Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
The condition of carrying TRIPLETS simultaneously.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Four individuals derived from four FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Photochemistry is the study of chemical reactions induced by absorption of light, resulting in the promotion of electrons to higher energy levels and subsequent formation of radicals or excited molecules that can undergo various reaction pathways.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Conjoined twins are a rare type of monozygotic twinning where genetically identical individuals form a single organism with varying degrees of physical connection and shared anatomy due to incomplete division during embryonic development.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
The apparent tendency of certain diseases to appear at earlier AGE OF ONSET and with increasing severity in successive generations. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

A spare or an individual? Cloning and the implications of monozygotic twinning. (1/145)

The creation of Dolly, the cloned sheep, raises the scenario of cloning in humans. Neither the case for, nor against, the ethics of cloning in humans is discussed in this paper. Instead, it considers the neglected issue of the likely happiness or otherwise of the resulting children if they are born as monozygotic twins or triplets. The advantages and disadvantages of twinship are discussed in detail, and it is concluded that recognized medical risks, and incompletely understood psychological effects, should be given serious consideration.  (+info)

Early prenatal diagnosis of cord entanglement in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. (2/145)

OBJECTIVES: Cord entanglement is a severe complication in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. Three cases were reviewed to determine how early ultrasound diagnosis might improve counselling and management. METHODS: In two monoamniotic twin and one dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies, cord entanglement was detected between 10 and 18 gestational weeks by color Doppler and pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Pregnancies were followed up on a weekly basis with special observation of fetal behavior and use of color Doppler velocimetry. RESULTS: In Case 1, a monoamniotic twin pregnancy with cord entanglement close to the umbilical insertions was diagnosed at 10 weeks. Longitudinal follow-up showed intrauterine death of both twins at 15 weeks. In Case 2, entanglement of the umbilical cords of two monoamniotic triplets within a dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy was diagnosed at 10 weeks. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until 35 weeks when cord entanglement was confirmed at Cesarean section. All triplets have since developed normally. In Case 3, monoamniotic twins were diagnosed at 18 weeks. Color Doppler detected side-by-side insertion of the umbilical cords and Doppler velocimetry suggested an entanglement at the chorionic plate. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. Cesarean section at 36 weeks confirmed cord entanglement at the chorionic plate. Postnatal computer angiography and morphological examination of the placenta showed the presence of superficial artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses and of deep arteriovenous shunts. The development of the twins was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of cord entanglement is feasible early in gestation. Future protocols are proposed to document the gestational age at detection, the location, and the Doppler flow patterns and to facilitate the assessment of short- and long-term development.  (+info)

Perinatal outcome after in-vitro fertilization-surrogacy. (3/145)

The perinatal outcome of pregnancies (both single and multiple) established after in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-surrogacy was evaluated and compared to the outcome of pregnancies that resulted from standard IVF. Analysis of medical records and a telephone interview with physicians, IVF-surrogates, and commissioning mothers were conducted to assess prenatal follow up and delivery care in several hospitals. 95 IVF-surrogates delivered 128 liveborn (65 singletons, 27 sets of twins and two sets of triplets). The commissioning mothers and the IVF-surrogates average ages were 37.7 +/- 5.0 and 30.4 +/- 4.7 years old respectively. IVF-surrogates carrying twin and triplet gestations delivered substantially earlier than those who gestated singleton pregnancies (36.2 +/- 0.4 versus 35.5 versus 38.7 +/- 0.3 weeks gestation respectively; P < 0.001). Twin newborns were significantly lighter than singleton infants born through IVF-surrogacy (2.7 +/- 0.06 versus 3.5 +/- 0.07 kg; P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight infants rose from 3.3% in the single births to 29.6% (P < 0.01) in the twins and to 33.3% in the triplets born through IVF-surrogacy. The incidence of prematurity was significantly greater in both twins delivered by IVF-surrogates (20.4%) and infertile IVF patients (58%). The occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and bleeding in the third trimester was four to five times lower in the IVF-surrogates, independently of whether they were carrying multiples. The incidence of Caesarean section was 21.3% for singleton gestations, while two times higher in the IVF-surrogates carrying multiples (56.3%). Postpartum complications occurred in 6.3% of patients and the incidence of malformation was similar to those reported for the general population. The results provide general reassurance regarding perinatal outcome to couples who wish to pursue IVF-surrogacy.  (+info)

Comparison of fetal growth in singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies. (4/145)

The objective of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate differences of the fetal growth and fetal organ growth among singleton small for gestational age (S-SGA), singleton appropriate for gestational age (S-AGA), twin (Tw-AGA), and triplet (Tri-AGA) infants. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 35 S-AGA, 18 S-SGA, 52 Tw-AGA and 12 Tri-AGA fetuses. Circumferences of head (HC), abdomen (AC), spleen (SC) and adrenal gland (AGC) and lengths of femur diaphysis (FDL), liver (LL), estimated weight (EWT) were measured every 2 weeks after 15 weeks of menstrual age until delivery. There was no significant difference in predicted HC values in S-AGA, Tw-AGA and Tri-AGA fetuses; these values were lowest in S-SGA fetuses. As the number of fetuses in the uterus increased with advancing menstrual age, the slope of the growth curve for predicted AC value became lower, but there was no significant difference between Tri-AGA and S-SGA fetuses. There was no significant difference in predicted FDL values among Tw-AGA, Tri-AGA and S-SGA fetuses; those values were significantly lower than that in S-AGA fetuses. There was no significant difference in predicted EWT value between Tw-AGA and Tri-AGA fetuses, which were intermediate between those for S-AGA and S-SGA fetuses. There were no significant differences in predicted SC and AGC values between S-AGA and Tw-AGA fetuses, respectively. However, in S-SGA fetuses, the slopes of the growth curve for SC and AGC were lower than those in the other two groups with advancing menstrual age. There were slight differences in predicted LL values between S-AGA, S-SGA and Tw-AGA fetuses. These results suggest that in AGA fetuses, there was a slight difference in growth pattern among singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies.  (+info)

Trisomy 2 in an acardiac twin in a triplet in-vitro fertilization pregnancy. (5/145)

A case is reported of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence in a triamniotic dichorionic triplet pregnancy conceived by in-vitro fertilization which was diagnosed at 25 weeks of gestation by colour Doppler sonography. It highlights the risk of monochorionicity-associated morbidity in multiple pregnancies obtained by assisted conception and stresses the importance of chorionicity determination by early ultrasound examination. Cytogenetic analysis of skin from the acardius showed trisomy 2 in all cells, whereas the karyotype in the monochorionic triplet was normal. This is an example of heterokaryotypic monozygotism where the chromosomal abnormality must have occurred during the early cleavage divisions. Aneuploidy as a possible aetiological factor of TRAP sequence is discussed.  (+info)

Incidence and perinatal outcome of multiple pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared to standard in vitro fertilization. (6/145)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the incidence of multiple pregnancies and their obstetric outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. METHODS: The study group comprised women who delivered twins or triplets after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and standard in vitro fertilization. The incidence and main perinatal outcome of 140 multiple pregnancies resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection or standard in vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 60 multiple pregnancies was obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (3.4 +/- 1.1 embryos/cycle) and 80 after standard in vitro fertilization (3.3 +/- 2.0 embryos/cycle). The incidence of multiple pregnancy, i.e., 22.6 compared to 20.7%, respectively, was calculated. The obstetric outcome of 47 multiple pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection was 39 twin deliveries at between 27 and 37 weeks of gestation (mean, 36 +/- 3.3) and 8 successful triplet deliveries between 26 and 36 weeks of gestation (mean 32.6 +/- 2.4). The outcome after regular in vitro fertilization was similar. No major malformations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the incidence of multiple pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection was similar to that after standard, conventional in vitro fertilization. The perinatal outcome did not differ between both groups.  (+info)

Triplet pregnancy achieved through intracytoplasmic sperm injection with spermatozoa obtained by prostatic massage of a paraplegic patient: case report. (7/145)

Spinal cord-injured men with ejaculation disorders can have children thanks to assisted reproduction techniques. Spermatozoa from these patients are usually obtained through vibratory stimulation, electroejaculation or by puncturing the seminal duct or the testicle. We present the first published case, as far as we are aware, of spermatozoa obtained through prostatic massage of a paraplegic patient. Penile vibratory stimulation was unsuccessful in this patient. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with spermatozoa obtained through electroejaculation was performed at another centre but pregnancy was not achieved. Through prostatic massage, we obtained a total semen volume of 6 ml containing a total count of 12.32x10(6) spermatozoa (6.24x10(6) with tails), 8% of which had motility (graded + and ++); and 16% of which had normal morphology. The spermatozoa obtained were then used to perform IVF with ICSI and a triplet pregnancy was achieved. Prostatic massage appears to be an easy, non-traumatic and risk-free method to obtain spermatozoa from paraplegic patients.  (+info)

Doppler waveform analysis of the intertwin blood flow in acardiac pregnancy: implications for pathogenesis. (8/145)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate interfetal hemodynamics in acardiac twins and the implications for pathogenesis. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SUBJECTS: All acardiac twins involved in this study were identified by B-mode ultrasound at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. METHODS: Color Doppler imaging and, in one case, color power angiography were used to assess umbilical blood flow between acardiac twins and their normal co-twins. Placental anastomoses were examined by pathologists after delivery. RESULTS: In total five sets of acardiac twins and their normal co-twins were enrolled. Autonomous cardiac activity in the form of a contractile pocket was detected in two cases. Analysis of the pattern of the Doppler waveforms in each case enabled us to classify the type of hemodynamics into one of three categories: 'collision-summation', typified by a pattern of cyclic alternations of bidirectional flow; 'twin-pulse', which described the simultaneous recordings of two opposite constant flows with different pulsating rates; and the 'pump in' pattern, which indicated pulsatile flow in the reversed direction towards the acardiac mass. In two cases we detected, we believe for the first time, an artery-to-vein placental anastomosis between the acardiac twin and its co-twin. The nature of the vascular connections were confirmed on pathological follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that acardiac twins may be not only the result of but also the cause of placental vascular anastomoses, which may involve either artery-to-artery or artery-to-vein anastomoses.  (+info)

In medical terms, triplets are a type of multiple pregnancy, where three offsprings (fetuses) develop simultaneously in the uterus of a single pregnant woman. This occurs when a woman releases more than one egg during ovulation, and all three eggs get fertilized by separate sperm cells. Triplets can also occur through the use of assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) where multiple embryos are transferred into the uterus.

Triplet pregnancies carry a higher risk of complications for both the mother and the offsprings compared to singleton or twin pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and developmental issues. As such, they often require close monitoring and specialized care throughout the pregnancy.

Triplet pregnancy refers to a multiple gestation involving three fetuses. It can result from the fertilization of three separate eggs (trizygotic) or the division of one fertilized egg into three identical embryos (monozygotic). Triplet pregnancies are relatively rare and occur in about 1 in 8,000 deliveries. They carry a higher risk of complications for both the mother and the fetuses compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and developmental abnormalities. Close monitoring and specialized care from healthcare professionals are essential throughout the pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for all involved.

Trinucleotide repeats refer to a specific type of DNA sequence expansion where a particular trinucleotide (a sequence made up of three nucleotides) is repeated multiple times. In normal genomic DNA, these repeats are usually present in a relatively stable and consistent range. However, when the number of repeats exceeds a certain threshold, it can result in an unstable genetic variant known as a trinucleotide repeat expansion.

These expansions can occur in various genes and are associated with several neurogenetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The length of the trinucleotide repeat tends to expand further in subsequent generations, which can lead to anticipation – an earlier age of onset and increased severity of symptoms in successive generations.

The most common trinucleotide repeats involve CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) or CTG (cytosine-thymine-guanine) repeats, although other combinations like CGG, GAA, and GCT can also be involved. These repeat expansions can result in altered gene function, protein misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity, ultimately leading to the development of neurodegenerative diseases and other clinical manifestations.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Pregnancy reduction, multifetal refers to the medical procedure used to decrease the number of fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, such as twins or higher-order multiples (triplets, quadruplets, etc.). This is also known as selective reduction or selective termination. The goal of this procedure is to reduce the risk of complications associated with multifetal pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and pregnancy loss.

The procedure typically involves an ultrasound-guided injection of a medication that stops the development of one or more fetuses. This is usually performed during the first trimester of pregnancy. The decision to undergo pregnancy reduction is often based on a variety of factors, including maternal age, medical history, and personal preferences. It's important to note that this procedure carries its own risks, such as infection, bleeding, and loss of the remaining fetuses, so it should be carefully considered and discussed with healthcare providers.

Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion is a genetic mutation where a sequence of three DNA nucleotides is repeated more frequently than what is typically found in the general population. In this type of mutation, the number of repeats can expand or increase from one generation to the next, leading to an increased risk of developing certain genetic disorders.

These disorders are often neurological and include conditions such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The severity of these diseases can be related to the number of repeats present in the affected gene, with a higher number of repeats leading to more severe symptoms or an earlier age of onset.

It is important to note that not all trinucleotide repeat expansions will result in disease, and some people may carry these mutations without ever developing any symptoms. However, if the number of repeats crosses a certain threshold, it can lead to genetic instability and an increased risk of disease development.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Quadruplets are defined in medicine as a type of multiple birth where four offspring are produced from the same pregnancy. This occurs when a single fertilized egg divides into four embryos, or more rarely, when four separate eggs are each fertilized by different sperm. Quadruplets face higher risks of preterm birth and other complications compared to singleton pregnancies.

Friedreich Ataxia is a genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and causes issues with movement. It is characterized by progressive damage to the nerves (neurons) in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, which can lead to problems with muscle coordination, gait, speech, and hearing. The condition is also associated with heart disorders, diabetes, and vision impairment.

Friedreich Ataxia is caused by a mutation in the FXN gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called frataxin. This protein plays a role in the production of energy within cells, particularly in the mitochondria. The mutation in the FXN gene leads to reduced levels of frataxin, which can cause nerve damage and other symptoms associated with Friedreich Ataxia.

The condition typically begins in childhood or early adulthood and progresses over time, often leading to significant disability. There is currently no cure for Friedreich Ataxia, but treatments are available to help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Myotonic dystrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, myotonia (delayed relaxation of muscles after contraction), and other symptoms. It is caused by an expansion of repetitive DNA sequences in the DMPK gene on chromosome 19 (type 1) or the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3 (type 2). These expansions result in abnormal protein production and accumulation, which disrupt muscle function and can also affect other organs such as the heart, eyes, and endocrine system. Myotonic dystrophy is a progressive disease, meaning that symptoms tend to worsen over time. It is typically divided into two types: myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which is more common and severe, and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), which tends to be milder with a later onset of symptoms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "photochemistry" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Photochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical effects of light. It involves the absorption of light by a substance, which can lead to the promotion of an electron to a higher energy state, and subsequently result in various chemical reactions.

In a medical context, photochemical processes might be discussed in relation to certain therapies or diagnostic techniques, such as photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, where a photosensitizing agent is used that reacts with light to produce singlet oxygen or other reactive species to destroy nearby cells. However, it's not a term used to define a specific medical condition or concept in the same way that one might define "inflammation" or "metabolism."

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Medical definitions of "Multiple Birth Offspring" refer to two or more children born to the same mother during one single pregnancy and childbirth. The most common forms of multiple birth offspring are twins (two babies), triplets (three babies), quadruplets (four babies), and so on.

The occurrence of multiple birth offspring is influenced by several factors, including genetics, maternal age, the use of fertility treatments, and other medical conditions. Multiple birth offspring may be identical (monozygotic) or fraternal (dizygotic), depending on whether they developed from a single fertilized egg or from separate eggs.

Multiple birth offspring often face unique health challenges, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and developmental delays, due to the limited space and resources available in the womb. As a result, they may require specialized medical care and attention both during and after pregnancy.

Neurofilament proteins (NFs) are type IV intermediate filament proteins that are specific to neurons. They are the major structural components of the neuronal cytoskeleton and play crucial roles in maintaining the structural integrity, stability, and diameter of axons. Neurofilaments are composed of three subunits: light (NFL), medium (NFM), and heavy (NFH) neurofilament proteins, which differ in their molecular weights. These subunits assemble into heteropolymers to form the neurofilament core, while the C-terminal tails of NFH and NFM extend outward from the core, interacting with other cellular components and participating in various neuronal functions. Increased levels of neurofilament proteins, particularly NFL, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood are considered biomarkers for axonal damage and neurodegeneration in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

A codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies the insertion of a particular amino acid during protein synthesis, or signals the beginning or end of translation. In DNA, these triplets are read during transcription to produce a complementary mRNA molecule, which is then translated into a polypeptide chain during translation. There are 64 possible codons in the standard genetic code, with 61 encoding for specific amino acids and three serving as stop codons that signal the termination of protein synthesis.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

Singlet oxygen, also known as excited oxygen or oxygen triplet state, is a variant of molecular oxygen (O2) with unusual chemical and physical properties. In its ground state, molecular oxygen consists of two atoms with parallel spins, forming a triplet state. However, singlet oxygen has both atoms in a spin-paired configuration, which makes it more reactive than the ground state oxygen.

In biomedical terms, singlet oxygen is often generated during normal cellular metabolism or under pathological conditions such as inflammation and oxidative stress. It can react with various biological molecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to damage and dysfunction of cells and tissues. Therefore, singlet oxygen has been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

It is worth noting that singlet oxygen can also be used in medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), where it is generated by light-activated drugs to selectively destroy cancer cells or bacteria.

Heredodegenerative disorders of the nervous system are a group of inherited conditions that involve progressive degeneration of the nervous system over time. These disorders are caused by genetic mutations that affect the development and function of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, depending on the specific condition and the location and extent of nerve cell damage.

Examples of heredodegenerative disorders of the nervous system include:

1. Huntington's disease: a genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and cognitive decline.
2. Friedreich's ataxia: an inherited disorder that affects the nerves and muscle coordination, causing symptoms such as difficulty walking, poor balance, and speech problems.
3. Spinal muscular atrophy: a genetic disorder that affects the motor neurons in the spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
4. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: a group of inherited disorders that affect the nerves that control sensation and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.
5. Leukodystrophies: a group of genetic disorders that affect the white matter of the brain, leading to symptoms such as motor and cognitive decline, seizures, and vision loss.

Treatment for heredodegenerative disorders of the nervous system typically focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. There is no cure for most of these conditions, but research is ongoing to develop new treatments and therapies that may help slow or stop the progression of nerve cell damage.

Photochemical processes refer to chemical reactions that are initiated or driven by the absorption of light. In these reactions, photons (light particles) interact with molecules, causing electrons in the molecules to become excited and leading to the formation of new chemical bonds or the breaking of existing ones. This results in the creation of different molecular structures or products.

In the context of human health and medicine, photochemical processes can occur both naturally and artificially. For instance, the body uses light-dependent reactions in the process of vision, where light is absorbed by rhodopsin in the retina, triggering a series of chemical events that ultimately lead to visual perception.

Additionally, photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that utilizes photochemical processes to achieve therapeutic effects. In this approach, a photosensitizing agent is administered to a patient, and then exposed to specific wavelengths of light. The light causes the photosensitizer to react with oxygen, generating reactive oxygen species that can destroy targeted cells or tissues, such as cancer cells or bacteria.

Overall, photochemical processes play an essential role in various biological and medical contexts, enabling critical functions like vision and offering promising therapeutic avenues for a range of conditions.

Iron-binding proteins, also known as transferrins, are a type of protein responsible for the transport and storage of iron in the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis by binding free iron ions and preventing them from participating in harmful chemical reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cellular damage.

Transferrin is the primary iron-binding protein found in blood plasma, while lactoferrin is found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva. Both transferrin and lactoferrin have a similar structure, consisting of two lobes that can bind one ferric ion (Fe3+) each. When iron is bound to these proteins, they are called holo-transferrin or holo-lactoferrin; when they are unbound, they are referred to as apo-transferrin or apo-lactoferrin.

Iron-binding proteins have a high affinity for iron and can regulate the amount of free iron available in the body. They help prevent iron overload, which can lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage, as well as iron deficiency, which can result in anemia and other health problems.

In summary, iron-binding proteins are essential for maintaining iron homeostasis by transporting and storing iron ions, preventing them from causing harm to the body's cells.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are specialized structures in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers where the initial chemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. These complexes consist of proteins and pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids) arranged in a way that allows them to absorb light most efficiently. The absorbed light energy is then converted into electrical charges, which are transferred to the reaction centers for further chemical reactions leading to the production of organic compounds and oxygen. The light-harvesting protein complexes play a crucial role in initiating the process of photosynthesis and optimizing its efficiency by capturing and distributing light energy.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Luminescence is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, luminescence refers to the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed energy. This phenomenon can occur in some medical contexts, such as in medical imaging techniques like bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA).

In BLI, genetically modified organisms or cells are used to produce light at specific wavelengths that can be detected and measured. This technique is often used in preclinical research to study biological processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and metastasis.

In CLIA, an enzymatic reaction produces light that is used to detect and quantify the presence of a specific analyte or target molecule. This technique is commonly used in clinical laboratories for the detection of various biomarkers, such as hormones, drugs, and infectious agents.

Therefore, while luminescence is not a medical term per se, it has important applications in medical research and diagnostics.

Quintuplets are defined in medical terms as a rare type of multiple pregnancy where a woman gives birth to five offspring at once. This occurs when one fertilized egg divides into five embryos, a phenomenon known as monozygotic quintuplets. Each baby shares the same genetic material and may be of the same sex. Quintuplets have a higher risk of preterm birth and other complications compared to singleton pregnancies. The survival rate for quintuplets has improved significantly over time due to advancements in medical technology and neonatal care.

Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This protein is essential for normal brain development.

In people with Fragile X syndrome, the FMR1 gene is missing a critical piece of DNA, leading to little or no production of FMRP. As a result, the brain's nerve cells cannot develop and function normally, which can cause a range of developmental problems, including learning disabilities, cognitive impairment, and behavioral and emotional difficulties.

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, affecting about 1 in 4,000 males and 1 in 8,000 females. The symptoms and severity can vary widely, but most people with Fragile X syndrome have some degree of intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. They may also have physical features associated with the condition, such as a long face, large ears, flexible joints, and flat feet.

There is no cure for Fragile X syndrome, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves a combination of educational support, behavioral therapy, speech and language therapy, physical therapy, and medication to manage symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and aggression.

The genetic code is the set of rules that dictates how DNA and RNA sequences are translated into proteins. It consists of a 64-unit "alphabet" formed by all possible combinations of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) in DNA or uracil (U) in RNA. These triplets, also known as codons, specify the addition of specific amino acids during protein synthesis or signal the start or stop of translation. This code is universal across all known organisms, with only a few exceptions.

"Spinacia oleracea" is the scientific name for a plant species, not a medical term. It is commonly known as spinach, a leafy green vegetable. While spinach has many health benefits and is often recommended as part of a balanced diet, it does not have a specific medical definition.

Spinach is rich in various nutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid. It can contribute to overall health, support immune function, and provide antioxidant benefits. However, it is important to note that 'Spinacia oleracea' itself does not have a medical definition.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

An anticodon is a sequence of three ribonucleotides (RNA bases) in a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that pair with a complementary codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during protein synthesis. This interaction occurs within the ribosome during translation, where the genetic code in the mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence in a polypeptide. Specifically, each tRNA carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to its anticodon sequence, allowing for the accurate and systematic addition of amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.

In summary, an anticodon is a crucial component of the translation machinery, facilitating the precise decoding of genetic information and enabling the synthesis of proteins according to the instructions encoded in mRNA molecules.

The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane that surrounds the developing conceptus (the embryo or fetus and its supporting structures). It forms early in pregnancy as an extraembryonic structure, meaning it arises from cells that will not become part of the actual body of the developing organism. The chorion plays a crucial role in pregnancy by contributing to the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the growing embryo/fetus and removes waste products.

One of the most important functions of the chorion is to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that signals the presence of pregnancy and maintains the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for preparing the uterus for implantation and maintaining the pregnancy.

The chorion consists of two layers: an inner cytotrophoblast layer and an outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. The cytotrophoblast layer is made up of individual cells, while the syncytiotrophoblast layer is a multinucleated mass of fused cytotrophoblast cells. These layers interact with the maternal endometrium (the lining of the uterus) to form the placenta and facilitate exchange between the mother and the developing fetus.

In summary, the chorion is a vital extraembryonic structure in pregnancy that contributes to the formation of the placenta, produces hCG, and interacts with the maternal endometrium to support fetal development.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Conjoined twins, also known as Siamese twins, are a rare type of monozygotic (identical) twins who are born physically connected to each other. They develop from a single fertilized egg that fails to fully separate, resulting in various degrees of fusion between their bodies. The point of connection and the extent of sharing body parts can vary greatly between sets of conjoined twins. Some may be connected at the chest, abdomen, or hips, while others may share vital organs such as the heart or brain. Treatment options depend on the type of conjunction and whether separation is possible without causing harm to either twin. Conjoined twins occur in about 1 in every 200,000 live births.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

"Energy transfer" is a general term used in the field of physics and physiology, including medical sciences, to describe the process by which energy is passed from one system, entity, or location to another. In the context of medicine, energy transfer often refers to the ways in which cells and organ systems exchange and utilize various forms of energy for proper functioning and maintenance of life.

In a more specific sense, "energy transfer" may refer to:

1. Bioenergetics: This is the study of energy flow through living organisms, including the conversion, storage, and utilization of energy in biological systems. Key processes include cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and metabolic pathways that transform energy into forms useful for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
2. Electron transfer: In biochemistry, electrons are transferred between molecules during redox reactions, which play a crucial role in energy production and consumption within cells. Examples include the electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria, where high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along a series of protein complexes to generate an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
3. Heat transfer: This is the exchange of thermal energy between systems or objects due to temperature differences. In medicine, heat transfer can be relevant in understanding how body temperature is regulated and maintained, as well as in therapeutic interventions such as hyperthermia or cryotherapy.
4. Mechanical energy transfer: This refers to the transmission of mechanical force or motion from one part of the body to another. For instance, muscle contractions generate forces that are transmitted through tendons and bones to produce movement and maintain posture.
5. Radiation therapy: In oncology, ionizing radiation is used to treat cancer by transferring energy to malignant cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death or impaired function.
6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This non-invasive diagnostic technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to excite hydrogen nuclei in the body, which then release energy as they return to their ground state. The resulting signals are used to generate detailed images of internal structures and tissues.

In summary, "energy transfer" is a broad term that encompasses various processes by which different forms of energy (thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.) are exchanged or transmitted between systems or objects in the context of medicine and healthcare.

Centrioles are small, cylindrical structures found in the centrosome of animal cells. They play a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton and are also involved in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division. A typical centriole is made up of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring-like fashion around a central hub or core.

Centrioles have two main functions:

1. Microtubule Organization: Centrioles serve as the primary site for microtubule nucleation and organization within the cell. They help to form the mitotic spindle during cell division, which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into two identical sets that are distributed equally between the two daughter cells.

2. Formation of Cilia and Flagella: In specialized cells, centrioles can also function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. These hair-like structures protrude from the cell surface and play a role in cell movement and the movement of extracellular fluids over the cell surface.

It is important to note that plants and fungi do not have centrioles, and their cells use alternative mechanisms for microtubule organization and cell division.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is a crucial component of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. It is a multi-subunit protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. Photosystem II plays a vital role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, where it absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to drive the oxidation of water molecules into oxygen, electrons, and protons.

The protein complex consists of several subunits, including the D1 and D2 proteins, which form the reaction center, and several antenna proteins that capture light energy and transfer it to the reaction center. Photosystem II also contains various cofactors, such as pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), redox-active metal ions (manganese and calcium), and quinones, which facilitate the charge separation and electron transfer processes during photosynthesis.

Photosystem II Protein Complex is responsible for the initial charge separation event in photosynthesis, which sets off a series of redox reactions that ultimately lead to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH and the synthesis of ATP, providing energy for the carbon fixation reactions in the Calvin cycle. Additionally, Photosystem II Protein Complex is involved in oxygen evolution, contributing to the Earth's atmosphere's oxygen levels and making it an essential component of global carbon fixation and oxygen production.

Dinoflagellida is a large group of mostly marine planktonic protists, many of which are bioluminescent. Some dinoflagellates are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as "red tides," which can produce toxins that affect marine life and human health.

Dinoflagellates are characterized by two flagella, or whip-like structures, that they use for movement. They have complex cell structures, including a unique structure called the nucleomorph, which is the remnant of a former endosymbiotic event where another eukaryotic cell was engulfed and became part of the dinoflagellate's cell.

Dinoflagellates are important contributors to the marine food chain, serving as both primary producers and consumers. Some species form symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as corals, providing them with nutrients in exchange for protection and other benefits.

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are relatively short, synthetic single-stranded DNA molecules. They typically contain 15 to 30 nucleotides, but can range from 2 to several hundred nucleotides in length. ODNs are often used as tools in molecular biology research for various applications such as:

1. Nucleic acid detection and quantification (e.g., real-time PCR)
2. Gene regulation (antisense, RNA interference)
3. Gene editing (CRISPR-Cas systems)
4. Vaccine development
5. Diagnostic purposes

Due to their specificity and affinity towards complementary DNA or RNA sequences, ODNs can be designed to target a particular gene or sequence of interest. This makes them valuable tools in understanding gene function, regulation, and interaction with other molecules within the cell.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Quantum Theory" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Quantum theory, also known as quantum mechanics, is a branch of physics that deals with phenomena on a very small scale, such as molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles like electrons and photons (which are particles of light).

Quantum theory introduces the concept of wave-particle duality, where particles can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. It also includes principles like superposition, which suggests that a physical system—such as an electron in an atom—can exist in multiple states or places at the same time until it is measured.

While quantum mechanics has had profound implications for our understanding of the physical world, its concepts are not directly applicable to medical definitions or human health. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are a type of cytoskeletal protein that form the intermediate filaments (IFs), which are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, along with microtubules and microfilaments. These proteins have a unique structure, characterized by an alpha-helical rod domain flanked by non-helical head and tail domains.

Intermediate filament proteins are classified into six major types based on their amino acid sequence: Type I (acidic) and Type II (basic) keratins, Type III (desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and peripherin), Type IV (neurofilaments), Type V (lamins), and Type VI (nestin). Each type of IFP has a distinct pattern of expression in different tissues and cell types.

Intermediate filament proteins play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and mechanical strength of cells, providing resilience to mechanical stress, and regulating various cellular processes such as cell division, migration, and signal transduction. Mutations in IFP genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic skin fragility disorders.

Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a protein encoded by the FMR1 gene in humans. It is an RNA-binding protein that plays a critical role in regulating the translation and stability of mRNAs, particularly those involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal development.

Mutations in the FMR1 gene, leading to the absence or reduction of FMRP, have been associated with Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and the leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In FXS, the lack of FMRP leads to an overproduction of proteins at synapses, resulting in altered neuronal connectivity and dysfunctional synaptic plasticity.

FMRP is widely expressed in various tissues, but it has a particularly high expression level in the brain, where it regulates the translation of mRNAs involved in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. FMRP also interacts with several other proteins involved in neuronal development and function, such as ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules.

Overall, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is a crucial regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal development, and its dysfunction has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Fragile X syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Erythrosine is a type of food dye that is classified as a synthetic organic chemical compound. Its chemical formula is C~20~H~6~Br~4~O~5~. Erythrosine is a form of red food coloring that is commonly used in a variety of foods and beverages, such as candies, popsicles, and maraschino cherries. It is also used in some medications and cosmetics to provide a reddish or pinkish color.

Erythrosine belongs to a class of compounds called xanthenes, which are known for their ability to fluoresce when exposed to light. This property has led to the use of erythrosine as a marker in biological research and as a forensic tool for identifying fingerprints.

Like other food dyes, erythrosine is subject to regulation by government agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure its safe use in food products. However, some studies have suggested that certain food dyes, including erythrosine, may be associated with adverse health effects such as hyperactivity in children. As a result, some organizations have called for further research on the safety of these substances and for greater restrictions on their use in food.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

Genetic anticipation is a phenomenon observed in certain genetic disorders where the severity and/or age of onset of the disease tend to worsen in successive generations. This occurs due to an expansion of triplet repeat sequences (sequences of three consecutive DNA base pairs) in the affected gene, which can lead to an increased production of abnormal proteins associated with the disorder. The expanded repeats are more likely to be inherited when the parent who carries them is a female. Examples of genetic disorders that exhibit anticipation include Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.

Photosynthetic Reaction Center (RC) Complex Proteins are specialized protein-pigment structures that play a crucial role in the primary process of light-driven electron transport during photosynthesis. They are present in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants.

The Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are composed of two major components: the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and the reaction center (RC). The LHC contains antenna pigments like chlorophylls and carotenoids that absorb sunlight and transfer the excitation energy to the RC. The RC is a multi-subunit protein complex containing cofactors such as bacteriochlorophyll, pheophytin, quinones, and iron-sulfur clusters.

When a photon of light is absorbed by the antenna pigments in the LHC, the energy is transferred to the RC, where it initiates a charge separation event. This results in the transfer of an electron from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, creating a flow of electrical charge and generating a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is then used to synthesize ATP and reduce NADP+, which are essential for carbon fixation and other metabolic processes in the cell.

In summary, Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are specialized protein structures involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis, ultimately driving the synthesis of ATP and NADPH for use in carbon fixation and other metabolic processes.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Photolysis is a term used in medical and scientific contexts to describe a chemical reaction that is initiated by the absorption of light or photons. In this process, a molecule absorbs a photon, which provides sufficient energy to break a bond within the molecule, leading to the formation of two or more smaller molecules or radicals. This phenomenon is particularly relevant in fields such as pharmacology and toxicology, where photolysis can alter the chemical structure and biological activity of drugs and other substances upon exposure to light.

Peptide chain initiation in translational terms refers to the process by which the synthesis of a protein begins on a ribosome. This is the first step in translation, where the small ribosomal subunit binds to an mRNA molecule at the start codon (usually AUG), bringing with it the initiator tRNA charged with a specific amino acid (often N-formylmethionine in prokaryotes or methionine in eukaryotes). The large ribosomal subunit then joins this complex, forming a functional initiation complex. This marks the beginning of the elongation phase, where subsequent amino acids are added to the growing peptide chain until termination is reached.

Inborn genetic diseases, also known as inherited genetic disorders, are conditions caused by abnormalities in an individual's DNA that are present at conception. These abnormalities can include mutations, deletions, or rearrangements of genes or chromosomes. In many cases, these genetic changes are inherited from one or both parents and may be passed down through families.

Inborn genetic diseases can affect any part of the body and can cause a wide range of symptoms, which can vary in severity depending on the specific disorder. Some genetic disorders are caused by mutations in a single gene, while others are caused by changes in multiple genes or chromosomes. In some cases, environmental factors may also contribute to the development of these conditions.

Examples of inborn genetic diseases include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and Down syndrome. These conditions can have significant impacts on an individual's health and quality of life, and many require ongoing medical management and treatment. In some cases, genetic counseling and testing may be recommended for individuals with a family history of a particular genetic disorder to help them make informed decisions about their reproductive options.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

An electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e-, with a negative electric charge. Electrons are fundamental components of atoms and are responsible for the chemical bonding between atoms to form molecules. They are located in an atom's electron cloud, which is the outermost region of an atom and contains negatively charged electrons that surround the positively charged nucleus.

Electrons have a mass that is much smaller than that of protons or neutrons, making them virtually weightless on the atomic scale. They are also known to exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties, which is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. Electrons play a crucial role in various physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, and chemical reactions.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Fluorescence spectrometry is a type of analytical technique used to investigate the fluorescent properties of a sample. It involves the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then re-emits it at a longer wavelength. This process, known as fluorescence, occurs because the absorbed energy excites electrons in the molecules of the substance to higher energy states, and when these electrons return to their ground state, they release the excess energy as light.

Fluorescence spectrometry typically measures the emission spectrum of a sample, which is a plot of the intensity of emitted light versus the wavelength of emission. This technique can be used to identify and quantify the presence of specific fluorescent molecules in a sample, as well as to study their photophysical properties.

Fluorescence spectrometry has many applications in fields such as biochemistry, environmental science, and materials science. For example, it can be used to detect and measure the concentration of pollutants in water samples, to analyze the composition of complex biological mixtures, or to study the properties of fluorescent nanomaterials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "logic" is a term that is more commonly used in philosophy, mathematics, and computer science rather than in medicine. It refers to the principles of valid reasoning and argument. In the context of medicine, healthcare professionals may use logical thinking and reasoning in making diagnoses, evaluating treatment options, and making decisions about patient care. However, there isn't a specific medical definition for "logic" itself.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Twin pregnancy refers to a type of multiple pregnancy where a woman is carrying two fetuses simultaneously. There are two types of twin pregnancies: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monoygotic twins occur when a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits and develops into two separate embryos, resulting in identical twins who share the same genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to non-identical twins who have their own unique genetic material.

Twin pregnancies are associated with higher risks of complications compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. Close monitoring by healthcare providers is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the twins.

Luminescent measurements refer to the quantitative assessment of the emission of light from a substance that has been excited, typically through some form of energy input such as electrical energy or radiation. In the context of medical diagnostics and research, luminescent measurements can be used in various applications, including bioluminescence imaging, which is used to study biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

Bioluminescence occurs when a chemical reaction produces light within a living organism, often through the action of enzymes such as luciferase. By introducing a luciferase gene into cells or organisms, researchers can use bioluminescent measurements to track cellular processes and monitor gene expression in real time.

Luminescent measurements may also be used in medical research to study the properties of materials used in medical devices, such as LEDs or optical fibers, or to develop new diagnostic tools based on light-emitting nanoparticles or other luminescent materials.

In summary, luminescent measurements are a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing a non-invasive way to study biological processes and develop new technologies for disease detection and treatment.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a type of cytoskeletal filament found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, including animal cells. They are called "intermediate" because they are smaller in diameter than microfilaments and larger than microtubules, two other types of cytoskeletal structures.

Intermediate filaments are composed of fibrous proteins that form long, unbranched, and flexible filaments. These filaments provide structural support to the cell and help maintain its shape. They also play a role in cell-to-cell adhesion, intracellular transport, and protection against mechanical stress.

Intermediate filaments are classified into six types based on their protein composition: Type I (acidic keratins), Type II (neutral/basic keratins), Type III (vimentin, desmin, peripherin), Type IV (neurofilaments), Type V (lamins), and Type VI (nestin). Each type of intermediate filament has a specific function and is expressed in different cell types. For example, Type I and II keratins are found in epithelial cells, while vimentin is expressed in mesenchymal cells.

Overall, intermediate filaments play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues, and their dysfunction has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic disorders.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Placentation is the process by which the placenta, an organ that provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products, is formed and develops during pregnancy. It involves the attachment of the fertilized egg (embryo) to the uterine wall and the development of specialized structures that facilitate the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste between the mother and the fetus.

In humans, placentation begins when the embryo implants into the endometrium, or the lining of the uterus, about 6-10 days after fertilization. The outer layer of the embryo, called the trophoblast, invades the endometrial tissue and forms a structure called the placenta.

The placenta consists of both maternal and fetal tissues. The fetal portion of the placenta is derived from the chorionic villi, which are finger-like projections that develop on the surface of the embryo and increase the surface area for exchange. The maternal portion of the placenta is made up of modified endometrial tissue called decidua.

The placenta grows and develops throughout pregnancy, providing a vital connection between the mother and fetus. Proper placentation is essential for a healthy pregnancy and fetal development. Abnormalities in placentation can lead to complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction.

A zygote is the initial cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg, also known as an oocyte. This occurs in the process of human reproduction and marks the beginning of a new genetic identity, containing 46 chromosomes - 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg. The zygote starts the journey of cell division and growth, eventually developing into a blastocyst, then an embryo, and finally a fetus over the course of pregnancy.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

"Twin Triplets (1935)". "Twin Triplets (1935) - IMDb". IMDb. Twin Triplets at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... Twin Triplets is a 1935 American comedy short released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, produced by Hal Roach and directed by James ...
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The Triplets' legacy was retired, and the Triple-A Sounds carried on the history of the preceding Double-A team. Bert Blyleven ... "Evansville Triplets" was selected from over 3,000 entries. The fitting name refers to the team playing at the Triple-A level ... The Triplets had an overall postseason record of 16-8 (.667). Due to the 1969 Major League Baseball expansion, there was a need ... The Triplets enjoyed their greatest success as the top minor league affiliate of the Detroit Tigers from 1974 to 1984. The team ...
The Dunn triplets, Zoe, Sophie and Emma (born April 30, 2000), are the world's only known deafblind triplets. They are all deaf ... The identical triplets are the world's only known deafblind triplets. They were born on April 30, 2000, at 24 weeks. Their ... The triplets have been featured on Dr. Phil twice and have been the focus of two documentaries: Through Your Eyes (2006) and ... The triplets live in the Austin area with their mother, Liz, stepfather, Phillip Norris, and older sister Sarah. All three are ...
The Levesque triplets are identical triplets named Andrea, Arianna and Athena Levesque. They are models, TV personalities and ... These Triplets Compete On A Red Hot Date , May the Best Twin Win , MTV, retrieved 2019-12-24 "3 Ways to Wear a Turtleneck". www ... The triplets modeled gowns styled by Hollywood stylists for E! Live from the Red Carpet Countdown to the Oscars in 2018. The ... The triplets modeled looks styled by Hayley Hasselhoff on Strahan, Sara and Keke in December 2019. The sisters were cast as " ...
The Triplets played their home games at Johnson Field in nearby Johnson City, New York until the team disbanded in 1968; the ... The Triplets played in the former New York-Pennsylvania League from 1923 to 1937, the Eastern League from 1938 to 1963 and 1967 ... The Triplets moved to Manchester, New Hampshire after the 1968 season and became the Manchester Yankees, and the city was ... The Binghamton Triplets were a minor league baseball team based in Binghamton, New York between 1923 and 1963. The franchise ...
The Binghamton Triplets was a short-lived professional basketball team in the Continental Basketball Association. It began as ... For many years, there was also a minor league baseball team known as the Binghamton Triplets. v t e (Continental Basketball ...
The Triplets are a pop rock trio that crossed over musical boundaries from the U.S through Latin America. Composed of the ... "Discography The Triplets". australian-charts.com. Retrieved October 23, 2022. Official website (Articles with short description ... Triplets, Latin pop music groups, Women in Latin music). ... triplets Diana, Sylvia, and Vicky Villegas (all born April 18th ...
... (German: Drillinge an Bord) is a 1959 West German comedy film directed by Hans Müller and starring Heinz ... Triplets on Board at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles ...
... Anthology (1999) Elena Del Rubio; Member of Kitschy Singing Triplets "Del Rubio Triplets". ... They came up with their stage name The Del Rubio Triplets after their mother died from a stroke in 1965. The triplets were ... Three Gals, Three Guitars, One Birthday: the Del Rubio Triplets Shimmy into the Spotlight 3 for the Show : Del Rubio Triplets-- ... "Last member of San Pedro's Del Rubio Triplets dies at 89". Daily Breeze. Retrieved 16 June 2018. The Del Rubio Triplets at IMDb ...
"The Triplets Bridges". Pedelta. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. (Articles with short description, Short description ... In 2007, the Municipal Government of La Paz awarded the design and construction of The Triplets Bridge Project to the JV " ... Sobrino, Juan (September 2011). "Building Triplets". Roads and Bridges Magazine. "Video". "Choqueyapu Bridge". "Kantutani ... and a single plane of stays to allow a more transparent view The Triplets have similar structural pattern and basic idea, but ...
The Triplets hosted the Medford A's in the championship game on Labor Day. In a game with 34 hits, the Triplets had eighteen ... Stats Crew Tri-Cities Triplets 1984 Baseball Reference Triplets 1984 Minor League Geek City Clusters 46°16′34″N 119°17′10″W ... The Triplets played at the Richland Bomber Bowl, now known as Fran Rish Stadium, located at 1350 Lee Boulevard in Richland. The ... The Triplets were members of the Class A short-season Northwest League for four seasons, from 1983 through 1986. After an eight ...
... were three English child actors who starred in several films in Hollywood and in England during the 1920s ... While the three girls were sisters, they were not actually triplets. Angella Mawby was born on 20 August 1921 and her younger ... The close resemblance of the three sisters, however, caused Hollywood to market them as triplets. The first film the girls ... Paul Vitello (21 September 2012). "Claudine Mawby Walker Dies at 90; Hollywood 'Triplet'". The New York Times. Rowland, David ( ...
The Levesque Triplets are identical triplet models who have walked together in various shows during New York Fashion Week and ... The Armstrong triplets of Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom, Lil, Helen, and Kate (born c. 1986), first triplets to have all been ... This is a list of notable triplets. One in about 8,100 natural pregnancies results in triplets. The mythological Irish Findemna ... He was the youngest of triplets born to lawyer and advocate Mahala Ashley Dickerson. The Kosanovic triplets, identical males ( ...
... were a pop music group made up of triplets Lucille, Jeanne and Maureen Kane. They are perhaps best known for ... In 1948, when only a few weeks old, the triplets were featured in an advert in Life magazine. Their singing career began after ... "Biography". The Kane Triplets. Archived from the original on 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2010-05-09. Payne, Douglas (2010-04-01). " ... Articles with hCards, American pop music groups, Triplets, American musical trios, Sibling musical trios). ...
"Haden Triplets". Haden Triplets. Official website (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... The Haden Triplets, Petra, Tanya, and Rachel (born October 11, 1971 in New York City), are musicians who have performed ... The triplets, separately and together, have contributed to recordings and performances by the Foo Fighters, Queens of the Stone ... "The Haden Triplets Spin a Sisterly Folk Spell - Premiere". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. "That ...
Mountains portal Geography of the North Cascades "The Triplets, Washington". Peakbagger.com. "Triplets, The - 7,260' WA". ... The Triplets is a 7,240+ ft (2,210+ m) summit located in Skagit County of Washington state. This breccia triple pinnacle is ... The Triplets is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. Most weather fronts originate in the ... The Triplets is situated above Cascade Pass on the shared border of North Cascades National Park and Glacier Peak Wilderness. ...
The Triplets is an ice-free three-pointed hill rising to 160 m at the southwest extremity of Alfatar Peninsula, Robert Island ... The Triplets were charted and descriptively named by Discovery Investigations personnel in 1935. Aconcagua Point was named by ...
... at IMDb The Triplets of Belleville at AllMovie The Triplets of Belleville at Box Office Mojo The ... The Triplets take Souza into their apartment, and after a peculiar dinner, they allow her to participate as a musician in one ... "The Triplets of Belleville". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014. "Best Indie ... The Triplets of Belleville (French: Les Triplettes de Belleville) is a 2003 animated comedy film written and directed by ...
In June of that year, the team moved to the town of Abingdon, Virginia, to become the Abingdon Triplets, folding at the end of ... The Class D Leaksville-Draper-Spray Triplets was a Minor League Baseball team who played in three different leagues between the ... The Triplets played from 1934 through 1942 in the Bi-State League, winning the Championship Title in 1he 1935 and 1941 seasons ...
... is a 2015 Nigerian serial classic comedy film, written, produced and directed by Bright Wonder Obasi. ... "Diary of the Triplets: Survival (TBD) - nlist , Nollywood, Nigerian Movies & Casting". nlist.ng. Retrieved 3 January 2022. ... "Kalu Ikeagwu & Nigerian OAPs star in new comedy movie, Diary of the Triplets". Linda Ikeji's Blog. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 3 ... nollywoodreinvented (23 June 2015). "COMING SOON: Diary of the Triplets". Nollywood Reinvented. Retrieved 3 January 2022. " ...
... as in triplet oxygen, or triplet state in general Tuple of length 3 in mathematics Photography triplet, or paint triplet ... with three seats Triplets, the multiple birth of three children Triplet Lakes, a group of lakes in Minnesota The Triplets, a ... Look up triplet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A triplet is a set of three items. It may refer to: A series of three ... Spanish children's book The Triplets (band), a Latin pop group Binghamton Triplets, a minor league baseball team A triplet, a ...
The three lenses may be cemented together, as in the Steinheil triplet or the Hastings triplet. Or a triplet may be designed ... A triplet lens is a compound lens consisting of three single lenses. The triplet design is the simplest to give the required ... Jewellers' loupes typically use a triplet lens. Doublet (lens) Achromatic lens Apochromatic lens The five Seidel aberrations ... with three spaced glasses, as in the Cooke triplet. The former has the advantage of higher optical throughput due to fewer air- ...
Triplets are usually framed together or, in galleries, mounted near each other on the wall. Triplets are very often used on ... Some triplets (called clone triplets) are the same image repeated with slight alterations (for example toned to different ... For vertical triplet, older image is usually on the top and more recent on bottom. When photos are not related in time, then ... A photography or paint triplet is set of three photos or paints usually related to one event or developing a theme or story. ...
In quantum mechanics, a triplet state, or spin triplet, is the quantum state of an object such as an electron, atom, or ... A triplet state occurs in cases where the spins of two unpaired electrons, each having spin s = 1/2, align to give S = 1, in ... At room temperature, O2 exists in a triplet state, which can only undergo a chemical reaction by making the forbidden ... triplet, spin 1) that is nothing more than the standard representation of SO(3) on R 3 {\displaystyle R^{3}} . Thus the "three ...
... (Arp 103) is a group of three galaxies visible in the constellation Hercules. IC 3481 at 12h 32m, +11° 24' ( ... Wild's Triplet Robert's Quartet Stephan's Quintet NGC 7331 Group (also known as the Deer Lick Group, about half a degree ... "Zwicky's Triplet". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2020-01-08. SKY CATALOGUE 2000.0, Volume 2 ... is sometimes called Zwicky's Triplet, but this name is more often applied to the system at 16h 49m, +45° 30' (2000.0) in ...
The Cooke triplet consists of three separated lenses positioned at the finite distance. It is often considered that the triplet ... who named the product the Cooke triplet.: 105 Starting from the early 1900s, the Cooke triplet was adopted by other major ... Triotar Cooke triplet and derivative design diagrams Cooke triplet (Taylor, 1893) Voigtländer Heliar (Harting, 1900) ... The Cooke triplet is a photographic lens designed and patented in 1893 by Dennis Taylor who was employed as chief engineer by T ...
... "Wild's Triplet". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 13 October 2018. v t e (Articles needing additional references ... Wild's Triplet, also known as Arp 248, is a group of three small, interacting spiral galaxies. The galaxies (PGC 36723, PGC ... The triplet is named after the Swiss astronomer Paul Wild (1925-2014), who studied the trio in the early 1950s. Zwicky's ... "NAME Wild's Triplet". Retrieved 13 October 2018. Plotner, Tammy (2007). The Night Sky Companion: A Yearly Guide to Sky-Watching ...
Cheng, Johnny T. "Triplet Falls". World of Waterfalls. Retrieved 17 November 2014. "Triplet Falls". Parks Victoria. Retrieved ... The Triplet Falls are waterfalls located in the Great Otway National Park of Victoria, in eastern Australia, 200 km ( ... Triplet Falls are nestled amongst the ancient forests of Mountain Ash and Myrtle Beech. Australia portal Environment portal ... List of waterfalls of Victoria "Triplet Falls (entry 122690)". VICNAMES. Government of Victoria. Retrieved 17 November 2014. ...
"Twin Triplets (1935)". "Twin Triplets (1935) - IMDb". IMDb. Twin Triplets at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... Twin Triplets is a 1935 American comedy short released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, produced by Hal Roach and directed by James ...
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Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) Also in Spanish ... Being Pregnant with Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples (March of Dimes Foundation) Also in Spanish ... Find health information in languages other than English on Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births ...
... Quarterback Dan Orlovsky has had a December to remember. Orlovsky earned his first starting ...
Hunter and Emma Sabatula are a set of triplets that all earned their Eagle Scout rank in 2023. ... WBOY) - Pennsylvania triplets Hannah, Hunter and Emma Sabatula all earned their Eagle Scout rank this year, the highest award ... Hannah Sabatula (L), Hunter Sabatula (M) and Emma Sabatula (R) are a set of triplets that all earned their Eagle Scout rank in ...
... are my rankings of the NFLs best triplets. For the uninitiated, the great 90s Cowboys were headlined by QB Troy Aikman, RB ... Emmitt Smith and WR Michael Irvin -- a.k.a. The Triplets. A couple years back, I was inspired to c ... Triplets rankings: Cowboys, Packers boast top groups Footballs back! And so, too, are my rankings of the NFLs best triplets. ... "The Triplets." A couple years back, I was inspired to concoct a current Triplets pecking order. Now, in my fifth edition, Im ...
Although a decided departure from her plays, Deadly Triplets: A Theatre Mystery and Journal is the logical extension of ... "Though markedly different from her plays, Adrienne Kennedys mystery story Deadly Triplets gives us insights into the working ... Though markedly different from her plays, Adrienne Kennedys mystery story Deadly Triplets gives us insights into the working ...
... - LETS TRIP: THE VERSUS TOUR live at the Gothic Theatre Ages: All Ages ...
Hunter and Emma Sabatula are a set of triplets that all earned their Eagle Scout rank in 2023. ... WBOY) - Pennsylvania triplets Hannah, Hunter and Emma Sabatula all earned their Eagle Scout rank this year, the highest award ... Hannah Sabatula (L), Hunter Sabatula (M) and Emma Sabatula (R) are a set of triplets that all earned their Eagle Scout rank in ...
Our Duckling Planter is a delightful accent for your home, indoors or out. A trio of ducklings with sweet faces and amazing detail are crafted of weather-safe resin carved to look like stone. Plop a potted plant into it, or plant directly into the weather-safe resin planter with drainage hole. The duck planter looks great in the garden, on a porch or indoors; would even be adorable in a childs room. A whimsical accent and wonderful gift. Fully detailed and finished front and back. Plants not included.
"The Triplets of Belleville". Dear Friedrich --. Although Id been looking forward to the animated movie The Triplets of ... "Triplets" is a charmingly, and genuinely, experimental movie. But my interest flagged here and there; I even dozed off a few ... "Triplets." If you havent seen it yet, dont miss renting it on DVD. Ill be eager to hear how you react. ...
Rancher Hutch Dawson is desperate for a nanny for his six-month-old triplets. Then, Savannah...,/em,,/strong,,/b,,/i, ... Rancher Hutch Dawson is desperate for a nanny for his six-month-old triplets. Then, Savannah Walsh comes knocking-with a ...
Given the correlations among samples, we define a novel data structure termed the Triplet, each of which reflects a high ... Jufeng Yang,,Jie Liang,,Kai Wang,,Yong-Liang Yang,,Ming-Ming Cheng Automatic Model Selection in Subspace Clustering via Triplet ... Jufeng Yang,,Jie Liang,,Kai Wang,,Yong-Liang Yang,,Ming-Ming Cheng Automatic Model Selection in Subspace Clustering via Triplet ... We simultaneously optimize a fusion reward based on the similarities between triplets and clusters to generate the final ...
David Suárez gets stuck in the middle of a prank war when the neighborhood twins and triplets compete to rule the school. This ... Triplets #1: Back-to-School Blitz. Wed love you to buy this book, and hope you find this page convenient in locating a place ... David Suárez gets stuck in the middle of a prank war when the neighborhood twins and triplets compete to rule the school. This ... Now the twins and triplets are battling for control of the playground and David is stuck in the middle. Can he end the prank ...
At 46, the mom of four got pregnant naturally ... and had triplets. ... Tiberius described her triplets as "miracles.". "This was so statistically unlikely that theres no way to explain it other ... Identical triplets share their fitness and social justice missions. April 13, 202104:19. ... At 46, woman gives birth to identical triplets: 1 in 20 billion odds Theres no way to explain it other than a miracle. ...
Shivers triplets, attempted murder, armed robbery, Michigan * ‹ previous Buster Trio Of 13-Year-Old Boys Busted For Knifepoint ... Michigan Triplets, 21, Are Now All Behind Bars On Felony Charges *Comments() * Share ...
i,Case,/i,. Here we present a case of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy diagnosed at 13 of weeks gestation. With the aid ... They chose selective fetocide of the conjoined twins and went on to deliver the remaining triplet at term. ,i,Conclusion,/i,. ... This case represents to our knowledge the only MRI images of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy and demonstrates how 3D ... The CRL for triplet B was 62.2 mm, and the nuchal translucency was measured at 3.9 mm. The CRL for triplet C was 62.5 mm, and a ...
Then the time came to pop all of the balloons, with Flom holding one, his wife holding another, and the triplets grandmother ... he recalled of the moment the couple learned they were expecting triplets. He mentioned the nurse had called in the doctor and ... as they took the opportunity to surprise their loved ones with the news that they are expecting triplets. ... asked if the couple had done in vitro fertilisation to conceive because of how rare it is to naturally conceive triplets. ...
Silje Andersen-Cooke tells Mamamia what its like having triplets. She shares the financial and emotional strain felt by ... Siljes triplets are now a year old. Shes returned to work two days a week, and also serves as a director of the Australian ... Siljes triplets were born at 34 weeks and 5 days, and they spent 19 days in the neonatal intensive care unit. Having taken ... Her mind went first to her body (how would it cope?), then to the high-risk nature of a triplet pregnancy (should she even get ...
Purple Gentian Triplet Premium Giclee Print by Albert Koetsier. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs ...
Then in November, the 42-year-old mom was told she was having triplets. The fourth baby managed to keep her existence a secret ...
Since he is the firstborn triplet, lets start with Kevin. With the admittedly unfortunate nickname of KooKooBear, (often ...
HOME / DICTIONARY / Triplet Triplet The sign for triplets starts by holding three fingers up on our dominant hand (thumb, index ... We use the sign for triplets when our babies are part of a set of triplets, or we have a nearby friend who has triplets. ... The concept of triplets is difficult to teach directly from a flash card, so this should only be included contextually. ...
Gr 1-3-Eight-year-old triplets Emmy, Clare, and Giselle are planning a surprise to celebrate the day their veterinarian father ...
Trippin Out On Triplets Augie Meyers. 11/16/2010. $14.99- Buy Reviews. Average Rating. 0 Total Reviews: 0 Most Recent: Read ...
A UK mom has beaten odds of one in 160,000 by giving birth to naturally conceived identical triplet boys. ... Emma Spooner • identical triplets • Multiple birth • Parenting • pregnancy UK Mom Welcomes Identical Triplets. May 12, 2009 ... Non-identical triplets occur when three separate eggs are fertilized.. The Multiple Births Foundation estimates that triplets ... Even though the triplets arrived at 34 weeks gestation, the hearty three only needed to stay in hospital for eight days before ...
NLE Choppa Watches Nick Young & Joe Johnson FACE OFF At The Big 3! Triplets vs Enemies! Arek Kissoyan August 3, 2021 No ... View More NLE Choppa Watches Nick Young & Joe Johnson FACE OFF At The Big 3! Triplets vs Enemies!. ... Joe Johnson and the Triplets faced off against Nick Young, Isaiah Austin and The Enemies at the Big… ...
Playing quarter note triplets - dividing two beats into three equal parts - is tricky. David demonstrates how you can do it ... For triplets, I use the syllables "one-trip-let, two-trip-let" to get even spacing. Then, since a quarter note is the same as ... ONE-trip-LET, two-TRIP-let, THREE-trip-LET, four-TRIP-let. ... Quarter Note Triplets. David Hodge Music 101 Not all triplets ... The most important part of this is to make the triplet a triplet, spreading the three notes evenly across the beat, and not ...
Andrea and her two brothers, Ayrion and Adrion, all have very unique personalities, but unlike many triplets, they all had the ... With the triplets joining, that makes five Sutton kids to enlist in the Navy. ... WAVY) - Three Western Branch siblings have enlisted in the Navy, and the best part? Theyre triplets. ... Andrea and Adrion Sutton are the first black triplets to join the navy together. ...
... and triplets Christmas ornaments too. Check out the latest 2019 designs in baby ornaments for twins and trips. ... Twins & Triplets , Baby Boy , Baby Either Gender , Baby Girl , Radko Baby , Adoption. Triplets & Twins Ornaments. personalized ... Theres no bigger and special surprise than twins or triplets on the way. For 2020, weve gone the extra mile to look for and ... create twins ornaments and triplets ornaments with personalized gifts giving in mind. Choose from resin and blown glass ...
  • Most experts put the odds of identical triplets at one in 200 million births," Tiberius said. (today.com)
  • The Multiple Births Foundation estimates that triplets occur once in every 10,000 naturally conceived births, but the odds of identical triplets are 150,000 to 160,000. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • This report presents data from U.S. birth certificates on the The number and rate of twin and triplet and other higher order numbers and rates of twin and triplet and other higher order multiple multiple births have climbed at an unprecedented pace over the last births for 1980-97. (cdc.gov)
  • Between 1980 and 1997, the number of live births in rose 52 percent (from 68,339 to 104,137) and triplet and other higher twin deliveries rose 52 percent and the number of live births in triplet order multiple births (heretofore referred to as ``triplet/+'') climbed and other higher order multiple deliveries soared 404 percent. (cdc.gov)
  • The extraordinary rise in multiple births resulted in a shift in age-specific patterns, and the highest twin and triplet/+ birth rates now are for women 45-49 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The rate of triplet and other higher-order multiple births increased substantially, from 37 per 100,000 live births in 1980 to 194 in 1998, a trend largely attributable to increased usage of fertility therapies. (cdc.gov)
  • During 1999--2003, the rate of triplet and higher-order multiple births has remained stable. (cdc.gov)
  • The Triplets of Belleville Cine-Concert is a unique cinematic and musical experience involving an 8-piece orchestra playing, singing, dancing and performing live in sync to the Oscar-nominated animation feature The Triplets of Belleville on Friday, October 28, at 7:30 p.m. at the Redfern Arts Center at Keene State College. (keene.edu)
  • To mark the tenth anniversary of The Triplets of Belleville , Montreal jazz composer and guitarist Benoît Charest decided to present a live soundtrack, played in sync with the film which has no actual dialogue with the story told entirely through sound effects, music and visual action. (keene.edu)
  • The French/Quebec animated film, The Triplets of Belleville , was a resounding success with nominations at the Academy Awards, the Canadian Genies, and the French Césars. (keene.edu)
  • The New York Times said that The Triplets of Belleville Cine-Concert is "a tour de force of ink-washed, cross-hatched mischief. (keene.edu)
  • So come along with us to the streets of Paris in the 1930s and hear the sounds of Le Jazz Hot, when The Triplets of Belleville fills the Redfern's big screen with composer Benoit Charest leading the Le Terrible Orchestre de Belleville on Friday, October 28. (keene.edu)
  • There are several free activities surrounding The Triplets of Belleville Cine-Concert, all of which take place on Friday, October 28, on the Keene State campus. (keene.edu)
  • Tickets to The Triplets of Belleville Cine-Concert range from $32 to $18 depending on seating. (keene.edu)
  • The Triplets of Belleville Cine-Concert is sponsored by The Peak Radio. (keene.edu)
  • Classical music critic Lloyd Schwartz reviews music from the film The Triplets of Belleville, now on DVD. (hawaiipublicradio.org)
  • Raising twins or triplets costs more in Australia. (mamamia.com.au)
  • There's no bigger and special surprise than twins or triplets on the way. (russellrhodes.com)
  • Most ED triplets feature just one ED glass element, but the beautifully crafted EON 104mm ED-X2 apochromatic refractor stands above ordinary triplets by having one element of FPL-53 ED glass and one element of FPL-51 ED glass in its objective lens assembly. (telescope.com)
  • Versatile triplet apochromatic refractor telescope featuring ED (extra-low dispersion) glass for exceptional resolution devoid of chromatic aberration. (binoculars.com)
  • For higher-order multiples, like triplets and quadruplets, another $10,000-$15,000 would be paid for each additional child. (mamamia.com.au)
  • Here we present a case of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy diagnosed at 13 of weeks gestation. (hindawi.com)
  • This case represents to our knowledge the only MRI images of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy and demonstrates how 3D imaging can be used to better counsel patients about management options. (hindawi.com)
  • Conjoined twins within a triplet pregnancy are very rare and a recent review suggested the incidence is less than one in a million deliveries [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this report is to describe the presentation and management of a dichorionic triplet pregnancy complicated by conjoined twins. (hindawi.com)
  • MRI images of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • A review published in 2003 reported thirteen cases of conjoined twins within a triplet pregnancy [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • then to the high-risk nature of a triplet pregnancy (should she even get attached to the idea of three babies? (mamamia.com.au)
  • This guideline covers the care that should be offered to women with a twin or triplet pregnancy in addition to the routine care that is offered to all women during pregnancy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here's one of our staff-favorite telescopes that is especially popular with astrophotography enthusiasts, the 80mm apochromatic triplet Orion ED80T CF refractor telescope. (binoculars.com)
  • This scan identified a triplet gestation complicated by a set of conjoined twins. (hindawi.com)
  • The patient went on to have another scan at 17 weeks and 6 days of gestation, which showed normal anatomy and interval growth of the remaining triplet. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though the triplets arrived at 34 weeks gestation, the hearty three only needed to stay in hospital for eight days before going home. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Small's babies were premature, born at just 26 weeks, when the average gestation for triplets is 33 weeks, according to ReproductiveFacts.org . (upworthy.com)
  • She and her husband, Tyler Tiberius, 41, welcomed identical triplet boys on March 30. (today.com)
  • I talked to a statistician and apparently the odds of a 45 year old having identical triplets are one in 20 billion. (today.com)
  • A UK mom has beaten odds of one in 160,000 by giving birth to naturally conceived identical triplet boys. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Emma Spooner, 28, gave birth to Alfie, Sebastian and Zak last month, but only learned that the triplets were identical on Friday after a test on the placenta. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Identical triplets occur when one fertilized egg splits to create three separate embryos. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Non-identical triplets occur when three separate eggs are fertilized. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • A couple in New Jersey have welcomed a set of rare identical triplets, in 'one in a million' occurrence. (indiatimes.com)
  • Parents Mark Bodrog and Gabriela Mosquera of Gloucester Township said multiples run in the mother's family, but the couple was left rather shocked when the doctors told them they were expecting identical triplet girls. (indiatimes.com)
  • In another similar incident, a couple in Oklahoma welcomed rare identical triplets in June. (indiatimes.com)
  • 714mm focal length) air-spaced apo triplet refractor. (stellarvue.com)
  • But that second child turned out to be three new additions, with Silje learning at their seven-week dating scan, that she was pregnant with triplets . (mamamia.com.au)
  • Stephanie was told she was going to have triplets when she was eight-weeks pregnant. (indiatimes.com)
  • According to the AMBA's Multiples Matter report, twins typically cost five times that of singletons, while triplets cost 13 times more. (mamamia.com.au)
  • As it stands, only parents of triplets or higher-order multiples receive additional financial support via the Federal Government. (mamamia.com.au)
  • That's in the form of a means-tested Multiple Birth Allowance of up to $4,460.30 a year for triplets and up to $5,942.20 a year for quads or higher-order multiples. (mamamia.com.au)
  • A thread-on objective lens cover, two heavy-duty machined tube rings, a sturdy machined dovetail bar for easy mount attachment, and a dovetail finder scope base (installation required) are included with the Orion EON 104mm ED-X2 f/6.25 Triplet Apo Refractor. (telescope.com)
  • With an 80mm aperture triplet objective featuring FPL-53 extra-low dispersion glass, views and captured images come through true to color and exhibit tack-sharp resolution. (binoculars.com)
  • The triplet objective and top-notch ED optics virtually eliminate chromatic aberrations making the ED80T CF refractor an excellent candidate for astrophotography use when used with an imaging-capable equatorial mount and CCD or DSLR camera. (binoculars.com)
  • By suppressing these aberrations so effectively, this triplet "apo" telescope produces impeccable visual views and razor-sharp astrophotos without any fringing or loss of clarity. (telescope.com)
  • The new 64mm f/2 Nour Triplet lens is effectively three lenses in one since it can shift its aberration modes between classic, bubble, and soft using a Lomography Control Knob located near the end of the lens. (petapixel.com)
  • Rates of low birthweight, very low birthweight, and infant mortality were 4 to 33 times higher for twins and triplet/+ compared with singleton births. (cdc.gov)
  • David Suárez gets stuck in the middle of a prank war when the neighborhood twins and triplets compete to rule the school. (harpercollins.com)
  • Estonian sisters Leila , Liina and Lily Luik could become what is believed to be the first set of triplets to compete in an Olympics, according to Games historians. (nbcsports.com)
  • Two elements of extra-low dispersion ED glass ensures exceptional performance with this triplet Apo. (telescope.com)
  • The 64mm Nour Triplet manual lens looks pretty similar to many of the other recent art lenses introduced by Lomography in the last few years. (petapixel.com)
  • We use the sign for triplets when our babies are part of a set of triplets, or we have a nearby friend who has triplets. (babysignlanguage.com)
  • He mentioned the nurse had called in the doctor and asked if the couple had done in vitro fertilisation to conceive because of how rare it is to naturally conceive triplets. (yahoo.com)
  • Which Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Patients Are the Best Candidates for Doublet and Triplet Therapies? (medscape.com)
  • Today, we'll discuss metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer , we'll talk about doublets vs triplets , who's a good candidate for such therapies, and how do we pick these patients in our clinics. (medscape.com)
  • The nurse had it on her stomach and she went, head, head, head," he recalled of the moment the couple learned they were expecting triplets. (yahoo.com)
  • A couple years back, I was inspired to concoct a current Triplets pecking order. (nfl.com)
  • This Action consists of two supplementary stages starting from the maximization of spin-triplet current densities in hybrid ferromagnet junctions (materials science) to the understanding of the basic mechanisms of the spin triplet pairs and the nanofabrication of hybrid Josephson junctions in which the spin triplet supercurrent will be controlled (condensed matter physics). (europa.eu)
  • Growth in twin and triplet/+ birth rates was most marked among women aged 30 years and over. (cdc.gov)
  • Silje's triplets were born at 34 weeks and 5 days, and they spent 19 days in the neonatal intensive care unit. (mamamia.com.au)
  • The whole family has been helping to look after the boys, including Emma's mother, Diane Raymond, and stepfather Doug, who stayed for the first two weeks after the triplets came home. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • The triplets were born July 8 at 34 weeks and five days. (indiatimes.com)
  • Laura and Martyn were not available to talk to the Express before we went to print, but they told the MEN the triplets, who have a six-year-old big brother Maddox, were born 10 weeks early at Liverpool Women's Hospital at the end of October. (burnleyexpress.net)
  • Then the time came to pop all of the balloons, with Flom holding one, his wife holding another, and the triplets' grandmother holding the third balloon. (yahoo.com)
  • Once you've got a handle on "regular" triplets, it's time to learn about quarter note triplets. (guitarnoise.com)
  • Total elapsed time for conversion from rideable triplet to rideable tandem: NINE minutes, performed before a roomfull of people at the Midwest Tandem Rally (MTR'98) in Omaha. (sandsmachine.com)
  • Certainly i read that Arnold is working on the second installment of his hit movie "Twins" supposed to be named "Triplets" a long time back. (schwarzenegger.com)
  • However, the couple, who also share a two-year-old daughter, wasn't just revealing the gender of one baby, but rather three, as they took the opportunity to surprise their loved ones with the news that they are expecting triplets. (yahoo.com)
  • This Triplets Deluxe Baby Gift Tote Bag is the best way to go! (futurememories.com)
  • One of the triplets cries on cue so when they need a crying baby we take Elsie down for filming and when they need a calm baby we take Erin. (burnleyexpress.net)
  • Many actors spend years perfecting the art of performing in front of a camera - but for Padiham triplets it is as easy as one, two, three. (burnleyexpress.net)
  • The risk for these adverse outcomes was lowest for twins and triplet/+ born to women 35-44 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Older mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers are the most likely to have a triplet or higher-order multiple birth. (cdc.gov)
  • One amniotic sac contained a single fetus (triplet A) with a CRL of 74 mm and a nuchal translucency of 1.5 mm. (hindawi.com)
  • Within the second amniotic sac, triplets B and C, were joined through the thorax and abdomen, with four arms, four legs and a single heart centrally located between the two fetuses. (hindawi.com)
  • Then someone in the crowd screamed as Ally came out holding a third balloon, which revealed that the couple was not having a single child, or twins, but triplets. (yahoo.com)
  • 2017 will close the chapter on an impressive family educational achievement, as triplets Kenechukwu (Kéne), Ikechukwu (Ike), and Rishana Ubah will all earn Bachelor's degrees from Bloomfield College by year's end. (bloomfield.edu)
  • She recently gave birth to triplets. (who.int)
  • If you'd like to take a moment to review how triplets compare to eighth notes and sixteenth notes, you probably would find the Guitar Noise Podcast # 3 very helpful as the first ten minutes of the Podcast does a helpful demonstration of these three measures of rhythm. (guitarnoise.com)
  • Since you'll be needing each of these types of notes to help you gain an understanding of quarter note triplets , it might be a good idea to go over them with the assistance of this Podcast. (guitarnoise.com)
  • The Navy Recruitment Office in Suffolk did some research and said as far as it knows, Ayrion, Andrea and Adrion Sutton are the first black triplets to join the navy together. (wavy.com)
  • The Black Note Triplet Suspension lamp places three upright wood veneer shades at varying heights on a metal frame. (lzf-lamps.com)
  • The triplets are now at home with their parents and two older sisters. (indiatimes.com)
  • The parents said the hospital asked them to remain in touch so doctors could conduct research on the lives of their triplets. (indiatimes.com)
  • The triplet/+ birth rate rose nearly 400 per- cent for women in their thirties and exploded by more than 1,000 percent for women in their forties. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, Andy Dyson deserves a heapin' helping of credit for meticulous detail design and selection of the optimal tube combination to maintain strength and stiffness while keeping the weight competitive (60 lbs. in triplet form, 44.5 lbs. as a tandem). (sandsmachine.com)
  • on a triplet, fer Pete's sake, but comprehensive engineering analysis by the Sixties Cycles R&D Department has already proven it's a superior design. (sandsmachine.com)
  • The most important part of this is to make the triplet a triplet, spreading the three notes evenly across the beat, and not turning it into a set of three sixteenth notes with a sixteenth note rest attached. (guitarnoise.com)
  • When beginners are first introduced to triplets, they are usually taught about eighth note triplets, where each note of the triplet is played for one third of a beat. (guitarnoise.com)
  • And, most importantly for us, a quarter note will become a "regular" triplet. (guitarnoise.com)
  • It's not at all easy to count out even beats while playing quarter note triplets, so I think you may find this method a little easier. (guitarnoise.com)
  • Quarter note triplets are a staple of soloing and you will also find them used in rhythms of songs from all genres. (guitarnoise.com)
  • Silje's triplets are now a year old. (mamamia.com.au)
  • Then in November, the 42-year-old mom was told she was having triplets. (fox13now.com)
  • You'll notice that when going back to 4/4 timing, I draw out the triplet on the third beat when counting it aloud. (guitarnoise.com)
  • It took a period of intense maternal emotional availability for the individualized needs of her three children as if they were triplets of different ages. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hispanic women to have a triplet/+ birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Counting out a triplet over two beats isn't at all easy, even for seasoned players. (guitarnoise.com)
  • The conversion from triplet to tandem (or vice-versa) is facilitated by daVinci 'Easy Splits' cable connectors in the rear brake and both derailleur cables. (sandsmachine.com)
  • Each cable uses two connectors so that when converting from triplet to tandem the center cable section between the two Easy Splits comes out with the frame section. (sandsmachine.com)
  • All transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients should receive a triplet induction therapy (immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitor and dexamethasone). (medscape.com)
  • For 2020, we've gone the extra mile to look for and create twins ornaments and triplets ornaments with personalized gifts giving in mind. (russellrhodes.com)