Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/2449)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (2/2449)

Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae.  (+info)

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (3/2449)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Human uterine lymphocytes. (4/2449)

During the luteal phase and the early months of pregnancy, there is a dense mucosal infiltration of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. These uterine NK cells have a phenotype (CD56bright, CD16-, mCD3-) which distinguishes them from peripheral blood NK cells (CD56dim, CD16bright, mCD3-). The uterine NK cells are in close association with extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells which infiltrate into the decidua and maternal spiral arteries. This subpopulation of trophoblast expresses two human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, HLA-G and HLA-C. Circulating NK cells express receptors for HLA class I molecules. We have recently found evidence that similar receptors are present on decidual NK cells belonging to both the Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR) and CD94 families. The repertoire of NK receptors expressed varies between different women. The findings indicate that decidual NK cells do have receptors for trophoblast HLA class I molecules. Experiments are underway to determine the effects of this interaction on NK cell function.  (+info)

The CTLA-4 gene is expressed in placental fibroblasts. (5/2449)

In order to elucidate the mechanisms that ensure survival of the allogeneic fetus, we are investigating the expression pattern of genes that are involved in peripheral self-tolerance in tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation and may modulate peripheral self-tolerance. Previously, we reported the preferential transmission of maternally-inherited shorter alleles at a 3'-UTR microsatellite locus to liveborn children, but random transmission of paternally-inherited alleles, suggesting that CTLA-4 may be involved in the maintenance of tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. In this report, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 mRNA and protein are indeed expressed in fetal tissues at the maternal-fetal interface throughout gestation.  (+info)

Role of proteases in implantation. (6/2449)

Implantation of the embryo into the endometrium is a critical step in the establishment of pregnancy and the failure of embryos to implant is a major limiting factor in the success of reproductive technologies. Furthermore, one or more of the molecules of importance at implantation could provide a suitable target for post-coital contraception. While there is considerable species variation in the extent to which the trophoblast invades the maternal endometrium and makes contact with the maternal blood supply, many of the molecular mechanisms are conserved among species. Three families of protease are involved in the matrix degradation required for implantation: the cysteine, serine and matrix metalloproteinases. Other proteases are required for the activation of regulatory molecules. Although trophoblast from all species appears to have a high invasive potential, this is limited by the presence of partner protease inhibitors, the presence of which provides restraint to this invasion. It is the balance between the proteases and their inhibitors at any focal point that determines the site and extent of trophoblast invasion. This review examines the literature regarding proteases and their inhibitors at early implantation sites across a range of species with very different forms of placentation and evaluates their common features and their dissimilarities.  (+info)

CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5. (7/2449)

The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which may be related to Schwann cell migration and adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade into the endometrium during implantation and placentation. CD9 was detected immunohistochemically on the extravillous trophoblasts in the cell columns of first trimester placentae, but not on villous trophoblasts. In the second and third trimester, CD9 was highly expressed on the extravillous trophoblasts in the basal plate of placentae, and in the chorion laeve in the fetal membrane of term placentae. The molecular mass of CD9 in the chorion laeve was shown to be 27 kDa by Western blotting. The mRNA of CD9 was also detected in the chorion laeve by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteins were purified from chorion laeve by affinity chromatography with anti-integrin alpha3 and alpha5 monoclonal antibodies and Western blotting, revealed that CD9 was associated with both integrins. These findings indicate that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule present in the extravillous trophoblasts. Since it is associated with integrin alpha5 which has been proposed to regulate trophoblast invasion, CD9 may be implicated in trophoblast invasion at the feto-maternal interface.  (+info)

CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (8/2449)

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

A microfluidics assay to study invasion of human placental trophoblast cells.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytogenetic features of human trophoblast cell lines SWAN-71 and 3A-subE. AU - Reiter, Jill. AU - Drendel, Holli M.. AU - Chakraborty, Sujata. AU - Schellinger, Megan M.. AU - Lee, Men Jean. AU - Mor, Gil. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Immortalization of primary cells with telomerase is thought to maintain normal phenotypic properties and avoid chromosomal abnormalities and other cancer-associated changes that occur following simian virus 40 tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) induced immortalization. However, we report that the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized SWAN-71 trophoblast cell line has a near pentaploid 103∼119,XXXX[cp20] karyotype. Additionally, DNA typing analysis indicated that SWAN-71 cells have acquired microsatellite instability. In comparison, the post-crisis SV40-transformed trophoblast cell line 3A-subE was hypertriploid 69∼81,XX[cp20]. Both cell lines contained multiple specific clonal rearrangements. These findings emphasize the need ...
Monoclonal antibodies raised against living, early invasive mouse trophoblast cells were screened on paraffin sections from first- and third-trimester placentas and from hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. Several mouse-human cross-reacting antibodies were recognized, which implies that mouse trophoblast cells can be used as immunogen for producing antibodies against human trophoblast. Among the new antibodies obtained, some were selected for further study. That panel includes a trophoblast specific antibody with capacity to differ between invasive and noninvasive molar tissues, and two antibodies, which detect antigen epitopes in the normal, but not in the neoplastic trophoblast.. ...
NOVOA HERRAN, Sandra Susana; CASTELBLANCO, Mariela; SANCHEZ -GOMEZ, Myriam e UMANA PEREZ, Adriana. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA HAS DUAL EFFECTS ON MMP9 AND uPA EXPRESSION IN HTR-8/SVneo HUMAN TROPHOBLASTIC CELL LINE. Acta biol.Colomb. [online]. 2019, vol.24, n.1, pp.26-37. ISSN 0120-548X. https://doi.org/10.15446/abc.v24n1.69527.. Invasion of trophoblast into endometrium is vital for successful pregnancy development. MMP9 and uPA are key proteases in this process, but it is still not clear the regulation of its expression by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β), a known negative regulator of trophoblast invasion. We evaluated the effect of TGF-β on the transcriptional expression of uPA and MMP9 over time, in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells cultured with or without 0.5 % fetal bovine serum, via RT qPCR. The involved transcription factors and signaling pathways were analyzed in silico, using Proscan, Enrich, PCViz and Wiki Pathway. Results showed that TGF-β temporarily regulates the ...
In contrast to cattle, there is an abundance of data on human trophoblast proliferation [7] and differentiation [8] or mouse trophoblast development [9, 10]. Cancer research also disclosed an abundance of data on proliferative and invasive properties, thereby providing evidence for molecular circuits shared with human trophoblast cells [7]. Moreover, a special kind of trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta - choriocarcinoma type - was used to derive choriocarcinoma cell lines, frequently used to study trophoblast properties (Rcho-1, for example) [11], and to elucidate transcriptional regulation of a bovine trophoblast-specific gene, such as the IFN-tau [12, 13]. Stem cell research also provides molecular data on trophoblast stem cells in mouse and human [14, 15].. In addition to the text mining issue, we addressed here inter-specific differences in proliferation and differentiation, whose molecular bases are likely common over species and cell types. The total number of published ...
During pregnancy, the placenta plays a vital role in protecting the developing fetus from microbial infections. The multinucleated and terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts actively coordinate host defense through a multitude of mechanisms. In addition to forming a cellular barrier, the syncytiotrophoblasts release extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs from the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC). These vesicle-packaged miRNAs, upon uptake by recipient cells, induce autophagy and limit viral infection, acting against a diverse panel of both DNA and RNA viruses. We have shown that medium conditioned by primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells, which contain these vesicles, confers resistance from pathogens associated with congenital infections to recipient non-placental cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that primary human trophoblasts constitutively produce interferon lambda 1 (IFNλ1), leading to a robust induction of interferon stimulated genes in an autocrine and ...
Human cytotrophoblast cells are invasive by virtue of their ability to secrete metalloproteinases (MMP) capable of digesting the extracellular matrix of the endometrium. It is the aim of the present study to determine which of the known MMP is responsible for this invasive behavior and to see to what extent endometrial secretions can modulate this enzymatic activity. Under our experimental conditions, first-trimester cytotrophoblast cells invade matrigel; this invasive behavior is inhibited by phenanthroline (an inhibitor of MMP) and by a polyclonal antibody to the 92-kDa gelatinase but not to other MMP. Since cytotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro secrete the 92-kDa gelatinase, and since adhesion to a substrate increases their gelatinolytic activity, it is believed that cytotrophoblast cells invade their surrounding matrix by binding to it and by increasing their secretion of 92-kDa gelatinase which then digests the collagen type IV of their micro-environment. This process of invasion is controlled by
The trophoblast cell lineage is an interesting model system because it is composed of a limited number of cell types that are spatially patterned. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells reside within a layer called the chorion and either remain as stem cells or differentiate into spongiotrophoblast (SpT), trophoblast giant (TG) cells or syncytiotrophoblast cells (SynT) of the labyrinth. Maintenance of the TS phenotype is dependent on stimulation by FGF4, whereas differentiation and/or maintenance of the differentiated derivatives are dependent on key transcription factors: Mash2 for SpT, Hand1 for TG cells and Gcm1 for SynT cells. TS cells proliferate and retain their stem cell phenotype in culture in response to FGF4 and an additional factor(s) that can be provided by conditioned medium from embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (CM). To understand the functions of Hand1, Mash2 and Gcm1 at a cellular level, we tested the effects of their ectopic and over-expression on the ability of TS cells to either ...
The mammalian placenta consists of different trophoblast cell types that assist in the variety of functions required for the maintenance of pregnancy. In rodents, labyrinthine trophoblasts of the placenta are especially important, because they are capable of differentiating into fused labyrinthine cells, which form the feto-maternal exchange surface. Even though the molecular signals triggering labyrinthine trophoblast differentiation are poorly understood, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be present in the placental environment and alter trophoblast development. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on the differentiation of the labyrinthine trophoblast stem cell lines SM10 and HRP-1. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that while the molecular expression of labyrinthine-specific lineage markers (Esx1, Tfeb, and Tec) was maintained in TGF-β-treated SM10 and HRP-1 cells, TGF-β induced the down-regulation of trophoblast stem cell markers Id2 and Cdx2. In contrast, TGF-β
Preeclampsia is associated with placental hypoxia at early gestation. We therefore investigated the effect of hypoxia on the apoptosis of cultured first trimester human cytotrophoblasts and the expression of apoptosis relevant proteins, Bcl-2 and Bax. First trimester human cytotrophoblasts were isolated and cultured under either standard or hypoxic conditions. Cellular apoptosis was monitored by TUNEL and Annexin V binding, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis increased significantly in cytotrophoblasts cultured for 24 h under hypoxic conditions in contrast with those cultured under standard conditions, meanwhile expression of Bcl-2 reduced, and that of Bax increased. These changes suggested that hypoxia induced apoptosis in cultured first trimester cytotrophoblasts with altered Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Further study is needed to explore the role of cytotrophoblasts apoptosis in hypoxia-induced maternal and fetal diseases. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. ...
The maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia is thought to result from endothelial cell damage caused by a circulating factor derived from the placenta. This study investigates the hypothesis that trophoblast deportation may be part of the process by which this factor enters the maternal circulation. The nature and incidence of trophoblast deportation was studied in uterine vein and peripheral blood taken from normal and pre-eclamptic women at caesarean section. Trophoblasts were enriched using immunomagnetic beads to deplete leucocytes and labelled with trophoblast-specific monoclonal antibodies. Syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast clumps and anucleate trophoblast cells were found in uterine vein blood. Cytotrophoblast cells were found to be shed less frequently than syncytiotrophoblast and the majority were probably villous in origin. Trophoblasts were found in the uterine vein blood of normal pregnant women with higher levels in pre-eclampsia. However, trophoblasts were rarely found in
In order to investigate potentially immunogenic moieties on the human trophoblast membrane, it was first necessary to establish optimal conditions for the preparation of trophoblast membrane components. Membranes were isolated from minced placental tissues by rotary shearing and differential ultracentrifugation and checked for purity and yield by electron microscopy, 5-nucleotidase and succinic dehydrogenase assays, transferrin binding, and lack of beta2-microglobulin. Quantitative studies were performed of detergent solubilization of membrane proteins utilizing three detergents; deoxycholate, Triton X-100, and sulfobetaine14, at several different concentrations and under various conditions of time, temperature, pH, and osmolarity. The modified Lowry assay for protein and measurement of protein-bound counts released from radioiodinated membranes demonstrated that finely-dispersed membranes were essential for optimal solubilization, which was attained at detergent:membrane protein ratios of ...
A monoclonal antibody GB25 which was raised against placental syncytiotrophoblast reacted specifically with villous trophoblasts. It recognized syncytiotrophoblast, villous cytotrophoblasts of the first-trimester placentae, and a majority of the cytotrophoblasts in the chorion laeve, but not the residual cells of cytotrophoblastic shell in the basal plates and the cells in the cytotrophoblastic columns. This antibody will be useful for isolating and differentiating villous from extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the first-trimester placentae.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of congenital infection and birth defects. Primary maternal infection often results in virus transmission, and symptomatic babies can have permanent neurological deficiencies and deafness. Congenital infection can also lead to intrauterine growth restriction, a defect in placental transport. HCMV replicates in primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), the specialized cells of the placenta, and inhibits differentiation/invasion. Human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs) give rise to the mature cell types of the chorionic villi, CTBs and multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs). Here we report that TBPCs are fully permissive for pathogenic and attenuated HCMV strains. Studies with a mutant virus lacking a functional pentamer complex (gH/gL/pUL128-131A) showed that virion entry into TBPCs is independent of the pentamer. In addition, infection is blocked by a potent human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), TRL345, reactive with glycoprotein B (gB), but
To our knowledge, this is the first description of a biological effect of FSS on human syncytiotrophoblasts. On the basis of a previous study,16 we applied a laminar continuous FSS of 1 dyn cm−2. Our main result is that expression and secretion of PlGF by human syncytiotrophoblasts are significantly increased in fluid flow that mimics physiological conditions compared with static conditions. Human PlGF is essentially expressed in the placenta,26 more precisely in the syncytiotrophoblast.1 PlGF is a potent stimulator of placental angiogenesis.3,27 These new data provide 1 mechanism by which biomechanical forces induced by maternal blood flow, that is FSS, could modulate the angiogenic potential of the syncytiotrophoblast. Vascular functions are controlled by biochemical mediators and the autonomic nervous system. It is although well established that the biomechanical forces generated by blood flow and blood pressure regulate vascular functions. Endothelial cells responses to shear stress play a ...
One of the long term goals of our research is to determine why the maternal immune system does not reject the genetically disparate fetus during pregnancy. Our studies are focused primarily on the immunoregulatory properties of trophoblast cells, which are the first cells to differentiate from the embryo, and ultimately form the fetal component of the placenta. Trophoblast cells are the only cells derived from the blastocyst that are in direct contact with maternal blood, and therefore play an essential role in protecting the fetus from attack from the maternal immune system. Trophoblast cells are relatively unique in that they do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, either constitutively, or after exposure to IFN-gamma. The absence of MHC class II antigen expression on trophoblast cells is thought to be critical for prevention of deleterious maternal immune responses against the fetus. Thus, successful reproduction of mammals may require that MHC class II gene ...
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are in vitro equivalents to the precursor cells of the placenta. TSCs are cultured in serum-rich medium with fibroblast growth factor 4, heparin, and embryonic-fibroblast-conditioned medium. Here, we developed a simple
Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. At the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated the expression of selectin adhesion systems that enable leukocyte capture from the bloodstream. On the maternal side, human uterine epithelial cells up-regulated selectin oligosaccharide-based ligands during the window of receptivity. On the fetal side, human trophoblasts expressed L-selectin. This ligand-receptor system was functional, because beads coated with the selectin ligand 6-sulfo sLex bound to trophoblasts, and trophoblasts bound to ligand-expressing uterine luminal epithelium in tissue sections. These results suggest that trophoblast L-selectin mediates interactions with the uterus and that this adhesion mechanism may be critical to establishing human pregnancy. ...
Term cytotrophoblast do not express polymorphic MHC Class I antigens, unlike other fetal and maternal cells in the amniochorion/decidua. This allows cytotrophoblast to be isolated and purified from this tissue, utilizing 4E, a monoclonal antibody specific for HLA-B, which labels only non-trophoblast. We have developed a method using enzymic dispersion and Percoll gradient centrifugation, followed by flow cytometry, that yields, on average, a total of 5 X 10(6) term extravillous cytotrophoblast, 97 per cent pure. The availability of highly purified extravillous cytotrophoblast, for the first time, permits precise investigation of trophoblast function.
Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg. This layer of trophoblasts is also collectively referred to as the trophoblast, or, after gastrulation, the trophectoderm, as it is then contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo. The trophoblast proliferates and differentiates into 2 cell layers at approximately 6 days after fertilization for humans: Trophoblasts are specialized cells of the placenta that play an important role in embryo implantation and interaction with the decidualised maternal uterus. The core of placental villi contain mesenchymal cells and placental blood vessels that are directly connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical cord. This core is surrounded by two layers of trophoblast; a single ...
During human placentation, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form a multinucleated syncytia ensuring hormonal production and nutrient exchanges between the maternal and fetal circulation. Syncytia formation is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and for fetal growth. The trophoblast cell fusion process first requires the acquisition of cell fusion properties, then cells set up plasma membrane protein macrocomplexes and fusogen machinery that trigger cellecell fusion. Numerous proteins have been shown to be directly involved in the initiation of trophoblast cell fusion. These proteins must expressed at the right time and in the right place to trigger cellecell fusion. In this review, we describe the role of certain fusogenic protein macrocomplexes that form the scaffold for the fusogen machinery underlying human trophoblastic-lipid mixing and merging of cell contents that lead to cell fusion in physiological conditions.
Figure 5. CDX2 transactivates miR-290 cluster, cyclin D1 promoter in trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and miR-322 cluster members directly inhibit CDX2.. (A, B) ChIP analyses revealed direct binding of CDX2 in miR-290 cluster (A) and cyclin D1 (B) promoter regions. BS indicates binding site. (C, D) Real-time PCR analysis of Cyclin D1 (C) and Western blot analysis of CYCLIN D1 (D) in CDX2 knocked down TS cells. Shown in the following is the NIH imageJ analysis of Western blot. (E) TaqMan assays of miR-290 cluster members in Cdx2 knocked down TS cells. (F) TaqMan assays of miR-290 cluster members in CDX2 overexpressed TS cells. (G) Relative luciferase assay showing the repressive effect of miR-322/503/542 mimic on wild-type Cdx2-3′-UTR. (H, I, J) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Cdx2 (H) and Western blot analysis of CDX2. (I) in TS cells transfected with mimic or inhibitor of miR-322 cluster members. Quantification of protein expression using NIH imageJ analysis of the Western blot. (J) Data ...
Hemochorial placentation, with placental villi bathing in maternal blood, entails direct contact of circulating maternal leukocytes with the fetal trophoblast, ,nobr,i. e.,/nobr, the syncytiotrophoblast, which covers all placental villous trees as well as parts of the inner surfaces of chorionic and basal plates (1). This way, placenta-derived factors, such as hormones and cytokines predominantly released by the syncytio-trophoblast, may influence circulating maternal blood cells and vice versa factors from maternal leukocytes may regulate villous trophoblast functions. Thus, a combination of modulating signals and responses between maternal circulating blood cells and the placental trophoblast may dynamically be adjusted over gestation for an overall cooperative microenvironment in the intervillous space. Alterations in this cooperative microenvironment may occur very early in pregnancy and is suggested to program early placenta functions and growth long before any phenotypic changes become ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that trophoblast produces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and its level is elevated in trophoblast from preeclamptic women compared with normal. We also used selective enzymatic inhibitors to determine the relativ
The question we are addressing is: how does the maternal immune system regulate placentation in humans? Our view of the fetal allograft is one of cooperation between mother and fetus. We focus on how the dominant population of uterine leukocytes, Natural Killer (NK) cells, that have receptors for HLA class I ligands on fetal trophoblast cells, regulate trophoblast function.. We work in close collaboration with Dr Francesco Colucci in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. The main areas of current research are:. 1) Interactions between maternal Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) and fetal HLA-C molecules. Because both KIR and HLA-C genes are highly polymorphic, each pregnancy is likely to be different. Our genetic and functional studies in Europeans and Africans show certain KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations are associated with extremes of the normal birth weight distribution.. 2) Culture of human trophoblast cells. Studies on pregnancy disorders are limited because trophoblast ...
Cell-cell fusion and cell invasion are essential for placental development. Human cytotrophoblasts in the chorionic villi may undergo cell-cell fusion to form syncytiotrophoblasts to facilitate nutrient-gas exchange or differentiate into extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to facilitate maternal-fetal circulation. The placental transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) regulates syncytin-1 and -2 expression to mediate trophoblast fusion. Interestingly, GCM1 and syncytin-1 are also expressed in EVTs with unknown physiological functions. In this study, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analysis and identified the gene for high-temperature requirement protein A4 (HtrA4) as a GCM1 target gene, which encodes a serine protease facilitating cleavage of fibronectin and invasion of placental cells. Importantly, HtrA4 is immunolocalized in EVTs at the maternal-fetal interface, and its expression is decreased by hypoxia and in preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication associated with
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The vertical transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV -1) is defined as the transmission of the virus from infected mother to fetus. In order to infect the fetal blood supply in utero, the virus must pass through the placenta. The virus collects in the placental trophoblast, and only certain strains are able to pass from that point into the fetal blood supply, because the placental trophoblast is not a strong host for HIV replication. This report analyzes transcription factors present in placental trophoblast which may be critically important to HIV replication in trophoblast. This is done through the use of a set of 27 linker-scanning mutants created by Dr. Steven L. Zeichner in Philadelphia. These mutants replace 18 bp at a time in subsequent order along the U3 and R regions of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). The U3 and R regions of the LTR are primarily regions of viral transcriptional control. By transfecting the mutated LTRs into human placental trophoblasts, it ...
Differentiation of human placental mononuclear trophoblasts into a multinucleate syncytium involves up-regulation of key proteins promoting cell fusion and increased capacity for placental hormonogenesis. It is well established that the activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to increased expression of trophoblast fusogenic gene machinery and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion. We used the forskolin-induced syncytialisation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells as a model to characterise in detail the signalling pathway downstream of adenylyl cyclase. Forskolin treatment induced a rapid and potent ERK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation; this cascade required PKA-AKAP interactions and led to downstream CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation via ERK1/2-dependent but p38MAPK-independent mechanisms. Interestingly both p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were involved in forskolin-induced hCG-secretion, suggesting the presence of additional p38MAPK-dependent but CREB-1/ATF-1-independent pathways. Forskolin treatment of BeWo cells ...
The cytotrophoblast (or layer of Langhans) is the inner layer of the trophoblast. It is interior to the syncytiotrophoblast and external to the wall of the blastocyst in a developing embryo. The cytotrophoblast is considered to be the trophoblastic stem cell because the layer surrounding the blastocyst remains while daughter cells differentiate and proliferate to function in multiple roles. There are two lineages that cytotrophoblastic cells may differentiate through: fusion and invasive. The fusion lineage yields syncytiotrophoblast and the invasive lineage yields interstitial cytotrophoblast cells. Cytotrophoblastic cells play an important role in the implantation of a newly fertilized egg in the uterus. The formation of all syncytiotrophoblast is from the fusion of two or more cytotrophoblasts via this fusion pathway. This pathway is important because the syncytiotrophoblast plays an important role in fetal-maternal gas exchange, nutrient exchange, and immunological and metabolic functions. ...
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/1/102.full.pdf is one discussion but there are hundreds if you search strings like trophoblast spiral artery first trimester. It starts Remodeling of the uterine arteries is a key event in early pregnancy. In the first trimester of pregnancy, a subpopulation of fetal trophoblast cells, the extravillous trophoblast, invade the uterine wall (interstitial invasion) and its blood vessels (endovascular invasion) as far as the myometrial segments. In the uterine spiral arteries, the trophoblasts interdigitate between the endothelial cells (ECs), replacing the endothelial lining and most of the musculoelastic tissue in the vessel walls. This creates a high-flow, low-resistance circulation that increases maternal blood flow to the placental villi at the maternalâ€fetal interface... Defective remodeling of the spiral arteries is associated with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and is proposed to lead to an ...
Intermediate filaments support a cell by attaching to desmosomes, cell-cell adhesion junctions at the cell membrane. Desmoplakin is not only required to attach filaments to the desmosome but it also maintains desmosomal stability (Gallicano et al., 1998). Desmoplakin mutants die at E6.5 because unstable desmosomes lead to a loss of integrity within extra-embryonic tissues (Gallicano et al., 2001; Gallicano et al., 1998). Normal localization of desmoplakin at the desmosome within K18-/-;K19-/- trophoblast cells (Hesse et al., 2000) suggests that, in the absence of keratin filaments, desmosomes remain relatively stable. By contrast, Mrj-deficient chorionic trophoblast cells showed a significant reduction of desmoplakin expression. As a result, desmosomes in Mrj-/- trophoblast cells may be unstable, resulting in disrupted chorionic organization. This implies further that keratin inclusion bodies disrupt cell function independently of keratin deficiency. Presumably, the reduction of K18 expression ...
Human trophoblasts confer resistance to viruses implicated in perinatal infection.: Primary human trophoblasts were previously shown to be resistant to viral in
The observed gap times cannot be naively treated as clustered survival data in analysis because of the sequential structure of recurrent events. Glial cells were labeled and their number increases throughout postembryonic life with a pattern of proliferation similar to the pattern of mitotic activity of the undifferentiated cells. Studies accounting for the polymicrobial nature of CF respiratory disease and the heterogeneity of P.. Oestrogen-like effects of tamoxifen on the concentration of proteins generic cialis in plasma. Histological examination of the sural nerve showed the presence of numerous segmental axonal swellings and features of demyelination as well as remyelination. Removal of RF had little or no effect on the reaction of the IgM fraction of sera with CMV by the indirect hemagglutination test.. Despite improved pharmacological therapy, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases are still not fully understood. Preventing and managing infections in ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jung-Chien Cheng, Hsun-Ming Chang, Lanlan Fang, Ying-Pu Sun, Peter C K Leung].
Regulation of placental trophoblast cell function by combinatorial signaling. Expression of the glycoprotein hormone a subunit gene is restricted to pituitary gonadotropes and placental trophoblast cells. Trophoblast production of chorionic gonadotropin (CG; consisting of the a subunit and separate bsubunits) is required for the maintenance of early pregnancy in non-human primates and women. Distinct elements within the a subunit promoter are required for placental-specific expression and includes dual cAMP responsive elements (CRE) that serve a twofold function; elements necessary to mediate activation by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The combined action of the PKA and EGF pathways results in a remarkable synergistic activation of the a subunit gene in choriocarcinoma cells. The synergistic activation of the a subunit gene absolutely requires activation of MAPK pathways by EGF; however, MAPK activation alone is not sufficient to regulate the a ...
hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human
hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human
In the present study, a detailed temporal and spatial placental expression map was generated for all murine PRL/PL family members from E7.5 to E18.5 of gestation in three genetic strains. This detailed analysis uncovered several new markers for some trophoblast cell types that will be useful for future analysis of placental structure in mutant mice with placental phenotypes. Moreover, several important conclusions about regulation of the locus are apparent. First, no two family members have the same expression pattern even when complete temporal and spatial data are examined. Second, most genes are expressed in multiple trophoblast cell subtypes though none were detected in the chorion, where trophoblast stem cells reside, or in syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinth layer. Third, bioinformatic comparisons of upstream regulatory regions identified predicted transcription factor binding site modules that are shared by genes expressed in the same trophoblast subtype. Fourth, further diversification ...
Expression of H/358 in Cultured Placental Cell Lines The HRP/LRP trophoblast stem cells provide an important source of labyrinthine trophoblast cell precursors from which to obtain additional information about placental cell lineages. We therefore determined whether cell lines isolated from the labyrinthine placenta (HRP/LRP) and postulated to contain trophoblast stem cells expressed Hp58. The amount […] ...
BACKGROUND:Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited. Due to ethical constraints and the inaccessibility of very early implantation tissues, our knowledge of early placentation has been largely based on historical histological sections. More recently, stem cell technologies have begun to shed important new light on the origins of the placental mesenchymal lineages. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:This review aims to amalgamate the older and more modern literature regarding the origins of the non-trophoblast lineages of the human placenta. We highlight ways in ...
Maternofetal transfer of nutrients such as glucose and amino acids is mostly determined by the activity of specific transporter proteins expressed in the placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes. Glucose transport from the mother to the fetus seems to be influenced by the maternal blood glucose concentration across the placenta and is mediated by members of the facilitative glucose transporters (Baumann et al., 2002), although evidence for SLGT1-mediated Na+-coupled transport in the syncytiotrophoblast has also been provided (Kevorkova et al., 2007). The maternofetal transfer of most amino acids is dependent on the coupling of secondary active amino acid transporters localized in the microvillous apical membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast (in direct contact with the maternal blood) and facilitative transporters present in the basal membrane (facing the fetal circulation) (Grillo et al., 2008). This model of nutrient vectorial flux is to some extent similar to the one described for ...
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Figure 5D displays the expression of TH transporters and deiodinase mRNA levels in the rat placental trophoblast cells acquired by LCM. Oatp1c1 mRNA of the
Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preterm labor affect a considerable number of pregnancies and account for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology has not been clearly defined, the common phenomenon observed between these diseases is abnormal development and function of the placenta. In complicated pregnancies such as preeclampsia or IUGR, a greater incidence of trophoblast apoptosis has been observed, suggesting that alterations in the regulation of trophoblast apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We evaluate morphogenetic alterations of placenta and apoptosis of trophoblast into placenta of pregnancies with preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction and controls. Trophoblasts apoptosis into placenta was quantified evaluating bcl-2 apoptosis marker. Placentals morphogenetic alterations was evaluated with HGF/c-met/STAT3 cascade. Placental ischemia is thought to develop as a ...
The distribution of mRNAs and antigens of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activators (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) were studied in human and rhesus monkey placentae by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry. Specific monkey cRNA and antibodies against human tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 were used as probes. The following results were obtained. (1) All the molecules tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 and their mRNAs were identified in the majority of the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of the decidual layer between Rohrs and Nitabuchs striae and in cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (2) Expression of uPA and PAI-2 was noted in villous trophoblast whereas tPA and PAI-1 were mainly concentrated where detachment from maternal tissue occurs. (3) No expression of tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 was observed in the basal plate endometrial ...
Neither parthenogenetic (PG) nor androgenetic (AG) mouse embryos survive after day 9.5 of pregnancy, owing to the inadequate growth of extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta. At day 9.5 of pregnancy, the placental structures are poorly developed in PG embryos, while trophoblast giant cells a …
Trophoblasts are invasive, eroding, and metastasizing cells of the placenta. Trophoblasts mediate the implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, but they are never incorporated into the mothers body or the fetus. They are not fetal cells. Trophoblasts become inert during pregnancy and are completely rejected by the fetus and mother at delivery. They can be seen as the thin membrane covering the fetus at birth, the caul.[1] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Derivation of induced trophoblast cell lines in cattle by doxycycline-inducible piggyBac vectors. AU - Kawaguchi, Takamasa. AU - Cho, Dooseon. AU - Hayashi, Masafumi. AU - Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki. AU - Kimura, Koji. AU - Matsuyama, Shuichi. AU - Minami, Naojiro. AU - Yamada, Masayasu. AU - Imai, Hiroshi. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Kawaguchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - Trophectoderm lineage specification is one of the earliest differentiation events in mammalian development. The trophoblast lineage, which is derived from the trophectoderm, mediates implantation and placental formation. However, the processes involved in trophoblastic differentiation and placental formation in cattle remain unclear due to interspecies differences when ...
Emerging data suggest that a trophoblast stem cell (TSC) population exists in the early human placenta. However, in vitro stem cell culture models are still in development and it remains under debate how well they reflect primary trophoblast (TB) cells. The absence of robust protocols to generate TSCs from humans has resulted in limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate human placental development and TB lineage specification when compared to other human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). As placentation in mouse and human differ considerably, it is only with the development of human-based disease models using TSCs that we will be able to understand the various diseases caused by abnormal placentation in humans, such as preeclampsia. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on normal human placental development, the placental disease preeclampsia, and current stem cell model systems used to mimic TB differentiation. A special focus is given to the transforming growth factor-beta ...
Owing to their single genome, haploid cells are powerful to uncover unknown genes by performing genetic screening in mammals. However, no haploid cell line from an extraembryonic lineage has been achieved yet, which limits the application of haploid cells in placental genetic screening. Here, we show that overexpression of Cdx2 can convert haploid embryonic stem cells to trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). p53 deletion reduces diploidization during the conversion and guarantees the generation of haploid-induced TSCs (haiTSCs). haiTSCs not only share the same molecular characterization with trophoderm-derived TSCs but also possess multipotency to placental lineages in various procedures. In addition, haiTSCs can maintain haploidy in the long term, assisted by periodic sorting and with reliance on FGF4 and heparin. Finally, we perform piggyBac-mediated high-throughput mutation in haiTSCs and use them in trophoblast lineage genetic screening. Deep sequencing analysis and validation experiments prove ...
In mouse, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) can either be imprinted or random. Imprinted XCI (iXCI) is considered unstable and depending on continuous Xist expression, whereas random XCI (rXCI) is stably maintained even in the absence of Xist. Here we have systematically examined epigenetic modifications associated with the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) in Trophoblast Stem cells, eXtra-Embryonic Endoderm Cells, undifferentiated and differentiated Epiblast Like Stem Cells in order to understand intrinsic differences in epigenetic mechanisms involved in silencing of the inactive X-chromosome in lineages presenting iXCI and rXCI. Whereas euchromatic histone modifications are predominantly lost from the Xi territory in all cell types, the accumulation of heterochromatic modifications diverges in between the analysed cell lineages. Particularly, only the Xi of multipotent Trophoblast (iXCI) and Epiblast stem cells (rXCI) display a visible accumulation of Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs), in contrast to the Xi
Ferritin has been purified from normal full-term human placentae and its antigenic and molecular characteristics compared with adult liver ferritin. Placental ferritin is composed predominantly of a single subunit type, co-migrating with a liver ferritin standard on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Comparison of dose-response curves in an immunoradiometric assay indicated some tissue-specific antigenicity for placental ferritin. This was supported by immunofluorescence studies on cryostat sections of human placentae by using antibodies to placental and spleen ferritin. Specific staining for placental ferritin was demonstrated within placental syncytiotrophoblast, particularly localized towards the microvillus plasma membrane. Ferritin has also been shown by electrophoretic and antigenic analysis to be present in protein fractions solubilized from isolated human syncytiotrophoblast microvillus plasma-membrane preparations, suggesting that ferritin may play an active ...
In a study of , Soy milk intake and plasma sex hormones: a cross-sectional study in pre- and postmenopausal women (EPIC-Oxford). by Verkasalo PK, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from human term placentas. Phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. After 24 h aliquots were removed and tested for progesterone and estrogen production, researchers found that phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) sufficiently reduce progesterone production in human term trophoblast cells. Because blockade of progesterone is a possible mechanism involved in initiation of labor, we may speculate that high doses of phytoestrogens at the feto-maternal interphase could play a negative role in maintenance of pregnancy. Stimulation of estrogen production by genistein and daidzein in trophoblast cells is probably due to estrogen receptor blocking effects of both phytoestrogens. Trophoblast ...
Header}} ==Introduction== {, , valign=top,[[File:Stage5 bf11L.jpg,alt=Human embryo Carnegie stage 5,400px]] , valign=top, Facts: Week 1 - 2, size 0.1 - 0.2 mm ===Summary=== Implantation completed, inner cell mass, bilaminar embryo, trophoblast development, no villous development. See also [[#Events,Events]] * The conceptus completes implantation during this stage. * The trophoblast cells (syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast) proliferate. Syncytiotrophoblast cells continue to invade the maternal endometrium and cytotrophoblast cells form clumps that will later form sites of chorionic villi formation. * The maternal endometrium locally begins the decidual process and the endometrial stroma accumulates fluid (edematous). * The extraembryonic cavities begin to form. * The bilaminar embryonic disc forms from the inner cell mass (embryoblast). [[Carnegie stage 5#Historic Stage 5 Embryos,Historically]] * This stage was described as Streeter Horizon V and ...
Header}} ==Introduction== {, , valign=top,[[File:Stage5 bf11L.jpg,alt=Human embryo Carnegie stage 5,400px]] , valign=top, Facts: Week 1 - 2, size 0.1 - 0.2 mm ===Summary=== Implantation completed, inner cell mass, bilaminar embryo, trophoblast development. [[Carnegie stage 5#Historic Stage 5 Embryos,Historically]], this stage was subdivided again into three separate sub-stages (a, b, and c), currently these are discussed as a single stage. * The conceptus completes implantation during this stage. * The trophoblast cells (syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast) proliferate. Syncytiotrophoblast cells continue to invade the maternal endometrium and cytotrophoblast cells form clumps that will later form sites of chorionic villi formation. * The maternal endometrium locally begins the decidual process and the endometrial stroma accumulates fluid (edematous). * The extraembryonic cavities begin to form. * The bilaminar embroyonic disc forms from the inner cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of placenta in preeclampsia. AU - Myatt, Leslie. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Preeclampsia, which manifests itself as hypertension, proteinuria, and edema in pregnancy, requires the presence of trophoblast tissue but not a fetus. It is characterized by abnormal trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries of the decidua and myometrium leading to a failure to establish an adequate uteroplacental blood flow and, therefore, is thought to give rise to relatively hypoxic trophoblast tissue. This, in turn, may promote an exaggerated state of oxidative stress in the placenta. This hypoxia/oxidative stress may then further attenuate trophoblast invasion but also alters placental villous angiogenesis leading to a poorly developed fetoplacental vasculature with abnormal reactivity. Oxidative stress per se may also affect vascular reactivity, blood flow, and oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus, which ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper,
Attachment of the conceptus trophoblast (Tr) to the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is critical for successful implantation. This study determined whether alpha v (av) integrins (ITGAV) directly mediate porcine trophoblast cell adhesion to secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, also known as osteopontin ( …
Introduction. In recent years the multipotent extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cells have been a focus of intense research. In Vivo, XEN cells contribute to the formation of the extraembryonic endoderm, visceral and parietal endoderm and later on, the yolk sac. The mature mouse blastocyst consists of three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm, which gives rise to the trophoblast and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExEc), the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, and the primitive or extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn), an epithelial layer of cells on the surface of the epiblast. The primitive endoderm gives rise to: (i) visceral endoderm (VE) that surrounds the epiblast and the ExEc; and (ii) parietal endoderm (PE) that interacts with the trophoblast giant cell layer. PE cells migrate along the inner surface of the trophectoderm and together with trophoblast giant cells form the parietal yolk sac.. Description of Technology. This technology comprises a group of mouse cells induced in parallel to ...
The mouse haemochorial placenta is a complex mixture of maternal cells and foetal trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM)-derived cells. The majority of the placental tissue is assumed to be trophoblast in origin but the exact extent and localization of the ICM and maternal contribution has not previously been determined. Using embryo transfer and reconstituted blastocyst techniques, combined with isozymal and in situ genetic markers, we have established that about 70% of the 13 to 15-day placenta is trophectoderm-derived, 30% is maternal in origin, and 4% develops from the ICM. Nearly all of the maternal contribution was confined to the spongiotrophoblast region and all of the ICM contribution was confined to the labyrinthine trophoblast region, where it formed the foetal blood capillaries and the endodermal sinuses. Using the same genetic markers, we showed that cell suspension techniques commonly used to produce trophoblast cell preparations from placenta do not enrich for trophoblast, and, ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, Hand1, plays an important role in the development of the murine extra-embryonic trophoblast cell lineage. In the present study, we have analysed the expression of Hand1 in human extra-embryonic cell types and determined its binding specificity and transcriptional activity upon interaction with different class A bHLH factors. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization showed that Hand1 mRNA is specifically expressed in amnion cells at different stages of gestation. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the protein is exclusively produced in the amniotic epithelium in vivo and in purified amnion cells in vitro using a novel polyclonal Hand1 antiserum. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistochemical staining of blastocysts revealed the production of Hand1 mRNA and polypeptide in the trophectodermal cell layer. In the presence of E12/E47, Hand1 stimulated the transcription of luciferase reporters harbouring degenerate E-boxes, suggesting that ...
To estimate the angiogenic effect of heparin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in conditioned media from normal and severely pre-eclamptic human placental villi. Normal first- and second-trimester floating placental villi were explanted in control conditions and increasing concentr...
The placenta is an organ that provides the transport of oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the foetus in humans (1). A variety of proangiogenic (PlGF and VEGF) and anti-angiogenic factors sFlt1 are increased by the developing placenta, and the balance among these factors is important for normal placentation. Deficient trophoblastic invasion of the maternal tissue can lead to pregnancy complications, such as IUGR and preeclampsia, while excessive invasion can lead to MAP, such as PP (14).. Many studies have addressed the role of PlGF, VEGF, and sFlt-1 in patients with preeclampsia, preterm labour, IUGR, fetal alcohol syndrome, and GTD (6,9,11). Boufettal et al. (9) reported that VEGF expression increases during GTD and might be related to abnormal trophoblastic invasion. Compared to the control group, Semczuk-Sikora et al. (10) found significantly lower maternal serum concentrations of VEGF and PlGF and higher sFlt-1 levels in pregnancies with IUGR. Although some new reports indicated the ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental figures 41598_2019_41927_MOESM1_ESM. cross the fetal-maternal barrier a lot more than bigger contaminants4C7 readily. Recently, contact with nanoparticles in the gestational period is now a open public concern since it could cause developmental disorders in the offspring. Nevertheless, nanoparticles are found in a number of customer items such as for example foods presently, cosmetics, electronics, and drug delivery systems8C12. Among the metallic nanoparticles, platinum nanoparticles as well as silver nanoparticles have potentially detrimental effects on cells, organs, and bacteria13C17. However, cellular responses evoked by nanoparticles differ according to the properties or modifications of each nanoparticle. The placenta functions in nutrient and oxygen exchange between the mother and fetus, as well as in protection of the fetus from harmful materials18. Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells invade the myometrium or maternal spiral arteries under low oxygen ...
During human pregnancy, the specialized epithelial cells of the placenta (cytotrophoblasts) come into direct contact with immune cells in several locations. In the fetal compartment of the placenta, cytotrophoblast stem cells lie adjacent to macrophages (Hofbauer cells) that reside within the chorionic villus stroma. At sites of placental attachment to the mother, invasive cytotrophoblasts encounter specialized maternal natural killer (NK) cells (CD56bright), macrophages, and T cells that accumulate within the uterine wall during pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that fetal cytotrophoblasts can direct the migration of these maternal immune cells. First, we assayed the chemotactic activity of cytotrophoblast conditioned medium samples, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as targets. The placental samples preferentially attracted NK cells (both CD56dim and CD56bright), monocytes, and T cells, suggesting that our hypothesis was correct. A screen to identify chemokine activity ...
A small study published in June 2006 in Biological Psychiatry suggests that autism spectrum disorders may result from abnormal early fetal development.. Scientists looked at preserved placentas from children later diagnosed with autism, and compared them to placentas of children with normal development. The placentas from autistic children were 3 times more likely to contain trophoblastic inclusions. (Trophoblasts are among the first cells to form during fetal development, and are essential for implantation and placental development.) Trophoblast inclusions have been associated with a number of other genetic abnormalities, and the presence of trophoblasts in fully-formed placentas may not affect their function, but could be markers for genetic predispositions that could have subtle, yet profound, effects in the developing embryo an the forming nervous system.. ...
Third trimester placenta chorionic villi stained with anti-corticotropin releasing hormone antibody. Prominent corticotropin releasing hormone positive syncytial knot (red arrow) containing many nuclei is seen in the center of the field. The syncytium near this knot contains some corticotropin releasing hormone (orange arrowheads), possibly due to diffusion within the contiguous syncytial trophoblast cytoplasm. Syncytial trophoblasts not adjacent to the positive knot are negative (pink arrows ...
duced a significant increase in cell migration dis tance��182. 2% of the control��after 12 h of culture. Numerical data were evaluated statis tically and are presented in the histogram shown in Figure 4B. When the anti gp130 antibody was used to treat the cells, the migration distance in creased to 131. 1% of the control. Relevance of the STAT3 signaling pathway in the OSM mediated migration of HTR8 SVneo cells Stattic was used to investigate the relevance of STAT3 associated signaling in the OSM mediated migration of HTR8 SVneo cells. Treatment of cells with a non cytoto ic concentration of stattic resulted in a significant decrease in migration com pared with the vehicle control. Furthermore, when cells were co treated with stattic and OSM, signifi cantly increased migration by OSM 139.. 9%, p 0. 05 be came not significant, compared with the control. Effects of OSM and STAT3 inhibitor on in vitro trophoblast proliferation OSM induced a significant increase in cell proliferation�� ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular localization of CD4 in the human placenta. T2 - Implications for maternal-to-fetal transmission of HIV. AU - Lairmore, Michael Dale. AU - Cuthbert, Peggy S.. AU - Utley, Lori L.. AU - Morgan, Claudia J.. AU - Dezzutti, Charlene S.. AU - Anderson, Clark L.. AU - Sedmak, Daniel D.. PY - 1993/8/1. Y1 - 1993/8/1. N2 - CD4 is a 55-kDa glycoprotein that serves as an important cellular differentiation Ag and cell signaling protein on T lymphocytes, as well as a principal receptor for HIV-1 on a variety of cell types including lymphocytes. CD4 receptor expression in syncytiotrophoblasts, the principal cellular barrier in the human placenta, has not been clearly defined. Knowledge concerning the expression of the CD4 receptor on placental trophoblasts is important to define potential mechanisms of transmission of the virus between maternal blood and fetal tissues. Both mature and immature placenta (n = 10) were examined using an avidin D-based immunohistochemical procedure that ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupp Fig S1: Diagram of the histological organization of the human maternal-fetal interface at midgestation. by destroying the muscular wall and replacing the endothelial lining. To a lesser extent, they also remodel uterine veins. At term, few villous cytotrophoblast progenitor cells remain, the syncytiotrophoblast layer thins, and the stromal cores expand. VC, villus core. (Diagram altered from [5]). NIHMS367107-supplement-Supp_Fig_S1.jpg (379K) GUID:?74E6061F-53EF-46A1-A900-2018DFB5C2FB Supp Fig S2: Antigenic profile of the chorion and cells buy U0126-EtOH isolated from this membrane. Components of the chorion stained for (A) syncytin and (B) GATA4. When chorion-derived cells were cultured in the presence of FGF2 and in the absence of SB431542, they grew as a monoloyer of mixed cell types that expressed (C) vimentin together with (D) 3 tubulin and/or (E) easy muscle actin. NIHMS367107-supplement-Supp_Fig_S2.jpg (2.6M) GUID:?174CC8DE-5BB3-4BB4-930A-531F9B301AAB Supp Fig ...
Our group is interested in understanding and expanding our knowledge on development of placenta, the lifeline of the baby in Eutherian mammals. When the placenta develops abnormally or malfunctions, babies are born small and/or premature. This poses serious health problems to the mother and baby in peri-natal period leading to hypertension, bleeding and abnormal development of the brain, blindness, and gastrointestinal problems. Even when the small premature baby survives the neonatal period, s/he will face an increased risk of complications including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, adding to the already over-burdened healthcare system.. The overarching goal of research in our laboratory is to unravel the mechanism by which multi-potent trophoblast stem cells, the progenitor cells of the placenta, self renew as well as differentiate into various cell lineages of the placenta. We work on regulatory non-coding RNAs, transcription factors and cell signaling pathways that regulate trophoblast ...
Video articles in JoVE about tissue culture techniques include Generation and Isolation of Cell Cycle-arrested Cells with Complex Karyotypes, Production of Elastin-like Protein Hydrogels for Encapsulation and Immunostaining of Cells in 3D, NF-κB-dependent Luciferase Activation and Quantification of Gene Expression in Salmonella Infected Tissue Culture Cells, Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI, Measuring Dengue Virus RNA in the Culture Supernatant of Infected Cells by Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Rotating Cell Culture Systems for Human Cell Culture: Human Trophoblast Cells as a Model.
Nutrient-sensing signaling pathways regulate cell metabolism and growth in response to altered nutrient levels and growth factor signaling. Because trophoblast cell metabolism and associated signaling influence fetal nutrient availability, trophoblast nutrient sensors may have a unique role in regulating fetal growth. We review data in support of a role for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in placental nutrient-sensing. Placental insulin/IGF-I signaling and fetal levels of oxygen, glucose and amino acids (AAs) are altered in pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction, and all these factors are well-established upstream regulators of mTORC1. Furthermore, mTORC1 is a positive regulator of placental AA transporters, suggesting that trophoblast mTORC1 modulates AA transfer across the placenta. In addition, placental mTORC1 signaling is also known to be modulated in pregnancy complications associated with altered fetal growth and in animal models in which maternal
Ubiquitin was detected within both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cytotrophoblast layer only. Both monomeric and conjugated forms of ubiquitin were detected. The relative abundance of ubiquitin did not change through gestation or in the two disorders of pregnancy studied. This is the first report to demonstrate the cell-specific localisation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-protein conjugates in the human cytotrophoblast and provides supportive evidence that ubiquitin may be important during placental development. PMID: 11742419 ...
Since preeclampsia was first described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, the theory of its causation has shifted from toxins to a current theory that incorporates both vascular and immunological causation. Poor placentation whether it is genetically predisposed or due to low expression of defective HLA-G on fetal trophoblasts is believed to be the initial insult. Oxidative stress from placental ischemia/hypoxia leads to an overload of trophoblast debris by stimulating apoptosis or necrosis. Partial failure of the maternal immune system to tolerate the paternal alloantigens activates maternal immune cells to secrete cytokines whose pleiotropic functions lead to dysfunction of the maternal vascular and placental endothelium, blood coagulation, and fibrinolytic system ...
At day 9-10 of embryonic development, cells from the hypoblast begin to migrate to the embryonic pole, forming a layer of cells just beneath the cytotrophoblast, called Heusers Membrane. It surrounds the exocoelomic cavity (primitive yolk sac), i.e. it lines the inner surface of the cytotrophoblast. At this point, the exocoelomic cavity replaces the blastocyst cavity. At days 11 to 12, there is further delineation of the trophoblastic cells giving rise to a layer of loosely arranged cells that inserts between Heusers membrane and both syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast. ...
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Even after intensive study, many of the maternal immunological adaptations to pregnancy are not well elucidated. It is known that pregnancy is associated with an increase in the CD4+ T cells that secrete Th2-type cytokines-for example interleukins (Fragiadakis, 2016). Th1-type cytokine production-for example, interferon gamma and interleukin 2-appears to be somewhat suppressed, leading to a Th2 bias in pregnancy. This bias affects the ability to rapidly eliminate certain intracellular pathogens during pregnancy, although the clinical implications of this suppression are unknown (Kourtis, 2014; Svensson-Arvelund, 2014). Importantly, the Th2 humoral immune response remains intact. It also appears that human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C expressed by extravillous trophoblasts elicits responses from decidual natural killer (dNK) and decidual CD8+ T cells (Crespo, 2017). ...
The objective of the present review is to synthesize the information on the cellular and molecular players responsible for maintaining a homeostatic balance between a naturally invasive human being placenta and the maternal uterus in pregnancy; to review the assignments of decorin (DCN) as a molecular participant in this homeostasis; to list the common diseases linked with a break-down in this homeostasis, ending from a hyper-invasive or hypo-invasive placenta, and their root systems. in this balance actively. We discuss the procedure of uterine angiogenesis in the circumstance Smoc2 of uterine arterial adjustments during regular being pregnant and preeclampsia. We evaluate and comparison trophoblast development and breach with the procedures included in tumorigenesis with particular emphasis on the assignments of DCN and increase essential queries that stay to end up being attended to. Decorin (DCN) is certainly a little leucine-rich proteoglycan created by buy 53-86-1 stromal cells, including ...
J:183869 Cui Y, Wang W, Dong N, Lou J, Srinivasan DK, Cheng W, Huang X, Liu M, Fang C, Peng J, Chen S, Wu S, Liu Z, Dong L, Zhou Y, Wu Q, Role of corin in trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling in pregnancy. Nature. 2012 Apr 12;484(7393):246-50 ...
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. Three major cell types, termed E, F and AF, constitute cultures of second trimester human amniotic fluids and are widely used for the prenatal diagnosis of inherited disorders of metabolism. Current evidence suggests that the predominant cell type, the AF cells, retain properties of trophoblast and it has been proposed that they are derived from the trophoblast of the placenta. Since the trophoblast is thought to be the site of the aromatization of C19 -steroids in the placenta, it was considered that AF type amniotic fluid cell cultures should possess this steroidogenic activity. Investigations were therefore undertaken to explore this hypothesis. Initial experiments involved culturing AF and F type cells in the presence and absence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and subsequently incubating the cell layers with [4-14C] androstenedione. Isolation and identification of the ...
Perkowski EF, Zulauf KE, Weerakoon D, Hayden JD, Ioerger TR, Oreper D, Gomez SM, Sacchettini JC, Braunstein M. 2017. The EXIT strategy: an approach for identifying bacterial proteins exported during host infection. mBio 8:e00333-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00333-17.. Mobley RJ, Raghu D, Duke LD, Abell-Hart K, Zawistowski JS, Lutz K, Gomez SM, Roy S, Homayouni R, Johnson GL, Abell AN. MAP3K4 Kinase Activity Controls Chromatin Remodelers for Transitions Between Epithelial and Mesenchymal Phenotypes in Trophoblast Stem Cells. Cell Reports. 2017 Mar 7;18(10). Vitriol EA, McMillen LM, Kapustina M, Gomez SM, Vavylonis D and Zheng JQ. Two functionally distinct sources of actin monomers supply the leading edge of lamellipodia. Cell Reports. 2015. 11. ...
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Trophoblast cells, found in the human placenta, produce many different types of microRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs play a role in ... They are also expressed highly in trophoblast-derived vesicles, including exosomes. C19MC miRNAs have been shown to be among ... Some placental cell lines derived from trophoblasts also express C19MC miRNA, including the choriocarcinoma lines JEG3, JAr, ... Doridot L, Miralles F, Barbaux S, Vaiman D (November 2013). "Trophoblasts, invasion, and microRNA". Frontiers in Genetics. 4: ...
cffDNA originates from placental trophoblasts. Fetal DNA is fragmented when placental microparticles are shed into the maternal ... confirmation that the origin is the trophoblast". Prenatal Diagnosis. Wiley-Blackwell. 27 (5): 415-8. doi:10.1002/pd.1700. PMID ...
These cells differentiate into many placental cells types, including extravillous trophoblast cells. Extravillous trophoblast ... This impairs extravillus trophoblast cells invasion to the maternal spiral arteries, causing high resistance and low blood flow ... Abnormal chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC) impairs extravillus trophoblast cell invasion to the spiral arteries, causing ... in placental cell lines reduces extravillus trophoblast migration.[18][30] Specific microRNAs in this cluster which might cause ...
Trophoblast are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large ... "Trophoblast - embryology". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary > trophectoderm Retrieved August 2010 Jia, Huanxiang; Xu, Ming ... MAP3K4 controls the activity of CBP histone acetyltransferase which acetylates histones H2A and H2B to maintain the trophoblast ... "MAP3K4/CBP-Regulated H2B Acetylation Controls Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Trophoblast Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 8 ( ...
Duttaroy, Asim K.; Basak, Sanjay (October 2017). Human Placental Trophoblasts: Impact of Maternal Nutrition. CRC Press, USA. pp ...
Strong staining was observed in placental trophoblasts. Lymphoid tissues, glial cells and myocytes were weakly stained or ...
The blastomeres in the blastocyst are arranged into an outer layer called the trophoblast. The trophoblast then differentiates ... The trophoblast will also develop two sub-layers: the cytotrophoblast, which is in front of the syncytiotrophoblast, which in ... Either the embryoblast or the trophoblast will turn into two sub-layers. The inner cells will turn into the hypoblast layer, ... At the end of the second week of development, some cells of the trophoblast penetrate and form rounded columns into the ...
"Centre for Trophoblast Research". The POP study ResearchGate page provides an updated list of published papers. Department of ... the Centre for Trophoblast Research, a major international centre for placental research including >20 research groups), the ...
In this way the epiblastic cells migrate between the embryoblast and trophoblast. The floor is formed by the epiblast which ... Epiblast migrates between the epiblastic disc and trophoblast. ... cells which are present between the embryoblast and trophoblast ...
Progesterone release from the CL is promoted by Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) produced by the cells of the trophoblast, ... Lunghi L, Ferretti ME, Medici S, Biondi C, Vesce F (February 2007). "Control of human trophoblast function". Reproductive ...
Trophoblast glycoprotein, also known as TPBG, 5T4, Wnt-Activated Inhibitory Factor 1 or WAIF1, is a human protein encoded by a ... "Entrez Gene: TPBG trophoblast glycoprotein". Zhao Y, Malinauskas T, Harlos K, Jones EY (Apr 2014). "Structural insights into ... 5T4 is often referred to as an oncofetal antigen due to its expression in foetal trophoblast (where it was first discovered) or ... "Isolation of a cDNA encoding 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein. An antigen associated with metastasis contains leucine- ...
Beard believed that the following about the trophoblast: 1) The trophoblast represented larval phase of human development 2) ... Proteins in trophoblast are "stereotactically different" from those in embryo. In response to the irresponsible trophoblast's ... In its normal function, the trophoblast supplies nourishment to the embryo. In Beard's mind, the "initiation of pancreatic ... These problematic germ cells ultimately developed into an "irresponsible trophoblast", as coined by Beard. This term implied ...
Inflammatory cells of maternal origin could access the foetal villous stoma in multiple ways: The villous trophoblast barrier ... Labarrere C, Faulk W (1990). "MHC Class II Reactivity of Human Villous Trophoblast in Chronic Inflammation of Unestablished ... Nelson DM, Crouch EC, Curran EM, Farmer DR (1990). "Trophoblast interaction with fibrin matrix. Epithelialization of ... villi lose their layer of continuous epithelial syncytiotrophoblast as the villi mature into invasive intermediate trophoblasts ...
Trophoblast cells of the placenta were found to be important in facilitating blood flow to the uterus. Moffett has come out ... Moffett has been at the forefront of research into the immunology of trophoblast invasion and its role in placentation for over ... These genes are involved in chemical signalling between placenta trophoblast cells and natural killer immune cells. In 2018, ... the culture of human trophoblast cells and the link between KIR/HLA-C variants to pre-eclampsia, puerperal sepsis and ...
Mor G, Kwon JY (2015). "Trophoblast-microbiome interaction: a new paradigm on immune regulation". American Journal of ...
Antibodies against phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine are against the trophoblast. These phospholipids are ... The placental trophoblast cells do not express the classical MHC class I isotypes HLA-A and HLA-B, unlike most other cells in ... trophoblast cells do express the rather typical HLA-C. It forms a syncytium without any extracellular spaces between cells in ...
Mouillet JF, Chu T, Nelson DM, Mishima T, Sadovsky Y (2010). "MiR-205 silences MED1 in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts". ... Mouillet JF, Chu T, Nelson DM, Mishima T, Sadovsky Y (2010). "MiR-205 silences MED1 in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts". ... and silences MED1 expression in human trophoblasts exposed to hypoxia. microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles are being ...
It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with ... HLA-F is expressed on the cells that surround the forming placenta (called extravillous trophoblasts), which are in direct ... HLA-F is also expressed in decidual extravillous trophoblasts. During pregnancy, HLA-F interacts with T reg cells and ... extravillous trophoblasts mediating maternal tolerance to the fetus. During the interaction between HLA-F and the heavy chain ( ...
Dempsey LA, Plummer TB, Coombes SL, Platt JL (2000). "Heparanase expression in invasive trophoblasts and acute vascular damage ...
Cytotrophoblast Intermediate trophoblast Syncytium Jay Iams; Creasy, Robert K.; Resnik, Robert; Robert Reznik (2004). Maternal- ... It is the outer layer of the trophoblasts and actively invades the uterine wall, rupturing maternal capillaries and thus ...
Morrish DW, Dakour J, Li H (August 1998). "Functional regulation of human trophoblast differentiation". Journal of Reproductive ... gene stimulates the formation of a non-mitotic multinucleate syncytium from proliferative cytotrophoblasts during trophoblast ...
Green JA, Xie S, Roberts RM (January 1998). "Pepsin-related molecules secreted by trophoblast". Rev. Reprod. 3 (1): 62-9. doi: ...
The trophoblast gives rise to the placenta. The name "blastocyst" arises from the Greek βλαστός blastos ("a sprout") and κύστις ... Trophoblasts express integrin on their cell surfaces which allow for adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the uterine wall. ... Trophoblast cells also secrete factors to make the blastocoel. After implantation, cytotrophoblast is the inner layer of the ... During implantation, the trophoblast gives rise to extraembryonic membranes and cell types that will eventually form most of ...
Inhibin Fetal trophoblasts. *Uterus (when a woman is pregnant) *Prolactin (PRL) Decidual cells ...
Conversely, if there is too much invasion of uterine tissue by the trophoblast then a hydatidiform mole or choriocarcinoma may ... The cytotrophoblast (or layer of Langhans) is the inner layer of the trophoblast. It is interior to the syncytiotrophoblast and ... Dakour, J., Li, H., Chen, H., & Morrish, D. W. (1999). "EGF promotes development of a differentiated trophoblast phenotype ... Once they make contact the trophoblast begins to rapidly proliferate. The cytotrophoblast secretes proteolytic enzymes to break ...
In the placenta, TRPV6 is expressed in trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. In mice, TRPV6 mRNA and protein are expressed in ... Loss of TRPV6 in murine placenta severely impairs Ca2+ transport across trophoblast and reduces embryo growth, induces bone ... trophoblasts fluid shear stress (FSS) is known to induce a TRPV6-mediated Ca2+ influx and promote microvilli formation through ... "Expression of calcium channels along the differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells from human term placenta". Biology of ...
"Evidence that extravillous trophoblast fusion into multinuclear trophoblast giant cells involves a mesenchymal-epithelial ... PIF also has a series of anti-apoptotic impacts in human extravillous trophoblasts, mediated by the TP53 gene. Apoptosis is a ... Trophoblast cells form the outer lining of the blastocyst in preimplantation development, eventually forming more ... PIF is thought to modulate and facilitate the depth of the trophoblast's invasion into the uterus at physiological doses. ...
"Requirement of gap junctional intercellular communication for human villous trophoblast differentiation". Biol. Reprod. 69 (5 ...
Moss Ralph W. (December 2008). "Enzymes, trophoblasts, and cancer: the afterlife of an idea (1924-2008)". Integrative Cancer ... that all forms of cancer arise from undifferentiated cells called trophoblasts. Krebs Sr. revived this theory by the ...
The cAMP signaling pathway is the major route to trigger trophoblast fusion and its activation results in phosphorylation of ... We continue to discuss the current knowledge of the spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP signaling triggering trophoblast fusion. ... Spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP signaling controls the human trophoblast fusion Pascale Gerbaud 1 Kjetil Taskén 2, 3 ... The cAMP signaling pathway is the major route to trigger trophoblast fusion and its activation results in phosphorylation of ...
Gab3 is required for IL-2- and IL-15-induced NK cell expansion and limits trophoblast invasion during pregnancy ... Gab3 is required for IL-2- and IL-15-induced NK cell expansion and limits trophoblast invasion during pregnancy ... Gab3 is required for IL-2- and IL-15-induced NK cell expansion and limits trophoblast invasion during pregnancy ... Gab3 is required for IL-2- and IL-15-induced NK cell expansion and limits trophoblast invasion during pregnancy ...
Results: Fetal extravillous trophoblasts were found in all the 10 samples from pregnant women between a gestational age of 10 ... However, only 4 of 11 blood sam- ples taken from women at 1-3 days postpartum rendered fetal extravillous trophoblasts, and ... The existence of fetal extravillous trophoblasts was verified either by X and Y chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridiza- tion ... Material and methods: To study whether fetal trophoblast cells persist in maternal cir- culation postpartum, blood samples were ...
Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ... Microfluidic devices for the study of human trophoblast invasion. *Manipulating epigenetic reprogramming in vivo and its role ... This includes the following topics: epigenetic regulation, lineage specification, implantation, trophoblast differentiation, ... regarding the biology of the trophoblast lineage, the placenta and pregnancy. ...
The CTR Annual Trophoblast Meeting is aimed at scientists and academic clinicians with an interest in placental research. ... The CTR Annual Trophoblast Meeting is aimed at scientists and academic clinicians with an interest in placental research. ... Trophoblast mTOR signaling: a critical hub linking maternal, placental and fetal metabolism ... Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ...
What is trophoblast interferon? Meaning of trophoblast interferon medical term. What does trophoblast interferon mean? ... Looking for online definition of trophoblast interferon in the Medical Dictionary? trophoblast interferon explanation free. ... redirected from trophoblast interferon) interferon-tau. an interferon secreted by bovine concepti, with potent antiretroviral ... Trophoblast interferon , definition of trophoblast interferon by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
GeneQuery™ Human Trophoblast Cell Biology qPCR Array Kit https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-gk102 https://www.sciencepro ...
Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ... Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ... Microfluidic devices for the study of human trophoblast invasion. *Manipulating epigenetic reprogramming in vivo and its role ... Microfluidic devices for the study of human trophoblast invasion. *Manipulating epigenetic reprogramming in vivo and its role ...
Sideri M, de Virgiliis G, Rainoldi R, Remotti G. Peculiar ruthenium red staining pattern of the human early trophoblast. ... Peculiar ruthenium red staining pattern of the human early trophoblast. / Sideri, M.; de Virgiliis, G.; Rainoldi, R.; Remotti, ... Dive into the research topics of Peculiar ruthenium red staining pattern of the human early trophoblast. Together they form a ... The possibility of a different plasma membrane composition of the 2 sides of the human early trophoblast is discussed. ...
Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ... Novel regulators of trophoblast stem cell potential *An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Transcriptional Control in the ... Microfluidic devices for the study of human trophoblast invasion. *Manipulating epigenetic reprogramming in vivo and its role ... Microfluidic devices for the study of human trophoblast invasion. *Manipulating epigenetic reprogramming in vivo and its role ...
Well-controlled trophoblast invasion on the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for normal placentation and successful ... Well-controlled trophoblast invasion on the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for normal placentation and successful ... provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009] cells in the legislation of trophoblast invasion, it had been hypothesized that ULBP1 may inhibit ... Home » Kappa Opioid Receptors » Well-controlled trophoblast invasion on the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for normal ...
Linkage of human chorionic gonadotrophin and placental lactogen biosynthesis to trophoblast differentiation and tumorigenesis. ... Genetic Pregnancy Trophoblastic Neoplasms Trophoblasts Uterine Neoplasms ...
Gelatin hydrogel can be used in trophoblast spheroid motility assays, shows.... December 24, 2020. ...
Pijnenborg R., Vercruysse L. and Hanssens M. (2008). Fetal-maternal conflict, trophoblast invasion, preeclampsia, and the Red ...
In the blastocyst adipor1 was increased in the whole blastocyst, while adiponectin was only increased in the trophoblast and no ...
University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , CTR (Centre for Trophoblast Research) Seminar Series , Recent advances in gestational ... This talk is part of the CTR (Centre for Trophoblast Research) Seminar Series series. ...
... describes a heterogeneous group of interrelated lesions that arise from abnormal proliferation of placental trophoblasts. GTN ...
Placenta 29, Supplement A, Trophoblast Research 2008; 22:S86-S91.. Redline RW, Minich N, Taylor HG, Hack M, Placental lesions ...
Hydroxychloroquine restores trophoblast fusion affected by antiphospholipid antibodies. Marchetti, Tess; Ruffatti, A.; ... Effects of ligands or substrate of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) on trophoblast invasion. Cohen, Marie-Benoîte; ... The fine-tuning of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and autophagy activation during trophoblast syncytialization. Bastida ...
Her group focuses on establishing new cellular models, such as trophoblast stem cells and organoid models, to improve our ...
An important factor for bacterial tropism to the reproductive organs and growth in trophoblast cells is the presence of ...
The mechanisms of placenta localisation, trophoblast tropism and abortion are poorly understood. A complete picture of the ...
Scientists Develop Regenerative Medicine-induced Placental Trophoblasts to Help Pregnant Women. * 1 year ago ...
In contrast to murine OCT-4 expression, bovine and porcine expression is detected in both the inner cell mass and trophoblast. ... In contrast to murine OCT-4 expression, bovine and porcine expression is detected in both the inner cell mass and trophoblast. ...
Impaired Trophoblast Invasion in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia. Authors: Golob Nena Categories: Archive - 2010 - 3 - Archive ...
HLA-G ON TROPHOBLAST: ROLE IN ANTIGEN PRESENTATION. Schmidt, C. M.. National Institutes of Health ...
William Kelley and the Metabolic Program - Trophoblast theory.. Do you like it?0 ...
  • Volume 1 provides readily reproducible protocols for studying embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast cell development, and the organization and molecular characterization of the placenta. (google.com)
  • We show that miRNA members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, which are almost exclusively expressed in the human placenta, are packaged within trophoblast-derived exosomes and attenuate viral replication in recipient cells by the induction of autophagy. (pnas.org)
  • Trophoblasts are specialized cells of the placenta that play an important role in embryo implantation and interaction with the decidualized maternal uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extravillous trophoblasts grow out from the placenta and penetrate into the decidualized uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasion of the trophoblast too deeply may cause conditions such as placenta accreta, placenta increta, or placenta percreta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease is a pregnancy-associated concept, forming from the villous and extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the placenta, these stem cells are able to differentiate into any trophoblast cell because they are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this respect, terminal differentiation of trophoblasts (the characteristic cells of the placenta in Therian mammals) into syncytiotrophoblast, villous trophoblast, or extravillous trophoblast constitutes a good example of such a choice, where miRNAs have recently been shown to play an important role. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protecting the fetus and placenta from the maternal immune system has long been considered a function of placental trophoblasts. (pnas.org)
  • Trophoblasts, the primary cell type of the placenta, are in direct contact with maternal tissue, yet do not invoke the cellular and humoral immune responses associated with other allografts. (pnas.org)
  • A similar argument comes from early studies showing that mouse ectoplacental cones (the part of the early extraembryonic tissue that gives rise to the placenta) transplanted to extrauterine sites in nonpregnant allogeneic mice form masses of differentiated trophoblast giant cells with apparently little inflammatory reaction, yet their counterpart embryos induce strong inflammatory responses in the same host ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our thesis consists of a literature review related to placenta, placentation, trophoblasts, homeobox genes, ion channel proteins and abortion. (uio.no)
  • In addition, the trophectoderm develops into the trophoblast cell layers of the placenta. (rndsystems.com)
  • The trophoblast plays a role in the implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall and the formation of the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In placenta, the trophoblast cells are characterized by elevated expression of coagulation components, such as TF and TM, which are not only involved in hemostasis, but also in the differentiation of blood vessels of the placenta (21). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While HIF-2α staining intensity in trophoblasts of late first trimester placenta was higher than early first trimester (+57%) the percentage of positively stained trophoblast nuclei did not differ between the two time points. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Spatially correlated with the site of trophoblast invasion (and possibly induced by trophoblast-produced factors), spiral arteries converge to form a few large canals that funnel maternal blood into the placenta. (biologists.org)
  • Our results indicate that mAbs to gB protect trophoblast progenitors of the placenta and could be included in antibody treatments developed to suppress congenital infection and prevent disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Initially the cytotrophoblast cells form a continuous layer beneath the syncytiotrophoblast but as pregnancy advances these cells become less prominent, which will have a major influence on the trophoblast thickness of the placenta. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • RESULTS MHC antigen expression and genomic imprinting on the placenta and on trophoblast cells varies with the time of gestation and with the type of MHC antigen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE IN HUMAN TROPHOBLAST AND GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE submitted by Feng Hui-Chen for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in August 2004 Trophoblast in normal placenta is pseudo-malignant in nature. (openthesis.org)
  • Comparison of global gene expression profiles between normal placenta and HM, and between regressive and persistent mole have provided new insights into the molecular events regulating behaviors of normal and abnormal trophoblasts. (openthesis.org)
  • In conclusion, the pEGFR protein was robustly upregulated in HBx-infected human placenta tissues and trophoblast cells. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To evaluate the impact of schistosomiasis on trophoblasts of the human placenta, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from healthy placentas delivered at term. (asm.org)
  • Trophoblasts are the first cell lineage to differentiate, invade and migrate to the vascular tissue of the placenta and fetal membrane during pregnancy ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The human placenta develops from highly proliferative and phenotypically plastic cells called trophoblasts. (uwo.ca)
  • Background: The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. (tufts.edu)
  • During pregnancy, trophoblast cells proliferate, differentiate, and invade the uterine myometrium to form a functional placenta. (biologists.org)
  • Publications] 己斐秀樹、麻生武志ら: 'Effects of Heparin-Binding Substances in Fetal Bovine Serum upon Proliferation and Differentiation of Trophoblast Cells in the Mouse Blastocysts Cultured in Vitro' Placenta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Rather, our findings suggest that different patterns of CpG methylation may be more important in epigenetically distinguishing the placenta from somatic cell populations, and these patterns of methylation may contribute to successful placental/trophoblast function. (biologists.org)
  • The presence of IFNγ in trophoblast cells from infected ewes may indicate an attempt to restrict the replication of the organism and be an important trigger for the inflammatory responses that develop on the fetal side of the placenta in enzootic abortion. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Following implantation, trophoblast cells continue to contribute to the placenta . (edu.au)
  • Dynamics of trophoblast differentiation in peri- implantation -stage human embryos [5] "Single-cell RNA sequencing of cells from cultured human blastocysts has enabled us to define the transcriptomic landscape of placental trophoblast (TB) that surrounds the epiblast and associated embryonic tissues during the enigmatic day 8 (D8) to D12 peri-implantation period before the villous placenta forms. (edu.au)
  • Trophoblast cells of the human placenta proliferate, differentiate and invade the endometrium leading to successful implantation of the embryo. (ijbs.com)
  • Trophoblast differentiation and formation of the placenta are important events linked to post-implantation embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discussion: Placenta accreta is thought to be the result of damage to the endometrium predisposing to abnormal decidualization and invasive trophoblast growth into the myometrium. (elsevier.com)
  • Reznik, S. E. / Increased placental trophoblast inclusions in placenta accreta . (elsevier.com)
  • Trophoblasts of the placenta are the frontline cells involved in communication and exchange of materials between the mother and fetus. (ucc.ie)
  • Trophoblasts are invasive, eroding, and metastasizing cells of the placenta . (wikidoc.org)
  • The placenta must act as a surrogate lung, gastrointestinal tract and kidney for the fetus as well as acting as an endocrine gland necessary for the maintenance of a successful pregnancy: to achieve this, to what extent does the trophoblast necessarily share a similar epithelial phenotype? (ox.ac.uk)
  • Jerzak M and Bischof P: Apoptosis in the first trimester human placenta: The role in maintaining immune privilege at the maternal-foetal interface and in the trophoblast remodelling. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tnfrh1 mRNA is detectable in multiple adult and fetal tissues, with highest expression in placenta, where in situ hybridization reveals a distinctive population of Tnfrh1 -positive cells in maternal decidua, directly beneath the trophoblast giant cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The techniques presented range from experimental animal models, to animal and human placental organ and cell culture systems, to morphological, biochemical, and molecular strategies for assessing trophoblast/placental growth, differentiation and function. (google.com)
  • After the first differentiation, the cells in the human embryo lose their totipotency and are no longer totipotent stem cells because they cannot form a trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this review is to provide a snapshot of what is known today in placentation mechanisms that are mediated by miRNA, under the angles of materno-fetal immune dialog regulation, trophoblast differentiation, and angiogenesis at the materno-fetal interface. (frontiersin.org)
  • While trophoblast differentiation is quite distinct between cattle and mice, as would be expected from their different modes of implantation, recent studies have demonstrated that differences arise much earlier during trophoblast development. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with their being permissive for ZIKV infection, primary trophoblasts expressed multiple putative ZIKV cell entry receptors, and cellular function and differentiation were preserved. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of either factor causes rapid differentiation into trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblasts, two postmitotic trophoblast subtypes. (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage applications from the scientific community to support outstanding research in the area of trophoblast differentiation and function in relation to fertility and pregnancy, including the role of the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during trophoblast differentiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are thought to play an important role in trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. (uio.no)
  • Implantation, trophoblast differentiation and haemochorial placentation: mechanistic evidence in vivo and in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Thus, trophoblast stem cells are used to model trophoectoderm differentiation and placental development in vitro . (rndsystems.com)
  • TGF-β1 up-regulates connexin43 expression: a potential mechanism for human trophoblast cell differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Connexin43 (Cx43)-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) are required for human trophoblast differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To date, whether Cx43 mediates TGF-β1-induced trophoblast differentiation has not been determined. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results provide evidence that Cx43 and GJIC activity are up-regulated by TGF-β1 in human trophoblast cells, which subsequently contributes to TGF-β1-induced trophoblast differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Similarly, transgenic overexpression of Cts7 and Cts8 affects trophoblast proliferation and differentiation by prolonging mitotic cell cycle progression and promoting giant cell differentiation, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • Placental development depends on the proper differentiation of various trophoblast cell types that descend from the trophectoderm layer of the blastocyst. (biologists.org)
  • Yet, there was up-regulation of several genes associated with mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm, strongly suggesting that differentiation to trophoblast-like cells under the conditions used does not yield a homogeneous cell type. (scirp.org)
  • Objective: We evaluated whether gestational phthalate exposures in humans were associated with altered human placental steroidogenesis and trophoblast differentiation as measured by markers of mRNA transcription. (ccceh.org)
  • qPCR results for the target genes were log-transformed, converted to Z-scores, and grouped into two functional pathways: steroidogenesis (aromatase, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and cytochrome P450 1B1) and trophoblast differentiation (PPARγ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and human chorionic gonadotropin). (ccceh.org)
  • Results: Higher urinary concentrations of five phthalate metabolites were associated with lower expression of the target genes reflecting trophoblast differentiation. (ccceh.org)
  • Trophoblast differentiation, invasion and hormone secretion in a three-dimensional in vitro implantation model with rhesus monkey embryos. (tufts.edu)
  • In this study, we analyzed effects of matrix proteins and components in fetal bovine serum (FBS) upon the proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cells and ectoplacental cone (EPC) cells derived from mouse blastocysts produced by IVF and cultured in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gene expression patterns associated with human placental trophoblast differentiation [6] "Cell fusion is a hallmark of placental trophoblast cell differentiation and the mature syncytiotrophoblasts play essential roles for fetal-maternal exchange and production of pregnancy-related hormones. (edu.au)
  • Using a well-established in vitro trophoblast differentiation model, we performed a microarray analysis on mRNA expression in trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cell cultures. (edu.au)
  • Dramatic changes in gene expression patterns were detected during trophoblast differentiation. (edu.au)
  • A number of cell cycle regulator including CDC6, CDC20, Cyclins B2, L1 and E2, were down-regulated in the syncytiotrophoblast, providing a mechanism for the loss of mitotic activity during trophoblast differentiation. (edu.au)
  • Models mimicking the biology of trophoblast differentiation in a post-implantation maternal microenvironment are needed for understanding disorders like placental-ischemia or for applications in drug-screening, and would help in overcoming the ethical impasse on using human embryos for such research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also Y27632 reduced extraembryonic endoderm and trophoblast lineage differentiation from early noncystic-EBs, whereas, it specifically enhanced the induction of trophoblast and multinucleated syncitiotrophoblast differentiation from late cystic-EBs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vivo trophoblast differentiation can be replicated in fibronectin based biomaterials, using cytic-EBs and by maneuvering the Rho-ROCK pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EBs which have developed a fluid filled cavity like that of a blastocyst) to compare their efficiency of trophoblast cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The features of HVT, together with the recent establishment of trophoblast stem cells, make them an ideal genetic platform to study cell differentiation and organogenesis. (sciencellonline.com)
  • Along with other factors, aberrant AGO2 expression was observed to be associated with multiple defects in trophoblast differentiation through deregulation of miRNAs mediated mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides the first insight into genome wide miRNA expression, their role in regulation of trophoblast differentiation as well as abnormal placental development in Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer pregnancies to pave the way to improve the efficiency of cloning by nuclear transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Placental trophoblasts form the interface between the fetal and maternal environments and serve to limit the maternal-fetal spread of viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that cultured primary human placental trophoblasts are highly resistant to infection by a number of viruses and, importantly, confer this resistance to nonplacental recipient cells by exosome-mediated delivery of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). (pnas.org)
  • Together, our findings identify an unprecedented paracrine and/or systemic function of placental trophoblasts that uses exosome-mediated transfer of a unique set of placental-specific effector miRNAs to directly communicate with placental or maternal target cells and regulate their immunity to viral infections. (pnas.org)
  • Hypoxia alters the epigenetic profile in cultured human placental trophoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that primary human placental trophoblasts from non-exposed donors (n = 20) can be infected by primary passage ZIKV-FLR isolate, and uniquely allowed for ZIKV viral RNA replication when compared to dengue virus (DENV). (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that ZIKV-FLR strain can replicate in human placental trophoblasts without host cell destruction, thereby serving as a likely permissive reservoir and portal of fetal transmission with risk of latent microcephaly and malformations. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that BUP, NBUP, and MET are potent AhR agonists and can induce BCRP in human placental trophoblasts by activating AhR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • HBxAg suppresses cell apoptosis and promotes the secretion of placental hormones in human placental trophoblasts via activation of the EGFR/Akt pathway. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Hepatitis B virus x (HBx) in the growth and secretion of human placental trophoblasts. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • From the eighth and ongoing till at least the 16th week of gestation, the plugs begin to disappear, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade the uterine matrix, some going inside the decidua (interstitial trophoblasts), some fusing in a fashion similar to the syncytiotrophoblast (leading to placental bed giant cells), some replacing the maternal arteries endothelium in an ill-understood substitution process (endovascular trophoblasts), as depicted in Figure 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • During early pregnancy, several extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation-related proteins are expressed by extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to ensure normal trophoblast invasion [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Results: There was a reduction in the expression of Homeobox genes TGIF and HEX and of the ion channel protein CLIC3 in the extravillous trophoblasts in the placental bed in the clinical abortions as compared to the normal controls (therapeutic abortions). (uio.no)
  • The role of Thyroid hormone Transporters Monocarboxylate Transporter 10 (MCT10) and Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 (MCT8) in extravillous trophoblasts. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Both have been localized to human villous trophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). (bham.ac.uk)
  • AQP3 could significantly promote migration and invasion capabilities of human extravillous trophoblasts, it may mediate embryo invasion and adhesion to endometrium by regulating PDGF-B、PIK3/AKT signaling pathways, although this requires further verification. (researchsquare.com)
  • However, it is unknown if AQP3 is expressed in human extravillous trophoblasts (EVT), or whether it participates in human embryo implantation. (researchsquare.com)
  • Some of these trophoblasts even replace the endothelial cells in the uterine spiral arteries as they remodel these vessels into wide bore conduits that are independent of maternal vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invasion of a specific type of trophoblast (extravillous trophoblast) into the maternal uterus is a vital stage in the establishment of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Nilkaeo, K L Green, and S W Kauma, "Maternal regulation of trophoblast proliferation by decidual interleukin-1 (IL-1)," Fertility and Sterility , vol. 74, no. 3 suppl 1, p. (hindawi.com)
  • 1975, A new approach to prenatal diagnosis using trophoblast cells in the maternal blood. (springer.com)
  • The placental cells that form the ultimate fetal-maternal interface are the trophoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and activation: a mechanism used by equine invasive trophoblast to escape the maternal immune response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Divergent trophoblast invasion and apoptosis in placental bed spiral arteries from pregnancies complicated by maternal anemia and early-onset preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Trophoblast giant cells are instrumental in promoting blood flow towards the mouse embryo by invading the uterine endometrium and remodelling the maternal vasculature. (biologists.org)
  • HLA-G is the only class I determinant of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expressed by the trophoblasts, the fetal cells invading the maternal decidua during pregnancy. (rupress.org)
  • Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. (ehu.es)
  • Our data indicate that schistosome antigens can activate proinflammatory responses in trophoblasts, which might compromise maternal-fetal health in pregnancies complicated by schistosomiasis. (asm.org)
  • During the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells invade the uterus and remodel the maternal spiral arteries, which, if inadequate, leads to pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss (EPL), preeclampsia (PE), and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). (wayne.edu)
  • Trophoblast retrieval and isolation from the cervix (TRIC) can isolate intact trophoblast cells in a minimally invasive procedure from ongoing pregnancies as early as 5 weeks GA, using immunomagnetic isolation to target human leukocyte antigen-G, a protein present on trophoblast cells, but not on maternal cervical cells. (wayne.edu)
  • Interestingly, trophoblast yield by TRIC was unaffected by GA, maternal obesity, parity, or age, further highlighting the advantages of TRIC over other approaches for PGD. (wayne.edu)
  • The trophoblast bilayer comprises a proliferative population called cytotrophoblasts that fuse to form the overlying syncytiotrophoblast layer, which is bathed in maternal blood for most of gestation ( Fig. 1 ) ( Boyd and Hamilton, 1970 ). (biologists.org)
  • The presence of H-2 antigens of the paternal and maternal haplotypes on mouse trophoblast cells was examined at several stages of pregnancy by using a sensitive immunolabeling technique followed by quantitative radioautography. (rupress.org)
  • Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells are of pivotal importance in human embryo implantation and homeostasis of the maternal fetal interface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In pregnancy, trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling are important for lowering maternal vascular resistance and increasing uteroplacental blood flow. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • These cells Hubrecht named trophoblast because of their nutritive function, for by their agency the blastocyst "burrows" into the maternal tissues, both destroying and absorbing them. (edu.au)
  • Trophoblast invasion into the decidual stroma and spiral arteries is one of the crucial steps in human placental development, which provide an anchor to the developing embryo and regulate the temporal changes that occur in the fetal-maternal circulation during early pregnancy. (ijbs.com)
  • The trophoblast begins at the outer covering of the early blastocyst and provides the route of nourishment between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo. (sciencellonline.com)
  • Maternal hypoxia during critical phases of placentation can activate the invasive trophoblast lineage, resulting in premature and robust migration of invasive trophoblast cells, extending well into the uterine mesometrial vasculature. (grantome.com)
  • In Aim No. 1, we will examine the effects of maternal hypoxia on development of the invasive trophoblast lineage. (grantome.com)
  • In view of its strong expression in cells at the fetal-maternal boundary, Tnfrh1 warrants further study as a gene that might modulate immune or trophic interactions between the invasive placental trophoblast and the maternal decidua. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, we show that transformed mouse trophoblast cell lines akin to human choriocarcinomas form tumors in syngeneic and immunodeficient mice, yet are rejected in immunocompetent allogeneic mice. (pnas.org)
  • The recent advent of mouse trophoblast stem cell lines ( 14 ) has afforded us the opportunity to test directly whether trophoblasts are intrinsically resistant to immune attack in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Glass RH, Aggeler J, Spindle AI, Pederson RA, Werb Z. Degradation of extracellular matrix by mouse trophoblast outgrowths: a model for implanta-tion. (springer.com)
  • Immunizing with mouse trophoblast to obtain mouse-human cross-reacting antibodies against normal and neoplastic human trophoblast. (diva-portal.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies raised against living, early invasive mouse trophoblast cells were screened on paraffin sections from first- and third-trimester placentas and from hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma. (diva-portal.org)
  • Several mouse-human cross-reacting antibodies were recognized, which implies that mouse trophoblast cells can be used as immunogen for producing antibodies against human trophoblast. (diva-portal.org)
  • Localization of H-2 antigens on mouse trophoblast cells. (rupress.org)
  • J. Rossant et al, "Effect of Culture Conditions on Diploid to Giant-Cell Transformation in Postimplantation Mouse Trophoblast", J. Embryol. (lens.org)
  • Indeed, the available evidence has suggested that trophoblasts themselves might "intrinsically" resist immune-mediated attack ( 1 , 6 ), which would render the uterine microenvironment and systemic pregnancy hormones unnecessary for the immunological protection of the fetus. (pnas.org)
  • Endovascular trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy is more extensive in parous women who already had an uncomplicated pregnancy than in nulliparous women. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that trophoblast L-selectin mediates interactions with the uterus and that this adhesion mechanism may be critical to establishing human pregnancy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stimulation of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in sheep endometrium during pregnancy, by intrauterine infusion of ovine trophoblast protein-1, and by intramuscular administration of recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the first few months of pregnancy endovascular trophoblast is encountered in the decidual spiral arteries but not beyond the decidual myometrial junction. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • The sprouting activity of the trophoblast is maximal at 10 weeks of pregnancy and decreases towards term. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • We report here a direct impact of SEA on primary human trophoblast cells, which are critical for many aspects of a healthy pregnancy. (asm.org)
  • Trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion are critical for normal placental development and therefore successful pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Trophoblasts become inert during pregnancy and are completely rejected by the fetus and mother at delivery. (wikidoc.org)
  • A key regulator of pregnancy-dependent changes in the uterine vasculature is a specialized lineage of trophoblast cells referred to as invasive trophoblast. (grantome.com)
  • We assert that intrauterine trophoblast cell invasion is a critical first step in the regulation of pregnancy-dependent uteroplacental vascular adaptations, which are essential for embryonic/fetal nutrient delivery. (grantome.com)
  • On the fetal side, human trophoblasts expressed L-selectin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Trophoblast means a layer on the outside of mammalian blastula providing nourishment to an embryo (Oxford dictionary) for example, cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast cells and a thin sheet of connective tissue and the fetal vascular endothelium (Fig. 4). (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • Transcellular Ca2+ transport through trophoblasts is essential in fetal skeleton formation. (ucc.ie)
  • Interactions Between the Human Trophoblast Cells and the Extracellular Matrix of the Endometrium. (springer.com)
  • A new era is now beginning with the application of modem cellular and molecular approaches to the investigation of the relationship between trophoblast and endometrium. (springer.com)
  • In human and non-human primates, migratory trophoblasts penetrate the uterine epithelium, invade the endometrium, enter the uterine vasculature, and migrate within the arteries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data suggest a role for RANTES and CCR5 in the regulation of trophoblast migration within the endometrium and within the uterine vasculature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This chapter therefore concentrates on interactions between trophoblast and endometrium in the human, but reference is made to other species where comparison is thought to be instructive. (springer.com)
  • Metastasizing trophoblast cells are also responsible for mediating implantation of the embryo into the endometrium. (rndsystems.com)
  • AQP3 could significantly promote both adhesion and expansion capabilities of blastocysts [ 5 ] , suggesting that AQP3 participates in the process of trophoblasts invading the endometrium. (researchsquare.com)
  • Trophoblasts mediate the implantation of the embryo into the endometrium , but they are never incorporated into the mother's body or the fetus . (wikidoc.org)
  • This core is surrounded by two layers of trophoblasts, the cytotrophoblast and the syncytiotrophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are one of two main trophoblast subtypes derived from progenitor cytotrophoblasts (CYT), the other being syncytiotrophoblast (SYN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo implantation in higher primates is mediated by trophoblast: in the earliest phases by syncytiotrophoblast, then by both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the course of placentation three main trophoblast populations can be identified: cytotrophoblast stem cells and two differentiated derivative cell types: the syncytiotrophoblast and the extravillous cytotrophoblast. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Special to the outer layer of villous trophoblast, also called syncytiotrophoblast, is that it differs from conventional stratified epithelia by absence of lateral cell borders and thus represents a real syncytium. (nature.com)
  • Antisera to human syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell surface membranes from different placentas are cytotoxic for lymphocytes from some people but not others, demonstrating the presence of allotypic trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive (TLX) antigens. (sciencemag.org)
  • the trophoblast soon becomes two layered, differentiating into the syncytiotrophoblast, an outer layer consisting of a multinucleated protoplasmic mass (syncytium), and the cytotrophoblast, the inner layer next to the mesoderm in which the cells retain their membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bi-potential trophoblast stem cells differentiate into the villous pathway to form the syncytiotrophoblast layer and the extravillous trophoblast (EVT). (uwo.ca)
  • cytotrophoblast , syncytiotrophoblast , trophoblastic column and extra-villous trophoblast cells. (edu.au)
  • The trophoblast is isolated in the blastocyst stage and makes possible contact between the embryo and the mother's system by allowing nutrients to pass from the mother to the embryo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, after implantation of the blastocyst, a specialized trophoblast population termed giant cells initiates an invasive process during which they penetrate deeply into the surrounding decidualized uterine stroma. (biologists.org)
  • The primitive cytotrophoblast is derived from the cells of the wall of the blastocyst and gives rise to all populations of trophoblast cells. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • To better understand how DNA methylation influences placentation, DNA from isolated first trimester trophoblast populations underwent reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and was compared to publicly available data of blastocyst-derived and somatic cell populations. (biologists.org)
  • Human Blastocyst (day 5), trophoblast cells form the peripheral flattened epithelial layer of cells directly under the zona pellucida. (edu.au)
  • Mouse blastocyst labelled with trophoblast marker. (edu.au)
  • Week 2 following blastocyst hatching the trophoblast layer is involved with initial adhesion to the uterine wall and subsequent implantation within the wall. (edu.au)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that the cystic-EBs being morphologically similar to a blastocyst, may have an inherent ability to differentiate towards trophoblast cells and would be a better starting material for inducing such differentiations of extraembryonic trophoblast, or endoderm lineages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blastocyst with an inner cell mass and trophoblast . (wikidoc.org)
  • R. Gardner, "An Investigation of Inner Cell Mass and Trophoblast Tissues Following Their Isolation from the mouse Blastocyst", J. Embryol. (lens.org)
  • In addition, cytotrophoblasts in the tips of villi can differentiate into another type of trophoblast called the extravillous trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trophoblast giant cells differentiate by exiting the mitotic cell cycle and undergoing repeated rounds of endoreduplication. (biologists.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies (EB), but there are many differences and controversies regarding the nature of the differentiated cells. (scirp.org)
  • Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are cells that can regenerate and they are similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the fact that they come from early on in the trophoblast lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from gene expression studies, in vivo loss-of-function models and in vitro systems using trophoblast and embryonic stem cells have been assimilated into a model seeking to explain trophoblast ontogeny via gene regulatory networks. (nih.gov)
  • The trophoblast proliferates and differentiates into two cell layers at approximately six days after fertilization for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture condition for placental trophoblast samples. (nih.gov)
  • This idea has gained support from the discovery of HLA-G, a nonclassical MHC class I molecule expressed by human trophoblasts that is thought to potentially protect these cells from NK cell-mediated attack ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have used early gestation macaque trophoblasts to test the hypothesis that trophoblast migration is regulated by the chemokine, Regulated on Activation T-Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we present a comparative study on the functional aspects of the choriocarcinoma cell lines BeWo, JAR and Jeg-3, as well as the first trimester trophoblast cell line ACH-3P as placental in vitro barrier models for endocrine and transport studies. (nature.com)
  • In the first trimester the cytotrophoblast cell population makes up a complete cell layer underneath the syncytium, however, starting mid gestation a reduction of this layer becomes obvious resulting in the formation of a mostly one layered villous trophoblast at the end of gestation. (nature.com)
  • Clark DA, Slapsys R, Chaput A, et al: Immu no regulatory molecules of trophoblast and decidual suppressor cell origin at the maternofetal interface. (springer.com)
  • Antigen processing and presentation by human trophoblast-derived cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • The trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell lines JEG-3 and JAR express the nonclassical MHC class I molecules HLA-G (JEG-3) or, at a low level, HLA-E (JAR), but lack expression of the classical MHC class I molecules HLA-A and HLA-B. Expression of these nonclassical MHC class I genes was found to coincide with expression of the genes encoding the peptide transporter associated with Ag processing (TAP). (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate whether trophoblast-derived cell lines were capable of peptide processing, transport, and loading of MHC class I molecules, HLA-A*0201-expressing transfectants of JEG-3 and JAR were used for functional studies. (jimmunol.org)
  • These transfectants were recognized by both allospecific cytotoxic T cell clones and, after viral infection, by an influenza A matrix peptide-specific cytotoxic T cell clone, indicating that these trophoblast-derived cell lines were capable of presenting endogenously derived peptides in the context of HLA-A*0201. (jimmunol.org)
  • From these observations, it can be inferred that the TAP complex and other molecules involved in Ag processing and presentation by MHC class I molecules are functionally active in these trophoblast-derived cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • This implies that trophoblasts are able to provide antigenic peptides for presentation by nonclassical MHC class I molecules that are naturally expressed by this cell type. (jimmunol.org)
  • We used a global gene expression microarray approach to identify signalling pathways and hypoxia-responsive genes of interest involved in invasion of the first trimester trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo under hypoxic conditions where HIF-1 was active. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, both cathepsins determine trophoblast cell fate by inhibiting the self-renewing capacity of trophoblast stem cells when overexpressed in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs) give rise to the mature cell types of the chorionic villi, CTBs and multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs). (mdpi.com)
  • We showed that CsA down-regulated E-cadherin transcription and translation in human primary cultured trophoblast cells and choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. (bioone.org)
  • Thymic epithelial cell lines were generated and shown to express three alternatively spliced HLA-G transcripts, previously identified in human trophoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Immunogenetic and oncogenic properties of rat trophoblast cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PROBLEM The nature of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen expression on rat placentas, trophoblast cell lines, and tumors derived from trophoblast cells was explored. (semanticscholar.org)
  • a common cytokine at the implantation site) in invasive extravillous trophoblast were examined in a non-malignant extravillous trophoblastic cell line (PE1-7) using the Stanford microarray. (openthesis.org)
  • The colony-stimulating factor-containing supernatant of the human trophoblast cell line TPA-30-1 was used to stimulate in vitro growth of acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells from 54 patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Then, a placental trophoblast cell strain (JEG-3-HBx), which stablly expressed HBx mRNA and protein, was established with the pcDNA-HBx transfection followed by the G418 selection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • HBx reduces cell apoptosis and promotes the secretion of placental hormones in human placental trophoblast cells via activation of the EGFR/Akt pathway. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The monolayer-forming, human choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, was used to study the mechanisms of monocarboxylic acid transport across the human trophoblast. (ku.edu)
  • The findings obtained in the present study confirm the existence of an asymmetric, carrier-mediated transport system for monocarboxylic acids across the BeWo cell, a representative of the human trophoblast. (ku.edu)
  • Utoguchi, N., Magnusson, M., and Audus, K.L. (1999) Carrier-mediated transport of monocarboxylic acids in BeWo cell monolayers as a model of the human trophoblast. (ku.edu)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of miR‑1323 in GDM patients and its effects on trophoblast cell viability. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HTR‑8/SVneo and BeWo cells were treated with high glucose (HG) to construct cell models of GDM, and trophoblast cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HG upregulated the miR‑1323 expression and inhibited trophoblast cell viability. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, miR‑1323 may inhibit trophoblast cell viability by inhibiting TP53INP1, suggesting that it may be a potential therapeutic target for GDM. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The inhibition of trophoblast cell viability, invasion and migration of trophoblast cells may contribute toward maldevelopment of placental tissues, which has been reported in certain studies ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, trophoblast cells with normal biological functions serve crucial roles in placental development and are widely used in the construction of GDM cell models. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The trophoblast cell fusion process first requires the acquisition of cell fusion properties, then cells set up plasma membrane protein macrocomplexes and fusogen machinery that trigger cellecell fusion. (inserm.fr)
  • Numerous proteins have been shown to be directly involved in the initiation of trophoblast cell fusion. (inserm.fr)
  • The HTR-8/SVneo cell line is widely used to study trophoblast biology. (uwo.ca)
  • Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have recently reported that Nodal, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, inhibits human trophoblast cell proliferation, migration and invasion. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, silencing of p27 reversed the inhibitory effect of Nodal on trophoblast cell proliferation, migration and invasion. (biologists.org)
  • Our previous study found high expression of AQP3 in the cell membrane of trophoblasts in blastocysts of Kunming mice [ 4 ] . (researchsquare.com)
  • The human trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo has been widely applied as an early invasion and migration model of extravillous cytotrophoblasts [6] . (researchsquare.com)
  • Furthermore, they indicate that even though ROCK signaling plays a role in human trophoblast cell invasion, EVCT migration can still occur in the absence of ROCK activity. (cnrs.fr)
  • Interestingly, blocking ROCK with the chemical in-hibitor Y27632 had an effect opposite to TGF activation because it promoted superficial EVCT migration on the en-dometrial cell layer. (inserm.fr)
  • Historical - Who named the trophoblast cell? (edu.au)
  • A comparative study of five physiological key parameters between four different human trophoblast -derived cell lines [7] "Here, we present a comparative study on the functional aspects of the choriocarcinoma cell lines BeWo, JAR and Jeg-3, as well as the first trimester trophoblast cell line ACH-3P as placental in vitro barrier models for endocrine and transport studies. (edu.au)
  • However, whether BMP2 can promote trophoblast cell invasion during placentation remains unknown. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BMP2 on human trophoblast cell invasion and the involvement of N-cadherin and SMAD signaling. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Dysregulation of trophoblast cell proliferation and invasion is a major pathological alteration observed in preeclampsia. (ijbs.com)
  • We then cultured trophoblast-like JEG-3 cells and evaluated the effect of miR-20a on JEG-3 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. (ijbs.com)
  • Despite of these advancements, the molecular mechanism in the process of trophoblast cell proliferation and invasion remains elusive. (ijbs.com)
  • The restriction of cell-free HIV-1 infection has been demonstrated in placental trophoblast choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our results show that infection of trophoblast-derived cells with cell-free virus is at least restricted at the level of entry. (pasteur.fr)
  • Transcriptional control of HLA-A,B,C antigen in human placental cytotrophoblast isolated using trophoblast- and HLA-specific monoclonal antibodies and the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. (rupress.org)
  • Five distinct cell populations were isolated on the basis of size and quantitative differences in the coordinate expression of cell surface antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies against an HLA-A,B,C monomorphic determinant (MB40.5) and against human trophoblasts (anti-Trop-2). (rupress.org)
  • This is in part because of the wide variation in methods used and the over-reliance on trophoblast cell lines. (cam.ac.uk)
  • By use of reverse transcription PCR and western blotting, the current study revealed that RyRs are expressed in model trophoblast cell lines (BeWo and JEG-3) and in human first trimester and term placental villi. (ucc.ie)
  • The BN inbred rat has restricted trophoblast cell invasion and has been used to generate consomic rat strains with the Dahl SS (DSS) rat, the latter possessing robust trophoblast cell invasion. (grantome.com)
  • We will also use reporter transgenes to specifically tag and monitor the behavior of the invasive trophoblast cell lineage. (grantome.com)
  • The focus of Aim No. 2 is on investigating mechanisms underlying BN rat trophoblast cell invasion defects. (grantome.com)
  • Diverse nonplacental human cell lines (U2OS, human foreskin fibroblast, TZM-bl, MeWo, and Caco-2) were preexposed to either trophoblast conditioned medium, nonconditioned medium, or miR-517-3p for 24 hours. (mysciencework.com)
  • By using complementary in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we show that the risk allele (Y153H) of the pre-eclampsia susceptibility gene STOX1 negatively regulates trophoblast invasion by upregulation of the cell-cell adhesion protein α-T-catenin ( CTNNA3 ). (oup.com)
  • These aberrant miRNA activities might be associated with genetic and epigenetic modifications in abnormal placentogenesis due to maldifferentiation of early trophoblast cell lineage in NT and IVP pregnancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that TMIGD1 is expressed in trophoblast cells and regulates cell migration during placental invasion. (bu.edu)
  • Additionally, we overexpressed TMIGD1 in the immortalized trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo, via a retroviral system. (bu.edu)
  • Our study demonstrates for the first time that TMIGD1 is expressed in trophoblast cells and acts to inhibit cell migration. (bu.edu)
  • Trophoblast adhesion to the uterine wall is the requisite first step of implantation and, subsequently, placentation. (sciencemag.org)
  • This ligand-receptor system was functional, because beads coated with the selectin ligand 6-sulfo sLe x bound to trophoblasts, and trophoblasts bound to ligand-expressing uterine luminal epithelium in tissue sections. (sciencemag.org)
  • In these mice, trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling were markedly impaired. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The underlying pathogenesis of these diseases is defective placentation characterised by inadequate invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into the uterine decidua. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The mechanisms that regulate trophoblast invasion remains poorly understood, but it is known to be influenced by a number of factors in the uterine environment. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesized that oxygen tension affects villous trophoblast by modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation. (nih.gov)
  • Human placental villi of the villous trees are covered by a highly specialized two-layered epithelium-like layer, the villous trophoblast. (nature.com)
  • It represents a collection of tissues comprising the chorionic villi, the inter villous lakes, the extra villous trophoblast. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • The vascular modifications initiated by invasive trophoblast are fundamental to ensuring adequate nutrient flow to the fetus. (grantome.com)
  • We have identified two model systems to investigate mechanisms controlling the invasive trophoblast lineage. (grantome.com)
  • Thus we will utilize novel strategies for elucidating mechanisms controlling the invasive trophoblast lineage. (grantome.com)
  • In this research project, we outline experiments designed to evaluate mechanisms controlling the invasive trophoblast lineage. (grantome.com)
  • After gastrulation, the trophoblast is contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo and is referred to as the trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the increase in cellular mass of the embryo is attributed to growth of the trophectoderm, which is known as the trophoblast in later stages of embryogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kaarel Krjutškov, The molecular interactions between trophoblast and endometrial cells in embryo implantation process (Trofoblastide ja endomeetriumi rakkude molekulaarsed interaktsioonid embrüo implantatsioonil), Tartu Ülikool, Loodus- ja täppisteaduste valdkond, molekulaar- ja rakubioloogia instituut. (etis.ee)
  • Although the trophoblast is necessary for the growth, viability and patterning of the mammalian embryo, understanding of its patterning role is still rudimentary. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In both cases, the pattern of trophoblast killing in different strains of immunodeficient mice indicated that rejection involved host natural killer cells, and this was corroborated by in vitro killing assays. (pnas.org)
  • Lastly, the relative inability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells to kill either human choriocarcinomas or isolated human and mouse placental cells in vitro has suggested that trophoblasts are resistant to killing by effector immune cells ( 9-12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Douthwaile RM, Urbach GI: In vitro antigenicity of trophoblast. (springer.com)
  • Then, we cultured human trophoblasts (HTR8 cells) with high glucose (HG) to simulate a diabetic environment in vitro, and further explored the effects of miR-193b on apoptosis and autophagy of HG-treated HTR8 cells. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Failure of the trophoblast to invade sufficiently is important in the development of some cases of pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant trophoblast invasive behaviors such as failure of the trophoblasts to appropriately invade the uterus, shallow trophoblast invasion, fewer invasive trophoblasts and failure to convert the spiral arteries are often observed in the placental pathology of preeclampsia ( 3 - 5 ). (ijbs.com)
  • Endovascular trophoblast presumably derived from the cytotrophoblast shell appears within the lumina of the decidual spiral arteries. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • During this period the trophoblast layer proliferates and differentiates into two distinct layers ( syncitiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast ). (edu.au)
  • abstract = "Introduction: Trophoblast inclusions (TIs) are often found in placentas of genetically abnormal gestations. (elsevier.com)
  • Placental implantation involves highly regulated trophoblast invasion of the endometrial stroma. (cnrs.fr)
  • UMR-106, rat osteosarcoma cells and HTR8/SVneo, human trophoblast cells, were grown in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mM glutamine, 100 Units/ml penicillin and 100 [micro]g/ml streptomycin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We showed that treatment with TGF-β1 increased Cx43 expression and GJIC in HTR-8/SVneo human trophoblast cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Does aquaporin 3 (AQP3) affect the migration and invasion of human extravillous trophoblast (HTR8/Svneo) cells? (researchsquare.com)
  • Products of conception were blindly examined histologically with regard to the extent of decidual endovascular trophoblast invasion. (nih.gov)
  • A conspicuous feature of the human implantation site is the presence of trophoblast cells (endovascular trophoblast) within the lumen of decidual spiral arteries. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • Expression of adhesion molecules by endovascular trophoblast and decidual endothelial cells: implications for vascular invasion during implantation. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • Guenther S, Vrekoussis T, Heublein S, Bayer B, Anz D, Knabl J, Navrozoglou I, Dian D, Friese K, Makrigiannakis A and Jeschke U: Decidual macrophages are significantly increased in spontaneous miscarriages and overexpress FasL: A potential role for macrophages in trophoblast apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Trophoblast dysfunction is a major factor in defect placentation, which is thought to be an important etiology of abortions. (uio.no)
  • Little is known about their involvement in trophoblasts and placentation. (uio.no)
  • Pijnenborg R, Robertson WB, Brosens I, Dixon G. Review article: trophoblast invasion and the establishment of haemochorial placentation in man and laboratory animals. (springer.com)
  • Brown PJ, Molloy CM, Johnson PM: Immunochemical identification of human trophoblast membrane antigens using monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Curric GA, Bagshawe KD: The masking of antigens on trophoblast and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Johnson PM, Cheng HM, Molloy CM, et al: Human trophoblast-specific surface antigens identified using monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Loke YW, Whyte A, Davie P: Differential expression of trophoblast-specific membrane antigens by normal and abnormal human placentae and by neoplasms of trophoblastic and non-trophoblastic origin. (springer.com)
  • and (b) expression of surface antigens from the MHC I complex in the trophoblast of SCNT-derived concepti, which may lead to rejection of the allograft (37). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These trophoblasts were placed in culture and treated with Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigens (SEA) or plasma from S. japonicum -infected pregnant women. (asm.org)
  • Results revealed the presence of H-2 antigens (determined by the K or D loci) of both parental haplotypes on the F1 trophoblast cells. (rupress.org)
  • H-2 antigens of both parental haplotypes are also found to be expressed on 11-13 d trophoblast cells. (rupress.org)
  • Trophoblast stem cells can be grown indefinitely in culture in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) and an unidentified component of embryonic fibroblast conditioned media (EFCM). (pnas.org)
  • Research suggests that cultured trophoblast stem cells are dependent on FGF-4 signaling pathways. (rndsystems.com)
  • A Resource for the Transcriptional Signature of Bona Fide Trophoblast Stem Cells and Analysis of Their Embryonic Persistence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Direct Induction of Trophoblast Stem Cells from Murine Fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitotically stable association of polycomb group proteins eed and enx1 with the inactive x chromosome in trophoblast stem cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that Eed and a second Polycomb group protein, Enx1, are directly localized to the inactive X chromosome in XX trophoblast stem (TS) cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition, elevated expression of FasL on CD68+ and CD86+ macrophages in the decidua was observed in the spontaneous abortion and RM groups of patients, and FasL was demonstrated to mediate the induction of trophoblast apoptosis by macrophages in co‑culture. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Transcriptome profiling of hESC incubated with BMP4/FGF-2 showed a down-regulation of pluripotency-associated genes, an up-regulation of trophoblast-associated genes, and either a down-regulation or no change in gene expression for many markers of the three embryonic germ layers. (scirp.org)
  • Estrogen-enhanced apical and basolateral secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by polarized trophoblast-derived BeWo cells. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • In this study, we showed that BUP, NBUP, and MET at clinically relevant plasma concentrations significantly induced BCRP mRNA up to 10-fold in human model placental JEG3 and BeWo cells and in primary human villous trophoblasts, and this induction was abrogated by CH223191, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-specific antagonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This review summarises current knowledge about the specification, commitment and maintenance of the trophoblast lineage in mice and cattle. (nih.gov)
  • Non/cytic EBs with/out Y27632 were grown on this platform for 28 days, and screened from secretion and expression of trophoblast and other lineage markers using ECLIA, RT-PCR, and Immunofluorescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low oxygen tension influences placental function, and is associated with preeclampsia, a condition displaying altered development of placental trophoblast. (nih.gov)
  • Defective trophoblast invasion is considered to be a major factor in the pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia. (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, the upregulated miR-20a in human preeclampsia tissue can inhibit the proliferative and invasive activities of trophoblast cells by repressing the expression of FOXA1. (ijbs.com)
  • The evidence presented in this study supports the idea that TMIGD1 expression in trophoblast may play an important function in regulating placental invasion, and that perturbations in its activity may be associated with obstetrical complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. (bu.edu)
  • The apparent intrinsic susceptibility of mouse trophoblasts to immune attack strongly suggests that it is instead some property of the pregnant uterus that is of primary importance in preventing rejection of the fetus. (pnas.org)
  • These trophoblast plugs are continuous with the trophoblast shell occluding the orifice of the spiral arteries at the point of entry to the inter villous space (Boyd and Hamilton) (2). (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • In addition the trophoblast cells can be seen embedded in the walls of these spiral arteries together with fibroid chains of musculo-elastic tissues to form spiral vessels into low resistance sinusoid sacs which can maintain the utero-placental blood flow under all physiological conditions (3). (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • At 16-18 weeks endovascular trophoblast was noticed in the myometrial segments of many spiral arteries which means a second wave of endovascular migration is triggered off quickly after a resting phase of several weeks (1). (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • was identified, which may be involved in the regulation of proliferation and invasion of extravillous trophoblast. (openthesis.org)
  • S Yagel, P K Lala, W A Powell, and R F Casper, "Interleukin-1 stimulates human chorionic gonadotropin secretion by first trimester human trophoblast," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 992-995, 1989. (hindawi.com)
  • The cholesterol efflux assays of primary trophoblasts was detected by Amplex Red cholesterol assay kit (Invitrogen);Inflammatory factor secretion from primary macrophages was detected by Elisa. (ovid.com)
  • The effect of heparanase on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, tube formation, and potential pathways in trophoblasts was explored. (hindawi.com)
  • MiR-193b inhibits autophagy and apoptosis by targeting IGFBP5 in high glucose-induced trophoblasts. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Inhibiting apoptosis of trophoblasts in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is expected to guarantee adequate nutrition for the fetus and avoid abortion. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our data indicate that aberrantly low expression of miR-193b in HG-induced trophoblasts results in massive apoptosis events by upregulating IGFBP5-induced autophagy, which may trigger GDM. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of FasL in macrophage‑mediated trophoblast apoptosis and its potential role in RM. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A macrophage and trophoblast co‑culture model was used to determine the effects of FasL on the apoptosis of trophoblasts. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Human primary trophoblast cells were cultured and incubated with globular adiponectin (gAd) or full-length adiponectin (fAd) alone or in combination with insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This process involves the degradation of the perivascular smooth muscle layer and the displacement of vascular endothelial cells to form trophoblast-lined blood sinuses. (biologists.org)
  • The intra vascular trophoblast plugs do not incorporate with the vessel wall, nor do they acquire tight junctions with endothelial cells. (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • The production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, and estradiol in the differentiated cells confirmed that trophoblast-like cells were obtained. (scirp.org)
  • Decreased ABCA1 expression in trophoblasts reduced the cholesterol efflux of trophoblasts (P (ovid.com)
  • while increased ABCA1 expression in trophoblasts reduced the cholesterol efflux of trophoblasts (P (ovid.com)
  • Macaque trophoblast migration is regulated by RANTES. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Isolated trophoblasts migrated towards RANTES when cultured in migration chambers and migration was reduced in the presence of anti-CCR5 antibody. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion are some of the key processes of placental development. (biologists.org)
  • These data suggest a role for ROCK in the TGFbeta-dependent control of trophoblast migration. (cnrs.fr)
  • Conclusion: These results indicate that ISG15 expression levels are crucial for trophoblast morphology and function (migration/invasion). (technologynetworks.com)
  • This system is simple and economical to setup, and permits analysis of the migration dynamics of trophoblast cells in 3D and in real-time under different oxygen concentrations. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cytokeratin-positive/CCR5-positive cells, consistent with trophoblasts, were also found scattered within the stroma and were often clustered around blood vessels. (biomedsearch.com)

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