Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wheatgrass is also used for other plants in the family.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Diseases of plants.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.

A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases. (1/3819)

We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (2/3819)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (3/3819)

The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (4/3819)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (5/3819)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Genetic selection of mutations in the high affinity K+ transporter HKT1 that define functions of a loop site for reduced Na+ permeability and increased Na+ tolerance. (6/3819)

Potassium is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, whereas sodium (Na+) can be toxic at high concentrations. The wheat K+ uptake transporter HKT1 has been shown to function in yeast and oocytes as a high affinity K+-Na+ cotransporter, and as a low affinity Na+ transporter at high external Na+. A previous study showed that point mutations in HKT1, which confer enhancement of Na+ tolerance to yeast, can be isolated by genetic selection. Here we report on the isolation of mutations in new domains of HKT1 showing further large increases in Na+ tolerance. By selection in a Na+ ATPase deletion mutant of yeast that shows a high Na+ sensitivity, new HKT1 mutants at positions Gln-270 and Asn-365 were isolated. Several independent mutations were isolated at the Asn-365 site. N365S dramatically increased Na+ tolerance in yeast compared with all other HKT1 mutants. Cation uptake experiments in yeast and biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mechanisms underlying the Na+ tolerance conferred by the N365S mutant were: reduced inhibition of high affinity Rb+ (K+) uptake at high Na+ concentrations, reduced low affinity Na+ uptake, and reduced Na+ to K+ content ratios in yeast. In addition, the N365S mutant could be clearly distinguished from less Na+-tolerant HKT1 mutants by a markedly decreased relative permeability for Na+ at high Na+ concentrations. The new mutations contribute to the identification of new functional domains and an amino acid in a loop domain that is involved in cation specificity of a plant high affinity K+ transporter and will be valuable for molecular analyses of Na+ transport mechanisms and stress in plants.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids. (7/3819)

We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants.  (+info)

Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus. (8/3819)

We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms.  (+info)

Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) are an important component of the breeding programs of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). CIMMYT germplasm is the most important source of genetic resources for wheat breeding programs in Iran, but their utilization has to be examined prior to their incorporation into breeding programs. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 128 CIMMYT SHWs to septoria tritici blotch (STB), a destructive wheat disease caused by Zymoseptoria tritici. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with Z. tritici spores in the greenhouse, kept at 20-22ºC and scored 21 days post inoculation by estimating the percentage of necrotic lesions bearing pycnidia. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers revealed that 11 Z. tritici isolates had high genetic variability. The isolates varied in their virulence towards SHWs. Among all interactions (n=1408), 304 resistance responses were identified. Of 128 genotypes, 60 synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes showed no
As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in durum wheat and, considering its close similarity to TaERF1 of Triticum aestivum, it probably plays a similar role in mediating responses to environmental stresses. TdERF1 displayed an expression pattern that discriminated between two durum wheat genotypes contrasted with regard to salt-stress tolerance. The high number of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses present in the TdERF1 promoter and the ability of TdERF1 to regulate the transcription of ethylene and drought-responsive promoters clearly ...
Emmer wheat as the progenitor of common wheat, holds the genetic potentiality for improvement of wheat yield, quality and stress tolerance such as drought and salt. To comprehensively evaluate the salt tolerance of emmer wheat, a total of 30 traits including growth, physiology and photosynthesis related as well as K+ and Na+ content of 30 wild emmer and 14 durum wheat accessions were systematically investigated and compared between normal and saline conditions. Salt tolerance index (STI) based on multiple regression analysis of these traits was calculated and five wild emmer accessions showed high salt tolerance, which could be used as valuable resource for wheat salt tolerance improvement. Furthermore, wild emmer genotypes showed wider trait performance variation compared to durum wheat, indicating the higher genetic diversity in wild emmer wheat. Then, shoot Na+ content, shoot K+/Na+ ratio, root length and root surface area were identified as suitable indexes for salt tolerance evaluation. Na+
Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings: The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ~90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ~95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ~77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ~85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. ...
Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings: The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ~90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ~95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ~77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ~85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. ...
Peusha, H. O., Stephan, U., Hsam, S. L. K., Felsenstein, F. G., Enno, T. M., Zeller, F. J. 1995: Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush. Russian J. Genetics, 31, 1-7.. Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush () 31 Russian J. Genetics : 1 -7.. ...
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
The endosperm part of the durum wheat is very hard. This can significantly reduce our intake of fructans and lower our overall level of FODMAPs. Durum is the hardest of the hard wheats and is amber in color and larger than those of other wheat varieties. To characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling gluten strength in Canadian durum wheat cultivars, a population of 162 doubled haploid (DH) lines segregating for gluten strength and derived from cv. Durumhvete eller hardhvete (Triticum durum) er en hveteart med høyt proteininnhold.Sorten dyrkes i store deler av den tempererte og subtropiske verden. Durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) cultivars with extra-strong gluten characteristics have become a unique quality type preferred by several domestic and international pasta processors. Durum wheat (Photo 1; Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Also, what is the best type of bread to eat as I have an intolerance to rice and rye also. Since semolina flour is commonly made into pasta, you may find it ...
Global nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production is marginal and is estimated to be about 33%. Remote sensing tools have tremendous potential for improving NUE in crops through efficient nitrogen management as well as the identification of high-NUE genotypes. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and quantify the variation in NUE across 24 winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and (ii) to determine if the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) could characterize the variability in NUE across wheat genotypes. This study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 in the semi-arid climate of Northeastern Colorado across dryland and irrigated conditions. Our results indicate significant variation in the NUE among genotypes across two irrigation conditions. We observed a strong relationship between the NDVI and NUE-as PFP (partial factor productivity) and PNB (partial nitrogen balance)-across the 24 wheat genotypes under dryland conditions (average R2 for PFP and PNB = 0.84) at
Abstract. Climate change is exerting significant impacts on global agricultural production. Climatic variations adversely affect crop production and, thus tend to impose a key constraint of agricultural production, primarily on how to cont inuously enhance the winter wheat yields worldwide. The high uncertainties in predicting the effects of climate change on wheat production are most likely due to rare understanding on the responses of wheat production to extreme climatic factors, e.g. high temperatures, low humidity as well as high wind speed. Dry-hot wind hazard represents one of the main natural disasters for Chinese winter wheat production, especially for the Huang-huai-hai plain. However, high uncertainties of the effects of dry-hot wind hazard on winter wheat production still exist, mainly due to the gaps of long-term observations. Therefore, we selected Shangqiu as the case study area to determine the occurrence regularity of dry-hot wind hazard on winter wheat production in ...
THE EFFECT OF APPLIED NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY
Genetic diversity assessment is necessary to help tackle the threats of environmental fluctuations and for the effective exploitation of genetic resources in breeding program. Recent advancement in the field of molecular markers has made the genetic characterization of genotypes rapid, reliable and reproducible. In the present investigation, we have characterized 49 wheat genotypes at molecular level using 52 SSR primers (including Yr specific primers). 27 polymorphic SSR markers were dispersed over the AABBDD wheat genome, a total of 102 alleles were detected with allele range of 1 to 6. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.11 to 0.95 and there is significant that 5 out of 27 SSR loci, namely Xpsp 3000, Xwgp249, Wmc198, csLV34, Xgwm301 revealed PIC values above 0.70, can be considered highly useful for differentiation of wheat genotypes. The UPGMA cluster tree analysis led to the grouping of 49 wheat genotypes in two major
Many ecological regions of Turkey are suitable for the production of durum wheat, and therefore the yield and quality of this wheat should be improved. In this study, stability properties associated with the pasta quality of 25 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes grown in 3 different locations (Tokat-Kazova, Diyarbakir, and Sivas-Ulas) for 2 years (2005-2006, 2006-2007) were investigated. Durum wheat genotypes were composed of 12 registered varieties and 13 advanced experimental lines. Field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Protein content, gluten index, sedimentation and specific sedimentation volumes, yellow pigment content, and lipoxygenase activity of the durum wheats were measured as major quality characteristics. The regression coefficient (b(i)) and mean square of deviation from regression (S(d)(2)) were employed as the stability parameters. Genotypes, growing environments, and their interactions were found to be statistically ...
Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA) and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD), which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD). Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was
Key Results Recombination in the gametes of the F₁ hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome ...
An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. ...
The identification of new sources of adult plant resistance (APR) and effective combinations of major and minor genes is well appreciated in breeding for durable rust resistance in wheat. A QTL, QSr.sun-5BL, contributed by winter wheat cultivar Arina providing 12-15 % reduction in stem rust severity, was reported in an Arina/Forno recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Following the demonstration of monogenic segregation for APR in the Arina/Yitpi RIL population, the resistance locus was formally named Sr56. Saturation mapping of the Sr56 region using STS (from EST and DArT clones), SNP (9 K) and SSR markers from wheat chromosome survey sequences that were ordered based on synteny with Brachypodium distachyon genes in chromosome 1 resulted in the flanking of Sr56 by sun209 (SSR) and sun320 (STS) at 2.6 and 1.2 cM on the proximal and distal ends, respectively. Investigation of conservation of gene order between the Sr56 region in wheat and B. distachyon showed that the syntenic region defined ...
[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the regulation action of La3+ in rare earth on the antioxidant enzyme activity of winter wheat seedlings under low-temperature stress.[Method] With the winter wheat variety Yongliang 4 as the tested material,5 concn.grads of La3+ at 5,10,20,30 and 40 mg/kg were set up to spray the wheat seedlings.The test method of simulating the low temperature chilling injury was used to study the regulatory effects of La3+ on SOD,POD and CAT activities in the leaves of winter wheat seedlings.[Result] In the 7 d of La3+ treatment and in the treatment with low temperature at 0,5 and 10 ℃,SOD activity in winter wheat was increased remarkably with the decrease of temperature and showed a trend of first rising and then falling with the La3+ treatment days.CAT and POD activities also showed a trend of first rising and then falling with the decrease of stress temperature and the increase of La3+ treatment days.After the winter wheat was treated with La3+ at 20 mg/kg under low
Wild relatives of wheat (Triticum aestivum) are important sources of genes for resistance to disease and insect pests. A collection of the wild tetraploid wheat species Triticum timopheevii var. araraticum was evaluated for reaction to Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), wheat curl mite (Eriophyes tulipae), and six foliar diseases: leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici), stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis), powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), tan spot (caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis), and Seploria blotch (caused by Septoria tritici). All accessions tested were resistant to Seploria blotch and a very high percentage were resistant to tan spot. Resistance was detected to four obligate fungal pathogens, although accessions with leaf rust resistance were more frequent in the collection than those with resistance to stripe rust, stem rust, or powdery mildew. Resistance to Hessian fly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triticum durum (Desf.) genotípusok fagyállóságának tesztelése a martonvásári fitotronban. AU - Szucs, Péter. AU - Veisz, O.. AU - Bedő, Z.. AU - Szunics, LáSzló. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In the experiments the frost resistance of eight T. durum wheat varieties of various origins and of sixteen T. durum genotypes bred in Martonvásár was evaluated in the phytotron after freezing at -13°C and -15°C. In order to determine the degree of frost resistance the number of plants surviving freezing was recorded and each plant was scored on a 0-5 scale. For some of the T. durum genotypes tested in the freezing experiment the grain yield was also determined in field experiments. The bread wheat variety Mv 15, which has excellent frost resistance and was used as the control, exhibited approx. 94% survival at both freezing temperatures. When frozen at -15°C the varieties Odmadur 1, Odmadur 2 and Martondur 1 and many of the T. durum lines bred in Martonvásár showed ...
As with many grasses, polyploidy is common in wheat.[9] There are two wild diploid (non-polyploid) wheats, T. boeoticum and T. urartu. T. boeoticum is the wild ancestor of domesticated einkorn, T. monococcum.[10] Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=2x=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number). The polyploid wheats are tetraploid (4 sets of chromosomes, 2n=4x=28), or hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes, 2n=6x=42). The tetraploid wild wheats are wild emmer, T. dicoccoides, and T. araraticum. Wild emmer is the ancestor of all the domesticated tetraploid wheats, with one exception: T. araraticum is the wild ancestor of T. timopheevi.[11] There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found. Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Genetic analysis has shown that the original hexaploid wheats were the result of a ...
Growth and morphology of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms and their association with lodging: effects of genotypes, N levels and ...
Due to the high polymorphisms between synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) and common wheat, SHW has been widely used in genetic studies. The transferability of simple sequence repeats (SSR) among common wheat and its donor species, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii, and their SHW suggested the possibility that some SSRs, specific for a single locus in common wheat, might appear in two or more loci in SHWs. This is an important genetic issue when using synthetic hexaploid wheat population and SSR for mapping. However, it is largely ignored and never empirically well verified. The present study addressed this issue by using the well-studied SSR marker Xgwm261 as an example. The Xgwm261 produced a 192 bp fragment specific to chromosome 2D in common wheat Chinese Spring, but generated a 176 bp fragment in the D genome of Ae. tauschii AS60. Chromosomal location and DNA sequence data revealed that the 176 bp fragment also donated by 2B chromosome of durum wheat Langdon. These results indicated that ...
Experiments were conducted to compare differences in P uptake characteristics between two winter wheat cultivars Stephens and Yamhill (Triticum aestivum L) as related to root morphologies. Root length, root surface area and mean root radius were compared. Plant roots and shoots were separately analyzed for P content. The cultivars were grown in a growth chamber with a 16 hour light period at 22° C and an 8 hour darkness at 16° C for approximately three weeks. A growth medium deficient only in P and with a pH high enough (6.4 to 6.6) to prevent Al toxicity was prepared by mixing a silt loam and a sand. Soil P variables were established by adding phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) to the soil at rates of 0, 25 and 100 ug P g⁻¹ soil. The root growth rates of the cultivars were exponential with time. Stephens had more rapid root growth rate, greater root length and root surface area than Yamhill. There were no significant cultivar differences in root radius. Stephens had higher root to shoot ratio ...
Lehnherr, B.; Maechler, F.; Grandjean, A.; Fuhrer, J., 1988: The regulation of photosynthesis in leaves of field grown spring wheat triticum aestivum l. cultivar albis at different levels of ozone in ambient air
The influence of individual Thinopyrum elongatum chromosomes on callus induction and morphogenic ability of in vitro cultivated immature embryos of wheat/ Thinopyrum elongatum addition lines was studied. An euploid form of cultivar Chinese Spring of Triticum aestivum (2n=42), AABBDD, seven disomic addition lines of Chinese Spring with chromosomes of Thinopyrum elongatum (2n=14) EE, and the amphidiploid Chinese Spring/ Thinopyrum elongatum (2n=56), AABBDDEE, were used as donor plants. Immature 14 days old embryos were in vitro cultivated. A relatively high number of calli were issued in embryocultures of all studied lines without significant variations among them. Relatively lower callus induction rate occurred only in the addition line containing 5E chromosome. Substantial differences were observed between the lines in respect to the number of both initiated morphogenic calli and regenerants obtained. The highest number of morphogenic calli and regenerants was obtained in cultures of lines ...
The symptoms of tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora triticirepentis, include a tan necrosis component and an extensive chlorosis component. Since tan spot has become the major component of the leafspotting disease complex of wheat in western Canada, the need for resistant cultivars has increased. This study was conducted to determine whether the resistance to tan spot found in a diverse set of spring and winter wheat genotypes was due to resistance genes not previously reported. The genetic control of resistance to necrosis induced by P. triticirepentis race 1 and race 2 was determined, under controlled environmental conditions, for spring wheat genotypes Erik and 86ISMN 2137 and winter wheat genotypes Hadden, Red Chief, and 6B-365. Plants were inoculated at the two-leaf stage and disease reaction was assessed based on lesion type. Tests of the F1 and F2 generations, and of F2:3 and F2:8 families, indicated that one recessive gene controlled resistance to the necrosis component of tan spot ...
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a principal traditional cereal crop in the highlands of Ethiopia and is produced exclusively under rain fed conditions at altitudes ranging from 1500 to 3000 m.a.s.l.. The field trial was conducted at farmers field at Kokate Mara Chare Kebele, Sodo Zuria Woreda, Wolaita Zone of South Ethiopia in the main rainy season of 2014. Five levels of nitrogen (0, 46, 69, 92 and 115 kg ha-1) and phosphorous (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha-1) were used to evaluate productivity of wheat in response to NP fertilizers and to identify the most suitable NP rates for production of wheat of wheat under participatory approach by using Farmers Research Group (FRG). Wheat variety Digalo was used for the experiment in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer had very highly significantly influenced total biomass, grain and straw yields of wheat but the effect of P and its interaction with N were not significant on ...
Wheat is the most important host for cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera filipjevi. The wild relatives of wheat have important sources of resistance genes to cereal nematodes. Phenotypic and genotypic evaluations have important implications for breeding programs, hence in this study information on the reaction of wheat genotypes to H. filipjevi and their genetic relationships are provided. A total of 223 wheat genotypes originating mostly from West Asia and North Africa (WANA countries) were evaluated against the H. filipjevi. Genetic diversity of 188 genotypes were assessed by using a 152 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Data were analysed using generalized linear model, showed that there are significant differences at P
Read Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using
We studied the effect of soft wheat seed treatment (Triticum aestivum L.) with two bacterial strains (Aeromonas media GS4 and Pseudomonas extremorientalis PhS1) isolated from earthworm coprolites on the growth and development of wheat seedlings in a 12-day laboratory experiment, as well as on root rot disease and the activity of guaiacol-dependant peroxidase under optimal conditions and abiotic stress (elevated and low temperatures and moisture content). We established that growing nonbacterized wheat plants under stress abiotic conditions reduced the height of plants compared to growing under optimal abiotic conditions, and seed bacterization with P. extremorientalis PhS1 strain increased wheat plant height (by 9-15%) under stress abiotic conditions compared to the nonbacterized plants. Bacterization with both strains decreased infestation of wheat seedlings (2.5-4 times) by root rots under unfavorable abiotic conditions compared to nonbacterized plants. In addition, under optimal and arid ...
FORTY-TWO bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated in eight environments in Egypt: two locations and two planting dates during the two 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 growing seasons. The objectives of this study were to estimate grain yield, number of spikes plant-1, 1000-kernel weight and plant height of these 42 bread wheat genotypes under different environments and to determine their ... إقراء المزيد. ...
Read Anther culture as an effective tool in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
HEXAPLOID wheat (2n = 6x = 42, Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the worlds cornerstone crops, feeds more people than any other crop (∼600 million tons is produced annually), and is the most widely adapted of the major crops, thus offering potential for increased food production. Hexaploid wheat is composed of three genomes (A, B, and D), each of which contains seven pairs of chromosomes, which have been identified and characterized by Sears (1966), who established that there is a strong homoeologous relationship among chromosomes belonging to the three genomes. The wheat genome, while complex, offers a unique opportunity for enhancing our understanding of variation in gene density and evolution between and within plant chromosomes.. Technical complexities in studying the wheat genome include that it is an allohexaploid composed of ∼16,000 Mb of DNA (Arumuganathan and Earle 1991), ∼40 times the size of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome. However, even with the large size of this hexaploid ...
The uptake of 137Cs and 90Sr by six varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) was compared in field trials on land contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. All the experimental varieties are officially adopted for agricultural use in Belarus and are used in large-scale production. Under identical conditions of nutrition, the productivity of the varieties varied significantly by a factor of 1.3. The extent of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation by wheat grain, quantified as the concentration ratio, differed between the varieties by as much as a factor of 1.6, for both radionuclides. There was a significant linear positive correlation between the 90Sr activity concentration in grain and straw, and the calcium concentration. The correlation between 137Cs and potassium was not significant. The results suggest that certain varieties of spring wheat used in normal agricultural practice accumulate less 137Cs and 90Sr into grain than others. Some spring wheat varieties accumulated relatively less 137Cs, but ...
Napoleon is an amber durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) that meets the end-use quality specifications of the Canada Western Amber Durum wheat class. Napoleon was evaluated in the Durum Cooperative Test in 1996, 1997 and 1998 as DT484. Overall, Napoleon had significantly higher grain yield than all checks except AC Avonlea, and Napoleon had higher grain yields in the Black soil zone compared with the Brown soil zone. Napoleon had maturity similar to AC Morse and AC Avonlea, but was 1 d earlier maturing than Kyle and 2 d later maturing than Hercules. Napoleon was similar to AC Avonlea in height, but was significantly taller than AC Morse, and significantly shorter than Kyle and Hercules. Napoleon had lower lodging scores than Hercules and Kyle, but had higher lodging scores than AC Avonlea and AC Morse. Napoleon is resistant to leaf rust, stem rust, and common bunt, and moderately susceptible to loose smut, leaf spot and Fusarium head blight. Napoleon is the first low cadmium durum ...
Why a long slow road? Its your choice but here is a list: (Research and or get help dont eat these things be healthy!) http://www.celiac.com/articles/182/1/Unsafe-Gluten-Free-Food-List-Unsafe-Ingredients/Page1.html Abyssinian Hard (Wheat triticum durum) Alcohol (Spirits - Specific Types) Amp-Isostearoyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein Atta Flour Barley Grass (can contain seeds) Barley Hordeum vulgare Barley Malt Beer (most contain barley or wheat) Bleached Flour Bran bread Flour Brewers Yeast Brown Flour Bulgur (Bulgar Wheat/Nuts) Bulgur Wheat Cereal Binding Chilton Club Wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies compactum) Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) cookie Crumbs Cookie Dough Cookie Dough Pieces Couscous Criped Rice Dinkle (Spelt) Disodium Wheatgermamido Peg-2 Sulfosuccinate Durum wheat (Triticum durum) Edible Coatings Edible Films Edible Starch Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) Enriched Bleached Flour Enriched Bleached Wheat Flour Enriched Flour Farina Farina Graham Farro ...
Wild related species are a useful reservoir of valuable genes for widening the genetic base of wheat and for the reduction of the vulnerability of wheat cultivars to pathogens, fungal diseases and environmental hazards. In this work, the action of prezygotic and postzygotic incrossability barriers was characterized, determining the possibilities of direct introduction of Am - genome from Triticum monococcum and D-genome from Triticum. tauschii into T. aestivum cultivars, with elimination of commonly performed bridging hybridisation with tetraploid wheat. As gene recipient parents, Polish cultivars of hexaploid wheat cv. Omega, cv. Igna (spring) and cv. Tercja (winter) were used. Application of wheat cultivars as female parents in hybridisation with T. tauschii yielded a very low percentage of effective pollination (0-1.2%). In reciprocal crosses prezygotic incompatibility barriers were more weakly expressed, and percentages of effective pollination (i.e. pollination which initiates the first ...
Inherently good. Natures original wheat & the only one never hybridized. First Ever einkorn. Unbleached & unbromated. A healthy alternative to modern wheat. USDA organic. Eat the original wheat, and feel great knowing einkorn wheat has remained as pure as it was over 12,000 years ago. Whether youre baking sweet or savory, you can substitute einkorn for regular wheat in your favorite recipes and get great results - more flavorful bread, and tasty baked goods with a golden color rich with the antioxidant lutein. This pure and nutritious flour is 80% of the whole grain. A part of the germ and the bran have been removed so the flour stays fresh. We work directly with small farmers to grow and maintain the integrity of this most ancient grain so you can feel great about the wheat you bake with. We care from seed to shelf. Scan This: Meet our farmer and learn how einkorn differs from modern wheat. Certified organic by QAI. www.jovialfoods.com. This bag is 100% paper with no plastic lining. Please ...
Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (C-t) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil ...
Aegilops tauschii (2n=2 x=14, DD) is a rich source of genetic variability for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) improvement. This variability can be accessed through utilizing synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, which contain genomes from Ae. tauschii and T. turgidum (2n=4 x=28, AABB). Numerous desirable characteristics can and have been introgressed into common hexaploid wheat with this germplasm. In this work, the genetic variability in the two puroindoline genes (a and b) contained on the D genome, and the relationship that sequence polymorphisms in these genes have on endosperm texture among a population of 75 CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid accessions is described. Kernel texture was evaluated using the single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Kernel texture differed significantly (P=0.0001) among the synthetic hexaploid accessions (range 2.6 40.9) and the parent types, durum or Ae. tauschii. The interaction term between parent types was also a significant effect ...
Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot.], also known as pasta or macaroni wheat, is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB genomes) of worldwide economic importance because it is used to make pasta and other semolina-based products. Durum wheat production is affected by numerous diseases. Among some of the most severe are the foliar diseases tan spot and SNB caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogens P. tritici-repentis and Pa. nodorum, respectively. Both pathogens are members of the Pleosporales order of fungi and are known to produce NEs (Oliver et al. 2012; Faris et al. 2013 for reviews). When a specific NE is recognized by the corresponding host gene, a host defense response ensues, which leads to programmed cell death allowing these necrotrophs to penetrate, feed, and sporulate. The lack of NE recognition by the host leads to resistance. Therefore, these host-pathogen interactions operate in an inverse gene-for-gene manner (Wolpert et al. 2002; Friesen and Faris 2010; ...
Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat). Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the
Common bunt (CB) (Tilletia laevis and T. tritici) is a seed and soil borne disease that can cause significant quality and yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum). One of the most effective ways to control CB is with host resistance. To date, 15 resistance genes have been identified (Bt1 to Bt15). This study was conducted to evaluate previously identified molecular markers associated with Bt8, Bt10, Bt11, and Bt12 in 74 wheat genotypes of diverse origin. These lines included 15 isogenic CB differential lines, 24 lines with known Bt genes and the remaining lines were a mix of CB resistant and susceptible lines with unknown Bt genes. DNA was extracted from seed of each genotype and used for marker evaluation. A total of eight markers were evaluated for their association with Bt8, Bt10, Bt11, and Bt12, including four SSR markers Xgwm264, Xgwm374, and Xbarc128 for Bt12, three RAPD markers 372, 196, and FDS-RSA for Bt10, one SSR marker Xgwm114 for Bt11, and one RAPD marker Psg3 for Bt8. Xbarc128 was ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, DNA insecticides: The effect of concentration on non-target plant organisms such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Journal of Plant Protection Research
Citation: Sood, S., Kuraparthy, V., Bai, G., Gill, B.S. 2009. The Major Threshability Genes Soft Glume (sog) and Tenacious Glume (Tg), of Diploid and Polyploid Wheat, Trace Their Origin to Independent Mutations at Non-Orthogous Loci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 119:341-351 Interpretive Summary: Wilde wheat species are difficult to thresh whereas our modern cultivated wheat varieties are easy to thresh. It is thought that threshability was an important trait for wheat to become a major grain crop for human consumption. The floret of wild wheat is enclosed by tough glumes that make spikes difficult to thresh, whereas cultivated wheat has soft glumes and is free-threshing. In this report, we identified the chromosome locations of the soft glume (sog)gene of a diploid wheat relative, Triticum monococcum and tenacious glume (Tg) gene of common wheat using chromosome-specific molecular markers. The sog gene was located close to the centromere on chromosome 2AS of T., monococcum whereas Tg was ...
A field experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Research Field Station in Karaj, Iran, during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons to estimate genetic progress and the variation in penological and agronomic characteristics in 13 irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in Iran between 1943 and 2011. Trends of temporal variation of the traits measured revealed that grain yield and some related phonological and agronomic traits have increased in the more recently released cultivars. Thousand grain weight decreased slightly compared to older cultivars. Number of days to heading and anthesis decreased in new cultivars, butgrain-filling period and days to physiological maturity did not change. Spike length also increased but plant height decreased in more recently released cultivars. These changes may explain the increase in grain yield of newly released facultative/winter bread wheat cultivars.
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is a cereal crop widely grown in the Mediterranean regions; the amber grain is mainly used for the production of pasta, couscous and typical breads. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection technologies and high-throughput mutation induction represent a new challenge in wheat breeding to identify allelic variation in large populations. The TILLING strategy makes use of traditional chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for single base mismatches to identify novel mutant loci. Although TILLING has been combined to several sensitive pre-screening methods for SNP analysis, most rely on expensive equipment. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been used in molecular human diagnostic to detect unknown mutations. In this work, we developed a new durum wheat TILLING population (cv. Marco Aurelio) using 0.70-0.85 % ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatments, a pilot screening was carried out on 1
Two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Simeto and Ofanto) were grown in field trials in Foggia (Southern Italy), under two water regimes and in three cropping seasons, to evaluate the influence of water regime on grain protein composition in relation to technological quality. On grain samples, the following quality analyses were performed: protein and gluten content, gluten index and SDS test. Furthermore, different protein fractions were evaluated: gliadins; glutenins, high molecular weight subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight subunits (LMW-GS) of the larger glutenin polymers; percentage of unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D) of glutenins was also performed on selected samples. A year-on-year variation in gluten index was observed and its values were positively correlated (r = 0.71**) with the number of days with maximum temperature ranging from 30 to 35 ◦C during grain filling. This was consistent with an increase in glutenin ...
Triticum ispahanicum Heslot. Triticum ispahanicum Heslot BAu. Triticum turgidum L. subsp. paleocolchicum Á. & D. Löve. Triticum ... Triticum aestivum L. subsp. spelta (L.) Thell.. Triticum spelta L. BAuD. Triticum aestivum L. subsp. macha (Dekapr. & A. M. ... Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turgidum. Triticum turgidum L. Polish wheat. BAu. Triticum turgidum L. subsp. polonicum (L.) Thell. ... Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum. Triticum aestivum L. Club wheat. BAuD. Triticum aestivum L. subsp. compactum (Host) ...
tritici / Pgt, wheat and barley P. graminis is a member of the phylum Basidiomycota within the kingdom Fungi. The ... tritici that modulate barley rpg4-mediated stem rust resistance". BMC Genomics. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 20 (1 ... tritici". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. 108 (22): 9166-9171. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... tritici that Caused a Wheat Stem Rust Epidemic in Southern Ethiopia in 2013-14". Phytopathology. American Phytopathological ...
This nothospecies was first described as a species, Triticum erebuni, in 1984 by P.A. Gandilyan in the bulletin of the Vavilov ... "Triticum erebuni". International Plant Names Index. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries and ...
Plants bearing the specific epithet of tauschii are named in his honor, e.g. Triticum tauschii. In 1825, Diederich Franz ...
... wheat (/ˈdjʊərəm/), also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a ... "Triticum (genus)". Biodiversity explorer. Archived from the original on 2008-10-10. Zilić S, Barać M, Pešić M, Dodig D, ... "Triticum durum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 3 February 2016. BSBI List 2007 (xls ... "Triticum durum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department ...
Triticum spp. (wheat) is the only host of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. Signs on the foliage of wheat are white, powdery ... tritici, which causes powdery mildew of wheat and infects other grasses in the genera Triticum and Aegilops, f.sp. hordei on ... tritici [2] Sequencing of the genome of the wheat powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, has allowed to infer ... tritici is an obligate parasite which means it only grows on living tissue. Though present throughout wheat growing regions, it ...
Aegilops turcomanica Roshev., Triticum juvenale Thell.) is a species in the family Poaceae. Aegilops juvenalis GrainGenes ...
dicoccum and Triticum turgidum conv. durum. The wild plant is called Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides. The principal ... It is a tetraploid wheat formed by the hybridization of two diploid wild grasses, Triticum urartu, closely related to wild ... Strong similarities in morphology and genetics show that wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) is the wild ancestor and a ... "Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United ...
Triticum columnare (Zhuk.) Morris & Sears, comb. nov.) is a species in the family Poaceae. GrainGenes Species Report: Aegilops ...
Triticum umbellulatum (Zhuk.) Bowden, Kiharapyrum umbellulatum (Zhuk.) Á.Löve, Aegilops ovata var. anatolica Eig) is a species ...
Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important domesticated grass used worldwide for food. Its evolution has been influenced by human ... GM Wheat Archived 2017-02-24 at the Wayback Machine Avise 2004, p. 47 "Production of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) ... It is theorized that wheat's ancestors (Triticum monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, and Aegilops tauschii, all diploid grasses) ... Triticum aestivum L.)." J.Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 10:53(5):1375-84 Kan, C. A. and Hartnell, G. F. (2004) "Evaluation of ...
nom, Aegilops variabilis Eig, Triticum kotschyi (Boiss.) Bowden, Triticum triunciale ssp. kotschyi (L.) Raspail (Boiss.) Asch ...
and Triticum timopheevi Zhuk. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Allard, R. W. (1949). "A cytogenetic study dealing with the ... Allard, Robert Wayne (1946). A cytogenetic study of the effect of backcrossing to common wheat in a hybrid between Triticum ... "The inheritance of resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew in cytologically stable wheats derived from Triticum timopheevi ... transfer of genes from Triticum timopheevi to common wheat by backcrossing". Journal of Agricultural Research. 78 (3-4): 33-64 ...
... (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. About 95% of wheat produced ... "Triticum aestivum (bread wheat)". Kew Gardens. Retrieved 1 October 2016. Sanità Di Toppi, L.; Castagna, A.; Andreozzi, E.; ... Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but ... Mayer, K. F. X. (2014). "A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome". Science. ...
Löve, Triticum longissimum (Schweinf. & Muschl.) Bowden, Triticum sharonense L.) is a species in the family Poaceae. It is ...
Khorasan wheat Triticum turanicum 18. Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa 19. Spelt Triticum spelta 20. Teff Eragrostis tef 21. Wild rice ...
tritici) and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina f.sp. tritici). As R.P. Singh, J. Huerta-Espino, and A.P. Roelfs say in their ( ... Primary hosts of yellow rust of wheat are Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Triticum turgidum (durum wheat), triticale, and a ... tritici), also known as wheat stripe rust, is one of the three major wheat rust diseases, along with stem rust of wheat ( ... tritici] on wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 27:314-337. Doodson, J.K., Manners, J.G. and Myers, A. (1964). Some effects of yellow ...
tritici. (The primary host of Pst being wheat.) However in this case it was only achieved by intentional inoculation in a lab, ... tritici) Under Artificial Inoculation". Plant Disease. American Phytopathological Society. 97 (6): 839-839. doi:10.1094/pdis-09 ...
tritici. Cummins (1971) in his rust monograph for Poaceae introduced an ultra-broad species concept for P. recondita and listed ... tritici. In 1899 and after some experiments Eriksson concluded that the rust should be considered as a separate authentic ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum (T. turgidum var. durum), domesticated emmer (T. dicoccon) and wild emmer (T. dicoccoides), ... tritici (UVPrt2 or UVPrt13) infections, especially when combined with genes Lr13 and gene Lr34 (Kloppers & Pretorius, 1997). ...
tritici), which is present in wheat fields in several countries in Africa and the Middle East and is predicted to spread ... tritici Race PTKSK, a Variant of Wheat Stem Rust Race Ug99, in South Africa". Plant Disease. American Phytopathological Society ... tritici-Ug99 in the Rift Valley "Flyway" from Uganda-Kenya to Yemen". Plant Health Progress. American Phytopathological Society ... tritici in Uganda". Plant Disease. American Phytopathological Society. 84 (2): 203. doi:10.1094/pdis.2000.84.2.203b. ISSN 0191- ...
tritici). All varieties of wheat and barley are susceptible. It is an important disease in winter wheat in Western Europe ... Gaeumannomyces tritici causes disease in the roots, crown, and stem base of wheat, barley, rye, along with several grasses such ... Gaeumannomyces tritici is a soil borne fungus that was first identified over 100 years ago in Australia. Although the disease ... Gaeumannomyces tritici persists through unfavorable climates in infected host plants and host debris. It can be spread from ...
"Crimean Red Winter Triticum aestivum". One Green World. Retrieved 6 October 2019. "Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat, Common wheat ...
lapsa attacks wheat Triticum aestivum. P. s. pv. panici attacks Panicum grass species. P. s. pv. papulans attacks crabapple ... atrofaciens attacks wheat Triticum aestivum. P. s. pv. dysoxylis attacks the kohekohe tree Dysoxylum spectabile. P. s. pv. ...
cereal grains) and Triticum sp. (wheat) were found, making them the first sample of these genera at R12. Plant remains at R12 ...
tritici infection". Molecular Biology Reports. 39 (2): 817-24. doi:10.1007/s11033-011-0803-5. PMID 21633895. S2CID 8640496. ... Gupta OP, Permar V, Koundal V, Singh UD, Praveen S (February 2012). "MicroRNA regulated defense responses in Triticum aestivum ...
tritici (Ggt)". Theses and Dissertations at Montana State University (MSU). Allmér, Johan; Vasiliauskas, Rimvis; Ihrmark, ... Conversely, P. fastigiata exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici, a plant pathogen that ...
tritici, causes powdery mildew of wheat, whereas f. sp. hordei causes powdery mildew of barley. Legumes, such as soybeans, are ... tritici)" (PDF). Phytopathology. 93 (4): 402-12. doi:10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.4.402. PMID 18944354. Archived from the original ( ...
Aegilops bicorne (misapplied), Triticum bicorne Forssk.) is a species in the family Poaceae native to Palestine and the Levant ...
I. Chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of a haploid of Triticum vulgare". Genetics. 24 (4): 509-523. PMC 1209050. PMID ... McFadden, E. S.; -- (1946). "The Origin of Triticum spelta and Its Free-Threshing Hexaploid Relatives". Journal of Heredity. 37 ... 1953). "Addition of the genome of Haynaldia villosa to Triticum aestivum". American Journal of Botany. 40 (3): 168-174. doi: ... Rodenhiser, H. A. (1948). "Nullisomic analysis of stem-rust resistance in Triticum vulgare var. Timstein". Genetics. 33 (1): ...
Triticum (hu); frumento, tritico, grano (it); Triticum (nn); Triticum (uk); tarwe (nl); Tríticum (ru); Triticum (sl); Triticum ... Triticum (ceb); Búza (hu); ስንዴ (am); Nisu (et); Triticum (eu); ਕਣਕ (pa); ꅪ (ii); пшеница (ru); Triyu (qu); Triticum (de); КӀа ( ... Vernacular names [edit wikidata Category:Triticum linked to current category] [edit wikidata Triticum main topic of ... Triticum (nl); Be̍h-á (nan); Сэлиэhинэй (sah); 小麥 (gan); Weit (li); Trigo (gl); Улаан буудай (bxr); 小麦属 (zh-hans); Triticum ( ...
1. common wheat, Triticum aestivum, wheat. usage: widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially ...
Triticum spelta (sl); Dinkel (lb); Triticum spelta, orkisz, szpelc (pl); Triticum spelta (nb); Triticum spelta (nl); Triticum ... Triticum spelta, Spelt, Fesen, Vesen (de); spèlta (lmo); Triticum spelta, динкел, камут (bg); Triticum spelta (da); Triticum ... Triticum spelta, epeautre (fr); Triticum spelta, spelta nisu (et); Triticum spelta, spelt (pt); Triticum spelta, прапшеница, ... Triticum spelta (ast); espelta (ca); Dinkel (de); Triticum spelta (lmo); Triticum spelta (sq); крупник (sr-ec); 斯佩耳特小麦 (zh); ...
Infection by Tilletia tritici (formerly T. caries) or T. laevis (formerly T. foetida) causes normal kernels to be replaced by ... Other articles where Tilletia tritici is discussed: bunt: ... Infection by Tilletia tritici (formerly T. caries) or T. laevis ...
"Chinese spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chloroplast genome: complete sequence and contig clones.". Ogihara Y., Isono K., ...
Shop triticum leggings that bring out your unique personality. Designed by thousands of artists from around the world, our ...
Triticum timopheevii, Timopheevs wheat or Zanduri wheat, is a tetraploid wheat that has both cultivated and wild forms. It is ... "Triticum timopheevii". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 16 December 2015. CS1 maint: ... believed to have evolved in isolation from the more common Triticum turgidum; hybrids between T. timopheevii and T. turgidum ...
Triticum araraticum (Araratian wild emmer or Armenian wild emmer) is a wild tetraploid species of wheat. T. araraticum is one ... "Triticum araraticum Jakubz". Red Book of Armenia. Minister of Nature Protection of the Republic of Armenia. v t e. ... Genetic heterogenity of wild triticum dicoccoides from Iraq. J Agricult. Sciences 9. p. 18-19 (in Russian) Jakubizner M. M. ... Intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism of Triticum araraticum (Poaceae) detected by C-banding technique. Plant Systematics and ...
Genus: Triticum Species: T. aestivum - T. boeoticum - T. carthlicum - T. compactum - T. dicoccoides - T. dicoccon - T. durum - ... Triticum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85 (1753) nom. cons.. Typusart. : Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85 (1753) nom. cons. ... Triticum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on ... Für weitere Multimedia-Dateien siehe unter Triticum bei Wikimedia Commons. (de) - (Please translate this into Nordfriisk.) ...
Genus: Triticum Species: T. aestivum - T. boeoticum - T. carthlicum - T. compactum - T. dicoccoides - T. dicoccon - T. durum - ... Triticum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85 (1753) nom. cons.. Type species. : Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85 (1753) nom. cons. ... Triticum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on ... For more multimedia, look at Triticum on Wikimedia Commons. (en) - (Please translate this into azərbaycanca.) ...
COSMOGEL 10, STARCH, TRITICUM VULGARE, STARCH, WHEAT, TRITICUM VULGARE (WHEAT) STARCH, TRITICUM VULGARE STARCH, and WHEAT ... Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Starch is a starch obtained from wheat, Triticum vulgare. ...
Triticum sovieticum is a ANNUAL. It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to ... Triticum sovieticum is a ANNUAL. It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to ...
Triticum species Triticum turgidum Name. Homonyms. Triticum durum Desf.. Common names. Hart-Weizen in German. durum wheat in ... Triticum durum Desf. Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank SPECIES Published in Fl. atlant. 1:114. 1798 http://creativecommons. ...
Triticum species Triticum duromedium Name. Homonyms. Triticum ×duromedium Lubimova. Triticum duromedium V.F.Lyubimova. ... Triticum ×duromedium Lubimova Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank SPECIES Classification. kingdom Plantae phylum Tracheophyta ...
OIL OF WHEAT GERM, TRITICUM AESTIVUM GERM OIL, TRITICUM VULGARE (WHEAT) GERM OIL, TRITICUM VULGARE GERM OIL, and WHEAT GERM OIL ... TRITICUM VULGARE (WHEAT) GERM OIL. Click here for all products containing this ingredient ...
Triticum durum synonyms, Triticum durum pronunciation, Triticum durum translation, English dictionary definition of Triticum ... Noun 1. Triticum durum - wheat with hard dark-colored kernels high in gluten and used for bread and pasta; grown especially in ... Triticum durum. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to Triticum durum: Triticum aestivum, Triticum dicoccum ... Chaves 38[degrees]02 60[degrees]05 Avena sativa Hordeum vulgare Triticum aestivum Triticum durum 19.. Analisis genetico de ...
Triticum dicoccum synonyms, Triticum dicoccum pronunciation, Triticum dicoccum translation, English dictionary definition of ... Noun 1. Triticum dicoccum - hard red wheat grown especially in Russia and Germany; in United States as stock feed emmer, starch ... 28 AABB Triticum dicoccoides Korne As838 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum dicoccum Schrank PI434999 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum durum ... Triticum dicoccum. Also found in: Thesaurus, Wikipedia.. Related to Triticum dicoccum: emmer, spelt ...
... identification and distribution of Map of Triticum aestivum -- Discover Life ... Triticum aestivum @ American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug (1); BOLD (3); Systematic Mycology and Microbiology ...
tr,Q9ZR84,Q9ZR84_WHEAT Pollen allergen homolog OS=Triticum aestivum OX=4565 PE=2 SV=1 ...
There are two agricultural species, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum (pasta) wheat (Triticum durum), both of which ... Triticum turgidum subspecies durum (durum wheat) is atetraploid wheat with 14 pairs of chromosomes (2n=2x=28; AABB genomes) and ... Triticum Aestivum L (Wheat). John W Snape, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK Katerina Pánková, Crop Research Institute, Prague ... was domesticated by ancient farmers from a wild species still growing in the Middle East, called Triticum dicoccoides. ...
... Roopali N. Bhoite, Ping Si, Katia T. Stefanova, ... Triticum spp.) genotypes," Crop and Pasture Science, 68(5), 401-408, (19 May 2017) Include:. ... Triticum spp.) genotypes," Crop and Pasture Science 68(5), 401-408, (19 May 2017). https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17017 ...
Our Triticum Wheat Stack is meticulously hand crafted from sheaves of natural, dried triticum wheat grown and harvested in the ... Triticum Wheat Stack features: Home decor that lasts season after season Great year-round color Perfect house warming gift Use ... Triticum Wheat Stack is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 19. Rated 5 out of 5 by The Chalet from Wheat Stack Works well w/ my Bohemian ...
Domestication quantitative trait loci in Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of wheat. Junhua Peng, Yefim Ronin, Tzion Fahima ... Domestication quantitative trait loci in Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of wheat. Junhua Peng, Yefim Ronin, Tzion Fahima ... Domestication quantitative trait loci in Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of wheat. Junhua Peng, Yefim Ronin, Tzion Fahima ... Domestication quantitative trait loci in Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of wheat Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
They are all the same species, Triticum aestivum, while the truly ancient wheats are other species. There are no hybrid s and ...
Koebner RMD and Martin PK (1989) Chromosomal control of the aminopeptidases of wheat and its close relatives. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 78:657-664 ...
triticum aestivum - tarwe - genetica - celdeling - meiose - cum laude - wheat - genetics - cell division - meiosis ... Reduction division and haploid chromosome number of several species and varieties of Triticum were studied in haematoxylin- ...
A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). ... Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 106:1379-1389PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Vavilov N.: A contribution to the classification of soft wheat, Triticum vulgare. Bull. appl. Bot.13, 149 (1923).Google Scholar ...
LT: Triticum aestivum L. LT designated by Hitchcock in Amer. J. Bot. 10: 513. 1923; see also Hitchcock, Nom. Prop. Int. Bot. ...
Find the perfect triticum turgidum stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and ... Triticum turgidum L. Triticum durum Desf. Triticum polonicum L. Triticum spelta L. 31 January 2001 9 391 Triticums L Triticum ... Durum Wheat Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Triticum durum Couscous grains Durum Wheat Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Triticum durum ... Durum Wheat Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Triticum durum Couscous grains Durum Wheat Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Triticum durum ...
  • Triticum timopheevii, Timopheev's wheat or Zanduri wheat, is a tetraploid wheat that has both cultivated and wild forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triticum araraticum (Araratian wild emmer or Armenian wild emmer) is a wild tetraploid species of wheat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Starch is a starch obtained from wheat, Triticum vulgare. (ewg.org)
  • There are two agricultural species, bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and durum (pasta) wheat ( Triticum durum ), both of which belong to the botanical tribe Triticeae in the grass family Poaceae, which also contains the related crop species, rye and barley. (els.net)
  • Identification of new metribuzin-tolerant wheat (Triticum spp. (bioone.org)
  • Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides , is the progenitor of modern tetraploid and hexaploid cultivated wheats. (pnas.org)
  • A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. (springer.com)
  • A contribution to the classification of soft wheat, Triticum vulgare. (springer.com)
  • Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. (alamy.com)
  • Field of ripe wheat (Triticum sp. (alamy.com)
  • Filed of green wheat (Triticum sp. (alamy.com)
  • Place the Wheat Triticum Stack in a clay pot or vase to display its bursting, yellow wisps. (save-on-crafts.com)
  • Seed priming and salinity induced variations in wheat (Triticum a. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Keyword: wheat stem sawfly Cephus cinctus Norton dryland wheat (Triticum L. spp. (fed.us)
  • Embryogenic microspores were isolated from stress-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tillers and cultured in liquid medium. (scirp.org)
  • Zheng, M. , Bieren, K. and Griggs, R. (2015) Developmental Dynamics of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Microspores under Culture. (scirp.org)
  • Liu, W.G., Zheng, M.Y., Polle, E. and Konzak, C.F. (2002) Highly Efficient Doubled-Haploid Production in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) via Induced Microspore Embryogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • Zheng, M.Y. (2003) Microspore Culture in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)-Double Haploid Production via Induced Embryogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • A set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the cultivar Messapia of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. (nih.gov)
  • Natural blond Triticum wheat is great to use in bouquets, centerpieces and floral arrangements. (save-on-crafts.com)
  • Triticum wheat bundles are 34in tall with beautiful golden yellow wheat stalks. (save-on-crafts.com)
  • Development of an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Resource for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (genetics.org)
  • This report describes the rationale, approaches, organization, and resource development leading to a large-scale deletion bin map of the hexaploid (2 n = 6 x = 42) wheat genome ( Triticum aestivum L.). Accompanying reports in this issue detail results from chromosome bin-mapping of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing genes onto the seven homoeologous chromosome groups and a global analysis of the entire mapped wheat EST data set. (genetics.org)
  • HEXAPLOID wheat (2 n = 6 x = 42, Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the world's cornerstone crops, feeds more people than any other crop (∼600 million tons is produced annually), and is the most widely adapted of the major crops, thus offering potential for increased food production. (genetics.org)
  • Triticum aestivum is the most widely cultivated wheat. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Triticum is the classical Latin name for wheat, while aestivum means flowering, ripening or developing in summer. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Dormancy in white-grain mutants of Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (cambridge.org)
  • cultivated diploid wheat Triticum monococcum DV92. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Gluten can be found in mascaras and skin care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Glycerides is a mixture of fatty acids derived from Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • portion in the endosperm of the wheat, Triticum vulgare . (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Wheat Germ Glycerides and Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Gluten were safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Retrotransposon-Based Genetic Diversity Assessment in Wild Emmer Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. (mdpi.com)
  • Wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. (mdpi.com)
  • Anguina tritici vectors a bacterium Clavibacter tritici , which is the causal agent of yellow ear rot or tondu of wheat. (unl.edu)
  • Emmer ( Triticum monococcum ), rye ( Secale cereale ), spelt ( T. spelta ), and wheat ( T. aestivum ). (unl.edu)
  • 2001. Evaluation of wheat cultivars for Anguina tritici resistance, development and influence of nematode on wheat growth. (unl.edu)
  • Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Discovery and development of exome-based, co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism markers in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Wheat plants in the trial must be reproductively isolated from all Triticum species by a minimum of 30 meters. (gc.ca)
  • Triticum aestivum , Triticum compactum (club wheat), Triticum sphaerococcum (shot wheat), Triticum vavilovii (Vavilov's wheat), Triticum macha (Makha wheat), Triticum spelta (Spelt wheat). (gc.ca)
  • Septoria tritici blotch (also known as speckled leaf spot), Stagonospora nodorum blotch and tan spot (also known as yellow leaf spot) are the three most frequently occurring leaf blotch diseases of wheat in Ohio. (osu.edu)
  • An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Triticum aestivum , or modern wheat. (boingboing.net)
  • 13365010 - Black emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386992 - Domesticated hulled wheat (Triticum timopheevii var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386995 - Shot wheat (Triticum sphaerococcum var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386983 - Rivet or cone wheat (Triticum turgidum var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386981 - Cone or rivet wheat (Triticum turgidum var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386993 - Domesticated hulled wheat (Triticum timopheevii var. (stockfood.com)
  • 00386994 - Domesticated hulled wheat (Triticum timopheevii var. (stockfood.com)
  • Triticum Lucidum Bright Wheat canvas print by Mary Evans Picture Library. (fineartamerica.com)
  • There are no comments for Triticum Lucidum Bright Wheat . (fineartamerica.com)
  • Phytotoxicity and oxidative effects of typical quaternary ammonium compounds on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Additional keywords: protein isolation, Triticum aestivum , wheat. (apsnet.org)
  • Recent Advances in Wheat ( Triticum spp. (springer.com)
  • Wheat ( Triticum spp. (springer.com)
  • Gene banks have conserved a large genetic resource collection of wheat germplasm including wild Triticum species. (springer.com)
  • Biodiversity Genetic improvement Genetic map Modern wheat breeding Traditional breeding Triticum spp. (springer.com)
  • Wheatgrass, also known as Triticum aestivum, is the young grass of the wheat plant, and provides a wide variety of natural health benefits. (starwest-botanicals.com)
  • An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Genetics of resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and applications to wheat breeding. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This paper reviews current knowledge about genes for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Mycosphaerella graminicola). (jic.ac.uk)
  • 1988. Intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism of Triticum araraticum (Poaceae) detected by C-banding technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reynolds, T.L. (1993) A Cytological Analysis of Microspores of Triticum aestivum (Poaceae) during Normal Ontogeny and Induced Embryogenic Development. (scirp.org)
  • Genetic heterogenity of wild triticum dicoccoides from Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species Accession Ploidy Genome number Triticum carthlicum Nevski As293 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum dicoccoides Korne As835 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum dicoccoides Korne As838 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum dicoccum Schrank PI434999 2n = 4x = 28 AABB Triticum durum Desf. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • AABB genomes) and was domesticated by ancient farmers from a wild species still growing in the Middle East, called Triticum dicoccoides . (els.net)
  • Our mapping population was derived from a cross between T. dicoccoides and Triticum durum . (pnas.org)
  • Extension of the Messapia x dicoccoides linkage map of Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. (nih.gov)
  • The crops include Hordeum vulgare, Triticum dicoccum , Triticum spelta, Camelina sativa, Panicum miliaceum, Pisum sativum and cultivated Fabacea (Grikpedis & Motuzaite Matuzeviciute 2017). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1836) was merely cited in synonymy (of Triticum polonicum ) and was therefore not validly published (Saint Louis Code, Art. (efloras.org)
  • FISH analysis of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes in Triticum polonicum L. and T. turgidum L. cv. (nih.gov)
  • Using the method of double color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we had analyzed Triticum polonicum L. and T. turgidum L. cv. (nih.gov)
  • They are all the same species, Triticum aestivum, while the truly ancient wheats are other species. (bountifulgardens.org)
  • Reduction division and haploid chromosome number of several species and varieties of Triticum were studied in haematoxylin-stained microtome sections (16- 18 μ) after Bouin Allen fixation. (wur.nl)
  • Pyemotes tritici is a species of mites in the family Pyemotidae . (eol.org)
  • No wild hexaploid progenitors of Triticum aestivum are known, but the two distinguishing characteristics of wild Tritcum species, fragile rachises breaking into wedge-shaped units and closely appressed glumes, are found in plants cultivated in Tibet and named T. aestivum subsp. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • The networks show that the 5S rDNA sequences of Triticum and Aegilops species are related in a reticulate manner around principal nodal sequences. (genetics.org)
  • There are numerous species of Triticum with different genomes and chromosome numbers. (springer.com)
  • Chaves 38[degrees]02' 60[degrees]05' Avena sativa Hordeum vulgare Triticum aestivum Triticum durum 19. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Triticum sphaerococcum Percival, Triticum vulgare Vill. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Triticum vulgare var. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Can be confused with Hordeum vulgare (common barley), but pay attention to the lemmas of Triticum aestivum being densely hispid. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Club wheats, sometimes called Triticum compactum Host, are cultivated in the Pacific Northwest for export to Asian markets. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • TYPE: = Triticum Linnaeus 1753. (usf.edu)
  • After leaving Mr. Haynes' office in 1994, Mr. Tritico started his present firm Tritico Rainey, P. L.L.C. in 2011. (thenationaltriallawyers.org)
  • At the Houston law firm of Tritico Rainey, PLLC, we are committed to pursuing your best interests, whether you need experienced criminal defense, advocacy in a personal injury claim or representation in business or civil matters. (findlaw.com)
  • At Tritico Rainey, PLLC, we can't guarantee you're going to win. (findlaw.com)
  • Hartweizen, Weizen, Triticum turgidum conv. (alamy.com)
  • The ToxB gene was cloned and characterized from a race 5 isolate of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis from North Dakota. (apsnet.org)
  • triticea ), Septoria blotch by Septoria tritici ( Mycospharella graminicola ), and Tab spot by Drechslera tritici-repentis ( Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ). (osu.edu)
  • Cultivar-specific toxic metabolites of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis are involved in the appearance of necrotic and chlorotic foliar lesions characteristic of tan spot. (apsnet.org)
  • Cultivated Emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. (alamy.com)
  • Triticum turgidum ssp. (mdpi.com)
  • Für weitere Multimedia-Dateien siehe unter Triticum bei Wikimedia Commons . (wikimedia.org)
  • For more multimedia, look at Triticum on Wikimedia Commons . (wikimedia.org)
  • Since 1988, Mr. Tritico has represented the interest of professional educators he is General Counsel for the Houston Federation of Teachers, AFT-Lone Star, Cy Fair AFT, Spring Branch AFT and North East Houston AFT. (thenationaltriallawyers.org)
  • In 1988, Mr. Tritico authored an article entitled "Investigative Techniques Every Lawyer Should Know. (thenationaltriallawyers.org)
  • crocchette de farro: adica niste chiftele mai mari si plate, au forma unui burger, facute cu un tip de grau care la noi nu se cultiva in mod traditional -triticum dicoceum-, dar cred ca poate fi inlocuit cu succes de graul normal. (proz.com)
  • Red wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) are generally more dormant and sprout resistant than white wheats. (cambridge.org)
  • Triticum carthlicum Nevski (as T. turgidum Linnaeus var. (efloras.org)
  • We have used network analysis to study gene sequences of the Triticum and Aegilops 5S rDNA arrays, as well as the spacers of the 5S-DNA-A1 and 5S-DNA-2 loci. (genetics.org)
  • Most of them have been shown to be genotype-specific, being effective against the minority of Z. tritici isolates which are avirulent, and Stb6 has been shown to control a gene-for-gene relationship. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Another gene of particular interest is Stb16q, which has been effective against all Z. tritici isolates tested so far. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Bioassays were performed to study the allelopathic effect of dried leaf powder of Carica papaya , Parthenium hysterophorus , Euphorbia helioscopia and Rumex dentatus on intact and pre-germinated seeds of R. dentatus , Avena fatua , Helianthus annuus (K.S.E 7777), Zea mays (Islamabad Gold 2010) and Triticum aestivum (Wafaq 2001). (cabi.org)
  • An artificial hybrid between Aegilops tauschii ( Triticum tauschii ) (♀) and T. urartu Thumanjan ex Gandilyan (♂) was described as T. ×teres H. R. Jiang & X. X. Kong (Acta Bot. (efloras.org)
  • Anguina tritici female show a well developed anterior branch of the ovary which is folded in two or more flexures and a conoid tail, tapered to an obtuse or round tip (Southey, 1972). (unl.edu)
  • Typical symptoms of A , Septoria tritici blotch with distinct black pycnidia and B , Stagonospora nodorum blotch. (osu.edu)
  • In Ohio, Parastagonospora nodorum is most important, but occasionally Septoria tritici and Drechslera tritici-repentis cause yield losses in some locations. (osu.edu)
  • Parastagonospora nodorum causes disease on leaves and glumes of the head (glume blotch), whereas Septoria tritici and Drechslera tritici-repentis affect leaves primarily. (osu.edu)
  • Although plants are susceptible to infection at any stage of development, the spread of Septoria tritici blotch usually decreases in late May as temperatures increase. (osu.edu)
  • As a result, Septoria tritici blotch tends to be more common on lower leaves of plants early in the growing season than on upper leaves. (osu.edu)
  • Allelopathic management of noxious weeds in Helianthus annuus, Zea mays and Triticum aestivum by selected plants. (cabi.org)
  • The highest enhancements of the tolerance to salinity on Triticum aestivum cv. (ssrn.com)