sep.9 [cited 2023Dec.5];27(2):87â 93. ...
Normal function of placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVT), which are responsible for uteroplacental vascular remodeling, is ... Ashar, Yunali V., "PALMITIC ACID IMPEDES EXTRAVILLOUS TROPHOBLAST ACTIVITY BY INCREASING MRP1 EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION" (2022). ... Normal function of placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVT), which are responsible for uteroplacental vascular remodeling, is ... PALMITIC ACID IMPEDES EXTRAVILLOUS TROPHOBLAST ACTIVITY BY INCREASING MRP1 EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION ...
Dino Guissani Abstract Heart disease remains one of the greatest killers. In addition to genetics and traditional lifestyle risk factors, we now understand that adverse conditions during pregnancy can also increase susceptibility to cardiovascular disease in the offspring.
Activation of Lyn, a Src-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, in trophoblast cells is associated with trophoblast giant cell ... Gestational bisphenol S impairs placental endocrine function and the fusogenic trophoblast signaling pathway. نویسندگان. * ... The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway modulates the endocrine differentiation of trophoblast cells. ... IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report III: trophoblast deportation, gestational trophoblastic disease, placental insufficiency and ...
chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation (GO:0097360) negative regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation is_a ... GO:1901382 regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation * GO:1901383 negative regulation of chorionic trophoblast ... negative regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation is_a regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation (GO ... down regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation, down-regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation, ...
Little knowledge exists about CK patterns in human trophoblast subpopulations (villous and extravillous trophoblasts). To ... Differentiation of human trophoblast populations involves alterations in cytokeratin patterns. July 1995 · Journal of ... Our study shows for the first time that the different populations of human placental trophoblast express cytokeratins in ... better understand differentiation and function of trophoblast components, we studied the distribution patterns of CKs in the ...
Establishment of human induced trophoblast stem cells via reprogramming of fibroblasts. Author: Tan, J.P.. Liu, X.. Polo, J.M. ... In a recent study, we showed that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into induced trophoblast stem (iTS) cells by ... Our protocol allows researchers to generate patient-specific iTS cells to interrogate the trophoblast and placenta biology as ... Trophoblasts. Animals. Mammals. Humans. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Differentiation. Pregnancy. Female. Octamer Transcription ...
The Gag protein PEG10 binds to RNA and regulates trophoblast stem cell lineage specification.. ...
Fgf and Esrrb integrate epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate self-renewal of trophoblast stem cells *Paulina A ... Fgf and Esrrb integrate epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate self-renewal of trophoblast stem cells. Nat. ...
Trophoblast--Differentiation; Cell differentiation--Molecular aspects; Integrins; Cellular signal transduction.. Medical ... In human placenta, ILK was present in cytotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast in the first trimester (n=17), early second ... Elustondo, Pia Alejandra (2012) The expression and role of integrin-linked kinase during human trophoblast differentiation. ... A critical phase of placental development is the differentiation of cytotrophoblasts into invasive extravillous trophoblasts. ...
  • These apparently immortal stem cells in culture are termed trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and exhibit the potential to differentiate into multiple trophoblastic cell types in vitro, as well as in vivo. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are cells that can regenerate and they are similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the fact that they come from early on in the trophoblast lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMP4-directed trophoblast differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is mediated through a DeltaNp63+ cytotrophoblast stem cell state. (ca.gov)
  • Its main functional component is the trophoblast, which is derived from extra-embryonic ectoderm. (ca.gov)
  • At the first cell fate decision in mammalian development, the origins of trophoblast and embryonic cell lineages are established as the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass (ICM) in the blastocyst. (elsevierpure.com)
  • During early mammalian embryonic development, trophoblast cells play an essential role in establishing cell-cell interactions at the maternal-fetal interface to ensure a successful pregnancy. (edu.au)
  • Our protocol allows researchers to generate patient-specific iTS cells to interrogate the trophoblast and placenta biology as well as their interactions with embryonic cells in health and diseases. (edu.au)
  • Very early during mammalian development the embryo differentiates into 2 main cell lineages, the inner cell mass (ICM) which will mainly contribute to embryonic tissues, and the trophoblast which will form extra-embryonic tissues. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • Trophoblasts are specialized cells of the placenta that play an important role in embryo implantation and interaction with the decidualized maternal uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common subtype, choriocarcinoma, derives from trophoblast cells of the placenta, shows an incidence of ~0.02-0.07 cases per 1,000 pregnancies, and presents locally in the uterus with or without widespread metastases. (sloankettering.edu)
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease is a pregnancy-associated concept, forming from the villous and extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) derived from placental villi infiltrate the decidua, transforming the maternal arteries into high-conductance vessels1. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Electron microscopy was used to characterize welding fume particle size and the ability of particles to enter extravillous trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo). (cdc.gov)
  • This core is surrounded by two layers of trophoblasts, the cytotrophoblast and the syncytiotrophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously shown that p63, a member of the p53 family of nuclear proteins, is expressed in proliferative cytotrophoblast (CTB), precursors to terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (STB) in chorionic villi and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) at the implantation site. (ca.gov)
  • The progenitor cytotrophoblast of the human placenta can differentiates into one of two main pathways forming either the syncytiotrophoblast or the invasive extravillous trophoblast (EVT). (ispr.org.il)
  • Rbfox2 immunofluorescence was performed on isolated primary trophoblasts differentiated to syncytiotrophoblast. (ispr.org.il)
  • Rbfox2 is expressed in the progenitor epithelial cell cytotrophoblast, reduced in the terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (formed by cell fusion) and conversely, highly expressed in the invasive trophoblasts, known to express mesenchymal cell markers. (ispr.org.il)
  • In humans the placental barriers are composed by the endothelium of the fetal capillaries, and two layers of trophoblast cells, the syncytiotrophoblast, composed of syncytia forming a continuous lining of the villous tree, and the cytotrophoblast, composed of single cells forming a discontinuous layer in the mature placenta (Figure 1). (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway modulates the endocrine differentiation of trophoblast cells. (virascience.com)
  • The purpose of the present work was to use Lyn as a tool to identify signaling pathways regulating the endocrine differentiation of trophoblast cells. (virascience.com)
  • Furthermore, differentiation of trophoblast stem cells in the presence of PFI-3 was markedly enhanced. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The invasion of a specific type of trophoblast (extravillous trophoblast) into the maternal uterus is a vital stage in the establishment of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gestational trophoblast-derived tumors are relatively rare cancers that can arise post-pregnancy. (sloankettering.edu)
  • Choriocarcinoma most often arises after a non-viable "molar" pregnancy where the trophoblast cells contain only paternal DNA. (sloankettering.edu)
  • Spatial multiomics map of trophoblast development in early pregnancy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Defects in trophoblast invasion and arterial transformation established during early pregnancy underlie common pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia2. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We predict the cell-cell communication events contributing to trophoblast invasion and placental bed giant cell formation, and model the dual role of interstitial EVTs and endovascular EVTs in mediating arterial transformation during early pregnancy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Together, our data provide a comprehensive analysis of postimplantation trophoblast differentiation that can be used to inform the design of experimental models of the human placenta in early pregnancy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In total these novel results showed that ILK is present in human and mouse placenta in cells that invade the maternal uterus during pregnancy and that it plays a critical role in the migration and invasion of trophoblasts. (mun.ca)
  • Trophoblasts are multifunctional placental cells critical in pregnancy maintenance and communication between the fetus and mother [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • were the first to assess nanoparticle-like exosomes released from trophoblasts and determine the functional activity of trophoblast exosomes in human uterine spiral artery remodeling by inducing vascular smooth muscle cell migration for successful pregnancy [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the first trimester of pregnancy was reported only for villous cytotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, but not for syncytiotrophoblasts. (springer.com)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin on apoptosis, proliferation, and nuclear translocation of endothelial nitricoxide synthase in trophoblast cells induced by estradiol in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). (ui.ac.id)
  • Curcumin inhibits the proliferation and modulates the apoptosis of trophoblast cells induced by estradiol in CHM involvement. (ui.ac.id)
  • Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. (planteome.org)
  • Link to all annotated objects annotated to negative regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. (planteome.org)
  • Link to all direct and indirect annotations to negative regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. (planteome.org)
  • Here, we demonstrated a preconditioning strategy with trophoblast stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (TSC-EVs) to boost the proliferation and regenerative capacity of MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to investigate modulation of glucose uptake by the HTR-8/SVneo human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line by a series of compounds and to study its consequences upon cell proliferation, viability and migration. (ucp.pt)
  • Marked proliferation of the trophoblasts is observed. (medscape.com)
  • In human placenta, ILK was present in cytotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast in the first trimester (n=17), early second trimester (n=6) and at term (n=10). (mun.ca)
  • After implantation, self-renewal and proliferative cytotrophoblasts appear in the early first trimester (6-9 weeks) and can help identify trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mild steel and stainless steel welding fumes elicit pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects in first trimester trophoblast cells. (cdc.gov)
  • We are beginning our investigation into this relatively unchartered area by establishing a mouse trophoblast tumor model. (sloankettering.edu)
  • A critical phase of placental development is the differentiation of cytotrophoblasts into invasive extravillous trophoblasts. (mun.ca)
  • We also assessed the presence of SAHF in trophoblasts from pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=12) and from pregnancies complicated by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus [DM] (n=10) and compared them to gestational-age-matched controls from uncomplicated pregnancies (n=12). (ispr.org.il)
  • IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report III: trophoblast deportation, gestational trophoblastic disease, placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction, trophoblast over-invasion and accreta-related pathologies, placental thrombosis and fibrinolysis. (virascience.com)
  • Gestational and nongestational trophoblasts are by far the most common sources of hCG, but a small amount of the hormone may also be produced by the pituitary gland and nontrophoblastic malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • After blastulation, the trophoblast is contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo and is referred to as the trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the first differentiation, the cells in the human embryo lose their totipotency because they can no longer form a trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about early trophoblast differentiation in the human embryo, owing to lack of a proper in vitro model system. (ca.gov)
  • During implantation the embryo attaches to the endometrial surface and trophoblast traverses the uterine epithelium, anchoring in the uterine connective tissue. (rupress.org)
  • Invasion of the trophoblast too deeply may cause conditions such as placenta accreta, placenta increta, or placenta percreta. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether trophoblast can facilitate invasion of the uterus by degrading components of normal uterine extracellular matrix, mouse blastocysts were cultured on a radio-labeled extracellular matrix that contained glycoproteins, elastin, and collagen. (rupress.org)
  • We have used this cellular map to infer the possible transcription factors mediating EVT invasion and show that they are preserved in in vitro models of EVT differentiation from primary trophoblast organoids3,4 and trophoblast stem cells5. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We define the transcriptomes of the final cell states of trophoblast invasion: placental bed giant cells (fused multinucleated EVTs) and endovascular EVTs (which form plugs inside the maternal arteries). (cam.ac.uk)
  • In this in vitro study, trophoblast cells were divided into six groups, the control group (trophoblast cells were exposed to 100 pg/mL of 17-β estradiol) and the treatment group (trophoblast cells were exposed to 100 pg/mL of 17-β estradiol in the presence of curcumin with doses: 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM). (ui.ac.id)
  • The interaction between the cell types was simulated in vitro by growing primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells together (co-culture) and separately (control cultures). (regionh.dk)
  • The objective of this study was to identify such differentially expressed genes.MethodsThe interaction between the cell types was simulated in vitro by growing primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells together (co-culture) and separately (control cultures). (regionh.dk)
  • ED(27) trophoblast-like cells were prepared from human chorionic villus samples obtained at 9 weeks gestation and have been grown continuously in vitro without phenotypic drift for nearly a decade. (edu.au)
  • In vitro experimental models to study the efficiency of the placental barrier for environmental toxicants: tumor cell lines versus trophoblast primary cells. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • Several trophoblast cell lines have been developed for in vitro studies of trophoblast physiology and in the following paragraphs we will give a brief overview on the cells have been used to develop in vitro models of the placental barrier. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • Several trophoblast cell lines have been developed and used to reproduce in vitro the trophoblast layer of the placenta. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • They consist of proliferations of villous trophoblasts. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In addition, cytotrophoblasts in the tips of villi can differentiate into another type of trophoblast called the extravillous trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was not HLA-G, however, as would be expected if these cells originated from extravillous cytotrophoblasts, but rather classical HLA-A, B which is thought not to be expressed by any trophoblast subpopulations. (edu.au)
  • A recent study supports the pivotal role of trophoblast exosomes in that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from TSCs promote fertility by regulating endometrial cell receptivity [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twelve transcripts were identified as being differentially expressed following the interaction between trophoblast and endometrial cells. (regionh.dk)
  • These sequences may be important to the course of events following the interaction between endometrial epithelial and trophoblast cells and responsible for implantation. (regionh.dk)
  • supporting data for 'The role of endometrial gland in regulating trophoblast functions and its association with the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. (hku.hk)
  • Many of these cell lines have been obtained from a highly metastatic malignant tumor of the trophoblast, the choriocarcinoma, and have been extensively characterized. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • In the placenta, these stem cells are able to differentiate into any trophoblast cell because they are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trophoblasts are present four days after fertilization in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trophoblast proliferates and differentiates into two cell layers at approximately six days after fertilization for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) are essential cells during the formation of the placenta , with the major function of invading the maternal decidua , anchoring the developing placenta to the uterus , remodeling uterine arteries , and regulating immune responses to prevent rejection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we have generated a spatially resolved multiomics single-cell atlas of the entire human maternal-fetal interface including the myometrium, which enables us to resolve the full trajectory of trophoblast differentiation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Normal function of placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVT), which are responsible for uteroplacental vascular remodeling, is critical for adequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus and normal fetal programming. (stjohns.edu)
  • We also establish that, similar to in vivo events, hESC differentiation into trophoblast is characterized by a p63+/KRT7+ CTB stem cell state, followed by formation of functional KLF4+ STB and HLA-G+ EVT. (ca.gov)
  • The Gag protein PEG10 binds to RNA and regulates trophoblast stem cell lineage specification. (eclipsebio.com)
  • Activation of Lyn, a Src-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, in trophoblast cells is associated with trophoblast giant cell differentiation. (virascience.com)
  • Intermediate trophoblasts are also often present. (medscape.com)
  • In the trophoblast cell lineage, a subset of the trophectoderm cells maintains the capacity to proliferate and contribute to the extraembryonic ectoderm, the ectoplacental cone, and the secondary giant cells of the early conceptus after implantation, and finally they produce the entire trophoblastic population in the mature placenta. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The interaction between epithelial cells of endometrium and trophoblast cells during implantation is presumed to be accompanied by a change in gene expression in the cell types involved. (regionh.dk)
  • With the major attention to the pivotal roles of PPARs in diverse aspects of energy metabolism, the essential functions of PPARgamma and PPARbeta/delta in placental development came as a surprise and were often considered a nuisance en route to their genetic analysis. (virascience.com)
  • Finally, we illustrate that downregulation of p63 by shRNA inhibits differentiation of hESCs into functional trophoblast. (ca.gov)
  • GPR65 inhibits human trophoblast cell adhesion through upregulation of MYLK and downregulation of fibronectin via cAMP-ERK signaling in a low pH environment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Taken together, our results establish that BMP4-treated hESCs are an excellent model of human trophoblast differentiation, closely mimicking the in vivo progression from p63+ CTB stem cells to terminally differentiated trophoblast subtypes. (ca.gov)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of hedgehog (HH) signaling on EMT in human trophoblasts, and further explored the underlying mechanism. (impleomedical.com)
  • In a recent study, we showed that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into induced trophoblast stem (iTS) cells by transcription factor-mediated nuclear reprogramming using the Yamanaka factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2 and c-MYC (OKSM) and a selection of TS cell culture conditions. (edu.au)
  • Since ILK is overexpressed in tumors that become invasive, it was hypothesized that ILK is expressed in human placenta and that it is necessary for the differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive cells. (mun.ca)
  • The ligand-dependent nuclear receptor PPARγ plays an important role in murine and human trophoblast differentiation. (wustl.edu)
  • We therefore hypothesized that oxidized lipids activate PPARγ in human trophoblasts and influence placental function. (wustl.edu)
  • To test our hypothesis, we examined the effect of 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), 13S-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), and 15S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) on PPARγ activity in cultured term human trophoblasts. (wustl.edu)
  • Furthermore, we assessed the consequences of PPARγ activation by the oxidized lipids, and we found that these lipids stimulate human CG production, a measure of trophoblast differentiation. (wustl.edu)
  • We concluded that 9-HODE, 13-HODE, and 15-HETE activate PPARγ in primary human trophoblasts. (wustl.edu)
  • Trophoblast IFN-tau differentially induces lymphopenia and neutropenia in lambs. (tamu.edu)
  • Then, we will use our immunologic tools (antigen tetramers, etc) to interrogate host immune responses to trophoblast tumor antigen. (sloankettering.edu)
  • What, therefore, prevents the immunocompetent host from recognizing and attacking these allogeneic trophoblast tumors? (sloankettering.edu)
  • A significantly higher rate of cells with SAHF was found in trisomy-21 placentas and amniocytes, as well as in IUGR and in trophoblasts from pregnancies with uncontrolled diabetes compared to the control samples (Figure). (ispr.org.il)
  • Some of these trophoblasts even replace the endothelial cells in the uterine spiral arteries as they remodel these vessels into wide bore conduits that are independent of maternal vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These PPARγ ligands may play a role in placental differentiation, yet they are unlikely to contribute to trophoblast dysfunction. (wustl.edu)
  • Specifically, we employed HTR-8/SVneo cells for gene overexpression and silencing to investigate the underlying mechanism of GPR65's impact on trophoblast cell function under acidic conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methylated regions (gDMRs), suggesting that NLRP7 plays an important role in reprogramming imprinted gDMRs. (nih.gov)
  • The sharp boundaries of degredation observed may be due to localized proteinase secretion by trophoblast, to membrane proteinases on the surface of trophoblast, or to endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • These cells express many trophoblast markers, including cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), secretion of 17beta-estradiol, and a microvillous apical surface. (edu.au)
  • T. gondii preferentially colonizes extravillous trophoblasts as compared to syncytiotrophoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Primary trophoblast differentiated to syncytium in cell culture, produced bHcg, lost e-cadherin expression at cell borders as an indicator of cell fusion and displayed reduced Rbfox2 expression. (ispr.org.il)
  • The trophoblast represents an evolutionary innovation, contributing to the formation of the "connection" between the mother and the fetus, namely the placenta, with no further need of great accumulation of nutrients and mRNA in the egg yolk. (biomedicineandprevention.com)
  • How NLRP7-a component of the CATERPILLAR family of proteins involved in innate immunity and apoptosis-causes these specific DNA methylation and trophoblast defects is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Wnt3a Activates the WNT-YAP/TAZ Pathway to Sustain CDX2 Expression in Bovine Trophoblast Stem Cells. (stembook.org)
  • We assessed SAHF expression in trophoblasts from placental biopsies (n=7) and in amniocytes (n=10) from known trisomy-21 fetuses and compared the results to control placentas (n=6) and to amniocytes (n=10) from fetuses with a known normal karyotype. (ispr.org.il)
  • We screened publicly available data for trophoblast cell lineage expression of RNA binding proteins, splicing and alternative splicing proteins. (ispr.org.il)
  • This study identified GPR65 expression widely in trophoblasts , with the highest level in EVTs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Extravillous trophoblasts grow out from the placenta and penetrate into the decidualized uterus. (wikipedia.org)