Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wheatgrass is also used for other plants in the family.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Diseases of plants.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Globulins are a type of protein found in the blood that play important roles in immune function, blood clotting, and transporting molecules throughout the body.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.

A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases. (1/3819)

We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (2/3819)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (3/3819)

The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/3819)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (5/3819)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Genetic selection of mutations in the high affinity K+ transporter HKT1 that define functions of a loop site for reduced Na+ permeability and increased Na+ tolerance. (6/3819)

Potassium is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, whereas sodium (Na+) can be toxic at high concentrations. The wheat K+ uptake transporter HKT1 has been shown to function in yeast and oocytes as a high affinity K+-Na+ cotransporter, and as a low affinity Na+ transporter at high external Na+. A previous study showed that point mutations in HKT1, which confer enhancement of Na+ tolerance to yeast, can be isolated by genetic selection. Here we report on the isolation of mutations in new domains of HKT1 showing further large increases in Na+ tolerance. By selection in a Na+ ATPase deletion mutant of yeast that shows a high Na+ sensitivity, new HKT1 mutants at positions Gln-270 and Asn-365 were isolated. Several independent mutations were isolated at the Asn-365 site. N365S dramatically increased Na+ tolerance in yeast compared with all other HKT1 mutants. Cation uptake experiments in yeast and biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mechanisms underlying the Na+ tolerance conferred by the N365S mutant were: reduced inhibition of high affinity Rb+ (K+) uptake at high Na+ concentrations, reduced low affinity Na+ uptake, and reduced Na+ to K+ content ratios in yeast. In addition, the N365S mutant could be clearly distinguished from less Na+-tolerant HKT1 mutants by a markedly decreased relative permeability for Na+ at high Na+ concentrations. The new mutations contribute to the identification of new functional domains and an amino acid in a loop domain that is involved in cation specificity of a plant high affinity K+ transporter and will be valuable for molecular analyses of Na+ transport mechanisms and stress in plants.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids. (7/3819)

We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants.  (+info)

Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus. (8/3819)

We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms.  (+info)

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Polyploidy refers to a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes in its cells. This can occur naturally or as a result of genetic mutations. In the medical field, polyploidy is often associated with certain types of cancer, particularly those that are aggressive and difficult to treat. For example, some forms of breast, ovarian, and colon cancer are known to be associated with polyploidy. In these cases, the extra copies of chromosomes can contribute to the growth and spread of the cancer cells. Polyploidy can also be a feature of some genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, in which individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21.

In the medical field, gluten refers to a group of proteins found in certain grains, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten is a common ingredient in many foods, including bread, pasta, and baked goods. For people with celiac disease, gluten can cause an immune response that damages the lining of the small intestine, leading to a range of symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. Gluten sensitivity, on the other hand, is a condition in which the body reacts to gluten, but it does not cause damage to the small intestine. People with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity are advised to follow a gluten-free diet to avoid symptoms and prevent long-term health complications.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic information of living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is found in the nucleus of cells and in organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA is composed of four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases pair up in a specific way to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with adenine always pairing with thymine and cytosine always pairing with guanine. The sequence of these bases in DNA determines the genetic information that is passed down from parent plants to offspring. This information includes traits such as plant height, leaf shape, flower color, and resistance to diseases and pests. In the medical field, plant DNA is often studied for its potential to be used in biotechnology applications such as crop improvement, biofuels production, and the development of new medicines. For example, scientists may use genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of plants to make them more resistant to pests or to produce higher yields.

Gliadin is a type of protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. It is a component of gluten, which is a mixture of proteins that gives bread and other baked goods their elasticity and texture. Gliadin is also a major allergen, and people with celiac disease have an immune response to gliadin that damages the lining of the small intestine. In addition, gliadin has been linked to other health conditions, such as non-celiac gluten sensitivity and autoimmune disorders.

In the medical field, disease resistance refers to the ability of an organism to resist or tolerate the effects of a disease-causing agent, such as a virus, bacteria, or parasite. This resistance can be innate, meaning that it is present from birth and is not acquired through previous exposure to the disease, or it can be acquired through exposure to the disease or through vaccination. Disease resistance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, lifestyle, and the presence of other infections or diseases. For example, certain genetic traits may make an individual more resistant to certain diseases, while a healthy diet and regular exercise can help to boost the immune system and increase resistance to infections. In some cases, disease resistance can be enhanced through the use of medications or other treatments. For example, antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of resistance developing, while vaccines can be used to stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, disease resistance is an important factor in maintaining health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Wheat germ agglutinins (WGA) are a group of proteins found in the germ of wheat kernels. These proteins have the ability to agglutinate or clump together certain types of cells, particularly red blood cells. WGA are used in medical research as a tool to study cell surface antigens and to detect the presence of certain diseases. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood. In addition, WGA have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer and viral infections.

Prolamins are a type of storage protein found in plants, particularly in the seeds of cereals and legumes. They are a type of prolactin-related protein and are similar in structure to globulins and albumins. Prolamins are important sources of dietary protein and are also used in the production of various food products, such as bread, pasta, and cheese. In the medical field, prolamins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to improve gut health, reduce inflammation, and lower the risk of certain diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease.

RNA, Plant refers to the type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is found in plants. RNA is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes in cells, and there are several types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In plants, RNA plays a critical role in various biological processes, including photosynthesis, growth and development, and defense against pathogens. Plant RNA is also important for the production of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of plant cells. RNA, Plant can be studied using various techniques, including transcriptomics, which involves the analysis of RNA molecules in a cell or tissue to identify the genes that are being expressed. This information can be used to better understand plant biology and to develop new strategies for improving crop yields, increasing plant resistance to diseases and pests, and developing new plant-based products.

In the medical field, aluminum is a metal that is commonly used in various medical devices and implants. It is often used in orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, due to its strength, durability, and biocompatibility. However, aluminum has also been linked to certain health problems, particularly in individuals with kidney disease or other conditions that affect the body's ability to excrete aluminum. Long-term exposure to high levels of aluminum has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders. Therefore, in the medical field, the use of aluminum in medical devices and implants is carefully regulated to minimize the risk of aluminum exposure and potential health effects.

Endo-1,4-beta xylanases are a class of enzymes that break down xylan, a complex carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plants and some microorganisms. In the medical field, endo-1,4-beta xylanases have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of digestive disorders. One potential use of endo-1,4-beta xylanases is in the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic digestive disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Some studies have suggested that xylanase supplementation may help to improve symptoms of IBS by breaking down xylan in the gut, which can help to reduce the viscosity of the gut contents and improve gut motility. Endo-1,4-beta xylanases have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of other digestive disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. In these conditions, the gut lining is damaged, which can lead to increased permeability and the passage of undigested food particles into the bloodstream. Some research has suggested that xylanase supplementation may help to reduce the permeability of the gut lining and improve symptoms of these conditions. Overall, while more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of endo-1,4-beta xylanases in the medical field, they have shown promise as a potential treatment for a range of digestive disorders.

Thioredoxin h (Trxh) is a protein that plays a role in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis. It is a member of the thioredoxin family of proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including protein folding, antioxidant defense, and signal transduction. Trxh is primarily found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, where it is involved in the folding and assembly of proteins. It is also present in other cellular compartments, including the mitochondria and the cytosol. In addition to its role in protein folding, Trxh has been implicated in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis by reducing disulfide bonds in other proteins. This helps to maintain the proper redox state of the cell and prevent oxidative stress. Disruptions in the function of Trxh have been linked to a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. As such, Trxh is an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

1,4-alpha-Glucan branching enzyme (GBE) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycogen, a complex carbohydrate that serves as a storage form of glucose in animals and some bacteria. GBE catalyzes the transfer of a glucose residue from a donor molecule to a branch point on a growing glycogen chain, resulting in the formation of a new branch. This enzyme is essential for the proper regulation of blood glucose levels and is involved in the metabolism of glycogen in liver and muscle cells. GBE is also used in the food industry as a starch branching enzyme to modify the texture and viscosity of starch-based products such as bread, pasta, and beer.

In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.

RNA, Transfer, Tyr refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid tyrosine (Tyr) during protein synthesis. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that play a crucial role in the process of translation, which is the process by which the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to synthesize proteins. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific codon on the mRNA molecule. The codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid. In the case of RNA, Transfer, Tyr, it binds to the codon UAC, which codes for the amino acid tyrosine. During translation, the tRNA molecule carrying the tyrosine amino acid binds to the mRNA molecule at the corresponding codon, and the ribosome then catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the tyrosine and the growing polypeptide chain. This process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA molecule, at which point the newly synthesized protein is released. Overall, RNA, Transfer, Tyr is an essential component of the process of protein synthesis, and its proper functioning is critical for the production of functional proteins in cells.

Lectins are a class of proteins that are found in many plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are characterized by their ability to bind to specific carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, on the surface of cells. In the medical field, lectins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some lectins have been shown to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties, and may be useful in the development of new drugs to treat infections. Lectins have also been used as research tools to study cell-cell interactions and to identify specific cell surface markers. In addition, some lectins have been used in diagnostic tests to detect specific diseases or conditions, such as cancer or diabetes. However, it is important to note that not all lectins are safe or effective for medical use, and some may even be toxic. Therefore, the use of lectins in medicine requires careful consideration and testing to ensure their safety and efficacy.

Starch synthase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of starch, a complex carbohydrate that is the primary storage form of glucose in plants. In the medical field, starch synthase is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and has been implicated in various diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Starch synthase catalyzes the addition of glucose units to a growing chain of amylopectin, a type of starch that is found in plants. This process involves the transfer of a glucose molecule from a donor molecule, such as UDP-glucose, to the growing chain of amylopectin. The enzyme is highly specific and can only add glucose units in a particular orientation, which gives amylopectin its characteristic branching structure. In the medical field, starch synthase has been studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. For example, some researchers have developed small molecules that can inhibit the activity of starch synthase, which could help to reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Other studies have suggested that changes in the expression or activity of starch synthase may be involved in the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Overall, starch synthase is an important enzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases.

Fluorine compounds are chemical compounds that contain the element fluorine. Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table, and as a result, it forms strong bonds with other elements. Fluorine compounds are widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Fluoride toothpaste: Fluoride is added to toothpaste to help prevent tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel. 2. Fluoride treatments: Fluoride treatments are used to prevent tooth decay in children and adults. 3. Fluorinated antacids: Fluorinated antacids are used to treat acid reflux and heartburn. 4. Fluorinated steroids: Fluorinated steroids are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, allergies, and skin conditions. 5. Fluorinated anesthetics: Fluorinated anesthetics are used to numb the body during medical procedures. 6. Fluorinated antibiotics: Fluorinated antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections. 7. Fluorinated chemotherapy drugs: Fluorinated chemotherapy drugs are used to treat cancer. Overall, fluorine compounds play an important role in the medical field due to their unique chemical properties and wide range of applications.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.

Xylans are a type of polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) that are commonly found in plants, particularly in the cell walls of plants. In the medical field, xylans are often used as dietary supplements or as ingredients in various medical products. Xylans are known for their prebiotic properties, meaning they can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. This can help improve digestive health and reduce the risk of certain diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Xylans are also used in medical products such as wound dressings, dental products, and pharmaceuticals. They can help improve the texture and stability of these products, as well as enhance their absorption and bioavailability. Overall, xylans have a number of potential health benefits and are an important component of many medical and dietary products.

In the medical field, starch refers to a type of carbohydrate that is found in plants, particularly in grains such as wheat, corn, and potatoes. Starch is a complex carbohydrate that is made up of long chains of glucose molecules. Starch is an important source of energy for the body and is broken down into glucose during digestion. It is also used in the production of various medical products, such as intravenous fluids, medications, and medical devices. In some cases, starch may be used as a thickening agent in medical products, such as eye drops or nasal sprays. It can also be used as a filler in certain medications to help with their texture or consistency. However, it is important to note that not all starches are created equal. Some types of starch, such as amylose, are more easily digested than others, such as amylopectin. Additionally, some people may have difficulty digesting certain types of starches, which can lead to digestive issues such as bloating or diarrhea.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.

Gibberellins are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in plant growth and development. They are synthesized in the shoot apical meristem and other parts of the plant, and are transported to other parts of the plant where they regulate various aspects of growth and development. In the medical field, gibberellins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that gibberellins may have anti-cancer properties, as they have been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, gibberellins have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, as they have been shown to stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that are important for tissue repair. However, it is important to note that the use of gibberellins in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of their use in humans.

Plant lectins are a class of proteins found in many plants that have a specific affinity for binding to carbohydrates. They are known to have a wide range of biological activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor properties. In the medical field, plant lectins are being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and autoimmune disorders. They are also being investigated as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. Some plant lectins have been approved for use as drugs, such as concanavalin A, which is used to diagnose hepatitis B and C infections.

Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism. It is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). PGK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), a molecule that is produced during the earlier stages of glycolysis. This reaction generates 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA), which is a key intermediate in the glycolytic pathway. PGK is found in all living cells and is essential for the production of ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cellular processes. In addition to its role in glycolysis, PGK has been implicated in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of red blood cell shape. In the medical field, PGK is sometimes used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Abnormal levels of PGK in the blood or other bodily fluids can be an indication of these conditions. Additionally, PGK is being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

In the medical field, ozone is a gas that is produced naturally in the Earth's atmosphere and is also used in medical treatments. It is composed of three oxygen atoms and is highly reactive, which makes it useful for a variety of medical applications. One of the most common uses of ozone in medicine is as an oxidant, which means it can help to break down and destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. This makes ozone a useful tool in the treatment of infections, including those that are resistant to antibiotics. Ozone is also used in wound healing, as it can help to stimulate the growth of new tissue and promote the healing process. It is sometimes used in combination with other treatments, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to enhance the body's natural healing abilities. In addition to its use in medical treatments, ozone is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. It is believed to work by destroying cancer cells and preventing their growth and spread. Overall, ozone is a versatile and powerful tool in the medical field, with a wide range of potential applications in the treatment of various conditions and diseases.

Globulins are a type of protein found in the blood plasma. They are large, complex proteins that are responsible for a variety of functions in the body, including transporting hormones, vitamins, and other substances, as well as fighting infections and diseases. There are several different types of globulins, including albumin, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, and gamma globulin. Each type of globulin has a specific function and is produced by different cells in the body. In the medical field, globulins are often measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) to assess overall health and identify potential problems. Abnormal levels of globulins can be a sign of various medical conditions, including liver disease, kidney disease, infections, and certain types of cancer.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.

Glycoconjugates are complex molecules that consist of carbohydrates (sugars) covalently attached to other molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. In the medical field, glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, immune response, and disease pathogenesis. Glycoconjugates are found on the surface of cells and in the extracellular matrix, and they can be modified in response to various stimuli. For example, changes in the glycosylation patterns of proteins can affect their function and stability, and altered glycosylation has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In addition to their biological functions, glycoconjugates are also important targets for drug discovery and development. Many drugs and vaccines target specific glycoconjugates on the surface of cells or viruses, and the development of glycoconjugate-based therapies is an active area of research in the medical field.

Lignin is a complex organic polymer that is found in the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and other plant fibers, and it plays an important role in the structure and strength of these materials. In the medical field, lignin has been studied for its potential use in a variety of applications, including as a source of bioactive compounds, as a dietary fiber, and as a material for the development of new medical devices and implants. However, lignin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies.

Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Zinc is a chemical element that is essential for human health. In the medical field, zinc is used in a variety of ways, including as a supplement to treat and prevent certain health conditions. Zinc is involved in many important bodily functions, including immune system function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis. It is also important for the proper functioning of the senses of taste and smell. Zinc deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including impaired immune function, delayed wound healing, and impaired growth and development in children. Zinc supplements are often recommended for people who are at risk of zinc deficiency, such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, people with certain medical conditions, and people who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. In addition to its use as a supplement, zinc is also used in some medications, such as those used to treat acne and the common cold. It is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as antacids and nasal sprays. Overall, zinc is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in maintaining good health.

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which is the first committed step in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates and lipids. In the medical field, ACC is of particular interest because it is a key enzyme in the regulation of energy metabolism and is involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. Inhibition of ACC has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions. Additionally, ACC is also involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis, the process by which the liver produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) is an enzyme that plays a central role in the process of photosynthesis in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), a 5-carbon sugar, to form two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA), a 3-carbon compound. This reaction is the first step in the Calvin cycle, which is the primary pathway for carbon fixation in photosynthesis. RuBisCO is the most abundant enzyme on Earth and is responsible for fixing approximately 60% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, it is also a slow enzyme and is often limited by the availability of carbon dioxide in the environment. This can lead to a phenomenon known as photorespiration, in which RuBisCO instead catalyzes the reaction between RuBP and oxygen, leading to the loss of carbon dioxide and the production of a variety of byproducts. In the medical field, RuBisCO has been studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Some researchers have also explored the use of RuBisCO as a biosensor for detecting carbon dioxide levels in the environment or as a tool for producing biofuels.

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that can cause a range of health problems when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. In the medical field, cadmium is primarily associated with its use in industrial processes and its potential to contaminate the environment. Cadmium exposure has been linked to a variety of health effects, including kidney damage, bone loss, and cancer. In the lungs, cadmium exposure can cause inflammation, scarring, and an increased risk of lung cancer. Long-term exposure to cadmium has also been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in men. In the medical field, cadmium is often measured in blood, urine, and hair samples to assess exposure levels and potential health risks. Treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further exposure. In some cases, chelation therapy may be used to remove cadmium from the body.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Glucosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer glucose molecules from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including the synthesis of complex carbohydrates, glycosylation of proteins and lipids, and the metabolism of drugs and toxins. In the medical field, glucosyltransferases are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. For example, certain types of cancer cells overexpress specific glucosyltransferases, which can contribute to the growth and spread of the tumor. Similarly, changes in the activity of glucosyltransferases have been implicated in the development of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In addition, glucosyltransferases are also important targets for drug development. For example, inhibitors of specific glucosyltransferases have been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, and are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents.

In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.

Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Nitrates are a group of compounds that contain the nitrate ion (NO3-). In the medical field, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by relaxing the smooth muscles in blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitrates are available in various forms, including tablets, ointments, and sprays. They are usually taken as needed to relieve symptoms, but may also be taken on a regular schedule to prevent angina attacks or lower blood pressure. It is important to note that nitrates can have side effects, such as headache, flushing, and low blood pressure, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

... , Timopheev's wheat or Zanduri wheat, is a tetraploid wheat that has both cultivated and wild forms. It is ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Triticum timopheevii". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant ... believed to have evolved in isolation from the more common Triticum turgidum; hybrids between T. timopheevii and T. turgidum ...
... (Araratian wild emmer or Armenian wild emmer) is a wild tetraploid species of wheat. T. araraticum is one ... "Triticum araraticum Jakubz". Red Book of Armenia. Minister of Nature Protection of Armenia. v t e (Articles with short ... Genetic heterogenity of wild triticum dicoccoides from Iraq. J Agricult. Sciences 9. p. 18-19 (in Russian) Jakubizner M. M. ... Intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism of Triticum araraticum (Poaceae) detected by C-banding technique. Plant Systematics and ...
... , commonly known as Ethiopian wheat, is a variety of wheat closely related to Triticum durum. Ethiopia is ... Triticum aethiopiacum is one of the tetraploid wheat grown in Ethiopia. USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Triticum aethiopicum". The PLANTS ... Triticum aethiopicum Jakubz., Missouri Botanical garden, retrieved 25 November 2014 (Articles with short description, Short ...
... , also known as the Polish wheat, is a spring wheat variety of wheat. It is an allotetraploid (AABB) species ... "Ectopic expression of Triticum polonicum VRT-A2 underlies elongated glumes and grains in hexaploid wheat in a dosage-dependent ... "Triticum polonicum". International Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Harvard University Herbaria & ...
"Triticum turgidum subsp. carthlicum". "Triticum turgidum carthlicum". "Triticum turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum". Gupta, ... "Triticum carthlicum Nevski". The Plant List. USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Triticum carthlicum". The PLANTS Database ( ... Triticum carthlicum Nevski, 1934, the Persian wheat, is a wheat with a tetraploid genome.[citation needed] Some scholars refer ... E. R. Kerber; V. M. Bendelow (1977). "The Role of Triticum carthlicum in the Origin of Bread Wheat Based on Comparative Milling ...
... , also known as red wild einkorn wheat, and a form of einkorn wheat, is a grass species related to wheat, and ... It is a diploid species whose genome is the A genome of the allopolyploid hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum, which has ... "Triticum urartu". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... "Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu". Nature. 496 (7443): 87-90. doi:10.1038/nature11997. PMID ...
... subsp. turanicum (Jakubz.) Á.Löve (Khurasan Wheat) Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum Triticum turgidum subsp ... Durum wheat) Triticum turgidum subsp. georgicum (Dekapr. & Menabde) Mackey ex Hanelt Triticum turgidum subsp. polonicum (L.) ... "Triticum turgidum L. rivet wheat". Retrieved 5 October 2023. "Triticum turgidum turanicum Khurasan Wheat PFAF Plant Database". ... Triticum turgidum subsp. carthlicum (Nevski) Á.Löve Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides (Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. Tritium ...
... , or Zhukovsky's wheat, is a hexaploid wheat, very closely resembling the Triticum timopheevii, a tetraploid ... T. zhukovskyi was first observed in Western Georgia in close proximity to Triticum timopheevii and Triticum monococcum and is ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Triticum zhukovskyi". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant ... 1963) Genome analysis in Triticum zhukovskyi, a New Hexaploid Wheat. Springer-Verlag. p. 1. ISSN 0009-5915. doi:10.1007/ ...
... is an annual plant growing to heights of approximately 0.6 meters in the summer and dying in the winter. " ... Triticum compactum or club wheat is a species of wheat adapted to low-humidity growing conditions. T. compactum is similar ... "Triticum aestivum compactum - (Host.)Mackey". Plants for a Future. Retrieved 25 November 2014. (Articles with short description ... In the northern hemisphere Triticum compactum generally flowers during the months of June and July with its seeds ripening in ...
... , also called California Club Wheat or Mayview wheat, is an extinct subspecies of the hexaploid ... club wheat Triticum compactum. T. compactum erinaceum was a bearded, hairy rachis, red-chaffed wheat named for its appearance ...
... , the western wheat aphid, is a wheat pest native to North America. The aphid can also live on Bromus ... "Diuraphis tritici (Gillette, 1911)". Kindler, S. D.; Hammon, R. W. (1 December 1996). "Comparison of Host ...
"Streptomyces tritici". Zhao, J; Shi, L; Li, W; Wang, J; Wang, H; Tian, Y; Xiang, W; Wang, X (February 2018). " ... "Streptomyces tritici sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". ... Streptomyces tritici is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from rhizosphere soil from ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Streptomyces tritici Zhao et al. 2018". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.31235. " ...
... is a species of mite known as the grain itch mite or straw itch mite. It is a cosmopolitan species that is ... Pyemotes tritici is a parasite of arthropods. The females puncture the host with her stylet, injecting a toxic venom that ... Pyemotes tritici is ovoviviparous, this means that the embryos fully develop inside the female, emerging from the birth canal ... Until 1882, it was thought that Pyemotes tritici, which is sometimes found swarming over stored straw or hay, was feeding on ...
Z. tritici has an active sexual cycle under natural conditions, which is an important driver of septoria tritici blotch ... Zymoseptoria tritici, synonyms Septoria tritici, Mycosphaerella graminicola, is a species of filamentous fungus, an ascomycete ... Light stimulates yeast-like growth of Zymoseptoria tritici. Close-up of yeast-like growth of Zymoseptoria tritici in vitro on ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02369.x. "Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat". Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat. ...
... is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Ascochyta leaf spot on barley, wheat and maize. List of Ascochyta ...
"Glycomyces tritici sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and emended description of the ... "Glycomyces tritici" is a bacterium from the genus of Glycomyces which has been isolated from rhizospheric soil from a wheat- ... plant (Triticum aestivum). Li, W; Liu, C; Guo, X; Song, W; Sun, T; Duan, L; Wang, X; Zhao, J; Xiang, W (July 2018). " ...
F. tritici inhabits blossom, such as dandelion flowers. They can directly damage plants, grasses and trees, in addition to ... Frankliniella tritici, the eastern flower thrips, is a species of thrips (Order Thysanoptera) in the genus Frankliniella. ... Frankliniella tritici can be subject to parasitism by the Thripinema fuscum nematode. This subspecies is approximately 0.25 ... "Species Frankliniella tritici (Fitch, 1855)". Thrips of the World Checklist. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research ...
... is a species of pseudomonad bacteria. Girard L, Lood C, Höfte M, Vandamme P, Rokni-Zadeh H, van Noort V, ... "Pseudomonas tritici". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved March 31, 2022. v t e (Articles ...
Frank Michael Tritico (March 25, 1909 - March 5, 1966), sometimes listed as Frank Mitchell Tritico, was an American football ... L. H. Baker selected Tritico's 1944 squad as national champions for 1944. Prior to World War II, Tritico coached high school ... "Frank Tritico Rites Held Today In Lake Charles". The Shreveport Journal. March 7, 1966. p. 12A - via (Articles ... He later owned the Tritico Mattress Factory in Lake Charles. He died of a heart attack in 1966 at Lake Charles. World War II ...
... at Department of Nematology, University of California Davis Anguina tritici Archived July 2, 2007, at the ... Anguina tritici was the first plant parasitic nematode to be described in the literature in 1743. It causes a disease in wheat ... Anguina tritici has a three part esophagus and the esophageal glands do not overlap with intestine. The female body tends to be ... Anguina tritici (ear-cockle nematode, seed-gall nematode, seed and leaf gall nematode, wheat gall nematode, wheat seed gall ...
"Brucella tritici" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Ochrobactrum tritici at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Brucella tritici is a species of bacteria first isolated from wheat rhizoplane. Its type strain is SCII24T (= LMG 18957T = DSM ... isolates from soil samples and wheat roots, and description of Ochrobactrum tritici sp. nov. and Ochrobactrum grignonense sp. ... 2010 Branco R, Alpoim MC, Morais PV (September 2004). "Ochrobactrum tritici strain 5bvl1 - characterization of a Cr(VI)- ...
Contarinia (formerly Diplosis or Mayetiola) tritici is a small dipterous insect of the family of gall gnats. It depredates ...
... is a fungal plant pathogen in the family Urocystidiaceae. It was originally found on the leaves, sheaths and ... stalks of Triticum vulgare (common wheat) in Australia. Körn., Hedwigia 16: 33 (1877) "Species Fungorum - GSD Species". www. ...
... is a Gram-positive soil bacterium. It is a plant pathogen and causes spike blight in wheat. Zgurskaya HI ... nov., Rathayibacter tritici comb. nov., Rathayibacter iranicus comb. nov., and six strains from annual grasses". Int. J. Syst. ... Type strain of Rathayibacter tritici at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology v t e (Articles with ...
... (teleomorph) and Drechslera tritici-repentis (anamorph) is a necrotrophic plant pathogen of fungal ... P. tritici-repentis overwinters on stubble, and due to recent heavily no-till/residue retention cultural practices, increased ... P. tritici-repentis survives and overwinters as pseudothecia on stubble from the previous year's infected crop. The ... Pathogenesis and toxicity in P. tritici-repentis is controlled by a single gene, transformations of this gene cause the ...
tritici is a plant pathogen that causes a fungal infection known as powdery mildew. It is most common in grains, and it can be ...
"Triticum turgidum subsp. durum". Retrieved 2022-01-04. Mifsud, Stephen. "Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum ... "Triticum aestivum". Retrieved 2022-01-04. Mifsud, Stephen. " ...
This nothospecies was first described as a species, Triticum erebuni, in 1984 by P.A. Gandilyan in the bulletin of the Vavilov ... "Triticum erebuni". International Plant Names Index. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries and ...
Plants bearing the specific epithet of tauschii are named in his honor, e.g. Triticum tauschii. In 1825, Diederich Franz ...
Triticum aestivum Ms1 (TaMs1) has been knocked out by Okada et al. 2019 to produce another novel male sterility and Triticum ... tritici (basidiomycete) fungi e.g. Ug99 Wheat blast: Caused by Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum. Viral diseases: Wheat spindle ... tritici resistance has been produced by Shan et al. 2013 and Wang et al. 2014 by editing one of the mildew resistance locus o ... The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum /ˈtrɪtɪkəm/; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum ...
Moisturizer Products Containing Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil Sort best to worst. Sort worst to best. Sort alphabetical A-Z ...
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The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (Ct) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L ... The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (Ct) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L ... Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Australian Grain Technologies MACE variety) was used as the primary plant material during ... Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by ...
K. S. Jatav, R. M. Agarwal, R. P. Singh and M. Shrivastava, "Growth and Yield Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) to ... Triticum aestivum L. cultivar, MP-4010). Leachate treatments result in slight decrease in growth in terms of plant height, leaf ... Triticum aestivum L.)," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 1134-1150. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45140. ... Triticum aestivum L)," Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2003, pp. 973-978. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00081-3 ...
Present progress in the characterization of Triticum aestivum/Aegilops ventricosa transfer lines ... Present progress in the characterization of Triticum aestivum/Aegilops ventricosa transfer lines. ... Present progress in the characterization of Triticum aestivum/Aegilops ventricosa transfer lines. In: "7th International Wheat ...
tritici se ha convertido en una enfermedad de importancia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. La resistencia genética en ...
"تاریخ کاشت ارقام مختلف گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) یکی از عوامل زراعی تعیین‌-کننده عملکرد بهینه در هر منطقه است. این تحقیق ... تاریخ کاشت ارقام مختلف گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) یکی از عوامل زراعی تعیین‌-کننده عملکرد بهینه در هر منطقه است. این تحقیق ... 1399). ارزیابی برخی صفات کمّی ارقام گندم نان(Triticum aestivum L.) در تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت. سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی, 12(4), ... "ارزیابی برخی صفات کمّی ارقام گندم نان(Triticum aestivum L.) در تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت". سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی, 12, 4, 1399, ...
... Type: ... Evaluation of synthetic wheat lines (Triticum durum/Aegilops tausсhii) for vegetative period and resistance to diseases. 2017. ...
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence.. ...
Ensembl Fungi is a genome-centric portal for fungal species of scientific interest
Plantae Tracheophyta Spermatophytina Magnoliopsida Lilianae Poales Poaceae Triticeae Triticum Triticum aestivum Agropyron ... Triticum aestivum, Bread wheat. Plantae. Tracheophyta. Spermatophytina. Magnoliopsida. Lilianae. Poales. Poaceae. Triticeae. ... Plantae Tracheophyta Spermatophytina Magnoliopsida Lilianae Poales Poaceae Triticeae Triticum Agropyron Frumentum Triticum ...
Triticum monococcum is an annual plant that can grow up to 1.00 metres tall.. It is harvested from the wild for local use as a ...
Ensembl Plants is a genome-centric portal for plant species of scientific interest
keywords = "Heat stress, Nutrients translocation, Nutrients uptake, Triticum aestivum L., Triticum turgidum subsp. durum", ... Heat stress in Triticum: Kinetics of Na, K and P accumulation. Ana S. Dias, Ana Luísa Almaça da Cruz Fernando, Fernando José ... Heat stress in Triticum: Kinetics of Na, K and P accumulation. / Dias, Ana S.; Fernando, Ana Luísa Almaça da Cruz; Lidon, ... Heat stress in Triticum: Kinetics of Na, K and P accumulation, Brazilian Journal Of Plant Physiology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 143- ...
an illegitimate, superfluous name (Shenzhen ICN 52) as Filatov cited Triticum vulgare var. nigrum Körn. (non Link 1829), the ...
Index of /CURRENT_RELEASE/assembly_chain/triticum_aestivum. Name. Last modified. Size. Description. ...
On Behalf of Tritico Rainey, PLLC , Oct 19, 2022 , Car Accidents. Most people never expect their car accident insurance claim ... On Behalf of Tritico Rainey, PLLC , Oct 6, 2022 , Truck Accidents. Semitrucks carry large and heavy loads, which can be ...
Anguina tritici. Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) is a nematode pest of wheat and rye. It is a native of northern ...
LIPOPLASTIDINE TRITICUM FURFUR N-P, Vevy Codex: 13.5301, extract of Triticum sativum Lamk., furfur., ...
Triticum aestivum) cultivars Polis´ka 90 and Stolychna yield fo..4196 ... The influence of fungus Septoria tritici on winter wheat ( ... The induction of Triticum aestivum L. tolerance to Septoria ... The influence of fungus Septoria tritici on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars Polis´ka 90 and Stolychna yield ... tritici by oxalic acid. Abstract. Irina V. Zhuk, Galina M. Lisova, Zinaida M. Dovgal, Alexander P. Dmitriev ...
Triticum [adverse effects] *0 (Dietary Carbohydrates) *0 (Monosaccharides) *0 (Oligosaccharides) *8002-80-0 (Glutens) ...
Tan spot is a yield-reducing disease that affects wheat and is caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Eight ... Tan spot is a yield-reducing disease that affects wheat and is caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) [1]. ... Tan spot is a yield-reducing disease that affects wheat and is caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Eight ... Ali S, Francl L. Recovery of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis from barley and reaction of 12 cultivars to five races and two host- ...
Our Triticum Wheat Stack is meticulously hand crafted from sheaves of natural, dried triticum wheat grown and harvested in the ... Natural stems of Triticum, barley, oat, flax, and reed are hand gathered, carefully dried, and wrapped in simple craft paper ... Triticum Wheat Stack features: * Home decor that lasts season after season * Great year-round color * Perfect house warming ...
Triticum aestivum L.). Anderson JV, Davis DG. 2004. Abiotic stress alters transcript profiles and activity of glutathione S- ... concentrations-of-herbicide-systemic-chevalier-on-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-spring-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l/ ... Triticum aestivum L.); IJB, V10, N4, April, P135-141. ...
O dano do percevejo Thyanta perditor (Fabr., 1794)em trigo, foi estudado em condições de campo, submetendo espigas da cultivar BR 12 Aruanã a diferentes populações da espécie. O inseto afetou a quantidade e a qualidade dos grãos, sendo estimado um prejuízo total na produção de 2602kg/ha para uma infestação geral média de cinco percevejos por espiga. Para evitar perdas de grãos superiores a 100 kg/ha, medidas de controle devem ser aplicadas, quando o monitoramento da lavoura indicar um adulto para cada cinco espigas de trigo em fase inicial de formação dos grãos ...
Triticum aestivum L.). Roads in the Republic of Kosovo are congested with traffic, which over 55% are obsolete over 20 years. ... Concentration of Toxic Metals in Agricultural Land and Wheat Culture (Triticum Aestivum L.) ... Triticum aestivum L.). Roads in the Republic of Kosovo are congested with traffic, which over 55% are obsolete over 20 years. ...
Wheat (Triticum aestivum), having high nutritional values is one of the staple food of most of the countries in the world. The ... Triticum / Proteínas 14-3-3 / Mutação Idioma: Inglês Revista: Comput Biol Chem Ano de publicação: 2018 Tipo de documento: ... Triticum / Proteínas 14-3-3 / Mutação Idioma: Inglês Revista: Comput Biol Chem Ano de publicação: 2018 Tipo de documento: ... Proteínas 14-3-3/genética; Mutação; Proteínas de Plantas/genética; Triticum/genética; Proteínas 14-3-3/química; Proteínas 14-3- ...
"О настанку, доместикацији и доласку у нашу земљу неких врста рода Triticum ... О настанку, доместикацији и доласку у нашу земљу неких врста рода Triticum. ...
  • Mutations and functional analysis of 14-3-3 stress response protein from Triticum aestivum: An evolutionary analysis through in silico structural biochemistry approach. (
  • Wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), having high nutritional values is one of the staple food of most of the countries in the world. (
  • This is the first novel work for analysing the mutational effect on the structure and function of a stress response protein (14-3-3) from Triticum aestivum and its related species. (
  • Cellular and subcellular immunohistochemical localization and quantification of cadmium ions in wheat (Triticum aestivum). (
  • Here, we directly measured for wheat (Triticum sp. (
  • For thousands of years, human beings have relied on a grass of the genus Triticum, better known as wheat. (
  • has become an important disease on durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L var. (
  • Improved control of Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat using cultivar mixtures, in review and bioRxiv. (
  • In-field detection and quantification of Septoria tritici blotch in diverse wheat germplasm using spectral-temporal features , in review and bioRxiv. (
  • ToxA has been horizontally transferred between three fungal wheat pathogens ( Parastagonospora nodorum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Bipolaris sorokiniana ) as part of a conserved ∼14kb element, which contains coding and non-coding regions. (
  • Wheat (Triticum spp. (
  • FAMILY: Poaceae ORIGIN: South-west Asia Introduction: Wheat (Triticum spp. (
  • Zymoseptoria tritici community meeting, September 6-7, 2018. (